appressed (also, adpressed) — pressed flat or close up against a surface but not joined with it. Especially of plant parts or organ that are pressed closely against a surface (or another organ) without being united to it, frequently for their whole length, as against a stem. Also, outside botany, said of feathers.
Áksiá(ga), usually pronounced as Aksi(ga) — an ordinal name given to the third daughter. Inasmuch as all third daughters are named Aksia(ga), the name is often used in mythology to disguise the identity of the character that bears the name. [nt 1] The name derives from áksiáka, the name given to a dead or tame bear. [nt 2] See Haga(ga). Examples: 1.
American Swallow-tail Kite — Elanoides forficatus, illustrated at left, is said to be the black hawk [kerejų́-sep] (for which, see Great Black Hawk). Its most recognizable feature is its forked tail (Latin, forficatus). The bird is about two feet in length and both sexes are the same black and white color. [nt 1] "This bird [is] one of the most exquisite creatures alive ..." [nt 2] As the name suggests, this kite has the most forked tail of all raptors, which gives the kite aerodynamic powers that make it "the most aerial of our birds of prey." [nt 3] It is the most aerobatic and graceful of all birds, as it seldom flies in a straight line, but inscribes graceful turns and dips as if showing off its skill. It feeds mainly on insects, lizards, snakes, and other reptiles, but never attacks small birds. Its habitat is near water in swamps, river bottoms, and the shores of lakes. It builds nests in the upper branches of high trees with twigs and occasional moss lining. It usually lays two eggs, but sometimes as many as four, which run from white to beige in color with chestnut splotches on the larger ends. [nt 1] In one story its cry is said to be kik-kik.
anthropophagy — the eating of human flesh whether by other humans or animals.
arbor vitæ (Thuja occidentalis), or white cedar — a small tree [inset] that grows as far west as Minnesota. The leaves of the tree are arranged on a flat twig-like scales, so that the twig is often mistaken for a leaf. The twigs have a pleasant aromatic odor. Its cones are very small. [nt] It is the same as white cedar which the Hočągara call waziparasge, "broad pine." [nt] See also, red cedar. Mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4.
achronical (acronychal) — rising at sunset or setting at sunrise.
conjunction — an alignment of two celestial objects so that they appear to be in the same place in the sky.
dichotomy — that phase of the moon or interior planet in which just half of its face is illuminated. For an interior planet, this occurs midway between inferior and superior conjunctions.
heliacal rising — the first observable rising of a celestial object after conjunction with the sun.
heliacal setting — the last observable setting of a celestial object before conjunction with the sun.
inferior conjunction — the disappearance of an inner planet (Mercury or Venus) when it passes between the earth and the sun. To an observer, the planet appears to disappear into the rising sun. The matutine phase of the planet always occurs after inferior conjunction.
matutine — pertaining to the morning, specifically rising in or just before the dawn. Matutine Mercury/Venus, the morning star period of the planet Mercury/Venus.
pleurions — short-lived, magnetically supported plasmas which surround about one tenth of supernova remnants.
right ascension — the distance of a point east of the vernal equinox point, measured along the celestial equator and expressed in hours, minutes, and seconds.
right ascension conjunction — the close approach of two or more celestial objects such that they have the same right ascension (and hour angle).
superior conjunction — the disappearance of an inner planet (Mercury or Venus) when it passes behind the sun. To an observer, the planet appears to disappear into the setting sun. The vespertine phase of the planet always occurs after superior conjunction.
synodic period of Venus — "the interval between successive identical configurations of that planet relative to the sun." [nt]
vespertine — pertaining to the evening, specifically, setting with or just after the sun. Vespertine Mercury/Venus, the evening star period of the planet Mercury/Venus.
autophagy — eating oneself.
bobwhite — another name for a quail or partridge. In America, both names are for members of the genus Colinus.
calendar stick (namąšgóšge) [picture] — regular astronomical processes were recorded by incised marks on sticks for the purpose of calculating time. [nt] See The Twins Get into Hot Water, Blue Bear, Moon, Jipson’s List of Moons, and Čiząhaka in A Gallery of Hočąk Notables.
chiastic, chiasmus — a form of literary composition in which ideas or themes are set out in a concentric pattern of "frames", such as ABCBA. In other words, the themes initially set out are repeated in reverse order. The following Farewell Song is so constructed:
A. [War whoop]
B. I think that he would speak the truth.
C. To these warleaders, he has something that he says.
B. I think that he would speak the truth.
A. [War whoop]
Mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4.
cognate — x is cognate to (or is a cognate of) y if and only if x and y are reflexes of the same preform. See reflex and preform.
coincidentia oppositorum — the coincidence (co-instantiation) of opposites. Man can be thought of as the coincidence of the opposites of flesh and spirit, for instance.
cranes — peča, the word for cranes in Hočąk, may have a wider denotation than its conventional English translation, but we know that it does at least encompass "tall, blue birds" such as the Whooping Crane pictured below. [nt] See crane.
The Whooping Crane
curlew — the bird pictured above is the Hudsonian Curlew (Numenius hudsonicus). This bird is mentioned in the waiką The Markings on the Moon, where it is called the "Moon Looker," a conception reflected in its scientific name, which means "new moon." They vary from 18 inches to two feet in length. The two sexes are alike with a basic brown plumage. It lays three or four eggs on the ground in grass lined depressions. It prefers wet areas as its habitat, although the Long-billed Curlew seems to seek food in drier areas. Because of their long, curved beaks, larger curlews are often mistaken for ibises. [nt]
Ča-si-gų-nąx-ka — translated as "Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle." From ča, "deer"; si (spelled 'zihi' = 'si'), "foot"; gų (spelled 'go'), "desire"; nąx, "stink"; with -ka indicating a personal name. [nt]
čo — a color of the spectrum running from green through blue. Both pine needles and the sky are čo. This corresponds to Osage, to(-ho), Sioux, so, Biloxi tohi; Ofo, ithóhi. Hidatsa, tohi, Crow, šúa. Examples: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.
Death Dance — a dance performed before going on the warpath. It is also known as the "Farewell Dance." [nt] When a warleader wants to summon men to join in a warpath, he dances through the village singing various Farewell Songs, or the "Death-Doing Songs" (T’e’ųra Nąwąra). He calls out for men to join him, and those who wish to join follow him through the village. Those who have joined the warparty tell all the people who have assembled how the Old Ones had urged them to die in battle and to win war honors. Mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4 . This name is also given to the Prisoner's Dance.
Hok’ixére Waši — the name probably means, "Dance to Overtake the Enemy," or "Catching Up Dance." After a scalp or head is brought back by a warparty, it is placed in the center of a lodge. Rites are conducted with respect to the scalp, and conclude with an all night dance, the Hok’ixére Waši. It is said that the dancers trample upon the soul of the scalp, and thereby induce it to give to them all the things that it would have acquired in life had it not reached a premature end in battle. [nt] Mentioned: 1, 2.
Prisoner’s Dance (Wągenįke-į Waši) — also known as the Death Dance, is a dance that condemned prisoners are made to perform before they are put to death, usually by torture. The prisoner’s arms are tied just above the elbows behind his back, but the wrists are tied together in front of his body. A gourd rattle is placed in his right hand, and a sacred goad is placed in the other hand. His ankles are tied with a rope so that he can only take small steps. He then dances through the village while singing a Death Song, usually of a defiant character. After this dance is over, they put him to death. Mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4.
Victory Dance (Wakjé Wašira) — a dance performed several times during the elaborate ceremonies that attend upon the capture of an enemy head or scalp. Initially the head is left just outside the village. The young men rush out and count coup on it while calling out their own names. Then the man to whom the head is to be given erects a pole, and the head is hung from it. After the people have been told what ceremonial dress they should wear, they assemble for the dance. Then the entire warparty assembles and dances around the pole, with the man who has obtained the first war honor leading the procession. [nt] Mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
War Dance — This is an account of a War Dance performed at a meeting of a number of tribes and the American government. "The whole concluded with the war dance, a sight to test the nerves of the stoutest heart. The Winnebagoes at that time, fifty-four years ago, were in all their perfection of savage wildness; two-thousand of them, men and women, old and young, were massed in a circle, standing fifty deep; the whites, army officers, in the inner ring, and the warrior dancers, drummers, and singers in the center. Twenty of their most stalwart young warriors took their places with not a thread of clothing save the breech-cloth; but all painted in most gorgeous colours, and especially the faces, with circles of black, white, red, green and blue, around the eyes, giving the countenances expressions indescribably fierce and hideous, all armed with tomahawks, knives, and spears. At first the dance was slow, to measured time of the drum and song; for there were a hundred singers, with the voice of the drummer, both male and female, the latter prevailing above the former. Soon they began to wax warm, the countenances assumed unearthly expressions of fierceness; their tread shook the solid earth, and their yells, at the end of each cadence, rent the very heavens. None could endure the scene unmoved — unappalled. This tribe at that period, with their stalwart men, Amazonian women, and independent mien, athletic figures,and defiant bearing, can hardly be recognized as the same race, as the degraded Oneidas, who are now seen in our streets, whose dejected mien, attenuated shrunken forms, half-starved, naked, destitute, miserable, mendicants, half-civilized thought they be, furnish a painful commentary on our Indian civilization. When the dances were concluded, a shaking of hands, with a grand "bosho" [?] all round, the Winnebagoes prepared to leave the ground; and in an hour, there was not a sign of one to be seen." [nt]
Death Song — a song sung by someone whose death is upon him. It is often sung by a prisoner who is being tortured to death. See Prisoner’s Dance. Mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (Captured One’s Song).
dream (hąte) — a vision people receive when they are blessed by the spirits, or the blessing itself. Such visions were usually obtained in a waking state by fasting. Linguistic notes: 1. Commentary: 1. Examples: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32.
a — in most cases, it is an exclamation associated with the rejection of a suggestion, as in "bah"; but in one case, the exclamation is translated as "ah" as in English, expressing pleasant surprise. Used: 1, 2, 3.
a, ą — short for ha, hą. Used: 1.
ąhą — probably a version of hąhą́, indicating surprise. Used: 1, 2.
ąną — Ouch! (Lipkind)
arú — Ouch! (Lipkind)
bo — an exclamation of derision. Used: 1.
búa — an exclamation expressing scepticism and sarcasm. Used: 1.
č’ąč’ąžé — exclamation of surprise, used only by women [Susman]. See jačą́žé.
čak’ó — translated as "Well!" with some overtones of indignation. Used: 1, 2, 3.
ehé — translated as "Oh!", in the context of an appalling surprise. Used: 1, 2.
ehó, ehó! wehá, wehá! — shouted by a Medicine Rite member when he reaches the summit of a certain hill in the afterlife. Used: 1.
guwa — an interjection that merely expresses intense emotion, like "wow!". Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
gwo (or guó) — Radin says "guo! has a number of distinct uses but, more specifically, it is used to express despair, and utter helplessness." [nt] It may be an extended form of guwa. Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
ha, hą (1) — translated by the English "ah," as in, "Ah, now I understand," or as an expression of contentment. Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.
(2) — translated as "now." Used: 1, 2.
(3) — used in affirmation ("yes," "alright"). Used: 13, 17, 20.
ha-a — apparently an expression of contentment. No doubt an emphatic form of ha, above. Used: 1, 2, 3.
hą-ą (with falling pitch on the echoed vowel) — indicates attention (Lipkind)
hą-ą-ą-ą (long drawn out with a wide pitch movement), often written hą — Is that so? (Lipkind) Used: 1, 2, 3, 4.
hagaga’askéžą — this has the same meaning as hagagasgežą, hagagasgeižą, etc. (Lipkind)
hagagasgé — translated as "Oh my." See the next entry. Used: 1, 2, 3, 4.
hagagasgeižą — see hagagasgežą below. Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
hagagasgeižąxjį — a variant of hagagasgežą, hagagasgé, etc. Used: 1.
hagagasgéžąxjį — a variant of hagagasgežą, hagagasgé, etc. Used: 1.
hagagasgežą — "Alas, has it ever happened thus?" or "O my, thus it has been." Radin calls it "an expression of distress." Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.
hagágasgéže — a variant of hagagasgežą, hagagasgé, etc. Used: 1.
hagagaskežą — a variant of hagaga’askéžą, hagagasgé, etc. Used: 1.
hagagasgéžąxjį — an emphatic form of hagaga’askéžą of the previous entry. Used: 1, 2, 3.
hagaišgera — translated as "oh my" in the context of a positive surprise. Used: 1.
hagawagasgeižąxjį — an emphatic variant of hagaga’askéžą, hagagasgé, etc. Used: 1.
hagáwažą — translated as "O dear". Used: 1, 2, 3.
hagawažągasge — translated as, "What a great thing, wonderful". See hagáwažą, and hagagasgé. Used: 1.
haǧó — an expression of disgust. Probably the same as hoxhó (q.v. below). (Lipkind)
hąhá — probably a variant of hąhą́, hahó, and hąhó (q.v.). Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
hąhą́ — usually translated as "Well ..." or "Now then." Its primary sense is "yes." Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56.
hąhą’ą — an emphatic form of hąhą ("yes" or "well"). Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17.
hąhai — a version of hąhá. See hąhoí (< hąhó), and hoi (< ho). Used: 1.
hąháo, hąhaó, hąhą́o — sometimes an expression of alarm translated as, "O no!". On the other hand, in other contexts it seems to mean the same as hąho (see 1, 2). Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
hahé — an exclamation of pain. Used: 1.
hahó, hąhó — usually translated as "Well ..." Probably a variant of hąhą and hąhá (qv). Used: 1, 2, 3. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50. 51, 52, 53.
hąho — "hear, hear!" (indication of an audience’s approval), or "all right" = ho (Lipkind). Used in this sense: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.
hąhó — translated as "Oh my!" or "Alas". It may be used to draw someone's attention to something bad, as "Hark!" Used in this sense: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
hąhó égi — "well then". Used: 1.
haho kara — used to express wonder. Used: 1.
hąhó koté — rendered as "now then". Used: 1, 2.
hąhoí — an (emphatic?) version of hąhó, hahó (etc.). Used: 1.
hąhó-o-o-o — a sustained form of hąhó, "I greet you". Used: 1.
hahowo — translated as "Oh!" in a context of alarm. (Probably from ha-howo.) Used: 1, 2.
hahú — Radin says that it is an "utterance used as a signal before running, like Engines ready!." Used: 1, 2, 3.
hakoté — translated as "see here!" From ha and koté. Used: 1.
hañká-a — an emphatic "no," rather like "no way!"
há-o — probably an emphatic form of ha. Used: 1, 2.
hawa — apparently a variant of howa (q.v.). Used: 1.
he — translated as, "look out!". Used: 1.
hehé — according to Lipkind, it is an exclamation uttered in response to something pleasing. However, it is also used in the context of reporting a murder, and in a couple of places is translated as "alas." Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
hehehiá — an expression of weariness or relaxation. This is said by men only. (Lipkind) Radin describes it as an "exclamation of relief." Used: 1.
heho — an exclamation apparently meaning something like "well, then!" Mentioned: 1.
herušgara — an exclamation used in parallel with kora in a context of difficulties. Used: 1.
heyi — shouted to get someone's attention. Used: 1.
hįhá — defined by Miner as, "an exclamation used at the beginning of a story." However, it occurs in the middle of one story where it is translated as "now, then." Used: 1, 2, 3, 4.
hihí — exclaimed after relating an ill-omened dream. Used: 1.
hiho— translated as "alright". Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
hi’iš — Is that so? (Lipkind)
hiš — "Damn! at a minor annoyance or an unreasonable request." (Lipkind)
hišją́ge — translated as "well" or "well then." Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.
hmmm - an expression of concentrated thought, as in English. Almost certainly the same as hų-m-m (q.v. below). Used: 1.
ho — this exclamation is fundamentally an emphatic affirmation. However, there are times when it is just an expression of intense emotion. Lipkind gives it the value, "Hear, hear!" (indication of an audience’s approval). In this sense it is the same as hąho (qv).
ho-o-o — a very emphatic version of ho. In one case it is translated as "how terrible!"
hogí — an exclamation translated as, "Well". Used: 1.
hohá — said by ghosts when one of their number was being carried off against their will. Probably a variant of hąhá. Used: 1.
hohó — an expression of strong emotion, either positive or negative. In some cases (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17), it seems to mean, "Alas!"
hohoho — an emphatic form of hohó. Used: 1, 2.
hohohowá — an expression of weariness or relaxation. (Lipkind) It is also said to be "an expression of relief." However, it is consistent with a state of alarm. (Probably from hohó-howá.) Used: 1, 2, 3, 4.
hoho-o, an emphatic form of hohó. Used: 1.
hohowá — an expression of sadness or regret. (Lipkind) Used: 1.
hoi — apparently a variant of ho. Used: 1.
hoją́ — a word ordinarily meaning, "yes, all right", but when used as an exclamation it is often translated as "well!". Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
howá — in several cases it is an expression of affirmation translated as "all right," but in others it is used to express consternation. Emphatic forms, howaá and howo. See also hawa. Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.
howe — an expression essentially synonymous with ho (see above). Used: 1.
howo — an emphatic variant of howá, often translated as "alright." In one story (9, 10), it is described as a "grunt of impatience". Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.
hoxhó — a rare exclamation, said when by a man when his sons put their lives in unnecessary jeopardy. No doubt the same as haǧó (q.v. above). Used: 1.
hu — perhaps the original form of huhú. Used: 1.
hŭā́ — an exclamation used in a context of relief and celebration. Used: 1.
hų-ų — perhaps a spelling variant of hą-ą. Used: 1.
huhú — probably a variant of huhú-i below. Used: 1, 2, 3, 4.
huhú-i — an expression of surprise.(Lipkind) Used: 1.
hų-m-m — apparently an expression of understanding as in "I see." This is no doubt the same as hmmm (q.v. above). Used. 1.
huré, huré-e, or huré’ą’ą — an expression of glee (?). It might derive from the American English, "hooray." Hu-re is also an imperative in Hočąk meaning "come on, come here." Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
hųsgé — translated as "well". Used: 1.
hwiš — "Damn! at a minor annoyance or an unreasonable request." (Lipkind)
i — translated "oh." It seems to suggest an element of surprise. Used: 1, 2, 3.
ja — an expression of surprise, which basically means, "What?". It appears to be a shorter form of jaha below. Used: 1, 2.
ja-a — an expression of surprise, an elongated form of ja. Used: 1.
jačą́žé — expression of surprise (used by women) [Miner]. However, in one case it is used by the father of the Twins. See č’ąč’ąžé. Used: 1, 2.
jaha, jáha-á — apparently an expression of intense surprise. In one instance (10), it is translated as, "What’s the matter?" Probably from ja, "What?" (cf. jagu). Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 19, 20.
k’ajó — an emphatic denial, translated as "no sir!" or "no siree". Used: 1.
k’arésgexjį — an emphatic exclamation made when the Fox believed that their chiefs had been murdered. Probably a fusion of k’ará with hagagasgé appended with the emphatic suffix -xjį. Used: 1.
k’aró — an exclamation usually translated as "well ..."
kará (also k’ara) — translated by LaMère as "Listen!" and as "Say." In some contexts it is similar to the English "Good God!". Probably a variation of korá (qv below). Used: 1.
karoho(ra) — apparently an exclamation, perhaps an extention of k’aró with the addition of hohó. Used: 1, 2.
keté — apparently a variant of koté. Used: 1.
korá, also, k’orá — usually translated as "Well!" Lipkind says that it expresses wonder, surprise, and awe. It is used by men only. However, it often seems to occur in contexts of anger, so it is rather more like a swear word.
koragá — translated as "say". Apparently an extension of korá. Used: 1.
koté, or k’oté — expresses wonder or surprise (akin to korésge, "unexpectedly, surprisingly" ?). It is used by men only. In Nineteenth Century translations, it is often rendered as "Say!". Lipkind translates it as, "Listen!"
koteža — an exclamation translated as "well". Used: 1.
náįxjį — translated as "I hope" and described by Radin as a "sort of exclamation." Used: 1.
ni — spoken by a man, and translated as, "Ah." perhaps short for niží. Used: 1.
nįgéšge — translated as "O well"; but it is also used in an exhuberant and celebratory context. Used: 1, 2.
nik’á, niká, nįká — an expression of wonder or surprise, restricted to women only. (Lipkind) Used: 1, 2, 3.
nįk’até, nikate — in one case it is rendered as, "Try and get me to do it!" in answer to a request. It seems to express consternation. Used by women only. (Lipkind) Used: 1, 2, 3.
niží — translated as "say" (and in one case, "what a fellow!"), it can be used by either men or women. Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15.
o — apparently much like its English equivalent, as in "O woe is me!" Used: 1.
owí — an exclamation of uncertain meaning. Perhaps it expresses a reaction to a bad odor. Used: 1.
psiu, or psu — Phew! (at an unpleasant odor). (Lipkind)
si — said in order to drive a dog away (Lipkind)
skirík — used in teasing or to express disapproval. (Lipkind)
š— said in order to drive away a cat or chickens (Lipkind)
ši — translated as "Say there!" (Lipkind). Used: 1.
šiši— the same as ši and šišiši. Translated as "here, here!" Used: 1.
šišiši — an emphatic form of ši used to scold someone. This is the same exclamation as žižižíži below. Used: 1.
š’iá — used to scold someone. (Lipkind)
te — translated as "Ah!" it is undoubtably short for koté (q.v.). Used: 1.
tuwí, tuwį — a cry of pain, translated as "Ouch!". (Lipkind) Used: 1, 2, 3.
ųeské — an expression of hesitation while the speaker searches for the right word. (Lipkind); given as ’ųské by Susman.
ųha — translated as "well ..." it also expresses some measure of affirmation. Used: 1, 2, 3.
ų́sge — "Exclamation used when puzzled or discontented." [nt] Used: 1, 2, 3, 4.
wa — What?! (Lipkind)
waho (wahó-o-o, Lipkind) — an expression of amazement. (Lipkind) Used: 1.
waną́ — an expression of wonder or surprise. Used by women only. (Lipkind) Used: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
waná-ą! — an emphatic version of waną. Used: 1.
warok’óno, warokąną — an expression of strong doubt. (Lipkind) Used: 1, 2.
warokąnąji — a variant of warokąną, with the dubitive suffix -ji added to heighten the skepticism. Used: 1.
waú — an expression of strong emotion, good or bad. It is used only by women. Used: 1, 2, 3.
wažą — meaning in its primary sense, "something", it is used as an exclamation translated as "well" (rather like égi). Used: 1.
waž?nokóna — translated as "how terrible!" Mentioned: 1.
wée — an expression of outrage. Used: 1.
werakirakúni — an expression of amazement. Also, uwoírakírakúni, wairakírakuni, wárakirakáni, wérakírakúni (1, 2, 3, 4), wirakirakúni, woírakírakúni (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
weyi — an exclamation translated as "yes". Used: 1.
wirak’í — an expression of surprise used only by women.
witá — "Of all the nerve!" Said only by women. (Lipkind)
wo — "a word used when a man is puzzled or disconcerted." (LaMère-Radin) In one case it is used before the question, "What are you doing?" Used: 1, 2, 3, 4.
woná — probably a variant of waną́. Used: 1.
wuo — an expression of perplexity and alarm. Used: 1.
yohó — an expression of enthusiasm and excitement at winning a prize. Probably an emphatic form of an unattested yohá. Used: 1.
yuhú — said four or five times in succession by characters in a story who are begining their Death Dance. Used: 1.
žižižíži — "here, here, here!" This is the same exclamation as šišiši above. Used: 1, 2.
Fast Eating Contest (Warujosagi) — a ritual in which the participants attempt to eat their food as fast as they can. This is done at a special meal given to members of a warparty before they leave on their expedition. The purpose of the rite is to insure that no enemy vouchsafed to the warparty by the spirits can succeed in escaping. If any item of food is not consumed, it indicates that one of the enemy will escape death or capture. Mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; see also 7, 8, 9, 10.
fifurcs — ?
friendship relation — a strong bond of (Platonic) affection between two males. This bond is equal to that between uncles and nephews, so that if one friend (hįčokoro) were to be killed in action, the surviving friend would be obliged to die with him. Friendship relations are also maintained among clans, using that between individuals as its paradigm.
Gišoknuxgiga — for the meaning of this proper name, see cox, "heap, pile, hump" and nųx, "rear, side." [nt]
girigirisege — probably from kirikiric, "spotted." [nt] This is for kirikirisge, the pigeon hawk.
gorget — a necklace containing a small plate-like ornament that usually hangs between the throat the the breast.
grass widows — apparently a term denoting young women who have been widowed by the premature death of their husbands. Examples: 1, 2.
Hága(ga) — an ordinal name given to the third son. Inasmuch as all third sons are named Haga(ga), the name can be used in mythology to disguise the identity of the character that bears the name. [nt 1] It derives from the name given to a dead or tame male bear (see Áksiáka). [nt 2] Examples: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
hąp — literally, "light." In the Medicine Rite, where it is a technical term denoting life, it is often translated by Radin as "light-and-life." Examples: 1, 2, 3.
Héna(ga) — an ordinal name given to the second son. Inasmuch as all second sons are named Hena(ga), the name is often used in mythology to disguise the identity of the character that bears the name. [nt] Examples: 1,, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
hečgenįk — 1. chipmunk. 2. the nit or head louse. [nt]
hišiké — husband of a sister; husband of a paternal sister; or husband of a daughter of a brother. Examples: 1.
higiǧára (also higixara, giǧára) — the pattern, established in advance, in which a warparty will set up for the night. [nt] Mentioned: 1.
Hinų(ga) — an ordinal name given to the first born daughter. Inasmuch as all first daughters are named Hinų(ga), the name is often used in mythology to disguise the identity of the character that bears the name. [nt] Examples: 1, 2, 3, 4.
Hįčoga — "Blue (or Green) Fur," (see čo) a birth order name within the Wolf Clan for the first (or perhaps the third) born daughter. [nt] The was the name of the second primordial wolf brother who founded the Wolf Clan. It is also the name given to the heroine of the waiką The Wild Rose.
hičųjąk’ — daughter of a brother or sister; daughter of a paternal sister; daughter of a son or daughter; daughter of a son of a paternal sister or a maternal brother. Examples: 1, 2.
ho — 1. Hočąk "fish." It is an almost pan-Siouan word: Osage, ho, hu; Sioux, ho, hoǧą́, meaning "fish(-net)"; Ofo, ho; Biloxi, o. [nt] 2. Hočąk "voice." The following are Siouan cognates: Sioux ho, "the voice either of a man or of any animal or thing; sound in general"; Osage ho-, hu-, "voice, sound, etc.," Ponca, ho, "voice"; Omaha, hu, "voice"; Ofo, hóhe, "to bellow (like a bull), to howl (like a wolf)." [nt]
Honąra Jobohąra — the "Four Slumbers" or the Four Nights' Wake, often simply called "the Slumbers" (Honąra). [nt]
Hotonga — probably a symbolic pun playing upon the Hočąk Ho-t’ų-ga, literally, "He who Throws Away [His Life]," meaning, "kamakazee; warrior"; and the Ponca Ho-tǫga, "Winnebago," a translation of the Winnebago name for themselves, Hočągara ("Great Voice"). See the commentary to the waiką, The White Flower.
hot’ų — "one who throws away [his life]." The word can generally mean, "warrior," but more specifically it denotes the Hočąk devotio or kamakazee, a warrior who pledges to give up his life by attacking the enemy in battle until they slay him. [nt] Mentioned: 1, 2.
jack pine (wazíhunčge, "bear pine") — the needles of this tree are always found in pairs, arranged in a forked pattern. The cones are invariably curled and may not open for years on end. [nt]
juniper — see red cedar.
kinnikinnick (Hočąk roxį́šučkéra, "bark to smoke") — a concoction of bark and certain plant leaves usually mixed with tobacco and used in pipe smoking.
koroč — "I win." This is always declared by the victor in any contest. [nt]
Kúnu(ga) — an ordinal name given to the first born son. Inasmuch as all first born males are named Kunu(ga), the name is often used in mythology to disguise the identity of the character that bears the name. [nt] Examples: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.
Mä́näbush — the Menominee trickster, very similar to the Hočąk Trickster Wakjąkaga. However, unlike Wakjąkaga, his form is that of a rabbit.
Manitoo, Manito, Manido — Algonquian terms for a spirit.
mąnuserek — the mound constructed for the Buffalo Dance (cp. mą, "earth," and serek, "to cut through.") [nt] Mentioned: 1, 2.
moieties — the two grand divisions of Hočąk society that consist of a set of clans having special relationships to one another. The Upper, or Sky, Moiety is made up of the four bird clans, Thunderbird, Hawk (Woníǧire Wákšik), Eagle, and Pigeon; and the Lower, or Earth, Moiety, which consists of the eight remaining clans, Waterspirit, Bear, Buffalo, Deer, Elk, Wolf, Snake, and Fish. With the exception of the Wolf Clan, all marriages were with someone from a different moiety. For the waiką of the foundation of the moieties, see Moiety Origin Myth.
muskeg — a word borrowed from the Cree language denoting a wet land of decaying vegetation usually covered by a layer of moss. Mentioned: 1.
Nángxi(ga), Nąxi(ga) — an ordinal name given to the fourth son. Inasmuch as all fourth sons are named Nángxi(ga), the name is often used in mythology to disguise the identity of the character that bears the name. [nt] Examples: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Nązigega — a personal name (-ga) from nązik, "muskie." [nt]
oval lodge (či porokeižą) — a rounded lodge depicted above, the left drawing showing the frame (čiha šerek) while under construction.
partridge — in America the partridge is the same as the quail, also known as the "bobwhite."
preform — a term used in Indo-European historical linguistics meaning, The form of a linguistic entity (morpheme, phoneme, grammatical rule, etc.) from which one or more forms have historically derived. Preforms are often reconstructed, in which case they are preceded by an asterisk. The Common Germanic *swa is the preform for English "so", Icelandic sva, Danish saa, Swedish så, Old Frisian sa, Dutch zo, German so. A preform can be attested: the Latin prosequi is the preform for both English "pursue" and French poursuivre. A model of this definition can be adapted to almost any evolutionary process. Someone might wish to suggest, for instance, that Archaeopteryx is a preform of the robin. In Archaeology and folklore, it might be argued that the Cahokian Birdman is a preform of the Hočąk Redhorn or of Morning Star. See reflex and cognate.
quail (partridge or bobwhite) — the bird pictured at right is the bobwhite, Colinus virginianus (see The Quail Hunter). Its alternative name, "bobwhite," is imitative of its call. In America any bird of the genus Colinus is also known as a "partridge" (see Partridge and Partridge’s Older Brother). It is most commonly found in fields, especially those with brush cover and thick weed patches, which this essentially ground-dwelling bird uses to hide from predators. It eats insects and plant seeds. Quails lay ten to twenty eggs in patches of thick grass. [nt] In Hočąk the quail is called wanįk žožuč, with variants, wanįk žožučge, and wanįgežožučge, where the terminal -ge indicates a generic name, and žo- is an emphatic reduplication of žuč, which means "whistle"; the word wanįk (wanįge before a consonant in a hyphenated expression), simply means "bird". So wanįk žožučge means, "the whistling bird par excellance."
red cedar — also called waxšúč, "red cedar," in Hočąk. It is the same as juniper [inset left]. Its smoke is used extensively in purification ceremonies. The Thunders especially favor it, and use it as a coronet. See also, arbor vitæ (white cedar). Mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15.
reflex — x is a reflex of y if and only if y is a preform of x. See preform and cognate.
resticular — cord or rope-like. I have coined this word from the Latin resticula, "rope, line, cord, string, lasher."
ruhįč — a reverential expression used extensively in ceremonies, performed by slowly raising the outstretched right arm before the face of the person being greeted. [nt]
sandhi — "An ancient Indian term for the modification and fusion of sounds at or across the boundaries of grammatical units." [nt] For instance, kuruxe-hají becomes kuruxají by sandhi.
soteriological — Pertaining to soteriology, the study, or process, of salvation, particularly the salvation of human beings from death.
Spanioraga — Hočąk for "Spaniard."
sweat lodge — a lodge, usually of oval construction type, that can be quickly erected for the purposes of creating a steam bath. For a picture of the frame of such a lodge, see "Sweat Lodge Gif"; for an account of a recent sweat lodge ceremony among the Mąka Hočągara, see "Ho Chunk Meeting.". Mentioned: 1, 2.
šųk-hit’énąxgų (shoonk heet AY nanch goon) — someone who understands the language of dogs. From šųk, "dog," hit’e, "language," and nąxgų, "to understand." [nt] See Canine Warrior, The Dogs of the Chief’s Son, Wolf & Dog Spirits.
točąhųk — a warleader, specifically, the leader of a war party. [nt]
tussock — a small area of grass that is thicker or longer than the grass growing around it. Tussocks are found in meadows in Hočąk territory, as it says here:
Throughout eastern Wisconsin, and extending eastward to the Atlantic seaboard, is a type of sedge meadow ... characterized by numerous tussocks (figs. I, 3), formed by sedges with the caespitose habit, which reach a height of 1-3 feet and which are separated by passages 1-4 feet wide. In bluegrass pastures the remnants of these tussocks are frequently represented by grass covered mounds a few inches in height. They almost invariably attract the attention of the traveler entering the region for the first time, but are taken for granted by the inhabitants, who usually explain their presence as being due to the trampling of livestock. [nt]
veintena — a Spanish word denoting a vigesimal "month" on the solar xiuhpoualli Aztec calendar. There are 18 veintenas of 20 days each that make up a 360 day year, to which are added 5 intercalary or "useless" days.
waiką — In their oral tradition, the Hočągara draw a distinction that might bring to mind the Western distinction between myth and legend, but which is in fact significantly different. This is the distinction between a waiką and a worak. The waiką is a sacred story about spirits set in the primordial past, whose ending is always a happy one. Such stories can be told only during the winter season, or more precisely, when the snakes are no longer dwelling above ground. Those who tell a waiką when serpents ply the earth risk not only the wrath of the people, but supernatural retribution. The spirit of the waiką can transform itself into a snake (wak’ą) and strike dead those who dare to contravene the sacred strictures. However, if a sacred feast falls during the reign of the serpents, any waiką that is integral to the rite can be told by the appropriate priest. [nt]
waisgap, waiskáp — a kind of bread said to have been introduced by the French, which at the turn of the century was fried. It may once have been prepared somewhat differently. [nt 1] Ca. 1876 or earlier, bread was described as being "wheat flat cakes," or waiiskáp pareparéčera in Hočąk. Buckwheat bread was called "black flour cake" (waiskápseptúč). Cf. the Hočąk word for barley, waiskápsįčsaréč. [nt 2]
Wak’aičų (wak’ą-hi-čų) — "Having a Holy Tooth," from wak’ą, "holy," hi, "tooth," and čų, "to possess." [nt]
wąktošewe — physicians who treat ordinary diseases and injuries. The most difficult cases were treated by people called wákąčąk, "holy." They were considered to have obtained their powers — which could be used for good or ill — from the spirits particularly in control over disease (see Disease Giver and Waterspirits). [nt 1] From wąk, "man," to, "big, old," and cewe, "spiritual power": "a man with great [or ancient] spiritual power." [nt 2]
wąkráregi — literally, "Real Men," by which is meant warriors.
wampum (Hočąk worušík) — shells or beads usually strung into necklaces whose beauty and rarity made them akin to gold in European culture and therefore a medium of exchange. Cf. Hočąk wanapína, "necklace (of beads)," and wórusuksíkera, "fine, white wampum." [nt]
Wanáǧatažáhira (< Wanáǧi-Hatažáhira) — "Ghost Lighting," the full set of rites from the beginning of the Four Slumbers through the actual burial. These rites are designed in part to illuminate the path to Spiritland for the ghost (wanąǧi) of the deceased. [nt]
wanąǧi — "spirit, ghost." Compare: nąǧirak, "soul, vital principle"; nąxira, "soul," whose conceptual affinities can be seen in nąxiragera, "reflection." [nt]
The War Controllers (Wonąǧire Hirukąna) — spirits who are most particularly vested with war powers [nt], among whose number are Great Black Hawk, Morning Star, Disease Giver, etc. Mentioned: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
war honors (wąk-honąk) — The term is from wąk, "man," and honąk, "to count coup". [nt 1] Thus a war honor was "to touch (count coup on) a man." There are four war honors: the fourth and last belongs to the third man to touch a slain enemy, the third war honor belongs to the second man to touch him, the second belongs to the man who killed the enemy, and the highest war honor belongs to the man who first touches the body of the slain man. The winner of the first war honor, who is called Sara Hinįk, "Son of the Warbundle" [see 1], is given a prize of a shell (wampum) necklace, which he always gives to one of his older sisters, who parades around the village with it. [examples: 1; see also: 2] The holder of the first war honor is furthermore allowed to smoke the pipe first when he arrives home. [nt 2] For the great danger attached to being the first one to reach the body of a slain enemy, see Homer’s Iliad. The first one to reach the body would have taken the head or scalp, which further enhances the prestige of the accomplishment.
waruǧáp (warbundle) — a bundle wrapped in leather containing many wákąčąk items, often the preserved remains of various animals as well as miniature models of weapons or other instruments of power. The sacred power thus contained in the warbundle is designed to influence the outcome of battle. From waru + ǧap. Ğap means, "to skin, peel, tear up, scorch"; waru is possibly from waro, "to hang." The word waruǧáp also means "scalp." [nt] See the following examples: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
waške — the Hočąk term for the poplar or aspen tree. [nt] It is the name as well of a great and beautiful Spiritland forest. Mentioned: 1, 2.
waxopini — Spirits proper as opposed to ghosts (wanąǧi). Many spirits are typically of the animistic mold, dwelling within natural objects (see Rock Spirits, Tree Spirits, etc.). Many are the supernatural chief of species of animals (see Crane, Owl, Bear, Wolf). Some are varieties of supernatural animals (see Thunderbirds, Waterspirits). Others, like the Meteor Spirit, have powers transcending the natural phenomena with which they are associated. Many others are true gods with multifaceted powers connected in complex ways to natural phenomena and resembling in their essential attributes the gods of ancient Greece or modern India (see Bluehorn, Earthmaker, Earth, Heroka). Still others might be described as demigods (for which see The Sons of Earthmaker).
Wazųka — a name meaning "Marten." It might also mean, "He who is Dressed in Something," from the verb wazų, "to dress in." [nt]
white cedar — see arbor vitæ.
Wiha(ga) — an ordinal name given to the second daughter. Inasmuch as all second daughters are named Wiha(ga), the name is often used in mythology to disguise the identity of the character that bears the name. [nt] Examples: 1, 2, 3.
will-o'-the-wisp — a phosphorescent light (ignis fatuus) seen hovering or floating at night on marshy ground, thought to result from the combustion of natural gases.
Winaxí — a term given in just one source as another word for "Thunderbirds." [nt] Perhaps from naxgi, "to bite." [nt]
worak — the worak is a story about human beings set in recent times, and it often has a tragic ending. It may be told at any time of the year. [nt]
yųgi-wi (or hųgi-wi) — Hočąk for a queen or princess, and meaning literally, "leader-woman." It derives from hųk, "leader," and wi, an old term for a woman. [nt]
Zaganąš — the Hočąk name for the English. It derives from (le)s-Anglais, French for "the English," having first passed through the distorting medium of various Algonquian languages. Compare the Dakota, Šaglaša, "British." Cf. sáǧánaš ní-šuj, "rum" ("English red water"). See 1.
Zogega — a personal name (of a spirit being) meaning "Pickerel".
[Áksiá(ga)] — 1. for birth order names, see Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 ) 79. Kunu, Henu, Haga, Nangxi; Hinų, Wiha, Aksia. 2. Thomas Foster, Foster’s Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1, #1, p. 3, col. 4.
[American Swallow-tail Kite] — 1. The Birds of Louisiana, Bulletin 20, State of Louisiana Department of Conservation (New Orleans, Department of Conservation, 1931) 192-193; National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds, Eastern Edition. 2d revised edition. John Bull, John Farrand, jr., Amanda Wilson, and Lori Hogan, edd. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf (Chanticleer Press), 1994) 420-421, plate 317; National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds, Eastern Edition. 2d revised edition. John Bull, John Farrand, jr., Amanda Wilson, and Lori Hogan, edd. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf (Chanticleer Press), 1994) 420-421, plate 317. 2. John James Audubon, The Birds of America (New York: The MacMillan Co., 1937). The illustration is an Audubon painting (via Adobe Photoshop) from page 72 of his book. 3. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds, 421.
[arbor vitæ] — E. G. Cheyney, What Tree is That? (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1934) 26-27.
[synodic period of Venus] — Anthony F. Aveni, Skywatchers (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) 83.
[calendar stick] — Robert H. Merrill, "The Calendar Stick of Tshi-zun-hau-kau," Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bulletin 24 (Oct., 1945): 1-11.
[cranes] — The illustration is from John James Audubon, The Birds of America (New York: The MacMillan Co., 1937) 261.
[curlew] — The Birds of Louisiana, Bulletin 20, State of Louisiana Department of Conservation (New Orleans, Department of Conservation, 1931) 269-271. The illustration (via Adobe Photoshop) is of a drawing on page 270 of this book.
[Ča-si-gų-nąx-ga] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 176, sv ča; 231, gų; 340, sv nąx; 391, sv si.
[death dance] — Paul Radin, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #37, p. 17, note. Walter James Hoffman, The Menominee Indians, in the Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1892-1893 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1896) 14:25.
[točąhųka] — Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 ) 109.
[Gišoknuxgiga] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 163, sv cox; 349, sv nųx.
[girigirisege] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 299, sv kiri.
[gwo] — Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves, Special Publications of the Bollingen Foundation, #1: 100 nt 38.
[Haga] — 1. for birth order names, see Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 79. Kunu, Henu, Haga, Nangxi; Hinų, Wiha, Aksia. 2. Thomas Foster, Foster’s Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1, #1, p. 3, col. 4.
[Hehehiá] — Charles N. Houghton, "The Orphan who Conquered Death," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 70, p. 36, sentence 254 (interlinear phonetic text).
[hečgenįk] — 1. Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 249, sv hečgenįk; 2. Ibid., 248, sv he.
[higixara] — Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 169.
[Hįčoga] — Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 193, 205.
[ho] — 1. Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 259, sv ho; Dorsey and Swinton, A Dictionary of the Biloxi and Ofo Languages, 323, sv ho (Ofo), 303 sv "fish"; Stephen Return Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 ) 151, sv ho; John P. Williamson, An English-Dakota Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 ) sv "fish"; Rev. Eugene Buechel, A Dictionary of the Teton Dakota Sioux Language (Pine Ridge: Red Cloud Indian School, 1955?) 180, sv hoġa´; 2. Riggs, Dakota-English Dictionary, 151, sv ho; also followed by Buechel, Dictionary of Teton Dakota, 180, sv ho. Francis LaFlesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 109 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932) 67, ssvv hu, hú-ca-gi, hóṭoⁿ; 63, sv. hó-ca-gi. James H. Howard, The Ponca Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press: 1995 ) 134. Alice C. Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, The Omaha Tribe, 2 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press: 1992 ) 102. Dorsey and Swinton, A Dictionary of the Biloxi and Ofo Languages, 323, sv hóhe.
[Hok’ixére Waci] — Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 331-335.
[Honąra Jobohąra] — Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago as Described by Themselves (Baltimore: Special Publications of the Bollingen Foundation, #1, 1949) 100 nt 42.
[hot’ų] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 402, sv t’ų.
[jack pine] — Cheyney, What Tree is That? 10-11.
[koroč] — W. C. McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," Yearbook, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 9 (1929): 219, nt 29.
[Lipkind] — William Lipkind, Winnebago Grammar (New York: King’s Crown Press, ) 55-56 (§98).
[mąnuserek] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 315, sv mą.
[ordinal names] — for birth order names, see Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 79. Kunu, Henu, Haga, Nangxi; Hinų, Wiha, Aksia.
[Quail] — John James Audubon, The Birds of America (New York: The MacMillan Co., 1937). The illustration is a detail from an Audubon painting (via Adobe Photoshop) on page 76 of his book.
[ruhįč] — Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago as Described by Themselves, 99-100 nt 33.
[sandhi] — P. H. Matthews, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997) 327 s.v. "sandhi".
[šųk-hit’enaų] — Mary Carolyn Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago: An Analysis and Reference Grammar of the Radin Lexical File (Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December 14, 1968 [69-14,947]) 159, sv šųk; 399, sv hit’e.
[tussock] — David F. Costello, "Tussock Meadows in Southeastern Wisconsin," Botanical Gazette, 97, #3 (Mar., 1936): 610-648 .
[ų́sge] — Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves, Special Publications of the Bollingen Foundation, #1: 102 nt 71.
[Victory Dance] — Radin, Winnebago Tribe, 331.
[waške] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 405, sv wašge; Thomas Foster, Foster’s Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1, #2: p. 4, coll. 3-4 ("abandon" - "beckon").
[waiką] — Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 15-16; Walter W. Funmaker, The Bear in Winnebago Culture: A Study in Cosmology and Society (Master Thesis, University of Minnesota: June, 1974 [MnU-M 74-29]) 5; Walter Funmaker, The Winnebago Black Bear Subclan: a Defended Culture (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota: December, 1986 [MnU-D 86-361]]) 31-32, 102-103.
[waisgap] — 1. Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago as Described by Themselves, 102 nt 66. 2. Thomas Foster, Foster’s Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1, #1: p. 4, coll. 4, sv. "barley"; vol. 1, #3: p. 4, coll. 3, sv. "bread."
[Wak’aičų] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 409, sv wak’ą; 251, sv hi; 199, sv čų.
[wąktošewe] — 1. Paul Radin, "The Man who Brought His Wife back from Spiritland," The Culture of the Winnebago as Described by Themselves (Baltimore: Special Publications of the Bollingen Foundation, #1, 1949) 58 ntt. 4-5. 2. Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 416, s.v. wąk.
[wampum] — Thomas Foster, Foster’s Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1, #2: p. 4, coll. 4, sv "bead."
[Wanáǧatažáhira] — Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago as Described by Themselves, 58, nt. 6.
[wanąǧi] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 334, s.v. nąǧi/nąxi.
[War Controllers] — Paul Radin, "The Two Friends Who Became Reincarnated: The Origin of the Four Nights Wake," The Culture of the Winnebago as Described by Themselves (Baltimore: Special Publications of the Bollingen Foundation, #1, 1949) 24, ss. 42-43.
[War Dance] — A. G. Ellis, "Fifty-Four Years Recollectiion of Men and Events in Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII.225. Reprinted in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago I, #6: 188.
[war honors] — 1. Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 416, s.v. wąk, 261, s.v. honąk; 2. Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 119 nt 4.
[worak] — Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 15-16; Funmaker, The Bear in Winnebago Culture, 5; Funmaker, The Winnebago Black Bear Subclan, 31-32, 102-103.
[waruǧap] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 234, sv ǧap; 411, sv waro.
[Wazųka] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 414, sv wazų.
[white cedar] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 414, sv wazi; 354, sv paras.
[Winaxí] — 1. Foster, Foster’s Indian Record, vol. 1, #2,: p. 3, col.3, quoting the interpreter Menaige (ca. 1850). 2. Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 340, sv nąxgi.
[wo] — Charles N. Houghton, "The Orphan who Conquered Death," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 70, 13 nt (interlinear phonetic text).
[yųgiwi] — Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 265 sv hųk-.