The Hawk (Wonáǧire Wą́kšik, or Warrior) Clan Origin Myth
The Hawk Clan, also known as the Wonáǧire Wą́kšik, or "Warrior Clan," is a clan of the Upper or Sky Moiety. Wonáǧire Wą́kšik means, "Men of War," a term alluding to their special warrior functions. What those functions were is a matter of controversy. Some say that they had a special lodge, the War Lodge, set up at the northwest corner of villages that contained warrior regalia and functioned as a jail for captives.1 The War Lodge could be used as a meeting place for warriors from the whole tribe. If a prisoner fled to the War Lodge, he would immediately be put to death.2 It was the role of the Hawk Clan chief to determine if prisoners were to be put to death,3 a sentence carried out by this clan.
When the time came to kill them, the Warrior Band built fire outside. Then they set in hardwood posts near the fire. To these the prisoners were tied. Then they took a stick of fire, with live coals at its end, and burned their skins in this way. When a coward complains of such treatment, they make him suffer longer. If they show fortitude, they are killed quickly. The Warrior leader, when about to execute prisoners, painted his body all red. No one talked to him, for his answers were always mean answers. This was according to the old custom. This was the Warrior Band's duty.4
At councils (wa’ĕ́hi), the representative of the Hawk Clan would put forward no proposals, but would attack every proposal advanced by anyone else.5 The leader of the Hawk Clan "... sits opposite the chief and advises him on new actions. The chief treats all nicely, like his own children. The chief of the Warrior Band treats everyone mean. He is the opposite of the Thunderbird chief in all respects."6 At least some members of the clan claimed special privileges on the warpath, including being excused from some of the normal spiritual preparations. Others make special claims with respect to fire that would seem to imply that they ought to be the chief clan. This is seen in the lyrics of their clan songs:
|Taéjirehíre,||The fire they started,|
|Taéjirehíre;||The fire they started;|
|Taéjirehíre,||The fire they started,|
|Taéjirehíre.||The fire they started.|
|Šojéjirehíre,||The blue flame they caused to start,|
|Šojéjirehíre;||The blue flame they caused to start;|
|Šojéjirehíre,||The blue flame they caused to start,|
|Šojéjirehíre.||The blue flame they caused to start.|
(The blue part of the flame (šoč) is the closest to the source.)7 According to Foster, the Hawk Clan ranked fourth among the Bird Clans.8
The patrons of the Hawk Clan were the Thunderbirds responsible for thunderstorms.
The following are some of the names given people in the Warrior Clan:
|Hežąkiga||One Horn (also a name in other clans)|
|Wąkšigeručka||He who Eats Humans|
|Wašiwirukanaga||Master of the Lodge|
|Wonáǧire'uąkšíka||Man of War|
The name Wašiwirukanaga actually refers to the taking of revenge after a defeat.9
|BAE 37: 248|
|The Funereal Face Paint
of the Hawk Clan
At death a clansman had three horizontal lines painted across his forehead, in order, black-red-black. His mouth might also be surrounded with a red line. In times of war the red marks were made with human blood.10
Origin Myth of the Hawk Clan
told by a member of the clan
Hočąk-English Interlinear Text
The apparent chaos of page succession in the story below is due to the fact that two sections of interstitial matter taken from pages 39-41 at a far remove at the end of the notebook, were inserted at two different places in page 37.
(36) And Earthmaker created four men. They descended to earth. They made a streak like the day when they came down. They landed there at Within Lake (Green Bay). They alighted on a tree. They alighted on four branches. Then they landed on the ground. They began to walk towards the east. They set up the camping place. They started a fire. It was the principal fire; and they went hunting. They hunted for food. The first man failed, and so he sent a second man. (37) He did not bring an animal being, he brought a man. (39) Because he brought a man, for that reason if the first child is a male, we shall call him, "He Who Eats Humans." (37) And so they called the second man, "the Man of War" (Wonáǧirewąkšíka).
Thus it was, and they also went towards the chief's lodge. They walked as chiefs. All four of them went there. Outside the chief's lodge, there they went into an oval lodge. (40) And the Snake Clan was the one appointed. They went after the food. The Snake Clan brought two fish to the feast of the Eagle Chief. The Deer Clan was the attendant for this feast. And so they immediately ate the fish. Of the fish which they ate, they left some on either side. They left the head and the fish's tail. Thus they did with their meal. And so if they own one of the dogs, they will call him, "Leaves Fish on Both Ends."
(41) He said this. Every principal man came into the chief's lodge here. The Eagle Clan and the Men of War, these sat opposite one another. And so the Thunders and the Bald Eagles sat opposite one another. Friends say "my opposite," thus they say it. (37) There they sat down and thus it was. One came and peeped in. It was a dog at the door. He stuck in only his nose. (38) So they said, "Whose nose does it look like?" The chief said, "If we own one of the dogs, and if we want to really own him, we shall call it 'Whose Nose Does It Look Like'." And again the men's bodies soon became different. Their feathers wore off. And they were getting ready to enter the lodge of the chief of the Waterspirits. He passed off the fire. When they were through, the lodge had been smoked with incense. And then they came in. There was a longhouse at Red Banks. (39) Then they taught things to the Ones Below. They taught them hunting. When they were through, in order that their life might be good, Earthmaker caused it to be done this way. As all men are today, that way they had become. They were all holy. And all of them lived in the flesh as chiefs.
And there I learned things of this sort.
Origin Myth of the Hawk Clan
told by a member of the Thunderbird Clan
"According to the Waką́ja [Thunderbird] version, the Wonaǧírē Wą́kšik [Man of War = Hawk] originated from the shading of the original Waką́ja brothers when they alighted on the tree. In the shading a black hawk appeared. From this hawk originated the Wonaǧírē Wą́kšik. According to the Wonaǧírē themselves, however, they originated from the second of the two Waką́ja brothers."12
Commentary. "the Man of War (Wonáǧirewąkšíka)" — Wonáǧire Wąkšík, "Men of War," is also the alternate name of the Hawk Clan.
"Leaves Fish on Both Ends" — the members of the Hawk Clan, when they ate the fish served by the Snake Clan at the feast of their kindred Eagle Clan, ate only the center, leaving the head and tail severed on the plate. The head and tail of fish and snakes, since they are horizontal, are on the same plain, one being no higher than the other. Thus the head and tail are equally peripheral among them, whereas elsewhere the head is high and identified with the center. Thus, in leaving the head and tail of the fish, one leaves unambiguous symbols of the periphery. Since the Hawk clansmen internalized the central part of the fish, the part that represents the center as opposed to the periphery, they have symbolically claimed that center for themselves. By making this name, "Leaves Fish on Both Ends" as a dog name, they make a subtle allusion. The Thunder Clan makes much in their own origin myth of being in opposition to the dog/wolf. The wolf is the last to enter into the social contract by which the Hočąk nation is founded. It does so by hanging about the periphery, and is only gradually coaxed into the society of the Thunders. Being the last and being peripheral are temporal and spatial analogues of one another. One is the edge in time, the other the edge in space. Therefore, the contrast of the Thunder Clan with the Wolf Clan is the contrast of the center with the periphery. The Thunderbirds view the Wolf Clan as its opposite by virtue of the fact that the wolf and dog are the most peripheral of animals. The peripheral is the low, so that the wolf = the low. The wolf is the last of the clans because the Thunderbirds separate the high from the low, so in relation to the Thunderbirds, by virtue of their peripheral natures, they must be the lowest. This goes towards justifying the status of the Thunder Clan as the Chief Clan. That the name "Leaves Fish on Both Ends" is a dog name, recalls this relationship between the Thunder Clan and the Wolf Clan. This is the same relationship that holds between the Hawk Clan and the Fish and Snake Clans, a relationship expressed in the treatment that the Hawk clansmen give to the fish tendered them by the Snake Clan. The Fish is the lowest of the clans along with the Snake. The Hawk treats the fish analogously: the fish is the lowest of animals, found only in the depths of the waters. Therefore, since the low = the peripheral, the fish is the most peripheral of animals (with the snake being its land equivalent). The Hawk separates the center from the periphery with respect to the fish, thus rendering it low. See also, the Commentary to "Hare Visits the Bodiless Heads."
"(41)" — this page is omitted from the published translation.
Waxšuč, Red Cedar (Juniper) by Paul Wray
"Bald Eagles" — the four Bird Clans are the Thunders, Eagles, Hawks (Men of War), and Pigeons. Instead of the expected Pigeons, we have the Bald Eagles, who are probably a sept of the Eagle Clan. Radin thought that the Pigeon Clan was extinct, although this turns out not to be the case. Nevertheless, it must have been rare, and we may see here the process of substitution taking place.
"the chief of the Waterspirits" — this gives priority of occupancy to the Waterspirit Clan, which the Thunders recognize as the chief clan of the Lower Moiety.
"incense" — this is done by using smouldering red cedar leaves.
"Red Banks" — an area around the shore of Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the primordial clans met to form the Hočąk nation.
"Ones Below" — this is the Lower, or Earth, Moiety.
"black hawk" — this is the American Swallow-tail Kite — Elanoides forficatus (see the Glossary). The name is a literal translation of kerejų́-sep. The clan, according to Jipson, was called the Kerejų́sep Hikikerač. This bird went extinct ca. 1850 in Wisconsin. Consequently, those who were born after 1850 had to find another bird with which to identify it. This was usually the Pigeon Hawk (Merlin Falcon), or the Peregrine Falcon (Dorsey's "Duck Hawk"). It could not have been the Pigeon Hawk because the chief of the Thunderbirds is Great Black Hawk, and his nephew is Pigeon Hawk. The standard word for the latter bird is kirikirisge. This name refers to its spotted chest. Another name for the Swallow-tail Kite, hiwičakižąke, was mistakenly thought to denote the falcon, whose tail is not forked. A similar confusion is found in Helmbrecht-Lehmann, where xorá is said to denote the falcon, but in fact refers to the Bald Eagle, to which the Swallow-tail Kite has a strong resemblance.
Perhaps the strongest reason why the falcon cannot be the black hawk is that it is not black. Its back can be a bluish gray, and the females can be a dark brown, but only the Swallow-tail Kite can be said to be "black." Given the general confusion, we cannot be certain whether "black hawk" refers here to the Falcon or the Swallow-tail Kite, although since the latter is black, its arising from a shadow seems the more likely.
Comparative Material. The leaving of the fish bisected on the plate is the Hočąk analogue (to a significant degree) of the Bisected Man ritual of Eurasia. This was designed to secure safety for those who performed the rite. This ritual consisted of cutting a man in two who represented, or was, the enemy. The two halves of his body were placed on either side of the road over which the troops marched in their campaign against the enemy. Thus, the whole man becomes peripheral. Thus, the enemy is peripheral in relation to the troops, as well as the road upon which they tread (= center). But the peripheral is the counterpart of the low, since the high is identical to the center. Therefore, the enemy is made, by this means, low, since he is peripheral. Therefore the ritual is one of the subjugation of an enemy by making him metonymically peripheral, and therefore lower than those with whom he enters into this relation. Thus, the enemy is subordinated. This appears to occur in Greek mythology. Apollodorus (3.13.7) tells us, "After that Peleus, with Jason and the Dioskouroi, laid waste Iolcus; and he slaughtered Astydamia, the wife of Acatus [the ruler of Iolcus], and, having divided her limb from limb, he led the army through her into the city." It was more usually employed as a rite of purification, to escape the danger of miasma. The pollution occasioned by the troops having killed the enemy, is countered by restoring the equilibrium. The ritual pollution has put the troops at the periphery of society, as when we see homicide punished by the ostracism of outlawry. But by taking what was killed and putting it into the periphery, while the killers reorient themselves with respect to it as the proper occupants of the center, they have corrected the disequilibrium and restored themselves to the center of the society. This form of ritual purification is very widespread.13 Of interest is the fact that the enemy prisoner could be replaced by a dog. Curtius tells us that the Macedonian army was purified by marching between the severed halves of a dog.14 Plutarch states that the other Greeks also practiced this rite: "In Boiotia the ceremony of public purification is to pass between the parts of a dog which has been cut in twain."15 The use of a dog for this purpose was also known to the Romans.16 Among the Hočągara, eating can be used as a symbolism of conquest. In the Fast Eating Contest, the participants eat every morsel of food quickly to symbolize (and cause) the "eating up" of the enemy who is to be faced on the warpath. If any morsel is left uneaten, it is taken to mean that one of the men given the warparty by the spirits will escape his fate. The Hawk Clan is also the Warrior Clan, and its first born is named "Man Eater," which redraws the connection between eating and war. In the Eurasian ritual, the warriors walk between the symbols of the periphery, making themselves into the center; in the Hočąk, those who are the center eat the central portion, in some sense literally making themselves into the center. In one case it is the enemy who is bifurcated, in the second it is the totem animal of the competing clan that is severed in two.
In a Pawnee story about the seven brothers who are the Pleiades, their father says, "When the world comes to an end then I shall join my sons. My daughter will also join us, but while we live upon this earth we shall be known as great warriors. Although we are birds, we are warriors. We are the Hawks."17
Links: Earthmaker, Wonáǧire Wąkšik, Hawks, The Creation Council, Thunderbirds.
Stories: about the Hawk (Warrior) Clan: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Berdache Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, The Creation Council, The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2); about (the origins of) the Hočąk clans: Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Story of the Thunder Names, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, Buffalo Clan Origin Myth, The Elk Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Snake Clan Origins, Fish Clan Origins; mentioning hawks: Old Man and Wears White Feather, Holy One and His Brother, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Thunderbird, Partridge's Older Brother, Creation Council, The Woman who Loved her Half-Brother, Waruǧápara, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, The Magical Powers of Lincoln's Grandfather; mentioning black hawks: Hawk Clan Origin Myth (v. 2), The Dipper, The Thunderbird, Partridge's Older Brother, The Woman who Loved her Half-Brother, Waruǧápara, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Morning Star and His Friend, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Keramaniš’aka's Blessing, The Race for the Chief's Daughter; about Bird Spirits: Crane and His Brothers, The King Bird, Bird Origin Myth, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Wears White Feather on His Head, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Thunderbird, Owl Goes Hunting, The Boy Who Became a Robin, Partridge's Older Brother, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Foolish Hunter, Ocean Duck, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Quail Hunter, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Hočąk Arrival Myth, Trickster Gets Pregnant, Trickster and the Geese, Holy One and His Brother (kaǧi, woodpeckers, hawks), Porcupine and His Brothers (Ocean Sucker), Turtle's Warparty (Thunderbirds, eagles, kaǧi, pelicans, sparrows), Kaǧiga and Lone Man (kaǧi), The Old Man and the Giants (kaǧi, bluebirds), The Bungling Host (snipe, woodpecker), The Red Feather, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Waruǧápara, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Black and White Moons, The Markings on the Moon, The Creation Council, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna (chicken hawk), Hare Acquires His Arrows, Keramaniš’aka's Blessing (black hawk, owl), Heną́ga and Star Girl (black hawk), The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth (black hawk, kaǧi), Worúxega (eagle), The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (eagle), The Gift of Shooting (eagle), Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Blue Jay, The Baldness of the Buzzard, The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster (buzzards), The Shaggy Man (kaǧi), The Healing Blessing (kaǧi), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (kaǧi), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Įčorúšika and His Brothers (Loon), Great Walker's Medicine (loon), Roaster (woodsplitter), The Spirit of Gambling, The Big Stone (a partridge), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, The Fleetfooted Man, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4) — see also Thunderbirds; mentioning Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Thunderbird and White Horse, Bluehorn's Nephews, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (vv. 1, 2), The Man who was a Reincarnated Thunderbird, The Thunder Charm, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Story of the Thunder Names, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Brave Man, Ocean Duck, Turtle's Warparty, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Quail Hunter, Heną́ga and Star Girl, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn's Sons, The Dipper, The Stone that Became a Frog, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, The Spirit of Gambling, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Aračgéga's Blessings, Kunu's Warpath, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Glory of the Morning, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Big Stone, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Song to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning Earthmaker: The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Lost Blanket, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, The First Snakes, Tobacco Origin Myth, The Creation Council, The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Seven Maidens, The Descent of the Drum, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, The Spider's Eyes, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Fourth Universe, Šųgepaga, The Fatal House, The Twin Sisters, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Masaxe War, The Two Children, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Gift of Shooting, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Stone Heart, The Wild Rose, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Lame Friend, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed, The Hočąk Migration Myth, The Necessity for Death, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The War among the Animals, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, Blue Mounds, Lost Lake, The Hočągara Migrate South, The Spirit of Gambling, Turtle and the Giant, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Bird Origin Myth, Black and White Moons, Redhorn's Sons, Holy Song, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, Death Enters the World, Man and His Three Dogs, Trickster Concludes His Mission, Story of the Thunder Names, The Origins of the Milky Way, Trickster and the Dancers, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, The Creation of Evil, The Blessing of Kerexųsaka, Song to Earthmaker, The Blessing of the Bow, The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth, The Origin of the Cliff Swallow; about the Creation Council: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Tobacco Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth, Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Buffalo Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Origin of the Winnebago Chief, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Snake Clan Origins; mentioning red cedar (juniper, waxšúč): The Journey to Spiritland (vv. 4, 5) (used to ascend to Spiritland), The Seer (sacrificial knife), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (sacrificial knife), Redhorn's Sons (coronet of Thunders, lodge), Aračgéga's Blessings (coronet of Thunders), The Twins Disobey Their Father (trees found on cliffs of Thunders), Partridge's Older Brother (smoke fatal to evil spirit), The Creation Council (purifying smoke), The Dipper (incense), Sun and the Big Eater (arrow), The Brown Squirrel (arrow), Hare Kills a Man with a Cane (log used as weapon); set at Red Banks (Mógašúč): The Creation Council, Annihilation of the Hočągara II, The Great Lodge, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (vv. 1, 2, 3, 5), Bear Clan Origin Myth (vv. 2a, 3, 8, 11, 12), The Winnebago Fort, Blue Bear, Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, The Hočąk Arrival Myth, The Creation of Man (v. 10), Pigeon Clan Origins (fr. 1), Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Deer Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth, Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief, Šųgepaga, Gatschet's Hočank hit’e ("St. Peet," "Hočąk Origins"), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (v. 1), The Seven Maidens, First Contact, Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath; set at Green Bay, "Within Lake" (Te Rok): Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (vv. 1, 2, 3), Story of the Thunder Names, Deer Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Bear Clan Origin Myth (v. 4), The Seven Maidens, Ioway & Missouria Origins, Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief, Great Walker's Warpath, The Annihilation of the Hočągara I (v. 2), The Fox-Hočąk War (v. 2), The Creation Council, First Contact, Gatschet's Hočank hit’e; mentioning feasts: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (Chief Feast), The Creation Council (Eagle Feast), Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth (Waterspirit Feast), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (Mąką́wohą, Waną́čĕrehí), Bear Clan Origin Myth (Bear Feast), The Woman Who Fought the Bear (Bear Feast), Grandfather's Two Families (Bear Feast), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (Wolf Feast), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Feast), Buffalo Dance Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (Buffalo Feast), The Blessing of Šokeboka (Feast to the Buffalo Tail), Snake Clan Origins (Snake Feast), Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief (Snake Feast), Rattlesnake Ledge (Snake Feast), The Thunderbird (for the granting of a war weapon), Turtle's Warparty (War Weapons Feast, Warpath Feast), Porcupine and His Brothers (War Weapons Feast), Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega) (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), White Thunder's Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Fox-Hočąk War (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Šųgepaga (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (Warbundle Feast, Warpath Feast), Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (Warpath Feast), Kunu's Warpath (Warpath Feast), Trickster's Warpath (Warpath Feast), The Masaxe War (Warpath Feast), Redhorn's Sons (Warpath Feast, Fast-Breaking Feast), The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits (Fast-Breaking Feast), The Chief of the Heroka (Sick Offering Feast), The Dipper (Sick Offering Feast, Warclub Feast), The Four Slumbers Origin Myth (Four Slumbers Feast), The Journey to Spiritland (Four Slumbers Feast), The First Snakes (Snake Feast), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (unspecified), Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts (unnamed).
Themes: red as a symbolic color: The Journey to Spiritland (hill, willows, reeds, smoke, stones, haze), The Gottschall Head (mouth), The Chief of the Heroka (clouds, side of Forked Man), The Red Man (face, sky, body, hill), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (neck, nose, painted stone), Redhorn's Father (leggings, stone sphere, hair), The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father (hair, body paint, arrows), Wears White Feather on His Head (man), The Birth of the Twins (turkey bladder headdresses), The Two Boys (elk bladder headdresses), Trickster and the Mothers (sky), Rich Man, Boy, and Horse (sky), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Spirit), Bluehorn Rescues His Sister (buffalo head), Wazųka (buffalo head headdress), The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (horn), The Brown Squirrel (protruding horn), Bear Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Deer Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (stick at grave), Pigeon Clan Origins (Thunderbird lightning), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (eyes), Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (scalp, woman's hair), The Race for the Chief's Daughter (hair), The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy (hair), Redhorn Contests the Giants (hair), Redhorn's Sons (hair), The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle (hair), A Wife for Knowledge (hair), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (hair), The Hočągara Contest the Giants (hair of Giantess), A Man and His Three Dogs (wolf hair), The Red Feather (plumage), The Man who was Blessed by the Sun (body of Sun), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (body of the Warrior Clan Chief), Red Bear, Eagle Clan Origin Myth (eagle), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (Waterspirit armpits), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Waterspirits), The Roaster (body paint), The Man who Defied Disease Giver (red spot on forehead), The Wild Rose (rose), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (warclub), Įčorúšika and His Brothers (ax & packing strap), Hare Kills Flint (flint), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head (edges of flint knives), The Nannyberry Picker (leggings), The Seduction of Redhorn's Son (cloth), Yųgiwi (blanket); anthropophagy and cannibalism: A Giant Visits His Daughter, Turtle and the Giant, The Were-Grizzly, Grandfather's Two Families, The Roaster, Redhorn's Father, The Lost Blanket, Young Man Gambles Often, White Wolf, The Shaggy Man, The Twins Get into Hot Water, Partridge's Older Brother, The First Fox and Sauk War, The Fox-Hočąk War, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Morning Star and His Friend, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Seven Maidens, Šųgepaga, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Shakes the Earth, The Stone Heart, Thunder Cloud is Blessed; the Thunders seek to eat a human being: Bluehorn's Nephews, The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds; animals evolve into humans: Wolves and Humans; having a role in starting the first fire: The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth (v. 2); clan names arise from incidents attendant upon the founding of the clan by its Animal Spirit progenitors: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Story of the Thunder Names, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, vv. 2a, 4, 7, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, vv. 1, 4, Snake Clan Origins.
Songs. Bladder, Song about the Older Brother (v. 2), Bladder, Song about the Older Brother (v. 3), Buffalo Dance Songs, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Song for Returning, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Song for Starting Out, Clan Song, Bear Clan, Song of the Youngest, Clan Songs, Buffalo Clan, Clan Songs, Buffalo Clan, The Four Songs of Hojanoka, Clan Songs—Deer Clan, Clan Songs—Wolf Clan, Clan Songs—Wonáǧire Wąkšik Clan, The Crawfish's Song, Duck Song, Farewell Songs, The Four Services Songs, Grandfather Sparrow's Rain Songs, Grizzly Bear Songs, Hare's Song to Grasshopper, Hare's Song to the Wągepanįgera, Hare's Song to Wildcat, Hawk's Song, Heroka Songs, Holy Song, Holy Song II, Little Fox's Death Song, Little Fox's Death Song (for the Warpath), Little Fox's Tail Song, Love Song I (female), Love Song II (female), Love Song III (female), The Mouse Song, Nightspirit Songs, The Quail's Song, Redman's Song, Slow Song of the Heroka, Soldier Dance Songs, Song for Calling the Buffalo, Song from the Water, Song from the Water (King Bird), The Song of Bluehorn's Sister, Hočąk Text — The Song of Sun Caught in a Net, The Song of the Boy Transformed into a Robin, Song of the Frog to Hare, Song of the Thunder Nestlings, The Song of Trickster's Baby, Song to Earthmaker, The Song to the Elephant, The Sun's Song to Hare, Three Warrior Songs, Turtle's Call for a Warparty (v. 1), Turtle's Call for a Warparty (v. 2), Turtle's Four Death Dance Songs, Twins, Ghost's Song (v. 1), Twins, Ghost's Song (v. 2), Twins, Ghost's Song (The Two Brothers), Twins, the Songs of Ghost and Flesh, Twins, Song of the Father-in-Law, Victory Song, Wailing Song, Warrior Song about Mąčosepka, What a Turtle Sang in His Sleep, Wolf-Teasing Song of the Deer Spirits. Songs in the McKern collection: Waking Songs (27, 55, 56, 57, 58) War Song: The Black Grizzly (312), War Song: Dream Song (312), War Song: White Cloud (313), James’ Horse (313), Little Priest Songs (309), Little Priest's Song (316), Chipmunk Game Song (73), Patriotic Songs from World War I (105, 106, 175), Grave Site Song: "Coming Down the Path" (45), Songs of the Stick Ceremony (53).
1 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 ) 170.
2 Oliver LaMère, "Clan Organization of the Winnebago," Publications of the Nebraska State Historical Society, 19 (1919): 86-94 (89). Oliver LaMère was a member of the Bear Clan. W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1927) 185.
3 Nancy Oestreich Lurie, "Winnebago Berdache," American Anthropologist 55, #1 (1953): 708-712 .
4 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1927) 194.
5 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1927) 184.
6 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1927) 185.
7 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 170-172.
8 Thomas Foster, Foster's Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1; #1, p. 4, col. 4.
9 Nancy Oestreich Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Journal of the Wisconsin Indians Research Institute, 2, #1 (June, 1966): 50-73.
10 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 170-172.
11 Untitled Clan Myth (Hočąk-English Interlinear) in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3881 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908) Winnebago V, #8: 36-41. A loose translation is published in Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 170-172.
12 Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3862 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago I, #3: 111v.
13 For examples from Siberia, China, and the Arabs, see Olivier Masson, "À propos d'un ritual hittite pour la lustration dune armée: Le rite de purification par le passage entre les deux parties d'une victime," Revue de lhistoire des religions, 137 (1950): 5-25. See also, Joseph Pitts, A true and faithful Account of the Religion and Manners of the Mohammetans (Exeter: 1704) 14; Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, in Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law (London: MacMillan and Co., 1918) 1:391-408; and Sir James George Frazer (trs.), Apollodorus, The Library. 2 vols. Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979) 72-73, nt 1; Albrecht Goetze, Warfare in Asia Minor, Iraq, 25 (1963): 129.
14 Quintus Curtius, De gestis Alexandri Magni, 10.9.28. For discussions of the Macedonian rite, see Friederich Granier, Die makedonische Heeresversammlung (Munich: Beck, 1931): 22-24; Fritz Hellmann, "Zur Lustration des Makedonischen Heeres," Archiv für Religionswissenschaft, 29 (1931): 202-203; Samson Eitrem, "A Purificatory Rite and some Allied Rites de Passage," Symbolæ Osloenses, 25 (1947): 36-53;
15 Plutarch, Mor. 290D; and the same is said at Quæstiones Romæ 111. See also Henk S. Versnel, "Sacrificium lustrale: The Death of Mettius Fufetius (Livy I, 28)" Studies in Roman Lustration-Ritual, Mededelingen van het Nederlandsch historisch Instituut te Rome, 37 (1975): 1-19; W. Kendrick Pritchett, The Greek State at War (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979) 3:197-202; Walter Burkert, Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985 ) 82, 379 nt 66.
16 Livy, 41.6.
17 Little Chief, "5. Long Tongue, the Rolling Head," in George Dorsey, The Pawnee Mythology (Washington, D. C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1906) 1: 31-38 .