Redhorn's Sons


(1) "There a town was. The chief was there. There one called "Redhorn" was there. There one day Redhorn was invited to go and partake in a feast. "Redhorn, you are invited," one told him. "Ho!" he said, and went. There unexpectedly was a lodge. There one was singing, the feast giver it was. So there he went towards it. It was a long lodge. It was a cedar lodge. When he got there Turtle was there. "Ah, my friend! Come over here and sit down," he said. So there he went towards; there they made room for him in the middle of the lodge. And the lodge, cedar boughs it smelled of, very nice the odor was. Then the feast giver began to talk, and said as he got up, "To thin out one's war instrument, they say," that is what he was doing it for, he was saying. Then he said, "Here I have almost driven you away with stink, you warriors but, squirrels a few of them, the attendants have put on. These, one that is biggest, for Redhorn they will give to," he said. Redhorn said, "Ho!" and the next in size to Turtle. "Ho!" said Turtle; the next one to Wolf. "Ho!" said he, "And the next one is Storms as He Walks," he said. "Ho!" said he. All the others, one apiece (kettles) they gave them; and the humans that were there they gave them a plate of meat each. Then the feast giver blew on his flute, and the feast began. Before long, Redhorn had his eaten up, so he gave the whoop; again right away Wolf gave the whoop; then again right away Storms as He Walks gave the whoop; after they had all eaten theirs up, then Turtle gave the whoop: yo hųi, he said. "This is what you would do I thought so I did thus, I could have eaten mine up long ago but a man you might miss in your rush, I thought, so sure enough at the last here, I swallowed a spirit of one," he said. Then, when they all got through they disbanded.

Again one day there was again another feast. The feasters had all come, but way to the last came Redhorn. Just as he (2) went and sat down, just then one came in. "To the old woman's house they want you to go for a short time, Redhorn and Turtle." "Ho!" they said. There they went to an oval tent that was there, there they went and entered. There unexpectedly at the back of the tent, a young man was; very poor he was, a faster he was; the old woman's grandson he was. Then, "Ah, my grandsons! As you were here I thought, is why I said it; my grandson is going to break his fast and I desired to have you eat with him, is why I said it," she said. She offered them tobacco. Then Redhorn said, "Now then, the first time you go on the path you shall have a war honor, he said to him." Also Turtle said, "Now then, not repeating what my friend has just said in fun, but the second time you go on the path, you will have a war honor," he said also. Then they partook of his food and came back. When they got back, just as it was said before, it was the same again, and the same parties. Before, the one that gave the feast, again it was him, and the squirrels that he spoke of were bears, they say. Again Turtle was the last one to give the whoop; again he said it; again the third time they feasted and again it was the same as it was before; to the feaster they went again also. Turtle and Redhorn much more thinner they got. The third time they were through feasting, then the feast giver said, "Now then! The fourth time I get through giving a feast, then I shall arise; then you can bring your arms," he said. Then the fourth time they came. Then again, the old woman's grandson, they went and ate with. Then, as soon as they got back the feast began; as soon as they ate up their food, then the first camping place they placed at the edge of the village.

Then they said, "The men that are to go on the warpath, the women are told to offer you moccasins, it is said," they said. That there some of the men would get married they wish for is why they do this. (The women gave moccasins to the young man they like and if the man accepted it he will marry her when he gets back from the warpath.) (3) In front of the fire place they sat; at the nearest approach sat Redhorn and next to him sat Wolf, then the next one sat Storms as He Walks. Then next to him sat Turtle. Then came the princess. "Ah! that one Redhorn will accept of," they were saying. On she came and extended it towards him but he did not like it. Then next, she offered it to Storms as He Walks but he did not take it. The woman was very much humiliated. Turtle towards she went and, "Ho!" he said, and even arose to meet her and the moccasins he took from her even before she offered it to him. There the princess was very much ashamed. Then they would come again, and there one was the granddaughter of the old woman. "My granddaughter, Redhorn will like you," she said, and a moccasin she sewed with long stitches for her and told her to give it to him. "Grandmother, I dread to, as people much superior than I, they have not taken from; if I should go there they might use me for a ball and throw at one another with me," she said. Then the old woman took her anyway by force. To the place she took her to. Towards them she shoved her. "Ah! even from me he did not take it," the women would say. They laughed at her. Finally, as thus she did he got a glimpse of her and he watched her very close, did Redhorn. "Ho, my granddaughter! He like you, so go on, for the man they are jealous of you," she said. Finally, as she said thus, the girl went. When she got near he smiled and took her moccasins from her: "Say, she knows enough to do thus," they said in sarcasm; and they would give her a shove. They made her cry. "Now then, my granddaughter stop crying as they long for the man but you have married him. They were rejected, therefore they are jealous of you, is why they speak thus of you. So stop your crying," she said.

Then as they did thus, it was getting late in the night and many people began to gather around, but they forbid them; not to go they asked them. "Spirits only we will go," they said. It would be difficult they told them. Then they named a place and there (4) they would all meet again; they decided on, very far they meant, to get away from the people they meant it for. Then there they went and gathered again. There they camped for the night. In the morning very early they wanted to start so they all awoke and there unexpectedly, "Say! Look there," they said. "Say! Such as him will have no business there so do not wake him up," they said. "I say, he must amount to something, or else how could he be here; surely something he is; perhaps he will get the war honor; but you say thus, as you had better wake him up," said Redhorn. So they woke him up and unexpectedly one at home that fasted and that they use to eat with, it was him. "Ah, young man! It is good. Men thus they always do, as it is not an affair to ask one another when men are together," Turtle said. Then they started again finally the ocean they came to. There they sat down. "Now then, this is the place, this, my plate they made for me; chief's children two of them that are friends is what I have come for," he said. "Just at noon they will come," he said. There they sat down. Just at noon as Turtle was sitting there, all at once he began to disappear into the ground. Wolf got a hold of him by the tail and threw him on top. "Never would you do anything honestly," he said to him. "Say, my friend, I wanted to urinate is why I did it, as very clean war weapons they are handling here and I did not think it right to do it here as I did that," he said. "Are you a woman that your urine should be bad?" he said to him. "My friend, like woman's urine is mine, like as I was laying with many women before I came," he said. Again he would do it; but always by the tail he would hold him and throw him on top. Just then, "Ho! There they appear," they said. They gave the war whoop, they all whooped and started for them. At them the arrows they made fly; as thus they did, the human used his wrist as a belt for one. The next one was Redhorn. The next one was Wolf. The next was Storms (5) as He Walks. Turtle was left without any, the poor fellow; a human that they disliked, was the one to get the first honors. Then they went home. It was Waterspirits that they were after; it is said.

Then when they neared home, one to ask them to place a stake, went on before them. The same day that they would get home he started on before them. When he got near home, he gave the death cry. "Hark!" they said. "Someone said something," they said. Then unexpectedly, someone gave the death cry. Then unexpectedly, he said shouting, "The old woman's grandson got the first honor, but they caught up with us and he was the first one to be killed," he said. "Redhorn was the second one killed, and then Wolf was killed after that, then the next killed was Storms as he Walks," he said. "Oh my! These people we thought we would be benefited by," they said. Then in secret, the one to place a stake, he told him of it. Then the old woman cried out, as her granddaughter's husband was killed and also her grandson. Then the old woman's granddaughter thought and she wept, "I will never be able to marry such a man as he," she thought. When her granddaughter she saw crying, she took a knife: "My granddaughter, you have lost all your hopes; never will you, that kind of a man, will you marry. This hair you will have no use for," she said, and she cut her hair even to her head. The young girl's hair was very long; it reached to her knees. Just then, the victory cry was given. "Hark!" they said. Then unexpectedly, the spirits got back and only one human was there and he was ahead carrying the first honor, the war bundle. Then, where they placed the stake, there they came to. Then there right away they had the Victory Dance. Then as they were dancing the Victory Dance and it became night, so they danced the Catch Up to One Another Dance. Then Turtle sang for them only four times, and said, "Now we are going to sleep as we are tired; you can keep on alone. We are going to rest," he said. "Ho! He (6) is right," they said. Then to the chief's house he went to as that was his one desire. And he was not as tired as he let on to be.

Then also Redhorn went to the old woman's granddaughter's. The old woman, her granddaughter she encouraged. What she must do she was telling her of. She also boiled for him dried corn with blue berries she boiled together. "Don't be bashful and give him food when he comes," she told her. Sure enough, he went there, spreading his blanket on top of hers, he laid down with her. There unexpectedly she was crying. "Why are you crying thus?" he asked. "My grandmother cut off my hair. They killed you, I heard, as I cried and that is why she did it," she said. "Well, that is no harm as it will grow again," he said. "How long was it?" he asked. "To my knees it had reached to," she said. "I will feel of it for you," he said. "He felt of it for her and it was cut off short, next to her head. He laughed and then he stretched it for her; as long as it used to be, he made it for her and longer yet. Then she said to him: "Would you eat?" she asked him. "Yes, I want some food. Let us eat together, you eat also," he said. There they ate together, as the young woman dished out some food. Then the next morning, good clothes he put on her; very handsome she was they say. Then also her hair it used to be long, but now it was longer. Then at the Victory Dance she danced. Then Turtle said, "My friends, the chieftainship, they have given me. I am to be chief, they say. My friend, I give it to you so you shall be chief," he said to Redhorn. "Then at the middle of the village a lodge I shall tell them to make so that we may live close together," he said. Then a lodge he had them make; so there they lived, close together — Turtle, Redhorn, Wolf, and Storms as He Walks.

Then Otter led them on a warpath which he was directed by the Thunder Chief. Then after he was victorious, then he was going back home with Storms as He Walks he had come with. Then when he was ready (7) to go home he said, "My nephew, I am going home." Then answered, "My uncle, with my friends I enjoy staying as I am used to them. So uncle you can go on home. I will come home later," he said. "Ah! my nephew, the humans have hard times. Come! let us go home anyhow as you will not get home as you say you will; as there is nothing sure about it. If you will remain here, you are not wise," he said. However, he did not go home. Then there they lived and they were the chiefs, the four friends.

Then one day, it was said, "People a large crowd of them is coming," they said. Then unexpectedly right away one came running up. "Where shall we live, chief?" he asked. Turtle said, "My friend, I will go and point it out to them," he said. There a valley was and on the edge of it he told them to live. There they lived. "Say, a woman that was there looks very much like my friend and she was not big either. A very handsome woman she was," he was saying right away. "One came to gamble. They asked you," he said. "All right! What do they say to play?" Turtle asked. "To play dice they say," he said. "My friends, let me do the playing with them, just as I throw them, they always fall that way," he said. In the morning they went. "Now then, chiefs, they wish to bet against one corner of your village," he said. "All right," they said. Then when the betting was all done, "Now then, dice we will play. The old women usually play that game but it happens that none of them came," said Turtle. "Say, Turtle you always muddle things up, Why could not anyone else play as well, as we are going to have our son-in-law play?" they said. They meant the Grizzly Bear. "All right, we will play. I also used to play dice," he said. "Now then, what dice are we going to use?" he asked. "Dice, we will use our own," he said. "All right, we shall do it," he said. Then the Grizzly Bear brought forth his dice, and white snowbirds they were [inset]. Also Turtle to hit himself on the breast he began to, finally he coughed up a little red turtle. Thus (8) he coughed up eight. "Then the Grizzly Bear first there all one sided they must fall for a point," he said. Then the Grizzly Bear threw his dice up in the air. Down they came, all on their breasts they were coming; when very near to the ground they got, Turtle said, "Half!" and immediately they broke up and half on one side and half on the other they fell. "Say, Turtle! you did not do right," they said. "When they gamble it is customary to shout at one another," said Turtle. "Don't say that again," they said. The next time they came near the earth, they held his mouth with their hands, but he winked one eye and again they broke up, again they fell half and half. "Say, Turtle! you did not do right," they said. Again up in the air he threw them, again his eye they held also, but he drew his breath in and they broke up. Again they fell half and half. The fourth time they held him down but he moved one of his legs and they fell in half. Then he threw his up in the air. "All alike you must fall," he said, and then he threw them up. The Giants shouted at him very much but all on their breasts they fell. The second time he did it again, they all fell on their backs; four times he did it and four times he made them all fall alike. Then all that they won from them there they set them in a row and then, Storms as He Walks struck them. He made it to noise thunder. The Thunders said, "Ah! Storms as He Walks' shooting is audible," he said. "He liked the humans. What is he shooting I wonder?" they said. All of them he killed. The Giants became scared.

 

Then the second time, to shoot targets they said, but this was their game, Redhorn said. Turtle, again they asked to play long diving, but there were two others that belonged in the water, Turtle and Otter. The fourth time, is play ball they asked to. "My friends, here they will give us a game as some good ones are there." Then the next morning, the Giants ball sticks and theirs he paired together; a stick that belonged to a (9) Giantess with red hair. With Redhorn's stick he put it as it was a great one. Then Wolf's stick he put it with Coyote's, and Otter's he put with the Sable's. And in betting they bet against all of them, and the princess Giantess was bet against Redhorn. That one only did Turtle fear; so the woman he said to thus, "Princess if we beat you, we will not kill you, but intend you shall marry Redhorn," he said. If she liked him she might not try so hard, he thought, so Turtle said this. Then they started. Sure enough she was a great one, the woman, but when Redhorn ran with the ball and caught up to him, she would not strike him; and she would not look at him. Then again another mighty one was Coyote. He was a son-in-law there. Finally, Coyote started to run with the ball; Wolf started after him. Turtle was shouting at them, "Ah! my friend will do something!" he was saying. He wished him to do something is why he was talking thus; so sure enough he watched very close and at his stomach he ran against. The man very high he set him flying. "Oh, my! the son-in-law, they must have killed him," they were saying. Finally, he became conscious. They gained a point against the Giants and then started in again. Turtle was doing the starting for them, and he always managed to gain the ball first. This time Sable started to run with the ball; again Otter started after him. Again as they had done to Coyote, that way they did to him also, and Otter took the ball under the goal. Then the game was over and the Giants were beaten. "Now then, princess, I gave you my word, so by my friend go and stand," he said. By Redhorn she went and stood. Thus it was; they gave up. The Giants, only a few were left alive, and those went home. Then they went home.

The Giantess and the old woman's granddaughter recognized one another, so they were glad over it, and thus they would be, they knew of it before hand. That is how they recognized one another. There they remained, (10) and also right away, they became pregnant, it is said. Both of them.

One day a warparty came upon them; very much they did, and one was very great. Every time he came he would kill one and go back. Thus he kept on. These others were also doing it, but they never happened to meet. So therefore Turtle they went and told: "What are you doing? Many of the boys they have killed," they said to him. "Ho!" he said. He went over, as soon as he got there he met him and then he captured him, and there they tied him up. Right away they stopped warring. They the prisoner tortured with fire, with difficulty they killed him. Then again after a time another big war party came upon them; it was the same as it was before: two of them were very great. These others were also doing the same but never did they happen to meet one another. Again Turtle was at the house filing his dagger. One went over to him: "What are you doing? Two men are warriors, many of us they have killed," he said. "Ho!" he said, and started to run over. Again as soon as he got over there he captured both of them. Again the fighting stopped. Then the prisoners were tortured with fire. They were hard to kill, with difficulty they killed them. Then, again there came another warparty. This time there were three that were great among them. Again Turtle was absent. Again there, unexpectedly, his dagger he was sharpening. "What are you doing? Three men are warriors, many of us they have killed," he said. "Ho!" he said and started to run. Again as soon as he got there, the three of them he captured. Again they stopped fighting. Again the prisoners with fire they killed them with. Then again after a time Redhorn's wives had given birth to children and even after that again; they came against the warriors. This time they were many. There were four of them that seem to have no death; and Otter was captured and bound with irons; again Wolf was bound in irons; Redhorn was also bound in (11) irons. Then Turtle was told of it; his dagger he was filing. "What are you doing? the chiefs all of them are captured; they bound them in irons," they said to him. "Ah!" he said, and jumped forth. As he got there, he went right in the midst of them, and along his path lay the dead. Left half in two he cut them as he went along, but even then he also was bound in irons. Then they let up on them.

The whole village was in mourning. Redhorn had two sons who were just beginning to walk when this happened. One of them was just like his father and the other one had the man faces on his shoulders. One apiece were their sons, the Giantess and the old woman's granddaughter. Then the boys got lonesome, so in the wilderness they used to go and cry. One day the oldest one said, "My younger brother, thus I am crying. I anger myself. My father there I am going after," he said. "I will go also," he said, "but I am going after all of my fathers," he said. "Ho! my younger brother, it is good," he said. "Let us go now. Your mother, ask her for a white deer skin, one we will take along," he said. He was very young as he spoke thus, they say. They were not yet using regular arrows; they were using toy arrows; they were even sucking at their mother's breasts yet. So when they got home and the mothers nursed them is where the younger one said, "Mother, white deer skin have got you any?" he asked. "My son, there is one here," she said. "Mother, I wish to use it," he said, so she got it for him.

In the morning right away they went. Then finally they came to the ocean and from there they walked on top of the sea. Finally, one night they got there. There, unexpectedly, their fathers they were using them for house flags. There all night they stayed. They were trying to get the people to sleep. Finally, after a while they went to sleep except two of them who sat there and continued to talk to one another. Then they said, "Say! If they do not mean to go to sleep, let us shoot them and go home," (12) they said. "All right," said the other. One apiece they shot. In their throats they shot them and to the ground they pierced them; then the heads that they were after they took and ran. They had gotten some distance before they knew of them. "Oh, my! The man heads they have taken away," they said, "two also they have killed," they said. Then right away they chased them. Then on the way they caught up to them. There the waves, when they came they would be very big; like boiling waters they would come. Thus it came when the oldest one took one of his arrows and shot it. There back the waves went; but right away again it came. He did it again; he shot at it; and the waves went back again. Thus he did it four times, the oldest one. Then the younger one said, "Now! let me at them," he said. So he in turn did shoot the waves and on it began to burn but even then it began to come again; then he shot one of his arrows ahead of them, and as far as he shot it, that far they advanced ahead. Thus they did on, as often as he shot the arrow, that often he would shoot one ahead. When he did this, very far they would get ahead of them. Thus they did on, until they reached the land. There they quit bothering them. Then there they stopped.

"Here let us have our fathers accompany us," they said. Then there on the ground they put them in a row. Then the youngest one gave a loud shout, "Oh, my fathers! An arrow is about to drop on us, so run," he said. When thus he said, their bones became joined to one another. Again the second time he said it, "Young men, a point of a hill is about to fall on us and over here only is there a space to run," he said, and their sinews appeared on their bones. The third time he said it, "Young men the heavens are falling on us; over this way only is there an open space to run," he said; and they seemed to move even just a little. Again the fourth time they said it. "Oh young men, a war party is upon us so run," he said, and they said, "All right! All right!" they said, and started up, they opened (13) their eyes very wide and looked about. Then Turtle said, "Oh my! My friends we were dead; our sons have brought us to life again. "Oh my!" they said. Their sons they did not know what to do with. Then Turtle said, "My friends, this is shameful not this way had they ought to be able to do thus; as for my self, they could not do this to me but I allowed them to," he said, "and you also, they could not do this to either," he said, meaning Redhorn. "Well, as you say, I think also, but it has happened already. In the beginning if you had helped us it would not have happened, but you hung back," he said. "Oh my, my friend! The truth you speak," he said. Then they went home. Their sons they carried on their backs. Finally, about midnight, they got home. There, unexpectedly, with their fathers, they returned. "Oh, my! The chiefs have returned," they said. The same night, the crier they went after, and he started to announce right away, "The chiefs have returned, they have come to life. Their sons brought them to life again. When you arise in the morning you must put aside your mourning. Your hair you must fix up," they said. Then right away the whole village began to be noisy. It became happy, the village before day, they all got up.

Then the enemies got frightened; "Let us flee; we will not be able to confront them, even these, they were children but two were not able to harm them. If the parents are with them, we will not be able to do anything," they said. So they took flight. Whatever they could do to cover their tracks, they did so. Under the ground, they even went. Then soil, an island that they lived on, that they graded down and made it reach to the main land. Then there stood a tree, from under the ground they came and in through the center of the tree they came, and out through one of the branches where they broke one of the twigs, and when they came out, they put the twig back on again. Even through the center of the grass blades they went through; then there they (14) bored a hole through the earth; very straight they bored it, and all through they made it very smooth, to the bottom of the earth they made it reach, and at the bottom of it a big fire they placed; through the hole the blaze went. Then Turtle said, "Now then, my friends, very shameful they did to us, let us try them over, perhaps they have taken flight by this time," he said. Then they went. Sure enough when they got there, there was nothing to be seen. "Well this is what they must have done, I said," said Turtle. Then their tracks they looked around for. There, unexpectedly, it was. In their tracks they followed them. Just as they went, they also went that way. In secret they tried to go, but they went right in their tracks. Then, unexpectedly, as they went on, there was a hole in the ground and the blaze of the fire would reach clear through. "Well, my friend! You will be the only one," they said. "Ho!" said he, then he did take his friends and place them under his arms. Thus he did and in the hole he sat. There he let himself fall; on he went running the edges with noise; on they went until in the center of the fire they fell and the fire they scattered in every direction. The [fire] fell on the attendants and burnt them. The attendants at the fire were four alligators. The fire attendants' tracks they trailed on from there. There, unexpectedly, was a large village that they came to. There they were living in a village when they reached them. There they attacked the village and on they slaughtered them and the others took flight and leaving tracks. When one track they would run down and end them, then another they would trail. Thus they did until they ended. They all not one did they leave. Then when they had thus done they went home. "Bad Waterspirits" (Wakčexišišika) were the name of the things that they killed. Therefore, they ended them entirely; they were not created by Earthmaker is why they ended them.

Then when they got home, Turtle said, "Now! my son, the man that (15) I was, very shameful they did to me, but you made me to live again. Therefore, this is what I made myself powerful with, my war weapon. I give to you," he said. They thanked him. Then the Thunder said also, "To my son also I give my war weapon," he said. The others did not have anything to give. "I know that I myself possess nothing; my sons blessed me is why they made me to live again, so I am not equal to them. What could I bless them with?" said Redhorn. "They look like me in appearance and they are my sons which is good enough," he said. Also Wolf said the same, he did not know of anything he had that he could bless them with, he said. Then there Storms as He Walks went back to the Thunders, the weapon he went after for them, the first time he went, he failed. The second time he went, he failed again. The fourth time he returned to them, he said, "My son they will bring it down, but food and tobacco we must have ready, for food one of our members, that only is the favorite food (dog) for the Thunders," he said. They then their lodge they fixed up and food they put on to boil, the dogs. The boy cried they say when he failed to get the weapon three times, but now his heart was glad. Then Turtle said, "Now then, my son! My weapon no one has anything to say about it. I will not make you try," he said. Then the dagger in front of him he caused and stuck it in the ground. "This, I never failed to get anything with," he said. Just then the feasting filled the lodge and then it began to drizzle rain, then unexpectedly, four baldheaded men came in, cedar boughs they wore on their heads and in the middle of the lodge they came and stood. The warbundle he was carrying, the first one. Then he said, "Now then, the weapon owner where is he?" he said. "What shall I place this weapon on earth on?" he asked. The boy again cried. Then a boy he had for a friend, he used to say, who was present, "My friend, don't cry any more, I will be the material to place the weapon on," he said. "Ah, (16) it is good, you have done well," they said to him. Then the boy, where they stood in front of them, he came and lay, the weapon on top of him they placed it. The boy died. Then the Thunders ate him. Then the deer skin he gave them another. He told them to put the bones. They would never fail with, they told him. "Young man, you have done well, they said to him. There the weapon they left and went home; there Storms as He Walks went home with them. Then the first time they went on the warpath with the weapon, there their friend they made alive again; and he also got the first war honor; the one that became alive. Therefore, there the people's war weapons they came from. Therefore, they are powerful in war. Turtle's dagger also. Therefore, they make warbundles on earth here, because he gave it to them on the earth.

Then Redhorn also went back to his home up above. "Without Horns" (Heroka), they call certain beings. He was their chief; his sons were the chiefs of beings called "Childish People," they say.

It is ended,
thus far."1


Commentary. The strangest thing about this version of the Redhorn Cycle is Radin's title, "Redhorn's Nephews." Nothing at all is said of his even having nephews, let alone their assuming the title role of the story. The word for "nephew" is hičųšge, which also means "grandson." It is this latter meaning, minus the generation gap, that is appropriate to the present story.

This version of the story of Redhorn differs from the Redhorn Cycle2 primarily by being shorter, but also by its different treatment of some of the episodes. In the Cycle it is the Giants who kill Redhorn and the other spirits by winning a wrestling contest; but in the present story, it is the Bad Waterspirits (Wakčexišišigera) who capture them in war, then kill them.

"the Thunder Chief" — this would be Great Black Hawk. What it means to say that he "directed" Otter is unclear. It becomes obvious, however, that he was on this warpath. This means that he was not the Thunderbird chief of the tribe, the Peace Chief. It apparently means that he discovered all that needed to be known to make the warparty successful, then passed this on to Otter, rather like the spirits do when they bless a Warleader.

"my nephew" — this shows that Great Black Hawk is Storms as He Walk's uncle (mother's brother).

"left half in two he cut them" — the English is awkward here. Apparently it should read, "as he went along, he left them in halves, cut in two." This is a ritual known in the Old World as well, and is important in the ideology of the Hawk Clan. See the Commentary and Comparative Material to "Hawk Clan Origin Myth," the Commentary to "Hare Visits the Bodiless Head," and the Commentary to "Morning Star and His Friend." This is the first case so far encountered of enemy warriors being cut in two halves during a battle.

"he also was bound in irons" — this episode is similar to "Įčorúšika and his Brothers," where Įčorúšika (Redhorn) is captured and placed in irons by the Bad Waterspirits, although he is not killed by them and instead turns the tables. The captivity of Redhorn corresponds to the heliacal setting of his star Alnilam of Orion. When this happens Alnilam-Redhorn descends into the underworld, which is the realm of the Waterspirits. In "Įčorúšika and his Brothers," a Bad Waterspirits woman tricks him to walking to the back of the lodge where he falls through a trap door into the underworld where he is imprisoned by the Bad Waterspirits. Our episode in this story is similar. The Bad Waterspirits seize Redhorn and his friends, and carry them away in irons to their village, which we know to be the underworld since they are Waterspirits. When they are recovered, they are dead. Therefore, at some point they were put to death by the Waterspirits. We may infer from standard practice that they were tortured and finally burned up. This is what happens when a star sets with the sun, provided that it is close enough to have been metaphorically incinerated, at least in the underworld.

"all of my fathers" — in the Crow-Omaha kinship system of the Hočągara, a father's brother is also considered a "father." This is not to say that Otter, Wolf, Storms as He Walks, and Redhorn are literal brothers who share a father, but since they are friends in the Hočąk sense, their relationship is as strong or stronger than that of brothers. The younger son recognizes this, and probably also recognizes that no one can come back alive from a battle in which he has lost his friend. It therefore becomes necessary, if Redhorn is to return, that his friends also be revived.


Links: Redhorn, The Redhorn Panel of Picture Cave. An American Star Map, Sons of Redhorn, Turtle, Little Children Spirits, Heroka, Storms as He Walks, Thunderbirds, Giants, Pretty Woman, Great Black Hawk, Hawks, Otters, Wolf and Dog Spirits, Waterspirits, Earthmaker, The Sons of Earthmaker, Snowbirds.


Stories: mentioning Redhorn: The Redhorn Cycle, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Redhorn's Father, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Morning Star and His Friend, The Spirit of Gambling, The Green Man, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, cp. The Cosmic Ages of the Hočągara, Heroka, Redman; featuring the sons of Redhorn as characters: The Redhorn Cycle, The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Seduction of Redhorn's Son, Redhorn's Father; featuring the Heroka as characters: The Chief of the Heroka, The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Little Human Head, Morning Star and His Friend, The Claw Shooter, Redhorn's Sons, The Origins of the Milky Way; featuring Turtle as a character: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Turtle's Warparty, Turtle and the Giant, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Turtle and the Merchant, Redhorn's Father, Turtle and the Witches, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Trickster Soils the Princess, Morning Star and His Friend, Grandfather's Two Families, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Kunu's Warpath, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Skunk Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Porcupine and His Brothers, The Creation of Man, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee, The Chief of the Heroka, The Spirit of Gambling, The Mulberry Picker, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Markings on the Moon (v. 2), The Green Man, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning turtles (other than Turtle): Turtle's Warparty, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Porcupine and His Brothers, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Healing Blessing, The Spider's Eyes, The Mesquaki Magician; with Storms as He Walks as a character: Kunu's Warpath, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, Redhorn Contest the Giants, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty; mentioning Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Thunderbird and White Horse, Bluehorn's Nephews, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (vv. 1, 2), The Man who was a Reincarnated Thunderbird, The Thunder Charm, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Story of the Thunder Names, The Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Brave Man, Ocean Duck, Turtle's Warparty, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Quail Hunter, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Dipper, The Stone that Became a Frog, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, The Spirit of Gambling, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Aračgéga's Blessings, Kunu's Warpath, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Glory of the Morning, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Big Stone, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Song to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning Great Black Hawk: Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Chief of the Heroka, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, The Lost Blanket, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga; having Wolf as a character: Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, A Man and His Three Dogs, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Dogs of the Chief's Son, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Kunu's Warpath, Morning Star and His Friend, The Healing Blessing, The Origins of the Milky Way; relating to dogs or wolves: The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, A Man and His Three Dogs, White Wolf, Wolves and Humans, The Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Old Man and His Four Dogs, Worúxega, The Dogs of the Chief's Son, The Dog that became a Panther, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Wild Rose, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Canine Warrior, The Dog Who Saved His Master, The Raccoon Coat, Wojijé, The Big Eater, Why Dogs Sniff One Another, The Healing Blessing, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Trickster Loses His Meal, Sun and the Big Eater, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Hog's Adventures, Holy One and His Brother, The Messengers of Hare, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Grandmother's Gifts, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Bladder and His Brothers, The Old Man and the Giants, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Kunu's Warpath, Morning Star and His Friend, Peace of Mind Regained (?); mentioning dog sacrifice: Wolf Clan Origin Myth (v. 5), Brass and Red Bear Boy, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, see also Wolf & Dog Spirits; featuring Otter as a character: Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle's Warparty, The Origins of the Milky Way, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2), Kunu's Warpath, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Morning Star and His Friend; mentioning otters: Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Fleetfooted Man, The Dipper, The Two Children, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle's Warparty, The Origins of the Milky Way, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Kunu's Warpath, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Woman who Loved Her Half Brother, The Chief of the Heroka, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2), Wojijé, Holy Song II, Morning Star and His Friend, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga; mentioning coyotes: Wojijé, The Raccoon Coat, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Trickster and the Eagle; featuring the Little Children Spirits as characters: Morning Star and His Friend, The Chief of the Heroka; mentioning (spirit) bears (other than were-bears): White Bear, Blue Bear, Black Bear, Red Bear, Bear Clan Origin Myth, The Shaggy Man, Bear Offers Himself as Food, Hare Visits His Grandfather Bear, Grandmother Packs the Bear Meat, The Spotted Grizzly Man, Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, Brass and Red Bear Boy, Redhorn's Sons, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, The Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The Messengers of Hare, Bird Clan Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Red Man, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, Lifting Up the Bear Heads, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Two Boys, Creation of the World (v. 5), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Brown Squirrel, Snowshoe Strings, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, The Spider's Eyes, Little Priest's Game, Little Priest, How He went out as a Soldier, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Trickster's Tail, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Warbundle Maker, cf. Fourth Universe; featuring Giants as characters: A Giant Visits His Daughter, Turtle and the Giant, The Stone Heart, Young Man Gambles Often, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, Morning Star and His Friend, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Old Man and the Giants, Shakes the Earth, White Wolf, Redhorn's Father, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Roaster, Grandfather's Two Families, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, Little Human Head, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Sun and the Big Eater, The Big Eater, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Origins of the Milky Way, Ocean Duck, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Wears White Feather on His Head, cf. The Shaggy Man; featuring Pretty Woman (or a Giant princess with red or yellow hair): Redhorn Contests the Giants (red hair), Redhorn's Father (red hair), The Hočągara Contest the Giants (red-yellowish hair), The Roaster (yellow hair), Morning Star and His Friend; in which Waterspirits occur as characters: Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Green Waterspirit of Wisconsin Dells, The Lost Child, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Bluehorn's Nephews, Holy One and His Brother, The Seer, The Mulberry Picker, The Creation of the World (vv. 1, 4), Šųgepaga, The Sioux Warparty and the Waterspirit of Green Lake, The Waterspirit of Lake Koshkonong, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Devil's Lake — How it Got its Name, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Waterspirits Keep the Corn Fields Wet, The Diving Contest, The Lost Blanket, The Phantom Woman, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Great Walker's Warpath, White Thunder's Warpath, The Descent of the Drum, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Snowshoe Strings, The Thunderbird, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (v. 2), The Two Children, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, Waruǧápara, Ocean Duck, The Twin Sisters, Trickster Concludes His Mission, The King Bird, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Great Walker's Medicine (v. 2), Peace of Mind Regained, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Shaggy Man, The Woman who Married a Snake (?), Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Sacred Lake, Lost Lake; mentioning snowbirds: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Redhorn Contests the Giants; about Bird Spirits: Crane and His Brothers, The King Bird, Bird Origin Myth, Wears White Feather on His Head, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Thunderbird, The Boy Who Became a Robin, Partridge's Older Brother, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Foolish Hunter, Ocean Duck, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Quail Hunter, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Hočąk Arrival Myth, Trickster Gets Pregnant, Trickster and the Geese, Holy One and His Brother (blackbirds, woodpeckers, hawks), Porcupine and His Brothers (Ocean Sucker), Turtle's Warparty (Thunderbirds, eagles, kaǧi, pelicans, sparrows), The Dipper (Thunderbirds, kingfishers, hummingbirds, black hawks), Kaǧiga and Lone Man (kaǧi), The Old Man and the Giants (kaǧi, bluebirds), The Bungling Host (snipe, woodpecker), The Red Feather, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Waruǧápara, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Black and White Moons, The Markings on the Moon, The Creation Council, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna (chicken hawk), Hare Acquires His Arrows, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Blue Jay, The Baldness of the Buzzard, The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster (turkey buzzard), The Shaggy Man (blackbirds), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (blackbirds), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Įčorúšika and His Brothers (Loon), Great Walker's Medicine (loon), Roaster (woodsplitter), The Spirit of Gambling, The Big Stone (a partridge), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, The Green Man (owls), The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4) — see also Thunderbirds, and the sources cited there; mentioning alligators: The Red Man, The Twins Get into Hot Water (v. 3); having dog sacrifice: Wolf Clan Origin Myth (v. 5), Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka, see also Wolf & Dog Spirits; mentioning Earthmaker: The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Lost Blanket, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, The First Snakes, Tobacco Origin Myth, The Creation Council, The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Seven Maidens, The Descent of the Drum, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, The Spider's Eyes, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Fourth Universe, Šųgepaga, The Fatal House, The Twin Sisters, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Masaxe War, The Two Children, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Gift of Shooting, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Stone Heart, The Wild Rose, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Lame Friend, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed, The Hočąk Migration Myth, The Necessity for Death, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The War among the Animals, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, Blue Mounds, Lost Lake, The Hočągara Migrate South, The Spirit of Gambling, Turtle and the Giant, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Bird Origin Myth, Black and White Moons, Holy Song, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, Death Enters the World, Man and His Three Dogs, Trickster Concludes His Mission, Story of the Thunder Names, The Origins of the Milky Way, Trickster and the Dancers, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, The Creation of Evil, The Blessing of Kerexųsaka, Song to Earthmaker, The Blessing of the Bow; mentioning Warbundles: Waruǧápara (Thunderbird), The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons (Thunderbird), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Thunderbird), The Warbundle of the Eight Generations (Thunderbird), Wanihéga Becomes a Sak’į (Thunderbird), Šųgepaga (Eagle), The Warbundle Maker (Eagle), The Masaxe War (Eagle?), The Blessing of a Bear Clansman (Bear), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo), Paint Medicine Origin Myth (Hit’énųk’e Paint), The Blessing of Kerexųsaka (Sauk), A Man's Revenge (enemy); mentioning red cedar (juniper, waxšúč): The Journey to Spiritland (vv. 4, 5) (used to ascend to Spiritland), The Seer (sacrificial knife), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (sacrificial knife), Aračgéga's Blessings (coronet of Thunders), The Twins Disobey Their Father (trees found on cliffs of Thunders), Partridge's Older Brother (smoke fatal to evil spirit), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (purifying smoke), The Creation Council (purifying smoke), The Dipper (incense), Sun and the Big Eater (arrow), The Brown Squirrel (arrow), Hare Kills a Man with a Cane (log used as weapon); mentioning feasts: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (Chief Feast), The Creation Council (Eagle Feast), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (Eagle Feast), Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth (Waterspirit Feast), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (Mąką́wohą, Waną́čĕrehí), Bear Clan Origin Myth (Bear Feast), The Woman Who Fought the Bear (Bear Feast), Grandfather's Two Families (Bear Feast), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (Wolf Feast), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Feast), Buffalo Dance Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (Buffalo Feast), The Blessing of Šokeboka (Feast to the Buffalo Tail), Snake Clan Origins (Snake Feast), Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief (Snake Feast), Rattlesnake Ledge (Snake Feast), The Thunderbird (for the granting of a war weapon), Turtle's Warparty (War Weapons Feast, Warpath Feast), Porcupine and His Brothers (War Weapons Feast), Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega) (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), White Thunder's Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Fox-Hočąk War (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Šųgepaga (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (Warbundle Feast, Warpath Feast), Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (Warpath Feast), Kunu's Warpath (Warpath Feast), Trickster's Warpath (Warpath Feast), The Masaxe War (Warpath Feast), The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits (Fast-Breaking Feast), The Chief of the Heroka (Sick Offering Feast), The Dipper (Sick Offering Feast, Warclub Feast), The Four Slumbers Origin Myth (Four Slumbers Feast), The Journey to Spiritland (Four Slumbers Feast), The First Snakes (Snake Feast), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (unspecified), Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts (unnamed); mentioning lacrosse (kísik): Redhorn's Father, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Morning Star and His Friend, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Roaster, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister, The Shaggy Man, How the Thunders Met the Nights; mentioning the Ocean Sea (Te Ją): Trickster's Adventures in the Ocean, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (v. 1), Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Trickster and the Children, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Wears White Feather on His Head, White Wolf, How the Thunders Met the Nights (Mąznį’ąbᵋra), Bear Clan Origin Myth (vv. 2a, 3), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (v. 2), Grandfather's Two Families, Sun and the Big Eater, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4), The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father (sea), The Dipper (sea), The Thunderbird (a very wide river), Wojijé, The Twins Get into Hot Water (v. 1), Redhorn's Father, Trickster Concludes His Mission, Berdache Origin Myth, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, Morning Star and His Friend, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed.


Themes: spirits come to earth in order to rescue humanity from enemies who threaten their existence: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Bladder and His Brothers, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Grandfather's Two Families, The Hare Cycle, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Raccoon Coat, The Redhorn Cycle, The Roaster, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Spirit of Gambling, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Trickster Cycle, Wojijé, Redhorn's Father, Turtle and the Merchant; a being has red hair: Redhorn's Father, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (vv. 1 & 2), The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, A Wife for Knowledge, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle; red as a symbolic color: The Journey to Spiritland (hill, willows, reeds, smoke, stones, haze), The Gottschall Head (mouth), The Chief of the Heroka (clouds, side of Forked Man), The Red Man (face, sky, body, hill), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (neck, nose, painted stone), Redhorn's Father (leggings, stone sphere, hair), The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father (hair, body paint, arrows), Wears White Feather on His Head (man), The Birth of the Twins (turkey bladder headdresses), The Two Boys (elk bladder headdresses), Trickster and the Mothers (sky), Rich Man, Boy, and Horse (sky), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Spirit), Bluehorn Rescues His Sister (buffalo head), Wazųka (buffalo head headdress), The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (horn), The Brown Squirrel (protruding horn), Bear Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Deer Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (stick at grave), Pigeon Clan Origins (Thunderbird lightning), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (eyes), Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (scalp, woman's hair), The Race for the Chief's Daughter (hair), The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy (hair), Redhorn Contests the Giants (hair), The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle (hair), A Wife for Knowledge (hair), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (hair), The Hočągara Contest the Giants (hair of Giantess), A Man and His Three Dogs (wolf hair), The Red Feather (plumage), The Man who was Blessed by the Sun (body of Sun), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (body of the Warrior Clan Chief), Red Bear, Eagle Clan Origin Myth (eagle), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (Waterspirit armpits), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Waterspirits), The Roaster (body paint), The Man who Defied Disease Giver (red spot on forehead), The Wild Rose (rose), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (warclub), Įčorúšika and His Brothers (ax & packing strap), Hare Kills Flint (flint), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head (edges of flint knives), The Mulberry Picker (leggings), The Seduction of Redhorn's Son (cloth), Yųgiwi (blanket); a person who fasts receives blessings from the spirits: The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Boy Who Became a Robin, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, The Seer, Maize Comes to the Hočągara, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Boy who would be Immortal, The Thunderbird, Lake Wąkšikhomįgra (Mendota): the Origin of Its Name, Great Walker's Medicine, Šųgepaga, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, A Man's Revenge, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, The Man who Defied Disease Giver, White Thunder's Warpath, A Man and His Three Dogs, The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, The Diving Contest, The Plant Blessing of Earth, Holy Song, The Tap the Head Medicine, The Blessing of Šokeboka, The Completion Song Origin, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, Song to Earthmaker, First Contact (v. 1), The Horse Spirit of Eagle Heights; a sacrificial meal ("Fast Eating Contest") whose object is to insure that none of the enemy will escape alive: Turtle's Warparty, Kunu's Warpath; powerful spirits refer to strong animals by names denoting smaller and weaker animals: How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Two Boys, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Waruǧápara, The Thunderbird, The Lost Blanket, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, (cf. the inverse theme, Buffalo Spirits calling grass "bears" in, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle); jealousy: The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Diving Contest, Hog's Adventures, Wazųka, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, The Fleetfooted Man, Bluehorn's Nephews, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Lost Blanket; a woman expresses grief for her slain husband by altering her hair: Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Four slumbers Origin Myth; contests with the Giants: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Redhorn's Father, White Wolf, The Roaster, Young Man Gambles Often, Little Human Head, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Morning Star and His Friend, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, Sun and the Big Eater, The Big Eater, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Old Man and the Giants, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Shakes the Earth, The Origins of the Milky Way, The Shaggy Man, Grandfather's Two Families; birds used as implements in a game of chance: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Roaster, The Spirit of Gambling, Redhorn Contests the Giants; someone pounds on his chest and coughs up birds: The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Roaster; a Giant pounds on his chest and coughs up birds that he intends to use as dice: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Roaster; turtles used as implements in a game of chance: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Roaster, Redhorn Contests the Giants; Turtle acts improperly to influence in his favor the outcome of a game of chance: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Spirit of Gambling, Redhorn Contests the Giants; certain spirits help the Giants in a (lacrosse) game with human lives at stake because they have married Giant women: Redhorn's Father, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Morning Star and His Friend, Redhorn Contests the Giants; a Giant (Wągeručge) princess has her game disturbed by her attraction to a hero: Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Roaster, Redhorn's Father, Morning Star and His Friend; marriage to a Giant: The Stone Heart, A Giant Visits His Daughter, Young Man Gambles Often, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Roaster, Redhorn's Father, White Wolf; marriage to a yųgiwi (princess): The Mulberry Picker, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Big Stone, Partridge's Older Brother, The Seduction of Redhorn's Son, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, The Roaster, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, The Two Boys, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Shaggy Man, The Thunderbird, The Red Feather, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Birth of the Twins (v. 3), Trickster Visits His Family, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, Redhorn's Father, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Morning Star and His Friend, Thunderbird and White Horse, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Shakes the Earth, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga; polygamy: Bladder and His Brothers (v. 2), The Spotted Grizzly Man, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Green Man, Wazųka, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Markings on the Moon, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, Hare Kills Sharp Elbow, Hare Gets Swallowed, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister, The Spirit of Gambling; making the enemy "play with fire": The Fox-Hočąk War, The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Bird Clan Origin Myth; a man is captured by Waterspirits: Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Holy One and His Brother, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 5), The King Bird; head hunting: White Fisher, Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath, A Man's Revenge, How Little Priest went out as a Soldier, Little Priest's Game, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Young Man Gambles Often, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), The Dipper, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Porcupine and His Brothers, Turtle's Warparty, Ocean Duck, The Markings on the Moon, Wears White Feather on His Head, The Red Man, The Chief of the Heroka, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Man with Two Heads, Brave Man, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, Fighting Retreat, The Children of the Sun, The Were-Grizzly, Winneconnee Origin Myth; walking on water: Bear Clan Origin Myth (v. 3), Bird Clan Origin Myth, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Chief of the Heroka; someone's head is used as the lodge flag or its base: Porcupine and His Brothers, Turtle's Warparty; setting water ablaze by striking it with a weapon: Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth; someone is brought back from the dead when a man gathers together all his bones and voices calls of alarm over them: The Raccoon Coat, White Wolf; finding refuge in a hole in the ground: Hare Kills Wildcat, White Fisher, Little Fox and the Ghost, The Boy and the Jack Rabbit; (removing a tent pole and) entering another world through a hole in the ground: Įčohorucika and His Brothers, The Seduction of Redhorn's Son, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Iron Staff and His Companions; people chase one another underground: Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Seduction of Redhorn's Son, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Iron Staff and His Companions; Turtle carries a number of people on his body: The Hočąk Migration Myth, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth; warriors following the scattered tracks of enemies, go down one track, kill all they followed, then go down each of the other tracks in turn until they have made casualties of all the enemy: Grandfather's Two Families, Young Man Gambles Often; because the spirits make clear that it is a necessity, a man volunteers to die: The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, The Man who Defied Disease Giver, The Phantom Woman; a great spirit's human friend sacrifices his life for him only to be revived later: The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Hare Kills Sharp Elbow; someone volunteers to offer himself to a spirit: The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons (Thunderbirds), The Seer (Waterspirit); a man injured by the Thunderbirds regenerates (in four days): Waruǧapara, The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Bluehorn's Nephews; Turtle has a sacred, double-edged knife: Turtle and the Giant, The Chief of the Heroka, Turtle's Warparty, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Turtle.


Notes

1 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 1-16.

2 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 115-136.