Šųgᵋpaga ("Dog Head")
Hočąk-English Interlinear Text
(1) They lived there at Red Banks, and there lived there Šųgᵋpaga, as he was called. He himself was one of the holy men. And once when he slept, he was "given a man," as it is called, for the reason that, in addition to the fact that he was fasting, an iron Waterspirit that Earthmaker himself had placed in the east as an Island Weight, had not done right, as he liked to start wars among the humans, the two-legged walkers. So he killed and ate humans, and this was not good. Earthmaker knew it, so therefore, that he might kill him, he did it, he gave him to Šųgᵋpaga. And the means to do it to what remained, all this he also gave him. So then Šųgᵋpaga gave a feast, and then he got up. And he said that he would go with only three men. (2) And when he gathered the men together, he looked them over, and he picked three very strong men. In truth, the men were glad. And as in the beginning, that was all they ever did.
When they had done thus, after they were done with the feast, then the warparty started out. They went towards the east. Never for days out was it known that anyone was there in that direction, said the one who stayed at home. "Which one of the spirits named to him is he going after, that he should do this?" they all asked. Then the warparty traveled all day. Finally, they went and camped. The three men were afraid. (3) Therefore, they said as they talked together, "Let us say to him, never as long as it has been here, has anyone come in this direction. This is the first time," they said. "Then if we fill it up with tobacco for the war chief, as to know would be better," these men said. So then they filled it with tobacco, and he took the tobacco, and then he told his dream, and when he was done, he poured tobacco for as many of the War Controllers as there are. Then he told them, "We are going out four days travel. There we will see someone on the third day of our travels," he said. On the third day they went to a depression in the ground and sat. There they went to sit. One of these men was going by there with something on his shoulders. "That's the one," he said to them. (4) They looked and saw him. "Here we will sleep, and in the morning, when our Grandfather reaches the top of the trees, then we shall rush him," he said to them. "And you will capture him for me," he said to him. As they were anxious, for that reason they did not [sleep] that night there, but sat up all night long.
When it became day, they got ready. The men put on their battle regalia. They painted their faces and they were glorious to behold. All of the men were frightening. And when they were through getting ready, they all sat there, and the men looked back at where they came from on the warpath which they were doing. Right then, this really large, fierce man passed by there. (5) Then the warleader said, "Young men, you must try your mightiest, but let's make sure that we capture him alive," he told them. So this was what they came to hear. One of the men who was fast reached there running and tried to tackle him, but the man was too much for him. Again, the second one arrived and tried to help there, but still they were not able to manage him there. The third one arrived and joined in taking hold of him there. Just then, the warleader arrived, and then all four of them did their mightiest, until finally, as the sun was on its downward course, they threw the man to the ground. And then they held him down, and the three of them together with the warleader, got man-bonds from the Warbundle, and (6) then they finally bound their man there.
They bound his arms behind him, and then, finally, the started back, the man in tow. Finally, as they went, night came upon them and they stopped. And they guarded him all night. Then when it was day, there they started out again. During the daytime they would undo the bonds on the man's legs. At night they would bind him. Thus they did, every night. It was the third night of the return trip, and as day approached, there the prisoner then said, "Šųgᵋpaga, I am going to ask for something," he said. (7) "The one who created us, he himself blessed me, and as long as the earth remains, here on this island he placed me to be a weight here around this place. Therefore, how is it to go, and how are you to do it to me, to handle me, putting these on me?" he said. Šųgᵋpaga arose and said to him, "Well, the Maker of Things, Earthmaker, he himself made you, and he created you great, but you liked the wars that the humans, the two-legged walkers, made; and what's more, you participated in them, and you ate human beings. You are doing a great wrong, and since you have not done right, therefore, in this way I was blessed with you. Therefore, I am treating you this way," he said. "And it is good that in telling it right, you have told the truth to me," said the iron Waterspirit. (8) "It would not do if you went the place where you came from. Whatever you are going to do to me, do it to me here, so that I may go my way all the sooner," he said, so the death material for the prisoner was prepared, and when they stood him ready, he said, "Šųgᵋpaga, I will request one more thing," he said, and when he said, "Ho!" the other said, "I am going to smoke for the last time," and the pipe was filled, and they held it to his mouth. And when he was done smoking, additionally, he asked for water, and they took a little pail from the Warbundle, and they dipped into water, and they also took maple sugar from the Warbundle, and they mixed them, and gave it to him to drink. (9) Then, as he was thankful, he blessed them all. Then he told them to at least kill him right. Šųgᵋpaga himself knew how to kill him, so he killed him.
This was one of the paths that Šųgᵋpaga took. Thus the old people have always said when they tell stories. The Warbundle which was carried then on this path, and the man-bonds, I have to keep now. Even now they are efficacious. At this time I am in charge of it. Every winter I boil for it. Because this band of men were my own dear grandfathers, is why I do this.1
Commentary: "Red Banks (Móga-šúč)" — the place where the Hočąk nation was said to have been born. It is on the shore of Green Bay, Wisconsin.
"the holy men" — by this it is not meant that he was a priest, but that he possessed great spiritual power, most particularly, in light of subsequent events, war powers.
"given a man" — when the spirits vouchsafe a lethal victory over an enemy, and let it be known to their beneficiary as a destiny in a vision or "dream," it is said that he is "given a man."
"fasting" — by starving and generally making oneself "pitiable," a suppliant gains credit with the spirits who take pity on him and grant him at least some of the powers for which he petitions.
"iron Waterspirit" — a Waterspirit (Wakčexi) is the spiritual embodiment of water. It is a large horned, zoomorphic being with a human face, whose tail extends to indefinite length. It lives in underground caves that form vast subterranean networks. Lakes and rivers are usually governed by Waterspirits, who, if not properly placated, may drown those who try to pass through their element. They are generally known to be very devious. This story is the only known instance where one is said to be made of iron.
"Island Weight" — in the beginning when Earthmaker made the world, the landmass of the earth was unstill, and to bring it to rest, he cast down (by some accounts) four great Waterspirits to steady it at the cardinal points. Since the earth is surrounded by the Ocean Sea (Te Jąra), it is an island. Thus, the four who stabilized the island-earth came to be known as "Island Weights."
"the two-legged walkers" — this is a formulaic expression widely used in the Medicine Rite to denote human beings.
"Earthmaker" — Earthmaker is quasi-otiose, and does not usually get involved in human affairs. He is a very pacifistic god; but in this case, in order to correct the aberrant behavior of the Waterspirit, he must grant war powers. Only Earthmaker could be strong enough to bestow the power to kill one of his most powerful creations.
"three" — this makes a total warparty of four men. Four is the mystical number of completion, identical to the number of the cardinal directions.
"feast" — it is an obligation born from tradition to give a feast before going on the warpath.
"that was all they ever did" — this means that in the early days, the Hočągara were noted as a nation wholly preoccupied with war. This is stated in much the same way elsewhere.
"anxious" — this sense of "anxious" (hahuhu) means, "eagerly awaiting," rather than "filled with anxiety."
"the men looked back at where they came from" — since they came from the west, in the morning this puts the sun at their backs. It is the standard procedure for warparties when stopping for any reason, to face back in the direction they had come. This practice is also mentioned in the moiety myth (q.v.).
"I may go my way" — this situation exemplifies something of a paradox. This Waterspirit is one of the major spirits created by Earthmaker's own hands, and created for an indispensable purpose. Therefore, he cannot be simply exterminated. Nevertheless, it remains true that if a spirit (waxopini) exists in corporeal form, he can be destroyed in some sense, specifically, the particular corporeality that he assumes can be lost to him, although his spiritual essence lives on, and may assume some other corporeal form within the power of his grasp. The iron Waterspirit, who is also the Island Weight of the east, must return to his post in the east, yet as per Earthmaker's edict, he is to be denied the bodily form under which he interfered in human affairs contrary to the Creator's edicts. By the laws laid down for the structure of the cosmos, this Waterspirit, great as he is, will now be made a (spiritual) servant to the man who kills him. By killing this spirit and laying down the nature of his transgressions, the spirit is obliged to follow the dictates set by his conqueror at least for as long as the victor lives. In any case, the Waterspirit, having been checked in this manner by Earthmaker, is hardly likely on his own initiative to reëngage in the behavior for which he was so severely punished. And while Earthmaker is self-constrained by his principles of passivity, he is not obliged to protect the guilty from the avenging retribution of his victims.
"they stood him" — he is being tied to a stake.
"kill him right" — the word translated "right," pįxjį, means fundamentally, "very good, very well." This concept expressed by pį applies to a wide range of referents both aesthetic and moral, denoting both beauty and (moral) good. The request by the Waterspirit is that he be killed in accord with the correct procedures as set down by tradition; but what is unclear is whether he is referring to those conventions that pertain to execution of prisoners, or the sacrifice of Waterspirits. In execution, the prisoner undergoes a ritual display including the "prisoner's dance" also known as the "death dance." Then he is tied to the stake and in the slang of the Hočągara, is made "to play with fire." (For an eyewitness description of this torture, see the Commentary to the "Fox-Hočąk War.") It is not clear that there are strict procedures to follow in torture, or that anyone put to it would crave to have them observed. On the other hand, when Waterspirits offer themselves up for sacrifice, it is to give the contents of their bodies, especially the prized scent sack, as a blessing to the sacrificer. It may be to this kind of butchering that the Waterspirit makes reference, but we do not really have enough information to decide.
"every winter I boil for it" — the Warbundle Feast is also known as the "Winter Feast," since it is always conducted at that time of year. In the Old World, the season for war began in March (< Mars, god of war), since wheeled vehicles did not have to contend with snow and ice in the spring. However, in North America, the season for war is winter. Consequently, it is with the beginning of the martial season that tribute is given to the spirit of the Warbundle, that it may be at the height of its strength at the time when it is most needed.
Links: Earthmaker, Waterspirits, Iron Spirits, Island Weights, Herešgúnina.
Stories: about Šųgᵋpaga (Dog Head): The Warbundle Maker, Great Walker's Medicine, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara; about famous Hočąk warriors and warleaders: How Little Priest went out as a Soldier, Little Priest's Game, The Masaxe War (Hogimasąga), Wazųka, Great Walker's Warpath (Great Walker), Great Walker's Medicine (Great Walker, Smoke Walker, Dog Head, Small Snake), The Warbundle Maker (Dog Head), The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara (Smoke Walker, Dog Head, Small Snake), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath (Big Thunder, Čap’ósgaga), The Osage Massacre (Big Thunder, Čap’ósgaga), The Fox-Hočąk War (Čap’ósgaga), The Origin of Big Canoe's Name, White Thunder's Warpath, Four Legs, The Man who Fought against Forty (Mąčosepka), Yellow Thunder and the Lore of Lost Canyon, The Hills of La Crosse (Yellow Thunder), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, Fighting Retreat, Mitchell Red Cloud, jr. Wins the Medal of Honor (Mitchell Red Cloud, jr.), How Jarrot Got His Name, Jerrot's Temperance Pledge — A Poem, Jarrot's Aborted Raid, Jarrot and His Friends Saved from Starvation, They Owe a Bullet (Pawnee Shooter); about the creation of the world: The Creation of the World; Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), How the Hills and Valleys were Formed, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth; mentioning Island Weights: The Creation of the World, The Island Weight Songs, South Enters the Medicine Lodge, East Shakes the Messenger, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, North Shakes His Gourd, Wolves and Humans, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 2), The Lost Blanket, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, South Seizes the Messenger, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Messengers of Hare, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, Four Steps of the Cougar, The Petition to Earthmaker; in which Waterspirits occur as characters: Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Green Waterspirit of Wisconsin Dells, The Lost Child, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Bluehorn's Nephews, Holy One and His Brother, The Seer, The Nannyberry Picker, The Creation of the World (vv. 1, 4), The Sioux Warparty and the Waterspirit of Green Lake, The Waterspirit of Lake Koshkonong, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Devil's Lake — How it Got its Name, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Waterspirit of Sugar Loaf Mounds, Waterspirits Keep the Corn Fields Wet, The Waterspirit Guardian of the Intaglio Mound, The Diving Contest, The Lost Blanket, Redhorn's Sons, The Phantom Woman, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Great Walker's Warpath, White Thunder's Warpath, The Descent of the Drum, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Snowshoe Strings, The Thunderbird, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (v. 2), The Two Children, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, Waruǧápara, Ocean Duck, The Twin Sisters, Trickster Concludes His Mission, The King Bird, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Great Walker's Medicine (v. 2), Heną́ga and Star Girl, Peace of Mind Regained, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Spiritual Descent of John Rave's Grandmother, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Shaggy Man, The Woman who Married a Snake (?), Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Sacred Lake, Lost Lake; featuring Iron Spirits as characters: The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Raccoon Coat, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth; featuring Herešgúnina (the Bad Spirit or One Legged One) as a character: The Creation of Evil, The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Woman Who Became an Ant, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, The Spirit of Gambling, Bladder and His Brothers, The Two Brothers, The Origins of the Milky Way, The Buffalo's Walk; see also Black and White Moons, The Shawnee Prophet and His Ascension, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara; mentioning Earthmaker: The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Lost Blanket, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, The First Snakes, Tobacco Origin Myth, The Creation Council, The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Seven Maidens, The Descent of the Drum, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, The Spider's Eyes, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Fourth Universe, The Fatal House, The Twin Sisters, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Masaxe War, The Two Children, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Gift of Shooting, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Stone Heart, The Wild Rose, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Lame Friend, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed, The Hočąk Migration Myth, The Necessity for Death, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The War among the Animals, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, Blue Mounds, Lost Lake, The Hočągara Migrate South, The Spirit of Gambling, Turtle and the Giant, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Bird Origin Myth, Black and White Moons, Redhorn's Sons, Holy Song, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, Death Enters the World, Man and His Three Dogs, Trickster Concludes His Mission, Story of the Thunder Names, The Origins of the Milky Way, Trickster and the Dancers, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, The Creation of Evil, The Blessing of Kerexųsaka, Song to Earthmaker, The Blessing of the Bow, The Origin of the Cliff Swallow; mentioning Warbundles: Waruǧápara (Thunderbird), The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons (Thunderbird), Redhorn's Sons (Thunderbird), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Thunderbird), The Warbundle of the Eight Generations (Thunderbird), Wanihéga Becomes a Sak’į (Thunderbird), The Warbundle Maker (Eagle), The Masaxe War (Eagle?), The Blessing of a Bear Clansman (Bear), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo), Paint Medicine Origin Myth (Hit’énųk’e Paint), The Blessing of Kerexųsaka (Sauk), Yellow Thunder and the Lore of Lost Canyon, Mijistéga’s Powwow Magic and How He Won the Trader's Store (Potawatomi), A Man's Revenge (enemy); mentioning feasts: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (Chief Feast), The Creation Council (Eagle Feast), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (Eagle Feast), Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth (Waterspirit Feast), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (Mąką́wohą, Waną́čĕrehí), Bear Clan Origin Myth (Bear Feast), The Woman Who Fought the Bear (Bear Feast), Grandfather's Two Families (Bear Feast), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (Wolf Feast), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Feast), Buffalo Dance Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (Buffalo Feast), The Blessing of Šokeboka (Feast to the Buffalo Tail), Snake Clan Origins (Snake Feast), Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief (Snake Feast), Rattlesnake Ledge (Snake Feast), The Thunderbird (for the granting of a war weapon), Turtle's Warparty (War Weapons Feast, Warpath Feast), Porcupine and His Brothers (War Weapons Feast), Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega) (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), White Thunder's Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Fox-Hočąk War (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (Warbundle Feast, Warpath Feast), Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (Warpath Feast), Kunu's Warpath (Warpath Feast), Trickster's Warpath (Warpath Feast), The Masaxe War (Warpath Feast), Redhorn's Sons (Warpath Feast, Fast-Breaking Feast), The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits (Fast-Breaking Feast), The Chief of the Heroka (Sick Offering Feast), The Dipper (Sick Offering Feast, Warclub Feast), The Four Slumbers Origin Myth (Four Slumbers Feast), The Journey to Spiritland (Four Slumbers Feast), The First Snakes (Snake Feast), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (unspecified), Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts (unnamed); set at Red Banks (Mógašúč): The Creation Council, Annihilation of the Hočągara II, The Great Lodge, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (vv. 1, 2, 3, 5), Bear Clan Origin Myth (vv. 2a, 3, 8, 11, 12), The Winnebago Fort, Blue Bear, Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, The Hočąk Arrival Myth, The Creation of Man (v. 10), Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins (fr. 1), Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Deer Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth, Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief, Gatschet's Hočank hit’e ("St. Peet," "Hočąk Origins"), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (v. 1), The Seven Maidens, First Contact, Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath.
This worak has a strong counterpart in the waiką, The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons.
Themes: Earthmaker acts against those who are not doing right: The Fatal House, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Turtle and the Giant, The Seven Maidens, The Origins of the Milky Way; a human being receives a blessing directly from Earthmaker: The Wild Rose, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega); a person who fasts receives blessings from the spirits: The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, Redhorn's Sons, The Boy Who Became a Robin, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, The Seer, Maize Comes to the Hočągara, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Boy who would be Immortal, The Thunderbird, Lake Wąkšikhomįgra (Mendota): the Origin of Its Name, The Waterspirit Guardian of the Intaglio Mound, Great Walker's Medicine, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, Heną́ga and Star Girl, A Man's Revenge, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, The Man who Defied Disease Giver, White Thunder's Warpath, A Man and His Three Dogs, The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, The Diving Contest, The Plant Blessing of Earth, Holy Song, The Tap the Head Medicine, The Blessing of Šokeboka, The Completion Song Origin, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, Sunset Point, Song to Earthmaker, First Contact (v. 1), The Horse Spirit of Eagle Heights; spirits bless someone with the right to kill a man ("give him a man"): White Thunder's Warpath, A Man's Revenge, Great Walker's Warpath, The Masaxe War, Little Fox and the Ghost, Thunderbird and White Horse; anthropophagy and cannibalism: A Giant Visits His Daughter, Turtle and the Giant, The Witch Men's Desert, The Were-Grizzly, Grandfather's Two Families, The Roaster, Redhorn's Father, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, The Lost Blanket, Young Man Gambles Often, White Wolf, The Shaggy Man, The Twins Get into Hot Water, Partridge's Older Brother, The First Fox and Sauk War, The Fox-Hočąk War, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Morning Star and His Friend, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Seven Maidens, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Shakes the Earth, The Stone Heart, Thunder Cloud is Blessed; a warparty gives its leader tobacco so that he might reveal to them what victories the spirits have placed in his hands: The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, White Thunder's Warpath, Great Walker's Warpath, The Dogs of the Chief's Son; warleader sets out to capture alive an enemy spirit: Turtle's Warparty, Porcupine and His Brothers; a warparty attacks evil spirits whose bodies are made of iron: The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth; someone is abducted and led off into captivity: The Captive Boys, A Man's Revenge, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Lost Child, Wears White Feather on His Head, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Bird Clan Origin Myth, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Bladder and His Brothers, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Green Man, Brave Man, The Chief of the Heroka, Hare Gets Swallowed, Hare Acquires His Arrows, The Raccoon Coat, Wojijé, Wolves and Humans, The Woman Who Became an Ant, Thunderbird and White Horse, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Brass and Red Bear Boy, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 5), The Boy who Flew, Testing the Slave; a powerful being kills an Island Weight: Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins.
1 Paul Radin, "Shugepaga," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ) Notebook #66, Story 1. Informant: Čaxšep-Horuxjî-Hire-ga (They Look upon an Eagle) of the Eagle Clan.