Redhorn Contests the Giants (§4 of the Redhorn Cycle)
retold by Richard L. Dieterle
One day something was seen coming towards Redhorn's village. Everyone ran to the edge of the village to see what was going on. "People are coming this way and they have tears in their eyes," someone shouted. The leader of these people approached holding a pipe and asked where the chief lived, but the people directed him to Turtle, saying, "Here is a friend of the chief." The embassy told Turtle how the Giants were abusing them and turned their sacred pipe towards him. Turtle said, "Ho!" and accepted the pipe. Then Turtle went off by himself and began drumming. No one joined him simply because he didn't ask anyone. The next day he led just a few men out on a warparty whose only result was another defeat. This left the people in worse shape than before.
The people had suffered even in athletic contests with the Giants. The principal reason for the success of the Giants in gaming duels was the skill of a Giantess whose hair was of the same brilliant hue as Redhorn's. Furthermore, two spirits, Coyote and Marten [inset], were helping the enemy because they had intermarried into the race of Giants. Nevertheless, the chiefs of Redhorn's village agreed to play lacrosse against the Giants with life and death as the stakes. When the appointed day came, they were waiting for Redhorn to show up so they could begin play. When he finally appeared, they paired him with the red-haired Giantess, but when she looked at him, the faces that formed on his earlobes stuck their tongues out at her which made her laugh. They tossed the ball up and the game began. Redhorn ran interference for Turtle, and Wolf, who was matched with Coyote, gave his opponent such a check that he sent him flying through the air. This is all that Turtle needed: he knocked the ball through the goal and the Giants were down a point. Turtle got hold of the next tossed ball and sent it flying into the air very near the goal, but Marten intercepted it and began to run with it. He didn't get far when Otter checked him so hard that Marten flew into the air and lost control of the ball. Otter easily scored the next goal, and the Giants now found themselves down by two points. This time the red-haired Giantess and Storms as He Walks were tending the goal together. Turtle got the ball and began to whirl about and threaten the Giants: "You women! You big black cowards! Watch out or I will knock you over!" He passed the ball to Storms as He Walks who ran so fast with it that it began to thunder. This caused the Giantess to jump out of the way. Her mother scoffed at her, and yelled, "Go get him!" But every time she approached him he thundered, and she would scream and jump aside. So Storms as He Walks easily ran through the goal for a score. In the next series, Turtle got the ball and Kunu ran interference for him. Turtle passed it to Redhorn, who ran with the ball, the Giantess in hot pursuit. Just as she caught up to him, the little heads in his earlobes stuck their tongues out at her and winked. When she saw them, she became weak with laughter and fell behind, allowing Redhorn to run through the goal. The mother of the Giantess was extremely angry, and shouted, "He is seducing you! You'll make the whole village pay for it!" Again they played for a final point, but even though almost all the Giants played, they lost this as well, and the game with it. They decided to spare the red-haired Giantess and she was given to Redhorn. Turtle arranged the Giants into four circles, then said, "There are so many Giants to kill that we will be here forever if we kill them one at a time. Storms as He Walks will have to do something." So Storms as He Walks killed them all by striking each circle with thunder bolts so loud that the Thunders in heaven said, "Storms as He Walks must be shooting at someone!" Even though a great many Giants were thus killed, the people who lived near the them decided it would be prudent to move to Redhorn's village.
Sometime later a large group of Giants came and camped outside the village. They sent one of their number in with a gourd dangling from his belt to challenge them to a game. Turtle suggested, "Let's play Who can Shoot the Farthest." The next day they assembled at the lodge of the chief of the Giants. Turtle and Redhorn were matched against two Giants. Each shot in turn, but the Giants fell short every time. Finally, it was Turtle's last turn. He pulled the arrow back in the bow as far as it would go, then released it. "Ouch!" he yelled — the wooden arrow had taken off one of his claws. "Oh well," said Turtle, "it's just as well, otherwise, what would people use for arrowheads?" By the time the shooting was over, the Giants had lost this contest as well.
That evening, the Giants challenged the people to a game of dice. The next morning, they met with the Giants, who took out snowbirds [inset] to use as dice. "We have not played in so long our dice are getting yellow," declared the Giant. Turtle took out eight small red turtles, and replied, "My dice are getting yellow too, it's been so long since I've played." The Giant threw his "dice" into the air, and yelled, "All fall the same way!" And as they sailed through the air, they were all upside down, but before they landed, Turtle yelled, "Half and half!" which caused half of them to land right side up. The Giants protested, but Turtle replied, "There is no law against cheering for your own side." Turtle threw his "dice" into the air while the Giant yelled, "Half! half!" Just the same, they all landed right side up. This time when the Giant threw his dice, he held Turtle's mouth shut, but still half of them landed differently just from Turtle's muffled shouts. Every time they threw the dice, Turtle got the full number, but the Giants got only half. So once again the Giants were defeated.
That night the gourd carrier returned to challenge them to a contest to see who could stay under water the longest. Turtle pretended to be alarmed, and said, "I can't do that at all!" The next morning they assembled at the lake for the contest. Turtle and Otter were to compete against the Giants' best. When they had been under water for a time, Turtle let himself float upward about half way, all the while blowing out bubbles. The Giants gave a whoop. "Turtle is about to surface!" they all shouted. Then Turtle turned upside down, and sunk back to the bottom, where he fell fast asleep. The Giants were besides themselves: "Turtle has drowned!" they yelled. About noon one of the Giants came up and soon after the other one surfaced. Much later, Otter came up followed by Turtle, who said, "I am so sleepy." However, he was not too sleepy to dispatch the two unfortunate Giants.
After this defeat, the Giants held a council and decided to challenge the humans to a wrestling match. When the gourd carrier challenged them, the people said, "We will not be very good at this contest." Just the same, the next morning they went over to compete against the Giants. Turtle, Redhorn, and Storms as He Walks were to wrestle against the Giants. About noon, Storms as He Walks was starting to get tired, so he called upon the Thunderbirds for aid by loud thunders. His uncle heard it, but told the other Thunderbirds, "Don't go there — after all, he said he preferred the company of humans." Without aid, Storms as He Walks could hold on no longer and was thrown to the ground. Not long afterwards, Redhorn himself was thrown, leaving only Turtle still wrestling. Turtle said, "For a long time this Giant has been trying to fall, but I have just been holding him up." Then Turtle heaved the Giant up into the air, and slammed him to the ground head first, fatally breaking his neck. However, since they lost two out of three of the contests, Turtle and his friends, including Storms as He Walks and Redhorn, were killed by the Giants.1
Commentary. "turned their sacred pipe towards him" — this is a symbolic act of supplication, and to receive the pipe is to grant the request being tendered.
"he didn't ask anyone" — it is customary to send out invitations to the best warriors to join the warparty. Of course, to succeed one needs sufficient force as well as a properly conceived plan. Turtle is doomed to failure because he has neither.
"Giantess" — this Giantess is known elsewhere as "Pretty Woman." That her hair is red suggests that in astronomical codes she may play the role of the dawn. During the time that Redhorn (Alnilam) rises with the sun (not long after the solstice), the sun and therefore the dawn are about as far north as they will get. This allies her initially with the Giants, who are North Spirits. However, since she is destined to leave the north, her allegiance to the Giants is tenuous.
"Coyote" — in "Įčorúšika and His Brothers", Wears Faces on His Ears (Redhorn) is betrayed by seven of his brothers, some of whom are coyotes.
"lacrosse" — this game throughout the Americas is replete with astronomical symbolism, which is important since Redhorn is identified with a star in Orion (judging from what is said in "Įčorúšika and His Brothers").
"the faces that formed on his earlobes" — thus Redhorn is also known as Įčo-horúšik-ka (in normal speech, Įčorúšika), "Wears Faces on His Ears."
"tongues" — the thrusting out of the tongue, which is seen as humorous, is probably of symbolic import. Redhorn in another story, wipes his tongue and cures a wound with his saliva. Elsewhere, he licks his hands before running them through hair, which has the effect of making hair longer and either red or yellow. He is He-Šuč-ka, "Red-Horn", a reference to his braid of red hair formed into a queue or scalp lock. Given the stellar character of Redhorn, the hair is almost certainly the red clouds of sunrise out of which he rises as he parts from the sun in midsummer. The clouds are not only variable in size, but at dawn are both red and yellow. So the red horn is the red clouds of sunrise when Alnilam makes its heliacal rising. The protruding tongues may have the same valence, since tongues are not only red, but are wet, just as are clouds. By assonance, the word for tongue can be tied to the word for the "fire" that is responsible for the reddening of the clouds on the horizon. The word meaning "to stick out the tongue", rezínąp, is very similar to rezínąnąp´, which means, "to blaze", rather like English with its "tongue of fire."
"Otter" — the astronomical role of Otter is that he created the largest part of the Milky Way (see The Origins of the Milky Way). In a diving contest with the Giants, the Giant came up from the water with such force that the spray created the smaller part of the Milky Way. Otter, however, came up with even greater force, creating the larger half. The Giant's half is near to the Big Dipper, which is the Marten among the Hočągara.
"Marten flew into the air" — astronomically, Marten is one and the same as the Big Dipper (Ursa Major). As a circumpolar constellation, he never sets and revolves closely around Polaris, the Pole Star. Therefore, inasmuch as Polaris is the North Star, Marten is a North Spirit, just like the Giants. He is close to the northern part of the Milky Way, the smaller part that was created by a Giant who splashed the sky as he emerged from a diving contest against Otter. Therefore, it is appropriate for Marten to be an in-law of the Giants themselves. His "flying through the air" is a way of reminding those following the esoteric code that he was put in the stars as a constellation.
"black" — Turtle calls the Giants "black" because they painted themselves from head to toe in this color. It symbolizes death.
"every time she approached him he thundered, and she would scream and jump aside" — it almost never thunders during a snow storm, so the Thunders are themselves seasonal in the same way. This statistic was tabulated for the years 1890-1900.2
|Deaths by Lightning, 1890-1900|
Seasonally, as the sun moves along the horizon (and the dawn with it) from winter to summer, it closes with the season in which thunder is found. The peak of this season is around the summer solstice. Obviously, the dark clouds of the Thunders are inimical to both the sun's light and the dawn. So as the dawn moves north, the skies thunder, she then turns around, heading back south to where the Thunders cannot reach her.
"winked" — the two faces on Redhorn's earlobes are most likely the two stars that closely flank Alnilam in Orion: Alnitak and Mintaka. Mintaka is also Kunu. Stars are commonly represented as eyes. As stars, Alnitak and Mintaka would twinkle. On the eye model, therefore, the twinkling of the stars could be represented as winking.
"she was given to Redhorn" — if the red-haired Giantess is the dawn, her defection from the Giants to become the wife of Redhorn is explained by the fact that once Redhorn parts from the sun in midsummer, the sun itself moves across the horizon moving steadily towards the south. The south is where Orion is found, and therefore the Giantess (as Dawn) has assumed the patrilocal residence of her husband.
"Redhorn" — he is chosen to compete because he is the spirit of the arrow itself.
"what would people use for arrowheads" — Turtle's remark alludes to the fact that the Hočągara made big game arrowheads out of snapping turtle claws.
"snowbirds" — these birds are, as there name indicates, prognosticators of an impending snow storm. The Giants are associated with the north and are said to be man-eaters because they contain a chunk of ice within their stomachs. The snowbirds are to the Giants as the red turtles are to Turtle.
"killed by the Giants" — this is the only time that the Giants are triumphant in the five contests (lacrosse, shooting, dice, submergence, wrestling). Storms as He Walks is a Thunderbird, and therefore embodies the rain clouds. When Storms as He Walks falls under the power of the Ice Giants (as they are sometimes called), he is allegorically under the power and domain of North Spirits. Where they live it is perpetually cold, and where a winter climate rules, the clouds neither rain nor thunder. It is as if the Thunders have been dispatched by the North Spirits who in their own land control the weather themselves. The only time that Redhorn falls under the power of the North Spirits is when he is found in the north. As we learn from "Įčorúšika and His Brothers", Wears Faces on His Ears (another name for Redhorn) is doubtless to be identified with Alnilam of the constellation Orion. Orion is normally found in the south. However, during the summer (May-June) when Orion undergoes heliacal setting and disappears altogether for a time from the sky, Orion-Redhorn is "underground" in the north. His position can be easily inferred from the position of the Milky Way, since Orion is just to the right of the galaxy. It is obvious to inspection that Orion's portion of the Milky Way is clearly in the north during this time. So the north dwelling Giants have gained control of Redhorn during the summer, and have literally thrown him to the ground. Turtle is the only one of the group whom the Giants are unable to defeat. This is because winter is the season of war, and Turtle as the founder of warfare, is quite at home in the domain of the North Spirits.
Comparative Material. The Ioway have an interesting parallel in which the Giants are replaced by a race of bears. "Human-head-earrings left this place and went on to another place where the people were tormented by a race of low built bears called Mątaswíjé who played lacrosse on the ice with the people betting their lives and killing the losers. The bears were always accompanied by their females who were so swift that the young men could not get away from them. Old Turtle was the one who played in the center, throwing the ball for the game to start. Human-head-earrings and Blackhawk hid until the former got the ball and fled, though a she bear almost caught him. One of his earbobs looked back, stuck out its tongue and made faces until the she bear laughed and blushed and finally gave up. The other bears accused her of liking Human-head-earrings so that she let him make a goal. The bears finally lost the game and were accordingly killed. After several years had elapsed another company of giants came, and by an error Blackhawk was allowed to wrestle with one of them instead of Turtle who was a great athlete. The giants won, and Human-head-earrings and his two friends were slain."3 [Next Episode]
"four circles" — After recounting in outline the story found in the Redhorn Cycle, Robert Hall draws a comparison to the myth and ritual of the Skidi Pawnee.
For attentive readers this story should start to have a familiar ring. Red Horn leads his team in defeating the giants, who are placed in four circles that are destroyed one at a time, and then marries the woman who is the champion of the giants' team. This recalls the story of the red-colored Skiri Pawnee Morning Star defeating the beasts guarding the four quarters of the earth, an act represented in the ritual of the Morning Star sacrifice (chapter 11) by the destruction of four circles, and then marrying Evening Star.4
Although Hall leans towards the idea (following Radin) that Redhorn is either Morning or Evening Star, a contention with which I disagree, the placing of the Giants into four such circles could still show Pawnee influence. The question is how much of the Pawnee context is taken along with it?
Links: Storms as He Walks, Redhorn, The Redhorn Panel of Picture Cave. An American Star Map, The Sons of Earthmaker, Pretty Woman, Turtle, Turtle Spirits, Wolf & Dog Spirits, Giants, Coyote, Otter, Thunderbirds, Snowbirds, Bird Spirits, Gourd Rattles.
Links within the Redhorn Cycle: §3. Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, §5. The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father.
Stories: mentioning Redhorn: The Redhorn Cycle, Redhorn's Sons, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Redhorn's Father, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Spirit of Gambling, The Green Man, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, cp. The Cosmic Ages of the Hočągara; featuring Giants as characters: A Giant Visits His Daughter, Turtle and the Giant, The Stone Heart, Young Man Gambles Often, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, Morning Star and His Friend, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Old Man and the Giants, Shakes the Earth, White Wolf, Redhorn's Father, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Roaster, Grandfather's Two Families, Redhorn's Sons, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, Little Human Head, Heną́ga and the Star Girl, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Sun and the Big Eater, The Big Eater, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Origins of the Milky Way, Ocean Duck, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Wears White Feather on His Head, cf. The Shaggy Mann; having Wolf as a character: Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, A Man and His Three Dogs, Redhorn's Sons, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Dogs of the Chief's Son, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Kunu's Warpath, Morning Star and His Friend, The Healing Blessing, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning coyotes: Wojijé, The Raccoon Coat, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Redhorn's Sons, Trickster and the Eagle; featuring Turtle as a character: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Turtle's Warparty, Turtle and the Giant, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Turtle and the Merchant, Redhorn's Father, Redhorn's Sons, Turtle and the Witches, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Trickster Soils the Princess, Morning Star and His Friend, Grandfather's Two Families, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Kunu's Warpath, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Skunk Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Porcupine and His Brothers, The Creation of Man, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee, The Chief of the Heroka, The Spirit of Gambling, The Nannyberry Picker, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Markings on the Moon (v. 2), The Green Man, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning turtles (other than Turtle): Turtle's Warparty, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Porcupine and His Brothers, Redhorn's Sons, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Healing Blessing, The Spider's Eyes, The Mesquaki Magician; featuring Otter as a character: Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle's Warparty, The Origins of the Milky Way, Redhorn's Sons, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2), Kunu's Warpath, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Morning Star and His Friend; mentioning otters: Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Fleetfooted Man, The Dipper, The Two Children, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle's Warparty, The Origins of the Milky Way, Redhorn's Sons, Kunu's Warpath, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Woman who Loved Her Half Brother, The Chief of the Heroka, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2), Wojijé, Holy Song II, Morning Star and His Friend, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga; with Storms as He Walks as a character: Redhorn's Sons, Kunu's Warpath, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty; mentioning snowbirds: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Redhorn's Sons; featuring Pretty Woman (or a Giant princess with red or yellow hair): Redhorn's Sons (red hair), Redhorn's Father (red hair), The Hočągara Contest the Giants (red-yellowish hair), The Roaster (yellow hair), Morning Star and His Friend; mentioning Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Thunderbird and White Horse, Bluehorn's Nephews, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (vv. 1, 2), The Man who was a Reincarnated Thunderbird, The Thunder Charm, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Story of the Thunder Names, The Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Brave Man, Ocean Duck, Turtle's Warparty, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Quail Hunter, Heną́ga and the Star Girl, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn's Sons, The Dipper, The Stone that Became a Frog, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, The Spirit of Gambling, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Aračgéga's Blessings, Kunu's Warpath, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Glory of the Morning, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Big Stone, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Song to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning lacrosse (kísik): Redhorn's Father, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Morning Star and His Friend, The Roaster, Redhorn's Sons, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister, The Shaggy Man, How the Thunders Met the Nights; mentioning drums: The Descent of the Drum, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Buffalo's Walk, The Spirit of Maple Bluff, Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 5), Young Man Gambles Often, Trickster and the Dancers, Redhorn's Father, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Elk's Skull, Ghosts, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Great Walker's Medicine, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 1b), Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, Trickster and the Geese, Turtle's Warparty, Snowshoe Strings, Ocean Duck, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Hog's Adventures, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts.
Themes: Turtle agrees to avenge the losses of those who have petitioned his aid as a warrior: Trickster Soils the Princess, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Turtle and the Witches; Turtle leads a warparty out immediately, without any planning or approval: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse; contests with the Giants: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Redhorn's Father, White Wolf, The Roaster, Young Man Gambles Often, Little Human Head, Redhorn's Sons, Morning Star and His Friend, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, Sun and the Big Eater, The Big Eater, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Old Man and the Giants, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Shakes the Earth, The Origins of the Milky Way, The Shaggy Man, Grandfather's Two Families; a being has red hair: Redhorn's Sons, Redhorn's Father, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (vv. 1 & 2), The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Heną́ga and the Star Girl, A Wife for Knowledge, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle; : The Journey to Spiritland (hill, willows, reeds, smoke, stones, haze), The Gottschall Head (mouth), The Chief of the Heroka (clouds, side of Forked Man), The Red Man (face, sky, body, hill), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (neck, nose, painted stone), Redhorn's Father (leggings, stone sphere, hair), The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father (hair, body paint, arrows), Wears White Feather on His Head (man), The Birth of the Twins (turkey bladder headdresses), The Two Boys (elk bladder headdresses), Trickster and the Mothers (sky), Rich Man, Boy, and Horse (sky), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Spirit), Bluehorn Rescues His Sister (buffalo head), Wazųka (buffalo head headdress), The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (horn), The Brown Squirrel (protruding horn), Bear Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Deer Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (stick at grave), Pigeon Clan Origins (Thunderbird lightning), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (eyes), Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (scalp, woman's hair), The Race for the Chief's Daughter (hair), The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy (hair), Redhorn Contests the Giants (hair), Redhorn's Sons (hair), The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle (hair), A Wife for Knowledge (hair), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (hair), The Hočągara Contest the Giants (hair of Giantess), A Man and His Three Dogs (wolf hair), The Red Feather (plumage), The Man who was Blessed by the Sun (body of Sun), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (body of the Warrior Clan Chief), Red Bear, Eagle Clan Origin Myth (eagle), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (Waterspirit armpits), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Waterspirits), The Roaster (body paint), The Man who Defied Disease Giver (red spot on forehead), The Wild Rose (rose), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (warclub), Įčorúšika and His Brothers (ax & packing strap), Hare Kills Flint (flint), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head (edges of flint knives), The Nannyberry Picker (leggings), The Seduction of Redhorn's Son (cloth), Yųgiwi (blanket); a spirit has faces on each earlobe: The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Dipper (hummingbirds), Redhorn's Father, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Morning , The Hočągara Contest the Giants; a challenger comes shaking a gourd rattle: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Roaster, Grandfather's Two Families, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, White Wolf; shooting claws: The Claw Shooter, Mijistéga and the Sauks, Battle of the Night Blessed Men and the Medicine Rite Men; birds used as implements in a game of chance: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Roaster, The Spirit of Gambling, Redhorn's Sons; turtles used as implements in a game of chance: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Redhorn's Sons, The Roaster; Turtle acts improperly to influence in his favor the outcome of a game of chance: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Spirit of Gambling, Redhorn's Sons; people make a lot of noise in order to divert someone from his goal: The Four slumbers Origin Myth, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Trickster and the Geese, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse; certain spirits help the Giants in a (lacrosse) game with human lives at stake because they have married Giant women: Redhorn's Father, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Morning Star and His Friend, Redhorn's Sons.; a Giant (Wągeručge) princess has her game disturbed by her attraction to a hero: The Roaster, Redhorn's Father, Morning Star and His Friend, Redhorn's Sons; marriage to a Giant: A Giant Visits His Daughter, The Stone Heart, A Giant Visits His Daughter, Young Man Gambles Often, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Roaster, Redhorn's Sons, Redhorn's Father, White Wolf; Turtle remains submerged under water for a very long time: Porcupine and His Brothers; a (spirit) animal uses one of its body parts as an arrow(head): Porcupine and His Brothers; Turtle is killed: The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty; a hero and his friends are killed because the Giants are victorious in a wrestling match: White Wolf.
1 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 123-129.
2 Arthur Judson Henry, "Loss of Life and Property by Lightning," in Lightning and Electricity of Air; in 2 Parts, Weather Bureau Bulletin, #26 (Part II), Weather Bureau Document #197 (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Weather Bureau, 1899) 45-74 .
3 "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 .
4 Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) 149.