Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married

Note at the top of page: "(pages 1-49 were never received)." The story is missing its first 49 pages, however the episode expressed by the title is intact.

This appears to have been translated by Oliver LaMère when he was just starting in his role as translator. I have made some corrections in the English, but have maintained the closeness to the text that LaMère's translations have always exemplified.

The story picks up when Trickster, Turtle, and their followers are out on a winter hunt. They are traveling to the place where they will set up their winter camp.

(50) ... Trickster said, "Right away let us camp so that your sister-in-law might make you some soup right away. So they all helped in the lodge making. Right away they would go hunting, they thought very much, but it was not so. Then when they finished making a lodge, (51) then their animals they attended to. Even now they had a big supply of meat, beavers and bears. Then said Turtle, "My little brothers, tomorrow morning we will get material for frames for the furs. To hunt and get frames as you go is always a lot of bother," (52) he said. And also, "We will not hunt right away. If one does, the animals always get wilder. We will live here awhile and not hunt the animals until they get used to us; and then if we hunt, we shall kill very many (53) of them. The people have done this to themselves very often, therefore I don't like to go on a hunt with people," he was saying.

Then in the morning frames for furs they very many cut. They said, "Say! I am tired of constructing frames for furs. (54) We don't hunt anything, yet we are cutting our frames. What animals are we killing that we should be constructing frames for skins?" they were saying. Then the foolish one [Trickster] said, "My younger brothers, you don't know anything about hunting. Perhaps, right (55) away you are desirous of hunting, I am thinking. These sticks should be dried before they are frozen. The furs always look very nice, and frames for furs could be used over and over. When the sticks are frozen and (56) are used for fur frames, they are very brittle and one cannot use them over a second time. That is why I am saying this," he said. But they were tired anyhow. They wanted to hunt right away. Then he said to them again, "My younger brothers, 'carriers', they call them. Bark, or (57) a piece of wood hewn flat, that they call, 'a carrier', this kind make for yourselves, as it will be hard for you to carry them home if you carry them on your backs; but with this other it will be lighter even if you carry many of them," he said. So one apiece they made for themselves. When the food was eaten (58) up, then only would he tell the second brother to kill another one. So he would kill only one once in awhile a deer, or sometimes a bear, or a beaver.

Then again he said, "When it becomes cold, my other brothers, then we will make racks where we might put our furs (59) so that the mice will not bother them," he said. "When they are left on the ground they always gnaw holes in them," he said. So they made some racks. Big racks they made, four of them. "There, we can make another one when we get this filled," (60) he said. Then there all winter they waited for the animals to get use to them. When they ate up their food, then only would Soft Shelled Turtle kill something, whatever they liked. Even now the snow was very deep. It was very cold and the waters were all frozen hard. Then he said, "Now then, (61) my younger brothers, about now we will do it, the hunting. When it is thus, they don't pay much attention to themselves," he said. They dreaded it very much, but he told them to get their carriers ready. Then the first thing, there a beaver lodge was. He cut it open and went in (62) In their nest he went and all the beavers that were there he killed and brought out with him. Thus he began to do. Otters also he killed, very many. As the ice had frozen hard all over, they had no place to run. So thus he did to them, he killed many. (63) There his younger brothers used their carriers and carried home very many. Very many there were and the pile was very high as it was stacked up. The beavers and otters very many, thus they did to them. Then at night, all night they attended to them, Turtle and his wife. (64) In the morning, all were hanging up when they woke up. The young men slept very little.

Right away again they got up. Thus they began to do. Finally, their material for frames was exhausted. "Oh my, thus it would be, I said, but you got (65) tired of it. This is a great bother to hunt and get frames at the same time," he said. Sure enough, he was right, the sticks were frozen and could not be used. Some that were dried were taken out and the frames used over. Then the furs were tied in (66) bundles as they went along and before long the racks were covered high with fur bundles. Then finally they had gone over all the hunting grounds in the vicinity and the racks were about loaded and also they dried and roasted most of the meat. Then the young men (67) he encouraged. Sure enough they hunted very diligently: coyotes and badgers, they killed. These also they skinned and framed the furs.

Now it was spring, but they still remained. All the people had returned, but (68) Turtle was still absent. Never either did they see anything of him. All the rest knew of one another's whereabouts as they hunted, but they never saw anything of him. "He must be killed," they said. Thus, one day he (Turtle) said, "Old woman, about (69) now I will go and see them as they must be all home by this time. It will be all right if I can only borrow my friend's boat. The worst furs pack for me," he said. The coyote and badger hides she packed for him. These he packed on his back and started. (70) At night he got there. "Ho, my friend! I have some back," he said. "Ah, my friend, you must be killed, they were saying, as they never saw any signs of you," he said. He gave him food, and then he said, "My friend, I packed over a few furs for you," he said. (71) "They are just out from the door." So then he went out to see and sure enough there were furs. He thanked him very much. "My friend, it is good," he said. And then, "Not this kind did I expect. I just wanted to get rid of the things that I let you have on credit. It is good," he said. "My friend, I just did this: (72) all the poorest furs there were, I brought. My friend, I hunted for furs for you, I killed some, so I have come after your boat. Very early in the morning let me go home, before anyone is awake," he said. "The servants, my friend, will go so you need not work," he said. (73) "Now then, my friend, you must be tired. Drink this," he said. Whiskey, four quarts he gave him. That all night he drank. Again in the morning right away he gave him some more. Then his servants, many things he let them take along. If he (Turtle) was telling the truth, they were to give him the things. (74) That was why they took them along.

In the morning they started. Servants two of them went with him. Turtle did not even have to row. Instead he drank. Finally, when they got to the creek, "Over here it is," he said to them. "The road will be tramped with broken sticks, that we will go on," he said. (75) There they put the boat and from there they went on foot. Turtle they led by the arms on each side, as he was about half drunk. When they got [there], the cooking was good so the servants partook of food very much, as in those days, food was prepared very much the same, (76) it is said. The servants then carried furs very much. Long sticks they cut and put in the boat so that they might put on more. Sure enough, they loaded all the furs that were there, they say. A big boat it (77) was. Four days it took them to carry it to the boat, as it was some little distance.

Then when they were ready to come home they put clothes on Turtle: a coat, a king's coat, a black coat it was with red breast, they put on him; and black (78) wampum very much they put about his neck; and silver medals, four of them, they hung about his neck. And armlets on each arm, two of them, they put on him. His wrists were covered with bracelets, and a red yarn belt he wore on his head; and whiskey, four quarts, they placed there for him. That he drank. (79) Then they came back. They never even let him do any work. The servants treated him like a king. Then just about noon, there unexpectedly, a boat appeared upstream. "Well," said the Indians, "it's a trader's boat," (80) they were saying. When it arrived there unexpectedly, they recognized Turtle. "Turtle is in the boat," they said. Unexpectedly, he had on king's clothes. They were holding him, as he was drunk. "Uh oh, it's Turtle," they said. "Furs very many (81) he has brought back," they said. All the Indians came and stood on the banks. "Very much he has done," they said. Then where his friends were, they landed the boat. Very much there were of furs. The trader was surprised. The other traders said, (82) "Turtle, let me buy some also," they said. "It is not mine, it is my friend's, ask him," he said. "Turtle it is worth more than all the stores here. It is worth a great deal more. Your friend hasn't got anything, (83) he cannot buy all of this from you," they said to him. "I will not do it, it is not mine, it belongs to my friend, as it was for him that I went hunting. I tried to get credit from you but you would not trust me. This man only would give me credit. (84) Therefore, I went to hunt for him and this many I have killed for him. Therefore, they belong to him," he said. "This is all I have to tell you," he said. Not more would he talk to them. Then his friend said, "My friend, all of my store I give to you as I will go home in the morning, (85) since the boat is already loaded. The servants will watch the boat tonight. Someone might try to do something. They might steal things, I think. Therefore, I will go home soon. All the whiskey is also here," he said. (86) Then, in the morning, they went home.

Turtle there was the processor of the store. There, many barrels of whiskey he left also, so there every day Turtle would be drinking. Then the woman said, "Say, old man, I think something. This is the white man's way. (87) I am getting tired of it. I think we ought to fix our own lodge and go back there and live, I think," she said. "Old woman, I also was thinking that," said Turtle. So a bark lodge that they used to live in, that they fixed up. A long cave they dug also. Then (88) the store, all of it they moved into it. Then there they went back and lived. When they had moved back, many young men came there, so he brought forth some of his whiskey and there he drank with them. There they kept it up until all the whiskey that he had was drunk up, and as they had (89) drunk a long time, they were sick with it. Very sick they were, and they longed for more, the young men. Then said Turtle, "Young men, my friend showed me how to make whiskey, I will go and make some," he said, "only I must go alone." "All right," they said. (90) Then a pail he took and to the wilderness he went. Thus he peeled the bark from different trees and boiled it. Then he tasted it and it was very bitter. "Well, it is very strong," he said. He took home a pail full. "Ho, young men! the whiskey, here it is. It is very strong. (91) You must be careful, some of you might get drunk," he said. "Ah!," they said. They tasted it. "He is right, it is very strong," they said. Before long they were all drunk. Purposely, they wanted to do something to Turtle, so they feigned being drunk. They all got to fighting, and (92) as they were drunk, they did very much. His wife was caught in the midst of the crowd. There they assaulted her. She made out to cry, but as they were drunk, there was no help for it. There Turtle was, but all he would say was, "Oh, keep still, as they are drunk and don't know what they are doing. (93) They are drunk," Turtle would say. There his wife they assaulted. After drinking the whiskey that he made, when they were through they all went to different places. So they were left alone.

Then Turtle said, "My younger brothers, soup I long for (94) very much," he said. So Soft Shelled Turtle went out to hunt. Soft Shelled Turtle was a good hunter and also he was a handsome man. He was a nice young man. Very soon he came back with a pack on his back. There Turtle's wife attended to it. Very quickly she did it. Then, thus they would be. One day (95) Turtle said, "Hena, about now you should get married, we have said. Very long you have been without a wife," he said. "So that she would be a help to your sister-in-law. In cooking she is getting feeble. She could be a help to her. This is what we have said last night. In the beginning your sister-in-law, when (96) something she sewed for you, it used to be smooth and nice and you looked good in it, but now she is old. Now when she does anything for you, she makes it wrinkled. The young men don't wear those kinds of things. This is what we said, Hena, and your younger brothers, you can care for. Their good things (97) let them wear. Therefore, we have said this," thus said Turtle. It was good, so they all approved of it.

Then they went to ask for a woman, he and his wife. They packed along a lot of goods and as they had very much with them, it was impossible to fail. They succeeded in their woman-begging, and besides Soft Shelled Turtle was nice looking (98) and also a good hunter, so when they asked for a woman for him they were very willing. So a woman they took home with them, a good looking woman she was, as they were careful in their pick. Turtle said, "My younger brother, these people are an observant people, when one is (99) a newlywed, they watch him. Therefore, when one is a newlywed, they don't usually pay any attention to their wives. After they have been married for some time, then they can go around with them, if they want to. He must have wanted a woman pretty bad, as he never showed up anywhere, they would say about them. Therefore, when a young man is married, (100) they usually visit around some until they get accustomed to them, then they can go around with their wives," he said. "For example, when I married your sister-in-law, I would leave her and go on the warpath, but now we are old, is why we are always together," Turtle said.

Therefore, as he was counseled, Soft Shelled Turtle went out for a visit right away. (101) In the night he had not got back yet. In the night Turtle got up, then he said to his wife, "Keep right on snoring," he said, and in secret he went out. Then for some distance he went and there he came back walking. The woman thought that her husband (102) was coming. When he came in, to the foot of her bed he sat down and began to undress. When he got through, he laid down with her. The woman turned towards him and put her arms around him. As she thought it was her husband, and as he was a handsome man, she thought it was him. Right away he climbed on top of her. When he was through (103) with her, just then someone came tramping along. Turtle struck the door to make a noise and across the fireplace he went back and laid down. He began to snore. Hena came in. There he sat down and began to undress, and there unexpectedly, the woman was crying. Then said (104) Hena, "Why are you doing that?" he asked. Then Turtle said, "Well, Hena, I thought you got back a long time ago. We were awake, your sister-in-law also, then you came. There you came and sat down and began to undress. Then the daughter-in-law you laid down with. (105) After a short time you began to have intercourse with her. 'Ah, my younger brother, that is what he wanted to do, is why he got married,' I was thinking. Just as you got off of her, then you came again. If this is what she has been doing, we did not know of it," Turtle said. (106) Then Soft Shelled Turtle said, "If this is what you have been doing, you should at least not do it here. Instead of crying about it, if you wish to go home, why don't you just do it?" he said. The woman got herself ready and went home. Then alone there he (107) laid down.

Then again one day, "Now then, my younger brother, it is about time you were married," he said. Again he went to ask for a woman for him. The woman he was careful in selecting. Therefore, a handsome woman he brought back, as he had much goods and the one for whom he was asking a woman was a handsome man. (108) Therefore, they were very willing. Therefore, the women were always willing. Then when he brought her back, then his younger brother again he counseled. As he said before, he said again. Again he went visiting. In the night he did it again. As he did to him before, he did again. So again he told her to go home, so she went home. Thus (109) three times he did it. As he did in the first place, he would do again. Then the fourth time he said, "Ho, old woman, something I think. Hena we have tried to have get married but always it happens that he gets a bad woman, so the princess it should be, I think," he said. "She is not so young (110) but she would know better than to have intercourse with anyone else here," he said. "You are right," said the woman. So then again to the chief's house they went. Goods they packed on their back as they went and also for this man mainly did they always consent so readily. So there again the princess they came home with. When they got home with her, (111) where Turtle and his wife kept their bed, there they told her to sit. The woman did not like it. "Well, I thought it was his younger brother they wanted me for, if I knew this was to be the case, I would not have consented," she thought. "I would go home, only my brothers would be humiliated. (112) They told me to come," she was thinking. Turtle by the princess was siting and seemingly did not know what to do with himself. Finally, he laid down and laid his head on her lap. Very much ashamed she became. She did not know what to do. Again he laid down and would try to pull her down. Along side of (113) her he would lay and try to pull her down.

Then it was evening. Then someone came in. He came and greeted Turtle. He had come to invite him to a Medicine Dance. There Turtle did not say a word until the inviter had gotten to the door on his way out, then he answered. Then Turtle's younger brothers (114) said, "Well, I thought whenever our older brother was invited, he was always so anxious, but this time he does not say anything. He used to meet them, and even in greeting them back, he extended his hands towards them, we thought," they said. "But this time he did not answer until he nearly got out doors, even then he did not speak very loud," (115) they said. "My younger brothers, right you have spoken about me. I am not feeling very good in my body, ever since evening, therefore, I would go to bed, but I would get up again," he said. Hena said, "Oh, I don't care to do," he said. "Anyhow, Hena, you go, (116) that way I said, I would have you for a fleet one, I said. The medicine men know about it," he said. "I will not go, what would I be doing there, a non-medicine man; besides, they would not allow it. Therefore, I do not want to go," he said. "Anyhow, Hena, you go. Lately when (117) they had the Medicine Dance, there your sister-in-law gave some things away in your name, so that you might partake in the feasts, is why we did it," he said. You need not say anything, as they all know about it, all the songs that I used to sing are all thankfulness songs, any of them that you know, you can use for thankfulness. (118) It will be all right, Hena. The medicine men know about it," he said. "Well, I would go if it were not that you are given the first place. That is what the inviter told you when he came to invite you," he said. "My younger brother, even if he did, it is all the better: they will take care of you, (119) the medicine men. We are saving up things on your account and we intend to erect a lodge soon, but we have not done it yet. So there you can get yourself use to it," he said. "That is what they would do in the beginning, they would get themselves accustomed to it first, and then join afterwards. Thus they would enter without fear (120) of actions. So, anyhow, go," said Turtle. "I do not like to go, what would I do there? Besides, you say that you are sick. I should think that you would like it all the better for that reason, as they are going to have a sacred affair. You ought to be strengthened by it, (121) if you go to a sacred affair," he said. "Well, that is true, what you say. Well, Hena, we will go as I long for you to be in such things. Also, I will try and get you well accustomed to the affair," he said. "All right, I would of course be willing to go with you," he said. Then (122) when they were ready to go, he said, "Naxi, all the time keep the fire up and don't go to sleep," he said. Then they went.

When they got there the stones were red hot. Right away the stones they put in the sweat bath tent. Then he said again, "Hena, you go instead of me," he said. "Oh, I (123) will not do it as you will be their leader. If I did it, what would I do?" he said. "Well then, Hena, sit in back of me so you can drum for me, Hena," he said. Then they went in and he sat in back of him. Then Turtle began to talk. (124) Even in the midst of his talk he would say, "Hena, are you here yet?" he would say. Thus he talked until he began to sing, then he beat the drum for him. As soon as he got through singing, Hena was beating the drum for him, but he asked, "Hena, are you here?" he asked. He did not like it. In jealousy he was (125) talking, and he knew it. Finally, he stopped and the drum was passed to another. And then to one that was next to him said, "Say, I am going outside, if you are going to be here, answer for me when he asks if I am here yet," he said. And then he said right away, "Hena, are you here yet?" "Yes," he answered. (126) Very often he said that to him.

Then Soft Shelled Turtle did this as he neared his home, on he came jingling as he walked, imitating Turtle. Then there he came and sat down and began to undress and his clothes he threw in back of the princess. When he was undressed, with the princess he laid down. After (127) awhile, he had already climbed on top. The princess he lay on top of. When he got through, again to Turtle's wife, as she was laying with her feet to theirs, there he went and laid with her. He did the same to her. Just then Turtle came jingling up. The door he (128) made a noise at and he went back across and laid down. There he pretended to be asleep. He came on in. There, unexpectedly, the princess was crying. "Why, princess, are you crying?" he asked. Just then Hena said, "Ah, I nearly fell asleep," he said. "Well, Kunu, I thought you were back long ago. Again (129) you are back," he said. The first time when you came walking home, 'Ah, my older brother is coming,' I was thinking. As you are sitting now, he sat also. He undressed, then with the princess he laid down. Right away, he got on top. Ah, my older brother, (130) young maidens many he has married. To court maidens he is very good at, I am thinking. Sure enough right away without effort he commenced with her. Again when you were through with her, to your old woman you went and did it to her. When you got through, you were coming again, and here you are back again." (131) "Well, Naxi, always I told you to keep the fire burning, I thought," he said. But instead of that, as soon as he went they let the fire burn down as they disliked him, since he did too much of it. Then said Turtle, "Princess, if this is what you had been doing, you should not have done (132) so here at any rate. Why do you choose to cry? Why don't you just go home?" he said. The old woman never let on. Instead she said, "Whoever is doing this to her should at least leave off doing it here," she said. There all of his younger brothers laughed at him. Then the princess (133) got herself ready and went home.

Then in the morning as soon as Soft Shelled Turtle became awake, he got ready and went hunting. There a bear he killed, which he packed on his back. And at the chief's lodge, there he put it down. There he went in. Very glad they were (134) with him, as Soft Shelled Turtle was a handsome man and a good hunter. Therefore there Soft Shelled Turtle got married.1

Commentary. "make you some soup" — this is an elliptic reference to their desire to immediately begin hunting, and thereby supply the meat for the soup.

"Turtle was still absent" — Turtle frequently disappears when things get demanding. His object is to get the rewards without doing the labor, whether it is in war, hunting, or love.

"daughter-in-law" — a hinuñkcék, which is a wife of a son; wife of a grandson; wife of the son of a brother or sister; or the wife of a son of a paternal sibling or maternal sister. However, Hena (Soft Shelled Turtle) is the oldest brother next to Turtle himself. So Hena's bride should be Turtle's hiwañgé, sister-in-law, just as he refers to his own wife as Hena's sister-in-law. The Hocągara have a strong taboo against any kind of contact between a father-in-law and daughter-in-law, or between a son-in-law and mother-in-law. They do not even address each other directly, but only through intermediaries. Since Turtle had illicite sex with Hena's wife, he is trying to portray himself as a fatherly figure to Hena, so that it will seem that he has an extreme aversion to approaching his younger brother's wife.

"jingling as he walked" — Turtle has small bells attached to his leggings so that he jingles as he walks.

Links: Turtle, Turtle Spirits, Trickster.

Stories: featuring Turtle as a character: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Turtle's Warparty, Turtle and the Giant, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle and the Merchant, Redhorn's Father, Redhorn's Sons, Turtle and the Witches, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Trickster Soils the Princess, Morning Star and His Friend, Grandfather's Two Families, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Kunu's Warpath, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Skunk Origin Myth, The Hocąk Migration Myth, Porcupine and His Brothers, The Creation of Man, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee, The Chief of the Heroka, The Spirit of Gambling, The Nannyberry Picker, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Markings on the Moon (v. 2), The Green Man, The Hocągara Contest the Giants, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; featuring Turtle's Wife as a character: Turtle and the Merchant, Trickster Soils the Princess, Redhorn's Father, The Nannyberry Picker; mentioning turtles (other than Turtle): Turtle's Warparty, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Porcupine and His Brothers, Redhorn's Sons, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Healing Blessing, The Spider's Eyes, The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth, The Mesquaki Magician; featuring Trickster as a character: The Trickster Cycle, Trickster Gets Pregnant, Trickster's Warpath, Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Trickster Soils the Princess, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Trickster Concludes His Mission, The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster, The Elk's Skull, Trickster and the Plums, Trickster and the Mothers, The Markings on the Moon, The Spirit of Gambling, The Woman who Became an Ant, The Green Man, The Red Man, Trickster Takes Little Fox for a Ride, Trickster Loses His Meal, Trickster's Tail, A Mink Tricks Trickster, Trickster's Penis, Trickster Loses Most of His Penis, The Scenting Contest, The Bungling Host, Mink Soils the Princess, Trickster and the Children, Trickster and the Eagle, Trickster and the Geese, Trickster and the Dancers, Trickster and the Honey, Trickster's Adventures in the Ocean, The Pointing Man, Trickster's Buffalo Hunt, Trickster Eats the Laxative Bulb, Trickster Visits His Family, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Petition to Earthmaker, Waruǧábᵉra, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge; mentioning traders: Mijistéga’s Powwow Magic and How He Won the Trader's Store, Migistéga’s Magic, Turtle and the Merchant, Brawl in Omro, How Jarrot Got His Name, The Chief Who Shot His Own Daughter, The Tavern Visit, Origin of the Hocąk Name for "Chicago"; mentioning sweat lodges or sweat baths: The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Lost Blanket, The Green Man, Bladder and His Brothers (v. 1), Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, The Thunderbird, Snowshoe Strings, Waruǧábᵉra, The Red Man, The Chief of the Heroka, The Birth of the Twins (v. 2), Lifting Up the Bear Heads, The King Bird, Little Human Head, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, The Shaggy Man, The Dipper, The Two Boys, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (v. 2); mentioning red yarn (as an offering to the spirits): The Elk's Skull, Ocean Duck, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Trickster Soils the Princess (Trickster's turban), The Spotted Grizzly Man;  mentioning whiskey (fire water): Little Fox and the Ghost, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Turtle and the Merchant, Mijistéga’s Powwow Magic and How He Won the Trader's Store, Brawl in Omro, Chief Wave Tries to Take the Whiskey, Chief Wave and the Big Drunk, Sodom and Gomorrah; mentioning drunkeness: The Drunkard's Self-Reflections, Chief Wave and the Big Drunk, Chief Wave Tries to Take the Whiskey, The Brawl in Omro, Jerrot's Temperance Pledge — A Poem, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hocągara, Version 1, Little Fox and the Ghost, Version 1, Migistéga's Death, Version 1, The Spanish Fight, Snowshoe Strings. mentioning drums: The Descent of the Drum, The Friendship Drum Origin Myth, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Buffalo's Walk, The Spirit of Maple Bluff, Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 5), Young Man Gambles Often, Trickster and the Dancers, Redhorn's Father, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Elk's Skull, Ghosts, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Great Walker's Medicine, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 1b), Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, Trickster and the Geese, Turtle's Warparty, Snowshoe Strings, Ocean Duck, Įcorúšika and His Brothers, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Hog's Adventures, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts; mentioning silver: Silver Mound Cave, The Spanish Fight, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Tavern Visit, see also Chief's Medallion; mentioning snow: Waruǧábᵉra, The Glory of the Morning, Holy One and His Brother, Wolves and Humans, Grandfather's Two Families, The Four Steps of the Cougar, Redhorn's Father, The Old Man and the Giants, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Great Walker's Warpath, White Wolf, North Shakes His Gourd, The Fleetfooted Man, Lake Wąkšikhomįgra (Mendota): the Origin of Its Name, Witches, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Trickster Gets Pregnant, The Raccoon Coat, Silver Mound Cave; mentioning caves: Big Eagle Cave Mystery, Blue Mounds Cave, Silver Mound Cave, Heną́ga and Star Girl, The Woman Who Married a Snake, Little Human Head, The Waterspirit of Sugar Loaf Mounds, Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, A Giant Visits His Daughter, Kunu's Warpath, The Story of the Medicine Rite.

Themes: marriage to a yųgiwi (princess): The Nannyberry Picker, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Big Stone, Partridge's Older Brother, Redhorn's Sons, The Seduction of Redhorn's Son, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, The Roaster, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, The Two Boys, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Shaggy Man, The Thunderbird, The Red Feather, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Birth of the Twins (v. 3), Trickster Visits His Family, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, Redhorn's Father, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Morning Star and His Friend, Thunderbird and White Horse, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Shakes the Earth, The Nightspirits Bless Ciwoit’éhiga; Turtle jingles as he walks from the small bells tied to his leggings: The Chief of the Heroka, Trickster Soils the Princess; Turtle wrongfully tries to take the chief's daughter who has been given (as a prize) to someone else to marry: The Chief of the Heroka, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth.


1 Paul Radin, "A Trickster Exploit," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook 54: 50-134.