The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth

by John Rave

retold by Richard L. Dieterle


Earthmaker made all things, and all creatures he made male or female so that every kind of thing could reproduce and be eternal in this way. Of physical things, he made the earth last of all; of creatures, Earthmaker made man last. Man was his weakest creation and the devils created by Herešgúnina plagued him much, so that it was in doubt whether this kind of creature would be eternal as Earthmaker had intended. To help mankind, Earthmaker made four men: Trickster, Turtle, Bladder, and Hare. He made for them four women, who were of the earth. The eldest of these men came to be called Wakjąkaga, "Trickster." He did many foolish things and set them up as precedents: because of him, humans die; because of him, we get sick; because of him, men lie, steal, and abuse women; because of him, people can be lazy and unreliable. Yet he never really committed any sin, for he had the foolishness of the innocent. He roamed about the earth and called all things his brothers, yet all creation abused him, played tricks on him, and always got the better of him. Nevertheless, as he was the eldest, and created by Earthmaker himself, he was a chief. Thus, he had never gone on the warpath.

Long did he roam the earth until one day he said, "Grandmother (Earth?), I have grown weary — find me a place that I may rest. Soon afterwards there appeared, unexpectedly, an oval lodge, and inside he found an old woman. She had prepared a good meal for him, and he was able to eat his fill. After he had rested and regained his strength, he went out and pulled an entire tree out by its roots — the kind that they call "black maple" (?). It is the hardest and heaviest of all wood, and he brought it back to the lodge and worked on it every day. He shaped it, then polished it and greased it. It was fearful to behold. It was the biggest baldheaded warclub ever made, and the first. Then he went to a place called "the Corner of the Earth," and there met with a married couple of black otters. He asked one of them for its blanket, and it gave it to him. He took it and wrapped the handle with it, and let the center part hang down in the form of strings. It was fierce looking.

Just as he finished, a messenger came and said, "Kunu, you are invited!" "All right!" he answered, and took a dish with him to the meeting place. On the way, he made his dish grow larger, and as he walked the earth shook, since he had brought his warclub with him. At the place where the feast was to be held, there was a long lodge. When he entered, there in the center was Turtle, who beckoned to him and said, "Now then my brother, come over here and sit down." Then he spoke to one of the attendants: "I had caused several squirrels to be killed and boiled — if one is larger than the others, put it in Kunu's plate." Then, according to their size, one was given first to Turtle, who was addressed as "Brave Man"; then to Wolf, then to Storms as He Walks. Then one was given to each of the spirits — the Thunders, the Nights, and others — there being no humans present.

After they finished their feast, they went out to the first war camp. There they danced the death dance. After this they went on until evening, when they stopped to make camp. Three were chosen to find the cause for making fire (food): Turtle, Wolf, and Storms as He Walks. Each one came back with a bear. The next morning before they were to set out, the warleader said, "Now then, my attendants, whatever you have brought to strengthen yourselves, that you must now present." Therefore they placed before him all the things that they had that were wákąčąk (holy). Turtle stuck his two edged knife there with the rest of the holy things, and Trickster placed his warclub there. Wolf set down a circle of wood with a cross of string within it; and attached to the center of this cross was a shrunken piece of buckskin [inset]. Many holy things were placed before the warleader. Now the warleader had brought his daughter along to offer as a prize to whoever won the first war honor. Turtle had wanted her, and thought he should have her, but he could not really match the prowess of the others. He was especially jealous of Wolf. The holy object that he owned derived its power from this: the circle was the earth, and the cross was the path to anywhere on its surface. The shrunken leather at the center meant that whatever the distance to any place on earth, Wolf could shrink it so that there was no place that he could not quickly reach. Then Turtle said, unexpectedly, "Hey, there's an old moccasin here that was worn by a woman when she was having her period." He grabbed it and pitched it out of the camp. This was actually a moccasin that his grandmother (Earth?) had blessed him with, and he recognized it — that's why he acted as he did. In fact, he had hoped to cancel the power of the other holy things and thereby give himself an edge in winning the warleader's daughter. Many rebuked Turtle, saying, "You might have won the prize fair and square, but you do this. You're always trying to cheat."

Then they began their trek until at last they finally reached the edge of the ocean that surrounds the earth. They were glad to stop, for the whole time they were traveling Trickster's warclub made the earth quake. It was now time for the warleader to pick those who would do the killing, but Turtle interjected and warned them: "I am filled with great foreboding. As you have seen, Trickster's warclub is very powerful: it shakes the earth even when it is not used in war. What will happen when Trickster enters battle with it? He is the oldest one, created by Earthmaker himself — he is indeed equal to the Creator. I feel that his warclub may disturb creation; indeed it could destroy this very earth! If we were to allow him to step in as warleader, then he would not be allowed to enter combat, and the danger to the cosmos would be averted. This is what I am thinking." All agreed to this, and they made Trickster the warleader. So Trickster chose those who would do the killing: "First Turtle will kill a man, then Wolf, then Sleets as He Walks, then Great Black Hawk, then Redhorn, then Flesh and his older brother [= Ghost], then Otter, and finally Loon."

They were about to attack a village where the evil spirits lived. Herešgúnina had created four chiefs, the oldest of which had a body of live (magnetic) iron, the second had a body of real iron (steel), the third had a body of black rock, and the last had a body of fat rock (marble). It was said that none of them could ever be felled by any weapon; furthermore, it was impossible to surprise this village as it was situated on an island in the middle of the ocean and guarded by all the fishes of the sea. Nor was that all. There was a bird with a long, sharp beak that walked about the island jabbing his bill into the ground so that anything approaching from below the ground would be skewered. There was another creature with an immense mouth and whatever got near him, he would suck it in. Another had huge ears, ears capable of hearing anything over the entire expanse of the ocean, and whatever he heard, he could draw it right to himself. Another had eyes that projected beams of fire, so that he could incinerate anything that he could see. These last four were also said to be invulnerable. The village that they guarded was large, and all its inhabitants had been made by Herešgúnina so that they ate no other food than human flesh. It was for this reason that the good spirits were going to attack them.

Now they had completed their preparations, and those who had been chosen declared, "Turtle is the only one who can lead this attack." Turtle replied, "Ho!" and called everyone to him. Each of them he placed in some crevice of his body. Then he dove straight down into the earth until he reached its base, after which he began to ascend. Inasmuch as he ran all the way, the spirits with him said, "You are a fast runner, so we should be very close by now." "No," replied Turtle, "we are still a long ways off. I know because I have been here before, scouting." They replied, "We should be careful as we come to the surface, for Zogega is very perceptive and may become aware of our presence." Turtle rejoined, "My friends, I have scouted often and know a lot about doing things under cover." "It is good," they said. Turtle came up gradually to the surface and gently nudged his nose up through the sand. However, Zogega was watching in just that area, and said, "Come here old woman and look at this. I just saw a pebble turn over, and this peeped up. It looks like a turtle's nose to me." "No," she replied, "I have seen it that way before. It's nothing." Then Turtle put a pebble in place of his nose, and ran from there. He said to his friends, "As luck would have it, I just happened to come up where Zogega was laying with his wife and he thought he saw me, but his wife doubted him. So they still do not know of our presence." Once again Turtle started out at the run. Quite some time passed, so his friends said, "You are a fast runner, shouldn't we be close by now?" "No," Turtle replied, "we are still some ways off; but as you have raised the matter, we shall go up and take a look." They answered, "My friend, you are very clever, but be careful, as the fish Nązigega is always alert." So Turtle once again nudged his nose just above the surface. Nązigega told his wife what he saw, but she declared, "It was always that way — it's nothing." So Turtle replaced the pebble and went back down, saying to his friends, "I came up just where the fish Nązigega was laying with his wife. He thought that he saw something, but his wife dissuaded him. Thus they still do not know of us." Again Turtle started out at a run, and his friends after some time said, "We must be there by now." Turtle came up again by just sticking the tip of his nose up. There Howebegiga saw something, but his wife dissuaded him. Once again Turtle escaped without being suspected. Turtle set out at the run again, and this time he brought the whole force up at the extreme end of the island where the village ends. There the chiefs were sunning themselves. Unexpectedly, they burst upon them. The live iron chief they shot first, then the real iron spirit, the black rock, and finally the fat rock spirit. After this quick strike, they took off running. The ones that could fly, took to the air; while Turtle and the others escaped under ground. Despite all, they had to fight many of the evil spirits on the way. Turtle himself was struck by the long billed creature, but the Twins shot the monster dead. Turtle had no luck at all, for the next thing he knew, he was tangled up in the ears of the long-eared creature. No matter how he cut this monster with his two edged knife, he could not disentangle himself. Again the Twins stepped in and killed the monster. Turtle didn't get very far before the big mouthed spirit swallowed him alive. It was with some difficulty that the Twins were able to cut him back out. Once Turtle was free again, the creature with the flame-throwing eyes spotted him, and Turtle was scorched good. The Twins again rescued him, but as they made their way back to the old warleader, they found that the surf was coming in as waves of fire, so they had to shoot at the breakers themselves. Finally, they got back to the old warleader. Just then, they shot dead the live iron spirit. Both Turtle and Wolf rushed for him, but Wolf got there first. Then they shot the real iron spirit dead, as well as the two rock spirits, as these enemies made a desperate rush for the warleaders.

Then the first warleader arose and declared, "My attendants! Now I shall do something myself to help you," whereupon he took off the single red horn from his forehead and struck the ocean with it, and unexpectedly, it burst into flames, killing all the evil creatures assembled there. "Forevermore," he declared, "they shall not call me 'One Horn', but henceforth, since I have used it up to defend the humans, they shall call me 'Without Horns'." Thus to this day humans call his race Heroka, "Those without Horns."

He spoke again, saying, "Now my younger sister, I have put you up as the prize, for this prize should be whatever I value the most, and you are the one I love the best." Then he gave her to Wolf, who took her by the arm — but before he could lead her off, unexpectedly, Turtle suddenly jumped up and seized her by the other arm. He declared, "Wolf, my hands became bloody first, so the woman belongs to me. In the middle of the battle I used my knife on the long eared things so I got the first war honor, and that is that." Everyone guffawed at this and said, "Turtle you are always disputing everything. You were captured by that monster and the Twins rescued you. That's not a war honor at all!" "All right, if you womanly types will begrudge me the woman," said Turtle, "then let this womanly guy have her!" So Wolf popped her into his quiver (so small was she) and loped off into the distance, his tail bobbing as he went.

Inasmuch as they were spirits, they took no scalps and did not perform the victory dance. Each one of them went home to his spirit abode; but Turtle went back to the village they had just burnt down. Trickster went back to his grandmother's lodge, where he placed his warclub against the wall. "Grandmother," he said, "I did not use it because it made my friends uneasy. I created it in the first place to help the humans, but now that we have burned these evil spirits, the humans can live in peace. As I am a chief, so this kind of club shall be the club of the chief. The humans shall call it the "baldheaded warclub." For this did I come here, and now that I have completed my mission, I shall return to my home." And Trickster ascended to heaven, for Earthmaker appointed him to rule over a world of his own just below the Creator's. This is a world for chiefs. All those who die of old age, and all those who keep the Medicine Rite, will go there. Over that world is Trickster the chief. [1]


Commentary. "an old moccasin here that was worn by a woman when she was having her period" — this recalls the wrapping of the warbundle, which was made from animal skin that had been touched by a maiden who was having her first menses. A menstruating woman who touches war weapons will "kill" their power. This unique power of a menstruating maiden is apparently transferred to the warbundle wrapping.

"the ears of the long-eared creature"In another story, creatures with long ears are, or are associated with, Waterspirits.

"the creature with the flame-throwing eyes"— this is similar to Thunderbirds who launch lightning from their eyes.

"both Turtle and Wolf rushed for him" — this is in order to count the first war honor. The first war honor belongs to the first man to touch a dead enemy, the second to the second man to do so, and the third to the last man to count such a coup. The one who killed him gets only the fourth war honor. Therefore, both Turtle and Wolf are trying to get to the body of the slain bad spirit so that they can claim a first war honor and also to take his head as proof of the same. The theory behind this is the same as what occurs in parallel in the Iliad, where the greatest fight occurs over the body of the slain. There the trophy is his armor and to a lesser degree his body. The fallen man's friends wish to spare his body the fate of being fed to the dogs, so they try to claim it. The prestige of owning body armor is so high that the motivation is strong to take the armor at least. So quite a fight develops over the prostrate form of the man who has been cut down. The exact same situation occurs in connection with the fight over the body of a slain Indian. His friends fight to save him from mutilation, but their opponents are strongly motivated to claim first war honor and to get his head. As a result, the fiercest fighting occurs when one attempts to reach the body of the fallen. That is why the first one to reach the enemy dead and to set his hand upon the body has achieved the highest accomplishment in battle.

"One Horn" — this would be Hežąkiga (< He-hižą-ki-ga) in Hočąk, and is properly translated as, "Just One Horn". It is a name found in a number of clans, including the Warrior Clan. As Chief of the Heroka, he is one and the same as Redhorn, although the name Hežąkiga for him is otherwise unknown and may be just a feature of this myth and its context. The warleader is unnamed until near the end, but Redhorn is mentioned as one of those appointed by Trickster to be a member of the assault team. Since he is otherwise unmentioned, he can be aligned with One Horn (Herokaga).

Hočąk Parallels. The present story is a version of the events related in The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty. There the warleader is Redhorn; but we learn from the conclusion of Redhorn's Sons that Redhorn is one and the same as Herokaga, so both warparties have the same leader. In the other story the battle is against Waterspirits, but it contains the same incident alluded to here, viz., that Turtle was captured by one of the creatures and was saved by the Twins. In addition, the story has another parallel from Wears White Feather on His Head, where the story is told from the point of view of the defenders. These stories can be aligned —

Common Elements Baldheaded Warclub The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty Sons of Redhorn Wears White Feather
The bad spirits flee to an island (sealed by water vs. fire). - - A warparty of Redhorn, his sons, and his friends cause the Bad Waterspirits to flee. They flee underground and leave a fire behind in the hole. Wears White Feather and his relatives flee to an island.
The warparty has to cross the waters. - - The sons of Redhorn cross the ocean to reach the enemy. A giant red man appears on the horizon, standing in the water. He is recognized as a threat.
Redhorn is the warleader. Heroka (= Redhorn) is the original warleader. Redhorn is the warleader of the warparty. - The red man is by himself.
- - - They steal the heads of their father and his friends, then resurrect them. -
- Trickster was named temporary warleader since his warclub was so dangerous that he needed to be out of the action. - - -
- Turtle does the scouting. Storms as He Walks and the Twins are named as scouts - -
The scouts approach from above or below. Turtle scouts from below. The scouts ascended into the air. - -
They spot the enemy without being detected. He found the enemy without being detected. They spotted the enemy, red Waterspirits, without being detected. - -
The friends of Redhorn were picked for the assault team. Those picked for the assault team were: Turtle, Wolf, Sleets as He Walks, Great Black Hawk, Redhorn, Flesh, Ghost, Otter, and Loon. Those picked for the assault team were: Storms as He Walks, Ghost, Flesh, and Turtle. Those who went on the warpath were Turtle, Redhorn, Wolf, and Storms as He Walks, and the two sons of Redhorn. The red man is by himself.
The objects of the assault lived on an island (in fire vs. water). The enemy lived on an island. - The enemy lived in a village underground whose access hole was guarded by fire. The defenders lived on an island.
The enemy were bad spirits created by Herešgúnina. The enemy were Rock Spirits created by Herešgúnina. The island was also guarded by fish. In addition there was a long beaked bird, a creature with a giant mouth, another with giant ears, and a creature that shot fire from his eyes. There were creatures with long ears. The enemy were Bad Waterspirits. They "were not created by Earthmaker." The defenders were enemies of everything that lived on the surface of the earth.
- - The assault team attacks from the air. - -
The enemy, who are Waterspirits, use fire. The surf comes in in the form of flames. The Waterspirits shot fire. A fire has been built in the hole leading to their village. They cook the red man's head.
The warparty shoots at the waves themselves. They shoot at the surf itself. - When the sons of Redhorn flee, they are attack by giant waves, which they shoot at. They fear that the red man will inundate the island.
Turtle gets caught and goes down to defeat. Turtle keeps getting caught and vanquished by the enemy. Turtle is caught and killed by one of the Waterspirits. Turtle had been killed much earlier by the enemy, They catch the red man with a hook and reel him in. They kill him.
The Twins rescue Turtle. The Twins keep rescuing Turtle. Ghost revives Turtle. but the Sons of Redhorn revived him. -
The enemy is burnt (among other things). One Horn takes his horn off and uses it to set the waters aflame. He is known thereafter as Heroka. - The warparty scatters the flames in the hole and kills two alligators. -
They completely rub out the enemy. They completely rub out the enemy. They completely rub out the enemy. They completely rub out the enemy. The defenders kill the red giant and eat his head.

The chief enemy spirit has a body made of steel. This happens to be true of the grandfather figure of the defenders in Wears White Feather. It is told in The Red Man that this same individual had a body made of steel, but whose exterior was flint.


Links: Trickster, The Redhorn Panel of Picture Cave. An American Star Map, Earthmaker, Herešgúnina, Heroka, Iron Spirits, Turtle, Wolf & Dog Spirits, Sleets as He Walks, Redhorn, Great Black Hawk, Hawks, Bird Spirits, Loons, Otters, Nightspirits, Thunderbirds; cf. The Thunderbird Warclub.


Stories: featuring Trickster as a character: The Trickster Cycle, Trickster Gets Pregnant, Trickster's Warpath, Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Trickster Soils the Princess, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Trickster Concludes His Mission, The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster, The Elk's Skull, Trickster and the Mothers, The Markings on the Moon, The Spirit of Gambling, The Woman who Became an Ant, The Green Man, The Red Man, Trickster Takes Little Fox for a Ride, Trickster Loses His Meal, Trickster's Tail, A Mink Tricks Trickster, Trickster's Penis, Trickster Loses Most of His Penis, The Scenting Contest, The Bungling Host, Mink Soils the Princess, Trickster and the Children, Trickster and the Eagle, Trickster and the Geese, Trickster and the Dancers, Trickster and the Honey, Trickster's Adventures in the Ocean, The Pointing Man, Trickster's Buffalo Hunt, Trickster Eats the Laxative Bulb, Trickster Visits His Family, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Petition to Earthmaker, Waruǧápara, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge; featuring the Heroka as characters: The Chief of the Heroka, The Red Man, The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka, Little Human Head, Morning Star and His Friend, The Claw Shooter, Redhorn's Sons, The Origins of the Milky Way; featuring Turtle as a character: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Turtle's Warparty, Turtle and the Giant, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Turtle and the Merchant, Redhorn's Father, Redhorn's Sons, Turtle and the Witches, Trickster Soils the Princess, Morning Star and His Friend, Grandfather's Two Families, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Kunu's Warpath, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Skunk Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Porcupine and His Brothers, The Creation of Man, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee, The Chief of the Heroka, The Spirit of Gambling, The Mulberry Picker, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Markings on the Moon (v. 2), The Green Man, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; having Wolf as a character: A Man and His Three Dogs, Redhorn's Sons, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Dogs of the Chief's Son, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Kunu's Warpath, Morning Star and His Friend, The Healing Blessing, The Origins of the Milky Way; relating to dogs or wolves: The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, A Man and His Three Dogs, White Wolf, Wolves and Humans, The Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Old Man and His Four Dogs, Worúxega, The Dogs of the Chief's Son, The Dog that became a Panther, The Wild Rose, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Canine Warrior, The Dog Who Saved His Master, The Raccoon Coat, Wojijé, The Big Eater, Why Dogs Sniff One Another, The Healing Blessing, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Trickster Loses His Meal, Sun and the Big Eater, Redhorn's Sons, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Hog's Adventures, Holy One and His Brother, The Messengers of Hare, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Grandmother's Gifts, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Bladder and His Brothers, The Old Man and the Giants, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Kunu's Warpath, Morning Star and His Friend, Peace of Mind Regained (?); featuring Otter as a character: Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle's Warparty, The Origins of the Milky Way, Redhorn's Sons, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2), Kunu's Warpath, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Morning Star and His Friend; mentioning otters: Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Fleetfooted Man, The Dipper, The Two Children, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle's Warparty, The Origins of the Milky Way, Redhorn's Sons, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Kunu's Warpath, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Woman who Loved Her Half Brother, The Chief of the Heroka, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2), Wojijé, Holy Song II, Morning Star and His Friend, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́gad; featuring loons as characters: Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Raccoon Coat, Great Walker's Medicine, Old Man and Wears White Feather; mentioning Sleets as He Walks: The Lost Blanket, Turtle's Warparty; mentioning Great Black Hawk: The Chief of the Heroka, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, The Lost Blanket, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Redhorn's Sons, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga; mentioning the Twins: The Twins Cycle, The Man with Two Heads, The Children of the Sun, Bluehorn's Nephews; mentioning Redhorn: The Redhorn Cycle, Redhorn's Sons, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Redhorn's Father, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Morning Star and His Friend, The Spirit of Gambling, The Green Man, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, cp. The Cosmic Ages of the Hočągara, Heroka, Redman; featuring Herešgúnina (the Bad Spirit or One Legged One) as a character: The Creation of Evil, The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Woman Who Became an Ant, The Journey to Spiritland, Šųgepaga, The Spirit of Gambling, Bladder and His Brothers, The Two Brothers, The Origins of the Milky Way, The Buffalo's Walk; see also Black and White Moons, The Shawnee Prophet and His Ascension, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara; mentioning Earthmaker: The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Lost Blanket, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, The First Snakes, Tobacco Origin Myth, The Creation Council, The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Seven Maidens, The Descent of the Drum, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, The Spider's Eyes, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Fourth Universe, Šųgepaga, The Fatal House, The Twin Sisters, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Masaxe War, The Two Children, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Gift of Shooting, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Stone Heart, The Wild Rose, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Lame Friend, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed, The Hočąk Migration Myth, The Necessity for Death, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The War among the Animals, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, Blue Mounds, Lost Lake, The Hočągara Migrate South, The Spirit of Gambling, Turtle and the Giant, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Bird Origin Myth, Black and White Moons, Redhorn's Sons, Holy Song, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, Death Enters the World, Man and His Three Dogs, Trickster Concludes His Mission, Story of the Thunder Names, The Origins of the Milky Way, Trickster and the Dancers, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, The Creation of Evil, The Blessing of Kerexųsaka, Song to Earthmaker, The Blessing of the Bow; featuring Iron Spirits as characters: The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Šųgepaga, The Raccoon Coat, cf. Iron Staff and His Companions; mentioning live iron: How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Lost Blanket, The Raccoon Coat, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Lame Friend; about Flint: Hare Kills Flint, Wears White Feather on His Head, The Red Man, Chief of the Heroka, The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons; mentioning Rock Spirits: The Big Stone, The Green Man, The Creation of the World, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Seer, The Roaster, Wojijé, The Raccoon Coat, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, Hare Kills Flint, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, A Woman Turns into a Rock, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle; featuring Fat Rock Spirits: The Raccoon Coat; mentioning Black Rock Spirits: The Green Man; about Bird Spirits: Crane and His Brothers, The King Bird, Bird Origin Myth, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Wears White Feather on His Head, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Thunderbird, Owl Goes Hunting, The Boy Who Became a Robin, Partridge's Older Brother, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Foolish Hunter, Ocean Duck, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Quail Hunter, The Hočąk Arrival Myth, Trickster Gets Pregnant, Trickster and the Geese, Holy One and His Brother (kaǧi, woodpeckers, hawks), Porcupine and His Brothers (Ocean Sucker), Turtle's Warparty (Thunderbirds, eagles, kaǧi, pelicans, sparrows), Kaǧiga and Lone Man (kaǧi), The Old Man and the Giants (kaǧi, bluebirds), The Bungling Host (snipe, woodpecker), The Red Feather, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Waruǧápara, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Black and White Moons, The Markings on the Moon, The Creation Council, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna (chicken hawk), Hare Acquires His Arrows, Keramaniš’aka's Blessing (black hawk, owl), Worúxega (eagle), The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (eagle), The Gift of Shooting (eagle), Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Blue Jay, The Baldness of the Buzzard, The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster (buzzards), The Shaggy Man (kaǧi), The Healing Blessing (kaǧi), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (kaǧi), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Įčorúšika and His Brothers (Loon), Great Walker's Medicine (loon), Roaster (woodsplitter), The Spirit of Gambling, The Big Stone (a partridge), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, The Fleetfooted Man, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4) — see also Thunderbirds; mentioning Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Thunderbird and White Horse, Bluehorn's Nephews, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (vv. 1, 2), The Man who was a Reincarnated Thunderbird, The Thunder Charm, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Story of the Thunder Names, The Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Brave Man, Ocean Duck, Turtle's Warparty, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Quail Hunter, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn's Sons, The Dipper, The Stone that Became a Frog, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, The Spirit of Gambling, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Aračgéga's Blessings, Kunu's Warpath, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Glory of the Morning, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, The Big Stone, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Song to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning Nightspirits: The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Big Stone, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Fourth Universe, Battle of the Night Blessed Men and the Medicine Rite Men, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Ocean Duck, Sun and the Big Eater; making reference to the baldheaded warclub: Morning Star and His Friend, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Wears White Feather on His Head; recounting the origins of warclubs: How the Thunders Met the Nights, The First Snakes; featuring pickerels as characters: Redhorn's Father; mentioning trees or Tree Spirits: The Creation of the World, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Children of the Sun, Visit of the Wood Spirit, The Boy who would be Immortal, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Woman who Became a Walnut Tree, The Old Woman and the Maple Tree Spirit, The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka, The Pointing Man, The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster, The Baldness of the Buzzard, Trickster Eats the Laxative Bulb, Trickster Loses His Meal, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 2), Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Waruǧápara, The Chief of the Heroka, The Red Man, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, The Annihilation of the Hočągara I, The Blessing of the Bow, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, The Spirit of Gambling, Peace of Mind Regained, The Necessity for Death; mentioning the Ocean Sea (Te Ją): Trickster's Adventures in the Ocean, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (v. 1), Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, Trickster and the Children, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Wears White Feather on His Head, White Wolf, How the Thunders Met the Nights (Mąznį’ąbᵋra), Bear Clan Origin Myth (vv. 2a, 3), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (v. 2), Redhorn's Sons, Grandfather's Two Families, Sun and the Big Eater, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4), The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father (sea), The Dipper (sea), The Thunderbird (a very wide river), Wojijé, The Twins Get into Hot Water (v. 1), Redhorn's Father, Trickster Concludes His Mission, Berdache Origin Myth, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, Morning Star and His Friend, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed; mentioning feasts: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (Chief Feast), The Creation Council (Eagle Feast), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (Eagle Feast), Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth (Waterspirit Feast), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (Mąką́wohą, Waną́čĕrehí), Bear Clan Origin Myth (Bear Feast), The Woman Who Fought the Bear (Bear Feast), Grandfather's Two Families (Bear Feast), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (Wolf Feast), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Feast), Buffalo Dance Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (Buffalo Feast), The Blessing of Šokeboka (Feast to the Buffalo Tail), Snake Clan Origins (Snake Feast), Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief (Snake Feast), Rattlesnake Ledge (Snake Feast), The Thunderbird (for the granting of a war weapon), Turtle's Warparty (War Weapons Feast, Warpath Feast), Porcupine and His Brothers (War Weapons Feast), Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega) (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), White Thunder's Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Fox-Hočąk War (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Šųgepaga (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (Warbundle Feast, Warpath Feast), Kunu's Warpath (Warpath Feast), Trickster's Warpath (Warpath Feast), The Masaxe War (Warpath Feast), Redhorn's Sons (Warpath Feast, Fast-Breaking Feast), The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits (Fast-Breaking Feast), The Chief of the Heroka (Sick Offering Feast), The Dipper (Sick Offering Feast, Warclub Feast), The Four Slumbers Origin Myth (Four Slumbers Feast), The Journey to Spiritland (Four Slumbers Feast), The First Snakes (Snake Feast), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (unspecified), Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts (unnamed).


Themes: spirits come to earth in order to rescue humanity from enemies who threaten their existence: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Bladder and His Brothers, Grandfather's Two Families, The Hare Cycle, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Raccoon Coat, Redhorn's Sons, The Redhorn Cycle, The Roaster, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Spirit of Gambling, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Trickster Cycle, Wojijé, Redhorn's Father, Turtle and the Merchant; a hero goes to the corner of the world and takes a black (or white) otter that lives there: The Chief of the Heroka, The Dipper; a spirit makes his dish grow larger: Kunu's Warpath; an inanimate object expands upon command: Kunu's Warpath, Wojijé, The Raccoon Coat, The Elk's Skull, A Mink Tricks Trickster; anthropophagy and cannibalism: A Giant Visits His Daughter, Turtle and the Giant, The Witch Men's Desert, The Were-Grizzly, Grandfather's Two Families, The Roaster, Redhorn's Father, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, The Lost Blanket, Young Man Gambles Often, White Wolf, The Shaggy Man, The Twins Get into Hot Water, Partridge's Older Brother, The First Fox and Sauk War, The Fox-Hočąk War, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Morning Star and His Friend, The Seven Maidens, Šųgepaga, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Shakes the Earth, The Stone Heart, Thunder Cloud is Blessed; a warclub is a threat to creation: Waruǧápara; a warleader appoints men to do the killing in a planned attack: The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Moiety Origin Myth; Turtle carries a number of people on his body: The Hočąk Migration Myth, Redhorn's Sons; Turtle conceals himself completely except for the tip of his nose: Turtle's Warparty; someone notices some small object that had not been there before, and although it is the foreseen enemy, no one takes it seriously: The Annihilation of the Hočągara I; certain beings are thought to be invulnerable (but may not be): The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, The Annihilation of the Hočągara I, Great Walker's Warpath, Partridge's Older Brother; a warparty attacks evil spirits whose bodies are made of iron: The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Šųgepaga; being swallowed whole: The Hill that Devoured Men and Animals, Hare Gets Swallowed, The Great Fish, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Bungling Host, The Dipper; the Twins rescue Turtle from certain death: The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty; long eared monsters: The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty; flame throwing monsters: The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Two Boys; an evil spirit thinks that he has detected the presence of his enemy, but his partner dissuades him: The Raccoon Coat, Holy One and His Brother, The Thunderbird; Turtle attacks from below: Turtle's Warparty; setting water ablaze by striking it with a weapon: Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Redhorn's Sons; red as a symbolic color: The Journey to Spiritland (hill, willows, reeds, smoke, stones, haze), The Gottschall Head (mouth), The Chief of the Heroka (clouds, side of Forked Man), The Red Man (face, sky, body, hill), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (neck, nose, painted stone), Redhorn's Father (leggings, stone sphere, hair), The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father (hair, body paint, arrows), Wears White Feather on His Head (man), The Birth of the Twins (turkey bladder headdresses), The Two Boys (elk bladder headdresses), Trickster and the Mothers (sky), Rich Man, Boy, and Horse (sky), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Spirit), Bluehorn Rescues His Sister (buffalo head), Wazųka (buffalo head headdress), The Brown Squirrel (protruding horn), Bear Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Deer Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (stick at grave), Pigeon Clan Origins (Thunderbird lightning), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (eyes), Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (scalp, woman's hair), The Race for the Chief's Daughter (hair), The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy (hair), Redhorn Contests the Giants (hair), Redhorn's Sons (hair), The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle (hair), A Wife for Knowledge (hair), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (hair), The Hočągara Contest the Giants (hair of Giantess), A Man and His Three Dogs (wolf hair), The Red Feather (plumage), The Man who was Blessed by the Sun (body of Sun), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (body of the Warrior Clan Chief), Red Bear, Eagle Clan Origin Myth (eagle), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (Waterspirit armpits), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Waterspirits), The Roaster (body paint), The Man who Defied Disease Giver (red spot on forehead), The Wild Rose (rose), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (warclub), Įčorúšika and His Brothers (ax & packing strap), Hare Kills Flint (flint), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head (edges of flint knives), The Mulberry Picker (leggings), The Seduction of Redhorn's Son (cloth), Yųgiwi (blanket); jealousy: The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Diving Contest, Hog's Adventures, Wazųka, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, The Fleetfooted Man, Bluehorn's Nephews, Redhorn's Sons, The Lost Blanket; Turtle wrongfully tries to take the chief's daughter who has been given (as a prize) to someone else to marry: The Chief of the Heroka, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married; marriage to a yųgiwi (princess): The Mulberry Picker, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Big Stone, Partridge's Older Brother, Redhorn's Sons, The Seduction of Redhorn's Son, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, The Roaster, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, The Two Boys, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Shaggy Man, The Thunderbird, The Red Feather, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Birth of the Twins (v. 3), Trickster Visits His Family, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, Redhorn's Father, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Morning Star and His Friend, Thunderbird and White Horse, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Shakes the Earth, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga; a woman is placed in an arrow quiver: Bluehorn Rescues His Sister; Turtle has a sacred, double-edged knife: Turtle and the Giant, Redhorn's Sons, The Chief of the Heroka, Turtle's Warparty, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Turtle.


Notes

[1] John Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #37: 1-70.