The Lost Blanket

Version 1

translation based on the interlinear of Oliver LaMère


Hočąk Syllabic Text with English Interlinear Translation


(123) Again they would go about being born someplace. And they came there to the earth to wander about. And they were clever.

There they once tore down a rocky cliff. (124) There snakes lived, and these serpents were savage, and they fought them, and that is why they did it. This hill was ripped to pieces. They caused these snakes to be ended. There when they finally got done, of the blankets that they had previous put down with the snakes as they were doing it, (125) the blanket of the older one was missing. Although they looked about there thoroughly, it was really missing. It was the weasel blanket that the oldest one wore over his shoulders (as a cape), that was the one. That one is the one that his uncle made. It was that blanket, the missing one, that was ornamented everywhere. (126) And the youngest also wore a mouse skin cape over his shoulder. Yet it too was good. It was ornamented everywhere. One of these was lost. There they went around the neighborhood making inquiries, but they did not know anything about it. (127) As they kept at it, they began to go over the entire earth.

As they were going along, unexpectedly, there sat an oval lodge. "Koté, let's go in. We will do something for Grandfather here, regardless of his being responsible for doing what he did. Indeed, and let's have a smoke with grandfather here," they said. They entered there. "Hąhó grandfather, we have come as we said. (128) We would have a smoke with you here, grandfather," they said. He sat up and looked at them. Unexpectedly, two boys were sitting there. "Grandfather, we said that we would come in here, and we did come in, as we longed to have a smoke," they said. (129) Unexpectedly, he laid down again. He laid down inside. The younger one did this. He stepped forward and he took the pipe and the tobacco pouch which he had left by the wall, and filled the pipe. He lit it and handed it to his older brother. When he got through, he in his turn also filled it and (130) smoked it in turn. When he was done, he did this. The pipestem together with it, and the tobacco pouch as well, these he had made. He split the pipe in two. Then he also put the pipe stem back together with it. Then he caused them to be tied there. Then they went out.

(131) After awhile, the old man raised himself up. "Ja!" he said. What did they say? Kora, what a great thing they said. They hardly pressed tobacco to my mouth. I told them that I didn't even have enough for myself, so how was I to give them tobacco? It is a great thing that they asked for," he said. (132) "Niží, as humans do not come around here, I do not have tobacco, so I hate to part with it," he said, and then he sat up and said, "I'll take a few puffs here," he said, but when he brought his pipe out, it suddenly broke apart. "Hohó my pipe, what a great loss," he said. When again he took his tobacco pouch, (133) the tobacco was scattered about in every direction. He spilled every bit of it. "Hohó, this is the sort of thing that they had been saying about them. Therefore, I got up and would have done the pipe together with them, I thought, but they came again, and as I took a dislike to him, I did not do it. It would have been better if I had done it. (134) The pipe is lost," he said. "Because I was reluctant to part with the tobacco, I have suffered a complete loss," he was saying. As he laid there, he picked up his tobacco.

And yet when the boys entered a place, sometimes they would fill a pipe for them, and then they would make food for them. (135) And they all knew them. The Maker of Things had created them all, all who moved upon the face of the earth, all them who had made donations, and it was because he had made the living things there, as well as making the ones of flesh. Those who did not do the pipe, and all those who kept lodges, all of them entered there. (136) All of them, all the things that lived, they were going about to talk to them.

There again, unexpectedly, these two came to an oval lodge. They entered there. Unexpectedly, an old man was warming his back there. (137) They sat down opposite him. "Jáha-á, I seem to smell meat," he said, and he sat up. Unexpectedly, opposite him sat two boys. "Hohó, it is good, my grandsons. (138) Hagawažągasge, they have killed something by just sitting down," he said. I was really longing for soup. Even this much is something great," he said. He put on a kettle there. Then he did this. He seized the younger one. (139) Then he pulled out his entrails. Thus he did, and put him in the kettle. Then he broiled his intestines. He stirred up live coals and broiled it there. "Hohó, he's such a delicious thing," he kept saying.

The other sat opposite him, crying. (140) He sat slumped over, and the old man said, "Grandson, do not cry anymore, your own flesh will be cooked by charing. Don't utter a sound, if you don't want to end up as something brown like your brother. This one is cooking and I will eat him, but if I have not gotten enough, I'll immediately boil you as well," he said. (141) After awhile, unexpectedly, the kettle began to boil, and his brother's headdress began to stick out a little there for a moment. They each had one fine eagle feather on their heads. This stuck out for just a moment. So, as he was watching it, unexpectedly, he peeped out for a moment. (142) He smiled, and then the one who had been crying began to sing, striking his little bowstring by using one of his little arrows, and he sang. He called his name and,

He is a holy one,
My younger brother!

he said. Unexpectedly, he was dancing inside the kettle. Then the old man said, (143) "I suppose the reason that you said this is that he is holy, but I've already eaten his entrails. His body is about done cooking, so what can you do about it? As you say this, you are very pitiable," he said. "I alone, however, am holy," he said. But yet, he still sang. He sat smiling and sang it. (144) He was very funny, seeing him sitting there as he sang, that is why he smiled as he sat there singing. "Kora grandson, you were crying, now you're laughing," he said. He hadn't seen him, is why he said it. This one was still dancing. He kept dancing harder. Finally, he made the kettle rock. (145) There he did it. He turned the contents of the kettle into grease (or oil). Then he did this. He emerged from the kettle and then tipped it over. Thus he did, and they ran out. It burned intensely. The oil, on account of its burning, had a great impact. There the old man was burned up. (146) They laughed a lot. "Koté, he must have been a bad old man, that's why he ate my intestines," he said.

They did not know to what extent they were holy. They were beginning to find out more. (147) They alone stood out as being the most holy, on the earth, and above it, and below it, and from there they went on. They were about hunting for their blanket. They went to all those who kept lodges. The others always gave them good things and they produced tobacco for them, (148) and then again in the course of time there was an oval lodge. "Koté, let's go in here. Then let's go in and smoke with our grandfather here," they said. Finally, they went in. Unexpectedly, an old man was there warming his back. "Hąhó grandfather, we have come," they said. (149) And, "As we have not seen you, our grandfather, at all for a long time, we thought, 'Let's go in here to smoke after awhile', here, we mean," they said. "Hohó, my dear grandsons," he said. "Hąhó, you have done right. Since I have lived here, not a single human has come by. It is good. You have visited me," he said. (150) Then he filled the pipe and gave it to them. There they smoked a great deal. He did not even have much tobacco, but he did this. After they smoked it, and thus he had no more, he would do this. When they had smoked it, they would tell him to fill it again. (151) When they had smoked it for the fourth time, they had smoked the tobacco up. "Grandfather, is the tobacco all gone?" they asked him. "Hąhą'a, I had only a little. Our little grandsons do not even come around here, and this, the tobacco, but little do I have left in the lodge," he said.

"Koté, let's each give some of our tobacco to our grandfather," they said. (152) "That will do," they said. The oldest one did this. He reached for his scalp lock. He wore a bundle of tobacco there on his scalp lock. This he opened and asked for his tobacco pouch. When he handed it to him, he took a little bit, (153) and his tobacco pouch became half full. When the other one also did it, he made it full. And when they handed it back to him, he did much to thank them. "It is good, my gandsons. The humans, our little grandsons, they do not come around here, and they don't ever fill one with tobacco for me. (154) Therefore, if I get to smoke at all, it is when I beg a little of it, only then do I get to smoke. It is good. My grandsons, with this, as long as the earth lasts, I shall get to smoke," he said.

Then they went on. Again they went on. They continually entered the lodges. (155) Even now, they had nearly gone over the entire earth. Again, there was this oval lodge, and it was one of that kind. Koté, well, let's go into our grandfather here," they said. Let us not try to accuse him of doing this thing. Indeed, we will do it to merely see our grandfather," he said. "Hąhó," they said. (156) They entered there. "Hąhó grandfather, we have come," they said. He got up. He sat up and said, "My grandsons, it is good. They are speaking of you. Now then, it also happened that I gave up on it. It is good. (157) I sometimes get lonesome for you," he said. Then he boiled for them. He boiled small dried corn with small bear ribs. And there he placed mixed tobacco (kinnikinnick) before them. There they used a great deal of tobacco. When what was boiling was cooked and dished out, they did a great deal of eating.

(158) He said to them, "My grandsons, the one who is in charge of this earth is somewhere. He himself is the heart within the earth. He sees all that is on the surface, he also knows of all our thoughts. (159) Therefore, he himself holds the earth here, having all things. And it is because he is the cause of them. All the things that rest here on earth, he made them. Therefore, not one of the things up above does he stop of his own volition. He straightens out the things on earth. Therefore, that is the way it is. (160) So he was the heart of the earth, it is thought. Therefore, he even knows about whatever any one of the things that move thinks about way down in his heart. He is the one who is never will lose a single thing. (161) The Creator of Things also gave him charge of this earth right here," he said. "If you ask him about your loss there, he knows about it," he said to them. There they thanked him. "Hąhó grandfather, it is good," he said. "It is this that we came here to look for. We did not suspect you of anything here, (162) but we just came here now to visit you. As we go in to visit absolutely everyone, how would it be, we were thinking, if we did not visit you alone? It is good. Grandfather, we will go there to him," they said. (163) And when he came out of there, he went where he meant to go. There sits a lodge, there someplace in the middle of the earth, there is it. Those oval lodges that they had been entering, they had been going into Waterspirit lodges, (164) when they visited the old men, that is the reason why they were always lying down.

There is a lodge where the center of the earth is, and that is the one he meant. They arrived there. He meant the one in charge of the earth. He is called "Traveler" (Horajegega). From the begining the man was clever in the way he lived. (165) This one was in charge, and therefore here he was called "Traveler" (Hikiwarekega). When he parents gave him a name, they called him "Chief's Child." He made these four great Waterspirits, the Maker of Things, and he made them as Island Weights, and as he was last, he was the one who was the youngest. (166) There he is, at a place called "Long Lake" (Te Sereč), downstream from Mąničórus (in the Land of Sky-Blue Waters). His son was begotten (in the normal way). He was in charge of the earth. When he [Earthmaker] made things, when he made them, he did not make him one of them. He was made as one who is begotten.

(167) Once a certain Thunder was going to kill all the Waterspirits that were created great, and as the Waterspirits were freightened, they held council for four years. How they would proceed if they were to kill him, this they councilled over. (168) Then this one was not one of anything. He was his only son. He was as one of the great Waterspirits, although he did nothing but visit around. In the beginning he was called "Chief's Child," but again in time they called him, "Traveler." (169) Everyone on earth, even the children, knew him. Because he was a traveler, this one himself killed the Thunderbird here. He did it by deceiving a human. Therefore, he was made such here on earth. The Maker of Things did not make him into this. A wayward being was made in charge there, our lord over the earth.

(170) There the brothers went to ask for their blanket. He didn't know anything about it. He knew, but he did not tell it to them, saying it because they had set themselves up as being much. (171) It was because he was jealous of them, and not the doing of the Maker of Things. That was why he was thus. Nevertheless, he himself was our chief on earth inasmuch as he was created that way. There he is at what is called "Holy Lake" (Te Wákąčąk). There was this chief at that lake which was the light (window) to this earth. (172) It was something that had no bottom. And there he would not tell them of it, even though he knew of it. They did not go in long before, but because they were told by that one just to ask there, that is what they did. Something that they would wish to do was to harm him, but many had done it in this way it is said, (173) therefore, they did not wish to do anything. They said, "Koté, I don't like it, but, 'What harm is he doing?', I thought. I did not doing anything harmful to him. Again I thought that the Maker of Things created Great Ones so that it was the desire they had. (174) Although he is at least a liar, they say, and also deceived a human, but in order to gain his chieftainship, he must sit there now; but if he does a single thing wrong, we will do something harmful to him," they said. They said this within his hearing.

(175) Then they said, "Right now, let's go up above," they said. There they went to the Above. Again they went all over, but could learn nothing. Everyone, all of them that lived there, they went to all of them, they visited everyone of them, (176) but they didn't know anything. Again, they went about the Third Earth. They did the same again. They went to all, everyone of the villages. Again they went to all of them, all the private lodges, but there was nothing. Again, they were going all about there, seeeing everyone, but they did not know anything. (177) Then next they went around the Fourth Earth. Again they did much, but there was nothing.

Then they said, "Koté, as we have come near our father, let's go to him, as we have gone to absolutely everyone else, he should not be the only one that we miss. (178) So let's go there. Regardless of anything, we will not accuse him of something. We will do it just to see him, so let's go," they said. "Hąhó," they said, so they went there. There they went and entered. They had gone to the Creator. (179) "Hąhó my children, it is good that you have come," he said. "Hąhą́, no one has ever come here for nothing. You must have come here for something rather than nothing," he said. And they said, "We have gone over all the Earths. All the people that we reached, we went about among them. (180) We have gone about all four of the creations that you have made. We have gone about the Four Earths. We have gone to everything, all the villages that exist, all the private lodges, traveling to all of them in vain. And as we came by, we said, 'How could we go by and not stop by him alone?'. (181) We came here. But my brother lost his blanket, that is why he is without a blanket. Going about together, we did not succeed in our intensive search. Of course we came here, but do not suspect you of anything here. (182) So we thought, 'How could go by and not visit you?'," they said. And, "Hąhą́, you have done well that you have gone all over to everyone, absolutely all of them," he said. "They are the ones who have created you thus, and it is good that you have come. Hąhą́, let's eat," he said. (183) And then all the things that are good, and all the things to eat off, he placed before them. And there he ate with then. There they ate it, and when they were done, he said to them, "Hąhą́, well, the thing that you lost, you yourselves just did away with it there. That's why they did it. (184) They did not tell you, and it was done to you there. They made it all up themselves," he said. Then he said to them, "When you go home, over here the road forks. Do not take the one that turns left. The Evil Spirit is in charge of it. (185) Of these, he himself is the father," he said. Then they went out.

When they started away, they came to the fork in the road that he mentioned. There they stopped. "Hąhó, here it is, the fork in the road our father told us about, where he told us to go," he said. "Hiho," they said. They went off. (186) From there on they were chasing one another. They were teasing each other. They kept it up until they arrived. And when they had arrived, he said, "Hąhó, my children have come," this one said. They went in. "Hąhą my dear children, you did well to have come," he said. Then he asked him, "Would you eat?," he said. (187) "All right," they said to him. "We arrived hungry," they said. There he gave them food to eat. There they ate rare food.

And when they were done eating, he talked to them there. (188) He tried to get them to say something. They knew of it. He was saying it for this purpose, therefore they began to do something to harm him. There they scuffled with one another. The younger one teased him. The other objected, "Koté, stop it!" he said, but not heeding him, he laughed at him. (189) "Koté my sons, go outside," he said. He admired them. Finally, "We'll do it!," he said. He grabbed hold of him and swung him. Finally, his feet struck the cubbard and knocked it over. They destroyed the plates completely. "Hohó!," they said. They sat quietly. "Koté, you are the cause of this, (190) and now we have destroyed our father's plates," he said. "Koté, you did it," they said. Then he said, "What harm have you done? Also, I will make myself more, as I am doing it anyway. Every day I am at a loss for something to do, so it will give me something to do," he said.

(191) And he said, "My children, I am thinking something," he said. "You have gone over the earth. You never stopped anywhere. And furthermore, you have entered all the villages and all the lodges. (192) In some of the villages there are bad spirits. The power of their glance is also bad. Their breath is bad as well. Furthermore, if anyone kept lodges, you entered them. And they are also that way. And not all those who visit about are good. (193) Some are bad spirits. If their eyes reached you, you would go through life ill. And also if you had encountered the path of one with menses, perhaps it was crossed. Furthermore, their breath also is not good, (194) and if they made their breath reach you and you inhaled, it would weaken you," he said. "Therefore, my dear children, you should take a sweat bath, I think. It would be best if you had it soaked out of you," he said. (195) "It will be so, our father. We also must have met some very bad spirits. And we also must have crossed the paths of menstruating women," he said. "And very bad spirits must also have breathed their breath upon us," they said. "Thus it shall be. I will give you a steam bath," he said.

(196) Then he did it. He used a piece of live iron. This one heated a great big piece. He put it in the fire. Before long it was red hot. Yet again he made it from the same kind of iron. He made a lodge. It lay penetrated into the earth. (197) Of all the things that Earthmaker created, only this lodge among these things is heavy. This kind he used for the sweat bath lodge. Then he let them enter there. And he placed a bear stomach full of oil there. (198) He himself poured the oil on the stone. Then they entered, and after they began to pour the oil, it roared. Before long, the lodge was red hot. Then one of them said, "My dear father, now we are done, we are cleaned," he said. (199) "Not yet, not yet, you are not cleaned off," he said. Again he said it. They were crying. "Father, we are cleaned off, now we are done," he said. "Not yet, you are not cleaned off," he said. Again they said it. This time he said it very feebly, (200) "Father, we are cleaned off, now we are done," he said. He said it rather carefully. Thus it was. Four times they had said it, but from then on, he would not answer them. This time, they said it very weakly. Somewhat carefully they said it. Thus it was. (201 = 202) They said no more. Thus it was.

When he had killed them, he was saying, "Thus, you have been spoken of, and although I did not like you, I did not intend to do anything, but I did it as you seemed to have a greater and greater effect. When you came here scuffling along the way, I knew what you were up to. (203) They said that even the spirits that I created, you went around abusing. Yes, you did much to them. You will not come again to act that way, to say, 'We are cleaned.' I intended that you be cleaned off, alright. I made them clean to the bones. (204) Even now, they must be there. I will say of them [his creations] that they were great things. Indeed, they must of been very weak things. Niží, I thought that I had created some of them holy (wákąčąk). I wonder how easy it would be for little children to kill things of this sort, as it does not seem likely they could do this to these sorts. What were they doing? (205) Even now, they were breaking up my dishes. But I didn't intend to do this to them. It is to remain. When they caused my plates to be destroyed, then I did not like them," he said.

Just then, within the sweat bath lodge, one of them let out a laugh. (206) "Hagagasgeižą," he thought. He said, "My children, having been a bit much, I'm trying to clean them up a little, as I said. They are such, because often they tried to kill them for me, the ones that I myself had created. I made them clever. I made them so that they were very weak. They prepared to kill them. (207) They tried to kill my children for me," he began to say. The ones inside did this. "Koté, stop that, we aren't clean yet. Sit still," they said. Koté, quit that, you might damage the sweat bath lodge. (208) We are not yet cleaned off," they said. Unexpectedly, they came bulging through, and finally, they took hold of one another. The lodge was red hot but they would burst out, and they would run back in. They were chasing each other. (209) Finally, they broke the sweat lodge all up. Then they kicked the oil bag. It made a great noise. This was something. The lodge caught on fire. Then again they scuffled there by the front door. He dove right in there, but for a long time he could not get out. (210) Then his hair was also singed. Then his clothing also became as daylight. And then they got out of his way. Then he came out. Thus it was. The lodge was burned to the ground. Thus, nothing was left but ashes. Then they said to one another, "Koté, you have not done right. Why I say this is that you first broke up our father's dishes. (211) And now you have burned his lodge down. There they scolded one another. They said that they felt sorry for him. Then he said, "My dear children, it is of no consequence. (212) The lodge that you have done it to belongs to you. I will make another one for myself. You haven't done anything," he said. "I don't care anything about it. I'll make a better one for myself over again," he said. There again they began to tease one another, and they came away chasing each other. Kora, he was mighty angry, (213) but at the same time, again, he was also afraid of them as well. If they wanted they could have burned him up, and he knew they could have done it.

Then they turned back again. "Koté, perhaps you and I did wrong. Let's go ask our father [Earthmaker]," they said. So again they turned back. (214) Unexpectedly, they were right back there again. "Jáha-á, you have come back again," he said to them. "Hąhą'ą, you forbade us to go around over here, but we went back there. When we got to the fork in the road, hąhó, what were we going to do? Here our father told us to go, we said. (215) 'Hąhó', we said, and we went that way. From there he teased me as he went. So on the way there, we teased one another, as we said. 'My dear sons', he said and loved us very much. We tried to get him angry, but he would not think anything of it. With the love that you love us, he too gave us the same. (216) And when we ate, he gave us the greatest delicacies to eat. And he [my brother] did this. I forbade him to tease me, but he would not stop. Then he said, 'Fight with him.' This he said in fun. There I grabbed hold of him and tossed him, and after I swung him, his feet struck the dish container. (217) The cupboard was knocked down and destroyed. Then he seemed to become angry. Then he said that he would clean us off with fire. This is because in going about, we had been with evil spirits. So we told him, 'Okay'. He heated the place up with a great big full chunk of live iron. And again, the iron was the same kind out of which he made the lodge. Then he made us enter in there. Again, it was the kind of iron out of which he had made the lodge. (218) He made us enter there. Then we poured oil on it. It was extremely hot. When we began there, we pretended for him that he killed us, and he said a great deal. Once he had stopped talking, we teased one another, then broke the sweat bath to pieces. (219) We set the lodge afire there. We stood in place for a time there by the door so that he could not get back in. We could have burned him up there, but we did not do it. Then we told him we were sorry. He told us that it was nothing. He said that he could make himself another one. Then we came here again. (220) As we were also thinking that because we did not do right, we would come over and tell you," they said. The he laughed at them. "You did not do anything harmful. He is an evil being. And even now this is nothing. Also, he was not angry at you, but encouraging, therefore, it is nothing. (221) He is the one. As many as there are of the things that are not good, he is their father. He created them. All these things should not exist, so you did not doing anything harmful," he said. Then they came away.

(222) There finally, as they came on their way, the high cliffs there became precipitous. There they ascended. Then they had to climb. Then they said, "Let's climb this hill, this funny hill here." And when they had climbed up there, unexpectedly, they came upon two birds nests there. When they looked at them, each contained a featherless chick. (223) "Koté, some birds were left behind." Now they stood there and looked at them. One of them seemed to have feathers under his arms. They were very blue. They were mighty pretty feathers. (224) "Korá, what fine things these feathers will be when they mature," they said. "Koté, the things of the old ones must be really pretty," they said. Then they said to one of them, "Koté little boy, by what name are you called?," they said to him. (225) "Well, when my parents returned, when they found me, they call out this, "Breaks the Tree Tops" (Nąisąwągišiška), they call me," he said. "Korá, you have a funny name," they said. "Breaks the Tree Tops!" they said. Then they asked the other one, "Koté, also what do they call you, little one?," he said. "Well, when my parents came home and found me, they called me by name, (226) "Grinds Away the Tree Tops" (Naįsawągighoga), they used to call me," he said. "Korá, you have a funny name," they said. "Grinds Away the Tree Tops!" they said. "Breaks the Tree Tops, about when would your parents return?," he asked. (227) "Well, whenever we send a call out to them, they always come back," he said. "Koté, well, send out a call so that they might come back," he said to them. "All right," he said. And Breaks the Tree Tops said, saying it in this song,

Come back and see us,
Come back and see us;
The Twins who are running amuk,
Have come upon us.
Come back and see us.

he said. (228) Then at the horizon, there was a great noise. "Koté, you also say it," they said to the other one. Whatever you are in the habit of saying, say it, so that they may come back soon," they said to him. "All right," he said. "We both used to say it," he said. "Hąhą́, then you say it too," they said to them. (229) Then he too said it in song,

Come back and see us,
Come back and see us;
The Twins who are running amuk,
Have come upon us.
Come back and see us.

he said. Korá, for the younger one it was not good when they said to him that he was running amuk, and even now they came thundering. (230) Very great was their coming. Even now they were here. "Try to kill one of these many pidgeons," they said. There they used stones and they knocked them down. They also tried very hard, but they could not harm them. Then, unexpectedly, when there was one going about, (231) he was wearing the lost blanket as a cloak. They knocked him down. There they took back the blanket. Then they said, "We will be ended, so let's stop," they said. Then they let up on them. They were Thunderbirds. And when he looked at his blanket, unexpectedly, it had become yellow. (232) And the ornaments had all fallen off as well. "Korá, this bad guy has wrecked my blanket," he said. Then he shook it, and it became as it used to be when it was new. The ornaments were also good, all of them.

Then the youngest said, (233) "These said something that I didn't like," he said, and he was about to smash them with his feet, but the other one forbade him. "Don't do that, we can make them into something for ourselves," he said. The oldest one said, "We can make them into headdresses for ourselves," he said. "All right," he said. Then they took one apiece and (234) seizing them by their throats, they choked them to death. And when they pressed them hard, drizzle blew by them in billows. "Koté, what funny headdresses we will have," they said. They put them on top of themselves. And when they pressed on them, it would always bring on a misty drizzle. They were certainly fond of their new belongings. (235) Then they went on again. They were saying that it was, they thought, a pigeon that had stolen the blanket. Purposely the Maker of Things made them this way. He caused them to do these things that they might be done, and so that they all might all see it, sure enough they did that. (236) They went all over.

Then they went home, and on they way they saw a very high hill there. "Koté, let's go climbing in the distance there. A great piece of the country will be visible. We will view the country," the youngest one said. "All right," that's what I'm thinking," he also said. (237) When they arrived there, they climbed it. Being a very high hill, they climbed it only with great effort. Sure enough, a great deal of the far off surrounding country was visible. "Korá, the village is the only place to go." This was a village bigger than the rest sitting there by itself. (238) "Koté, let's go there. About now let's take our time visiting there. Then we could take plenty of time at this place and not stop," he said. The older one said to him, "Hąho, we'll do that. Koté, you have spoken well," he said. Then they went over there. (239) They came down and when they arrived there, they saw them. Yet as they went over there, they just stood around watching them. And then they acted shy. They also went to speak to the chief. And as the chief was there, they went there to report it to him. "We have seen two boys who have the chief's children on their heads," they said. (240) He, the chief, said, "Go call them that I might have them bless me. Surely they will take pity on me," he said. And they went to call them. "Koté, you are called to the chief's lodge." There you should go, he says," they said to them. "Ho," they said. They went back there together with them.

(241) When they took them there, unexpectedly, they had the chief's sons, one apiece, on top (of their heads). Then the pipe and that which is mixed was placed there before them. The pipe they filled for them and one apiece was given to them. Then the chief said, (242) "Hąhą, you white spirits, bless me even though I have done what was not good, but when it came to heeding what I said, he was not a good one. Therefore, I didn't even know. Thus, it is because we did to you what is not good. I know it is for this reason that you did it. (243) You must pity us as we are not equal to anything," he said. "What do they think we are doing here? We did it because we are fond of them. And besides, we were not abusing them by the way we did it. We thought that they were little birds. (244) We did not know that they were children." They gave their headdresses back to them. He thanked them. The chief was called "Great Black Hawk." What they had gone to there was a Thunderbird village. It was the chief's children that they had there, the little bird headdresses.

(245) Then again they went away from that place. The stealing of the blanket had been from that village. The one who had done it was called "Sleets as He Walks" (Wasuwohimaniga). The one who had his blanket stolen said, as he threw him towards the east, (246) "The Creator did not create you for this. It is not right. You will not live with your people. You will not do that. You will go and sit at this place alone," he said to him and took hold of him and threw him towards the east. There he is. (247) He went to one of the high hills. And he was sitting there. He lives in that one. Therefore, on that one the Thunderbird landed.1


The Lost Blanket

(§6 of Jasper Blowsnake's Twins Cycle)

Version 2

by Jasper Blowsnake


Jasper Blowsnake

Hočąk-English Interlinear Text


The second part of this episode is also a variant of the second part of "The Twins Get into Hot Water," in Sam Blowsnake's Twins Cycle; however, since that same episode is also found in the longer Version 1 of this story, I have kept it here in Version 2.


(37) They lost a mantle (blanket) that they wore. On the face of the earth, as much of it as there is, they went all over. They went to all the various spirits, as many as there are. And so they went by absolutely everything, all the lodges in different places wherever chiefs sat. They were at absolutely all of them. They didn't find anything. Again they went to absolutely all of the various spirits up above the clouds. They didn't find anything. There where Earthmaker sits, they arrived. Earthmaker became afraid. And so he granted what they came for. He did not delay in granting after what they had gone such a long distance. (38) "There is nothing I do not know, but I'll look it up for you," he told them. And he took a big looking glass and he let them see absolutely all of what there was on the earth. "Look for it yourselves," to told them. They saw where it was. There they found the blanket.

And they went out of there. And there they entered Herešgúniga's. They say that he was beside Earthmaker's. After they arrived there, he tried to kill them there. It was an iron lodge, very thick. He put them inside there, and he made the iron lodge red-hot. Then he tried it. He thought they might be dead. When he looked in, they were playing very intensely. Again he made it even more red-hot. Now then, he tried very hard. They might be dead, he thought. Having looked in when he was going there, (39) he sent in one foot that stuck through this red hot iron lodge. Now then, they did much more when they chased one another. Again they would burst out somewhere, but wherever they ran to, there they would burst out from inside. Finally, this red-hot iron lodge dwelling of Herešgúnina, they kicked it over on Herešgúniga's dwelling. They set Herešgúniga's dwelling on fire. He ran out carrying a big book in his arms. They said to him, "But in trying to kill us, you have failed, but if we tried to kill you, we could have done it, although we won't."2


Commentary. "these serpents were savage, and they fought them" — this is already an abuse of power, since snakes by their very name, waką, are sacred. They are not to be killed or eaten.

"the weasel blanket" & "a mouse skin cape" — as the outer wrappings of the Twins,3 these animals should have some symbolic import with respect to the nature of each Twin. The older Twin is Flesh and the younger is Ghost. Ghost said of Flesh that he "ate only flesh," but that he, Ghost, "ate only wild beans." The food of the carnivorous weasel is flesh, and mice would certainly eat beans. Mice are also figures of the boundary between the domestic and the wild, rather like the transient nature of the soul that oscillates between the domesticity of the body, and its wild and unfettered state as a ghost. Weasels also eat mice,4 but not conversely, just as the flesh may take within itself the soul, but the ghost never has within it the flesh. The soul, like the mouse, is also smaller than the flesh in which it resides.

"his uncle" — that would be Bluehorn, also known as Red Star (Evening Star). He is also one of the great Waterspirits, and as such might be thought to have a greater affinity to Ghost, given the later's associations with water.

"ornamented" — LaMère adds in a footnote, "(with porcupine quills)." The Hočągara were particularly noted for porcupine quill work.

"an oval lodge" — this episode is a version of the popular story relating how the Evening Star lost his head to the Morning Star and was rescued by the Twins. Here Evening Star is omitted, and we have an allegory of how the Twins, in their form as the twin stars of Mercury, came to kill the evil spirit playing the role of Morning Star. The lodge represents the world, with its ceiling being the vault of the sky.

"an old man" — the old man plays the role of Morning Star, who is here treated as an evil spirit. In other versions, he is treated as the greatest of the evil spirits, Herešgúnina.

"warming his back" — the Morning Star is always close to the sun, which is here represented by the fire.

"they sat down opposite him" — to sit opposite someone in a Hočąk lodge, one would have to be on the other side of the fire. In terms of astronomy, when the Morning Star gets close to conjunction, it can pass very close to the matutine star of Mercury if it happens to be in the sky. Even if they are both in conjunction with the sun, Morning Star will still pass very close to both of them (as they are conceived to be with the sun itself). This situation, given the context, probably depicts the inferior conjunction of Mercury, which only lasts 5 days.

"the younger one" — this is Ghost. He is playing the role of the matutine Mercury. He can be seized by Morning Star because he is now on the same side of the "fire" (sun) as Morning Star, which means he is in the sky. Mercury is only in the sky for 38 days, a very brief period. After the approximately 35 days of superior conjunction, the vespertine Mercury rises into the sky.

"in the kettle" & "he broiled it there" — when one of the twin stars of Mercury (the Twins) goes into conjunction with the sun, it seems to do two things simultaneously: it ceases to rise, and it falls into the sun. Consequently, it sets in the Ocean Sea right with the sun, and therefore, allegorically, it boils. Yet at the same time, it is there in the sun, and to express this dual condition, the body is bifurcated, and one part is depicted as being in the water or earth, and the other part is represented as being in the fire. Here it is Ghost's entrails that are said to be in the hot coals, broiling.

"opposite" — Flesh, who plays the role of vespertine Mercury trails behind the sun in the evening sky, whereas Morning Star, as a matutine star, precedes the sun ("fire"). This puts the two stars on opposite sides of the fire.

"crying" — in Hočąk astronomical symbolism, sound = light. This means that Flesh, the vespertine Mercury, is in the sky just as is the Morning Star, but on opposite sides of the Fire; his younger brother is in conjunction ("boiling:" and "broiling").

"your own flesh will be cooked by charing" — that is, he is soon destined for conjunction with the sun (being popped into the fire). The sojourn of the vespertine Mercury in the sky is only 35 days.

"brown" — the word zi here denotes a span of colors ranging from shades of brown through yellows. Most stars are characterized as being zi or sga ("white").

"began to stick out a little" & "eagle feather" — the eagle feathers worn by the boys are the flight feathers of a day bird. The twin stars of Mercury can be seen in twilight and even in daylight under certain circumstances. That it is begining to stick out implies that the matutine Mercury is about to emerge from conjunction and into the morning sky.

"his name" — the younger brother is Ghost. This is an example of the common taboo against actually uttering his name.

"dancing" — it may be deduced that the matutine Mercury must be moving even though it is in conjunction, since it eventually moves back out into the sky and separates itself from the disc of the sun.

"the humans, our little grandsons, they do not come around here" — Earthmaker decreed from the beginning that only humans were to have control over tobacco, and that the spirits could only obtain it by petitioning humans for it. This was done in order to compensate for the excessive weakness of the human condition. For the origin of the human monopoly over tobacco, see the Tobacco Origin Myth.

"up above" — here meaning on the surface of the earth, since he is below the earth. The sentence seems to mean that he does not interfere with anything on the surface of the earth (since he created them).

"kinnikinnick" — the Radin text says "mixed tobacco," which I take to mean kinnikinnick. See "kinnikinnick" entry in the Glossary.

"Mąničórus" — this is the Hočąk name for what is now St. Paul, Minnesota. It means "Taking Blue Clay," and was noted as a place where the makings for high quality blue paint could be obtained. As to Long Lake, it is probably the same as Pigs Eye Lake, a long, narrow lake which is just downstream from St. Paul. This lake is so close to the Mississippi that it is almost connected to the river. "Pig's Eye" was the original name given to the white settlement at Mąničórus.

"the Maker of Things did not make him into this" — Earthmaker made Hare ruler of this earth (as opposed to the several layers of heavens and underworlds). That a Waterspirit should rule over the earth corresponds to the notion that the Waterspirit Clan is the chief clan over the Earth Moiety just as the Thunderbird Clan has hegemony over the Upper Moiety.

"Holy Lake" — this was mistranslated by the Big Knives as "Devil's Lake," perhaps because it was said that a "water monster" lived there. But to characterize Traveler as a "devil" or "demon" would be a gross over-simplification. There is another Waterspirit, said to be green in color, that did behave in demonic fashion. It is said that the shrieks of its spirit form so unsettled the inhabitants of a nearby Hočąk village, that they were forced to move it. See Devil's Lake and River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake.

"they are the ones who have created you thus" — the Twins were created by each of the spirits making a donation of part of their power. Earthmaker made the greatest contribution. See this episode in The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head.

"scuffled" — the expression kiružijireže has as its stem, ružíč, which means "to tease by actions," as opposed to ražíč, "to tease with words."

"the power of their glance" — the Hočąk word for this phrase is hojąpra, where hojąp has the double meaning of both "to look into" and "lightning." It is said that the Thunderbirds shoot lightning from their eyes. On the other hand, Wood Spirits are said to have the power to injure people from their glance alone. See remarks under that heading.

"one with menses" — a menstruating woman was dangerous to the male powers, so much so that she could even destroy the powers of the war weapons. Consequently, a woman during her period was made to live in a special hut. She could not touch anything directly, but had to manipulate objects by using a stick. See Hare Kills Wildcat.

"live iron" — an old term for magnetic iron. Such iron is rare in nature and its properties suggest an abundance of supernatural power. See Iron Spirits.

"even the spirits that I created, you went around abusing" — Herešgúnina created all the evil spirits. In this, he attempted to imitate the creativity of Earthmaker, but consistently failed.

"they must be there" — he is not referring to the Twins, who are of course in the iron lodge. He is speaking of his own creations (as becomes clearer as we progress). This seems paradoxical, but in a number of stories, when the giant Man-Eaters (Wągeručge) have been slain, and their bodies burned, their bones were collected up, and pounded into a fine powder. This powder was placed around the village, and/or certain exhortations designed to animate them were made over them, and the people who had been eaten by the Giants, revived from the latter's bone substance. This means that the essence of a devoured person resides in the bones of those who ate him. Therefore, all the evil spirits that the Twins are said to have killed and eaten reside in their bones, and theoretically could be revived by the right procedure.

"blue" — the word čo denotes that part of the spectrum extending from green through blue, so the feather could also have been green.

"Naįsawągighoga" — Radin-Lamère render this as "Smashes the Tree Tops." The expression, naįsawą, means, "the point or apex of a tree." The word giǧó is found elsewhere only in Miner's dictionary, where it has the specific meaning, "to grind, to sharpen on a whetstone." The image of abrasion on stone recalls the theory that lightning, which is shot from the eyes of the Thunderbirds, is in essence a stone, as it would seem to have to be, since it slices through wood, or grinds it away like a whetstone. Grinding on a whetstone also produces heat, which is another aspect of the lightning strike. So the name is especially appropriate to the Thunders.

"at the horizon"mąxihoijeja, literally, "at the foot of the sky."

"they used stones" — the Thunders are said to shoot black stones from their eyes and these are what we see as lightning. So when the Twins attack them with stones, it is an odd irony.

"as a cloak" — the word į́, translated in the text as "he had on," means (according to Miner), "to wear over the shoulders (as a cloak)." So the word į́ has a great deal more specificity than the original translation would suggest.

"he shook it" — when the Twins in other stories shake each other, they bring themselves back to life. Here the same principle seems to apply to some degree to an inanimate object. It is restored to its proper condition.

"to smash them with his feet" — in other stories, the Thunders are said to have created the hills and valleys (probably a metaphor for hierarchy) with their feet (or with their warclubs). Their stomping action is a symbolic alloform for lightning. So here too, the Twins wish to fight the Thunders the way the Thunders themselves typically fight. It would therefore be a great irony if the Thunder chicks were killed in such a fashion.

"choked them to death" — typically, dogs sent as messengers to Disease Giver or as offerings to other spirits were hanged. This insured that their bones were not broken. As long as an animal's bones were not broken, it could be brought back to life the way it was. As it is told in Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp, "So they cooked up that child and fed him to Hare with one important admonishment: "Be very careful not to break any of his bones or sinews." Hare, however, was reckless, and chewed off the sinews attached to the front paws. When the bones were collected, they caused the beaver child to come back to life, but when it returned, it was crying. When they inquired, they found out that the little beaver's paws now pointed inward because Hare had not been careful in his eating. Thus are the paws of all beavers even to this day." If the Thunder nestlings had been stomped to death, then if they could have been brought back to life at all, they would have been disfigured.

"when they pressed them hard, drizzle blew by them in billows" — if lightning comes from the body of the Thunderbirds, then that body is obviously a cloud. These clouds are sometimes compared to bladders, so that squeezing on them ejects the liquid rain. Common observation shows that rain clouds diminish as they drop their water, a trait similar to bladders as they empty their contents. Elsewhere, the Twins have literal (turkey) bladders for headdresses.

"that which is mixed" — an apparent reference to kinnikinnick, a mixture of tobacco with certain kinds of bark.

"white spirits" — this is the only time that I've encountered this expression. The Hočąk is waxopinisgawira. White stands for a high degree of holiness (waką). On the other hand, this may be making reference to their being celestial spirits, stars or planets. That clouds (see above) are their headdresses is consistent with this conclusion.

"therefore, on that one the Thunderbird landed" — the translation has, "therefore the Thunders always [a]light there." Where the /a/ should be in the penultimate word, is a smudge and possibly a superimposed caret, and above the line is written "strike (?)" with the question mark included. The Hočąk is hoženąkše, where hože can mean either "to strike" or "to land," that is "to alight." With the /a/ in "alight" stricken out, the result is, "therefore the Thunders always strike light there." However, there is no Hočąk word in the text for either "always" or "light[ly]." Therefore, the translation of hože as "alight" is the correct choice here. The verb is singular and there is no reason to suppose that Wakąčra is plural, as it can mean "the Thunderbird." Therefore, "that one" (žee) refers to the hill just as it does in the sentence before it.


Comparative Material. To the story of the man-eating Waterspirit (Wakčexi), see the following Ioway story about the Twins. "When their father saw how really powerful they were, so that nothing seemed to be impossible, he decided to tell them that the worst of their tasks lay before them. The next day he said to the Twins, 'There is a place yonder that is the most dangerous of all. Don't go there, yet if you are determined to visit it, do so.' As soon as their father had gone, the boys, after their usual argument, started for the place. It was where the Horned Water Panthers (Ičex'hi) dwelt. When they drew near the place, Dore said, 'What shall we do? These beings are very powerful and will surely kill us.' Wahre'dua replied, 'Let us visit them in the afternoon, for there are only certain times every day that they come out of their dens.' In the afternoon when the sun was shining and the sky was clear, the boys visited the Horned Water Panthers as they had planned. They went right up to the chief of them all and announced themselves as visitors. 'Hau,' said the Panther chief, 'You tow, Dore and Wahre'dua, may come to our lodge under the earth.' The Twins went down into the lodge of the Horned Water Panthers, and when they got inside, there were many spirits there. These Panthers eat only people; and, although they brought the boys meat from all over the world, they would not touch it. As soon as their visit was over and they were out in the world once more, Wahre'dua said to Dore, 'Let us kill these dangerous monsters.' 'How can we do that?' asked Dore. 'I have a plan,' answered Wahre'dua. 'Kill me with your bow and arrows, cut me up, and place my head on top of the pile of meat and cook me. When you have finished, take me to the monsters, and say the chief, 'I know you like to eat meat, so I've killed you a raccoon and butchered it for you. Eat.'' And so Dore killed Wahre'dua and butchered him. Wahre'dua first told him to stand back out of the way, when the kettle was boiling to watch his head, and when he saw it wink throw his blanket to one side, and shout, 'Look out Grandfather.' Dore carried his brother's body to the chief of the Horned Water Panthers, and said, 'Grandpa, I know you like to eat meat, so I found this raccoon and killed and butchered it for you. Eat.' The chief of the Horned Water Panthers said, 'Hau, I thank you, my grandson,' and he called all his people to feast. As soon as the kettle began to boil over, Dore, who was watching Wahre'dua's head closely, saw one eye wink, so he stepped back, threw his blanket to one side and cried, 'Look out Grandfather!' Instantly Wahre'dua came to life and sprang out of the kettle, spattering the scalding water all over the panthers and crippling many. Then the Twins took their warclubs and their bows and arrows and shot or clubbed many of them to death. They took the blood and some of the carcasses and climbed up on the bluff that stood over the home of the Water Panthers. They drew up the meat and boiled the panthers, horns and all in their kettle. 'Our father will be pleased to eat this,' said Wahre'dua. But when their father came home he refused to eat it, although they told him of the wonders they had performed."5

The Herešgúnina episode also finds a counterpart in the Ioway Twins epic. "The Twins traveled a little farther and they came to a person who said, 'Grandsons, I'm glad you've come. Before we talk, let us take a sweat bath.' The sudatory was made of thick clay and had no holes for ventilation. Moreover it was so hard it could not be broken. After the boys agreed, the three entered the sweat lodge and there their host had a great fire outside. When the stones were heated they were placed in the bath, and one of the boys sat on each side, with the man in the rear, and the door place vacant. When the door was closed the heat became terrible, but the Twins, when it became too terrific to bear, took mussel shells and crawled under them and so escaped. At last even the owner could not stand it any longer and ran out, whereupon the boys pursued him and drove him into the next world, where he remains invisible, but evil. He is the evil one, and knows whatever we do or even whisper. He is one of the tribe of Ghosts (Wanagri)."6

The Ioway also have a parallel to the episode about the killing of the Thunders. "Now the twins went to the tree and Wahre'dua climbed up into it and there he found a nest containing four little winged men. 'Oh, my brother, these are cute little fellows,' he called to Dore. He picked up one and asked it, 'What is your name?' 'Thunder-man (Kho'manyi),' answered the Being. 'Oh my brother,' called out Wahre'dua, 'here goes Thunder-man', and he dropped the little god to Dore, who caught him. Wahre'dua picked up the second being and asked it, 'What is your name?' 'Lightning-man (Ukrimanyi),' answered the Being. 'Oh my brother,' called out Wahre'dua, 'here goes Lightning-man', and he dropped the little god to Dore, who caught him. Wahre'dua picked up the third being and asked it, 'What is your name?' 'Rain-man (I'yomani),' answered the Being. 'Oh my brother,' called out Wahre'dua, 'here goes Rain-man', and he dropped the little god to Dore, who caught him. Wahre'dua picked up the fourth being and asked it, 'What is your name?' 'Little-god (Wakandaiinye),' answered the Being. 'Oh my brother,' called out Wahre'dua, 'here goes Little-god', and he dropped the little god to Dore. 'Before you take me away, Wahre'dua, I want to sing,' said Little-god and he sang:

My grandfather, my grandfather, come home.
Wahre'dua has taken us.

But if the Thunder spirits had power, Wahre'dua and Dore had more. A great cloud came up immediately, rain fell, and there was much lightning. Dore had a piece of flint and hid under it, but Wahre'dua turned himself into a wren and flew around the trees so that the thunder and lightning could not harm him. When the storm was over, the Twins came back and took home the little beings. They told Kho'manyi to thunder. When he did this for them he would raise his wings. Then they told Ukrimanyi to make lightning and he opened his eyes and the lightning flashed. I'yomani they caused to raise his wings and the rain fell. Even at a distance their father could tell by these disturbances what they had done, and he came home. The boys were sure that he would be proud of their performance, but when he saw what they had done, he ordered them to take the four little beings back, and this they did."7

The Arapaho have a Twins myth that contains an episode on the fight against the Thunderbird nestlings. Despite being warned by their father, the boys go off to a place with dangerous cliffs. "Against the rock there was a nest of young eagles [Thunderbirds], the father and mother being away. These boys went up to the nest and asked them if their father got mad what kind of a sign there would be in the sky, at the same time twisting the noses of the little ones in the nest. 'When our father gets mad there are dark clouds and rain in torrents,' said the young eagles. 'All right! Let us see whether he is powerful or not,' said the boys, twisting the noses of the young eagles again. 'You may tell him when he comes back that if he can pull the arrows out of the wall of rock below your nest, he is surely powerful.' These boys stepped below and went to the other side of the river and shot two arrows into the rock below the nest. The father of the thunder-birds returned with much noise, and at once made a rush at the arrows, grabbed the heads of them and flew back, stretching the arrows to a distance, but the arrows contracted back to the rock. [The contraction of the arrows was due to the tendon of beef wihich is found along the neck of the animal.] The boys killed Thunder-bird and the little ones. They pulled the feathers out and returned home, gave them all to their father for bonnets, and arrows and the wings for sweat fans."8

The Paiute version begins with the "children of the sun" motif (see The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head), but progresses to some interesting transformations of the "hot water" theme and the episode of the Twins disobeying their father. There was a virgin who longed to have children by the sun, so one day she went out to a tall hill and there presented herself to the celestial orb, praying to him that he might impregnate her. After some time, she became heavy with child and gave birth to twin boys. She explained to her parents that Sun was the father of the boys, and when her boys were old enough, she told them that they were the children of the sun. In time the twins decided that they should go and visit their father. After a long journey, the boys finally reached the abode of the sun. They told his wife who they were, but she became angry, as her husband had told her that he had always been faithful. When Sun came home his wife confronted him with his sons, but he denied that they were his. He tried to blame Moon, but Moon refused to accept responsibility. So Sun agreed to test them: if they could enter a pot of boiling water unscathed, then they were his children. So they prepared a kettle of scalding water and each boy jumped in, yet neither was harmed in any way. "They must be my children," confessed the Sun. The Sun told them to return to their mother, but warned them, as indeed their mother had earlier, of the eagles that they might encounter on the way. Under no circumstances were they to get anywhere near them. As they were going along, they heard the whistle of an eagle. The younger boy ran under a bush like a chicken, but his older brother shot the eagle dead with an arrow. He plucked off all the feathers, but during their trek home, other birds stole back everyone of them.9


Links: The Twins, Gottschall, Earthmaker, Bluehorn (Evening Star), Snakes, Tobacco, Waterspirits, Traveler, Minks, Weasels, Mice, Herešgúnina, Island Weights, Thunderbirds, Cosmography, Great Black Hawk, Hawks, Devil's Lake.

Links within Jasper Blowsnake's Twins Cycle: §5. The Twins Visit Their Father's Village (v. 2); §7. Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins (v. 2).


Stories: mentioning the Twins: The Twins Cycle, The Man with Two Heads, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Children of the Sun, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Two Boys, The Two Brothers; about two brothers: The Two Children, The Twin Sisters, The Captive Boys, The Twins Cycle, The Two Brothers, The Two Boys, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Children of the Sun, The Man with Two Heads, Bluehorn's Nephews, Snowshoe Strings, Sunset Point, The Old Man and the Giants, The Brown Squirrel, Esau was an Indian; featuring Herešgúnina (the Bad Spirit or One Legged One) as a character: The Creation of Evil, The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Woman Who Became an Ant, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, Šųgepaga, The Spirit of Gambling, Bladder and His Brothers, The Two Brothers, The Origins of the Milky Way, The Buffalo's Walk; see also Black and White Moons, The Shawnee Prophet and His Ascension, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara; mentioning Earthmaker: The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, The First Snakes, Tobacco Origin Myth, The Creation Council, The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Seven Maidens, The Descent of the Drum, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, The Spider's Eyes, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Fourth Universe, Šųgepaga, The Fatal House, The Twin Sisters, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Masaxe War, The Two Children, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Gift of Shooting, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Stone Heart, The Wild Rose, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Lame Friend, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed, The Hočąk Migration Myth, The Necessity for Death, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The War among the Animals, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, Blue Mounds, Lost Lake, The Hočągara Migrate South, The Spirit of Gambling, Turtle and the Giant, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Bird Origin Myth, Black and White Moons, Redhorn's Sons, Holy Song, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, Death Enters the World, Man and His Three Dogs, Trickster Concludes His Mission, Story of the Thunder Names, The Origins of the Milky Way, Trickster and the Dancers, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, The Creation of Evil, The Blessing of Kerexųsaka, Song to Earthmaker, The Blessing of the Bow, The Origin of the Cliff Swallow; mentioning snakes: The First Snakes, The Woman who Married a Snake, Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief, Snake Clan Origins, The Omahas who turned into Snakes, A Snake Song Origin Myth, The Serpents of Trempealeau, Rattlesnake Ledge, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Two Boys, Wears White Feather on His Head, Creation of the World (vv. 2, 3, 4), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Waruǧápara, The Green Man, Holy One and His Brother, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Turtle and the Merchant, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth; in which Waterspirits occur as characters: Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Green Waterspirit of Wisconsin Dells, The Lost Child, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Bluehorn's Nephews, Holy One and His Brother, The Seer, The Nannyberry Picker, The Creation of the World (vv. 1, 4), Šųgepaga, The Sioux Warparty and the Waterspirit of Green Lake, The Waterspirit of Lake Koshkonong, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Devil's Lake — How it Got its Name, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Waterspirits Keep the Corn Fields Wet, The Diving Contest, Redhorn's Sons, The Phantom Woman, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Great Walker's Warpath, White Thunder's Warpath, The Descent of the Drum, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Snowshoe Strings, The Thunderbird, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (v. 2), The Two Children, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, Waruǧápara, Ocean Duck, The Twin Sisters, Trickster Concludes His Mission, The King Bird, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Great Walker's Medicine (v. 2), Heną́ga and Star Girl, Peace of Mind Regained, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Spiritual Descent of John Rave's Grandmother, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Shaggy Man, The Woman who Married a Snake (?), Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Sacred Lake, Lost Lake; featuring Traveler as a character: The Nannyberry Picker, Traveler and the Thunderbird War; mentioning mice: The War among the Animals, Trickster Takes Little Fox for a Ride, Fable of the Mouse, Waruǧápara, Hare Kills Wildcat, Ocean Duck, The Two Boys; mentioning minks: Morning Star and His Friend, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, A Mink Tricks Trickster, Mink Soils the Princess; mentioning weasels: The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite; mentioning Island Weights: The Creation of the World, The Island Weight Songs, South Enters the Medicine Lodge, East Shakes the Messenger, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, North Shakes His Gourd, Wolves and Humans, Šųgepaga, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 2), Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, South Seizes the Messenger, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Messengers of Hare, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, Four Steps of the Cougar, The Petition to Earthmaker; mentioning Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Thunderbird and White Horse, Bluehorn's Nephews, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (vv. 1, 2), The Man who was a Reincarnated Thunderbird, The Thunder Charm, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Story of the Thunder Names, The Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Brave Man, Ocean Duck, Turtle's Warparty, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Quail Hunter, Heną́ga and Star Girl, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn's Sons, The Dipper, The Stone that Became a Frog, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, The Spirit of Gambling, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Aračgéga's Blessings, Kunu's Warpath, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Glory of the Morning, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Big Stone, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Song to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning Sleets as He Walks: Turtle's Warparty, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth; mentioning Great Black Hawk: Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Chief of the Heroka, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Redhorn's Sons, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga; mentioning pigeons: Pigeon Clan Origins, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Waruǧápara, The Twins Disobey Their Father, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Bird Origin Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, The Creation Council, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Bird Spirits, The Creation of Man (v. 2), The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Gottschall: A New Interpretation; about journeys to and from Spiritland: The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Journey to Spiritland, Sunset Point, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Lame Friend, Two Roads to Spiritland, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Holy One and His Brother, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Foolish Hunter, Waruǧápara, The Thunderbird, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, White Wolf, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Two Brothers, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Man who went to the Upper and Lower Worlds, The Petition to Earthmaker, Wears White Feather on His Head, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, The Man Whose Wife was Captured; mentioning bladders: Bladder, Bladder and His Brothers, The Birth of the Twins (turkey), The Two Boys (elk), Adventures of Redhorn's Sons (elk); mentioning kinnikinnick: The Old Man and the Giants, Woruxega, Peace of Mind Regained, Redhorn's Father, Grandmother's Gifts; mentioning shells: The Gift of Shooting, The Markings on the Moon, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men, Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Wild Rose, Young Man Gambles Often (wampum), Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2) (wampum), Wolves and Humans (oyster), Bird Clan Origin Myth, The Lost Child, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (v. 2), Turtle's Warparty, The Annihilation of the Hočągara I, Hare Visits the Bodiless Heads (crab); mentioning live iron: How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Raccoon Coat, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Lame Friend; mentioning sweat lodges or sweat baths: The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Green Man, Bladder and His Brothers (v. 1), Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, The Thunderbird, Snowshoe Strings, Waruǧápara, The Red Man, The Chief of the Heroka, The Birth of the Twins (v. 2), Lifting Up the Bear Heads, The King Bird, Little Human Head, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, The Shaggy Man, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, The Dipper, The Two Boys, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (v. 2); set at Devil's Lake (Te Wákąčąk): Devil's Lake — How it Got its Name, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, The Green Waterspirit of Wisconsin Dells, The Sacred Lake, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (vv. 1, 5); occurring in Minnesota: James’ Horse, Bow Meets Disease Giver, Great Walker's Warpath, Traveler and the Thunderbird War; set at Long Lake (Te Sereč) in St. Paul, Minnesota: Great Walker's Warpath, Traveler and the Thunderbird War.


Themes:multiple births: The Birth of the Twins, The Twin Sisters, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Man with Two Heads, The Children of the Sun, The Two Boys, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, The Shawnee Prophet and His Ascension, The Two Brothers; traveling over the whole earth: Deer Clan Origin Myth, The Pointing Man, Trickster and the Dancers, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Necessity for Death, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Twins Cycle, The Two Boys, The Two Brothers, Bluehorn's Nephews; a human being physically travels to Spiritland without having died: The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Sunset Point, Snowshoe Strings, The Thunderbird, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Star Husband, White Wolf, Waruǧápara, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Shaggy Man, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Boy who would be Immortal, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, Rainbow and the Stone Arch (v. 2), Trickster Concludes His Mission; a fruitless visit to the upper and lower worlds: The Man who went to the Upper and Lower Worlds, Wears White Feather on His Head, Įčorúšika and His Brothers; one small morsel of food (tobacco) when put in a kettle (pouch) becomes sufficient to supply everyone present: Redhorn's Father (bean), Ocean Duck (bean), The Chief of the Heroka (deer tail), The Red Man (deer tail), The Raccoon Coat (kernel of corn); a Waterspirit kills a human: The Shaggy Man, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, Waruǧapara, The Two Children, The Waterspirit of Lake Koshkonong, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Seer, The Twin Sisters, The Sioux Warparty and the Waterspirit of Green Lake, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells; anthropophagy and cannibalism: A Giant Visits His Daughter, Turtle and the Giant, The Witch Men's Desert, The Were-Grizzly, Grandfather's Two Families, The Roaster, Redhorn's Father, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Young Man Gambles Often, White Wolf, The Shaggy Man, The Twins Get into Hot Water, Partridge's Older Brother, The First Fox and Sauk War, The Fox-Hočąk War, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Morning Star and His Friend, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Seven Maidens, Šųgepaga, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Shakes the Earth, The Stone Heart, Thunder Cloud is Blessed; men who wear a single eagle feather in their hair: Redhorn's Father, Moiety Origin Myth; someone returns from the dead: Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, Sunset Point, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, White Fisher, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Shaggy Man, The Two Brothers, The Two Boys, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, The Red Man, The Chief of the Heroka, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Waruǧápara, The Old Man and the Giants; a powerful spirit burns down the abode of a Waterspirit: Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Two Children; something is of a (symbolic) pure white color: White Bear, Deer Spirits, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4), White Flower, Big Eagle Cave Mystery, The Fleetfooted Man, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, Worúxega, The Two Boys, Skunk Origin Myth, He Who Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, A Man and His Three Dogs, The Messengers of Hare, The Brown Squirrel, The Man Who Fell from the Sky, Bladder and His Brothers, White Thunder's Warpath, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, The Dipper, Great Walker's Medicine (v. 2), Creation of the World (v. 12), Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Descent of the Drum, Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 5), The Diving Contest, Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, Grandmother's Gifts, Four Steps of the Cougar, The Completion Song Origin, North Shakes His Gourd, Lifting Up the Bear Heads, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, Peace of Mind Regained; the war between Thunderbirds and Waterspirits: Traveler and the Thunderbird War, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Brave Man, Ocean Duck, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, Bluehorn's Nephews; a mortal tips the balance in lethal combat between a Thunderbird and a Waterspirit (or Wood Spirit): Traveler and the Thunderbird War, Pete Dupeé and the Ghostsr; visiting Earthmaker: The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, The Lame Friend, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Petition to Earthmaker, Trickster Concludes His Mission, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins; the Twins disobey the commands of someone with fatherly authority over them: The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Two Boys, The Two Brothers; a knowledgeable person tells someone not to go to a certain place because of the danger, but that person goes there anyway: The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Fox-Hočąk War, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Two Boys, The Two Brothers, Bladder and His Brothers, The Thunderbird, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle; jealousy: The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Diving Contest, Hog's Adventures, Wazųka, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, The Fleetfooted Man, Bluehorn's Nephews, Redhorn's Sons, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth; someone is deceived by a spirit: The Greedy Woman, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Seven Maidens, Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts; someone kills Thunderbird nestlings and makes use of their feathers: Hare Acquires His Arrows, The Twins Disobey Their Father; powerful spirits refer to strong animals by names denoting smaller and weaker animals: How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Two Boys, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Waruǧápara, The Thunderbird, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, Redhorn's Sons (cf. the inverse theme, Buffalo Spirits calling grass "bears" in, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle); wearing the skin of a spirit bird: Holy One and His Brother, Hare Acquires His Arrows, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Boy who Flew.


Genealogy: Traveler Genealogy.


Songs. Bladder, Song about the Older Brother (v. 2), Bladder, Song about the Older Brother (v. 3), Buffalo Dance Songs, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Song for Returning, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Song for Starting Out, Clan Song, Bear Clan, Song of the Youngest, Clan Songs, Buffalo Clan, Clan Songs, Buffalo Clan, The Four Songs of Hojanoka, Clan Songs—Deer Clan, Clan Songs—Wolf Clan, Clan Songs—Wonáǧire Wąkšik Clan, The Crawfish's Song, Duck Song, Farewell Songs, The Four Services Songs, Grandfather Sparrow's Rain Songs, Grizzly Bear Songs, Hare's Song to Grasshopper, Hare's Song to the Wągepanįgera, Hare's Song to Wildcat, Hawk's Song, Heroka Songs, Holy Song, Holy Song II, Little Fox's Death Song, Little Fox's Death Song (for the Warpath), Little Fox's Tail Song, Love Song I (female), Love Song II (female), Love Song III (female), The Mouse Song, Nightspirit Songs, The Quail's Song, Redman's Song, Slow Song of the Heroka, Soldier Dance Songs, Song for Calling the Buffalo, Song from the Water, Song from the Water (King Bird), The Song of Bluehorn's Sister, Hočąk Text — The Song of Sun Caught in a Net, The Song of the Boy Transformed into a Robin, Song of the Frog to Hare, Song of the Thunder Nestlings, The Song of Trickster's Baby, Song to Earthmaker, The Song to the Elephant, The Sun's Song to Hare, Three Warrior Songs, Turtle's Call for a Warparty (v. 1), Turtle's Call for a Warparty (v. 2), Turtle's Four Death Dance Songs, Twins, Ghost's Song (v. 1), Twins, Ghost's Song (v. 2), Twins, Ghost's Song (The Two Brothers), Twins, the Songs of Ghost and Flesh, Twins, Song of the Father-in-Law, Victory Song, Wailing Song, Warrior Song about Mąčosepka, What a Turtle Sang in His Sleep, Wolf-Teasing Song of the Deer Spirits. Songs in the McKern collection: Waking Songs (27, 55, 56, 57, 58) War Song: The Black Grizzly (312), War Song: Dream Song (312), War Song: White Cloud (313), James’ Horse (313), Little Priest Songs (309), Little Priest's Song (316), Chipmunk Game Song (73), Patriotic Songs from World War I (105, 106, 175), Grave Site Song: "Coming Down the Path" (45), Songs of the Stick Ceremony (53).


Notes

1 "The Epic of the Twins, Part Two," in Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 42-58. The original text is in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago V, #2: 123-247 (syllabic text), 38-71 (English translation).

2 Jasper Blowsnake, "Waretcawera," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman Numbers 3850, 3896, 3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 67: 1-41 [37-39].

3 "... do not a large proportion of the Scythians, even today, wear the skins of foxes and of mice, which are soft to the touch and impervious to wind?" Seneca, Epist. 89. Warren R. Dawson, "The Mouse in Fable and Folklore," Folklore, 36, #3 (Sep. 30, 1925): 227-248 [237].

4 For the opposition between the weasel and the mouse in folklore, see Æsop, 7; Dawson, "The Mouse in Fable and Folklore," 231, 233.

5 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan) and Julia Small (Otoe), "Dore and Wahredua," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [432-433].

6 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan) and Julia Small (Otoe), "A'ho'ye," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [440].

7 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan) and Julia Small (Otoe), "Dore and Wahredua," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [433-434].

8 Tall Bear, "139. Found-in-Grass," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 341-350 [346].

9 Panayús, "48. The Sun Boys," in Robert H. Lowie, Shoshonean Tales, The Journal of American Folk-lore, 37 (1924): 1-242 [76-77].