The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy

Translation by Oliver LaMère


(1) There was a village and the chief was there, and the chief had a son whom he kept in a partition. He never would go around. He would go out only for necessities. Then the chief said one day, "My son, all young men of your size are roaming around, why don't you also visit around," he said to him, and the son said, "It is true, but why should I?" he said, but he would say it to him again. Four times he said that to him.

One day, as he went out, he kept on going and looking over the country. He rather enjoyed it. And he thought thus: "This must be the reason my father always wants me to go about, but I never did it," he thought. He enjoyed it but there he turned back. On his way back, some one whistled to him, so he stopped there and looked all around him, but he could not see anything, so he came on again. But they said it to him again, the second time. So he stopped there again, but he could not see anyone. He started on again, and again they said it to him. "How can this be?" he thought, so there he stopped again and looked around, but he could not see anyone. (5) So he started to walk on again. Again the fourth time they said it to him, but he could not see anyone, so he walked on towards home. Then someone said, "They don't seem to pay any attention to me, but still I keep on teasing," it said. He looked around and there unexpectedly, stood a woman. She was a very handsome woman. She was very white, and her hair was very red, and her face was very round, and her eyes were very dark. Thus she was. He liked her very much. Then he said, "I did not tell you to do anything you wished," he said. Then the woman said, "If you have no objection, let's go home," she said to him. "All right! I am willing," he said.

So he went home with her. They went up above. Finally, there they came to a long lodge. There they entered. She had ten brothers, and this was their lodge. It was evening when they arrived there. One after another, they began to bring home something. They would thank her as they came home. Some would bring large snakes with them, and some of them brought tree dwellers, and some brought other things. Then these they boiled and ate. Then the woman also boiled something. When she had it cooked, she dished out some for him. It was beans without backs and very small dried corn mixed with blueberries. This was what she dished out for him. There the man ate thus. Then, again the (10) next morning they all went away, and in the evening they began to return again each with something. Thus they would always do. Finally, as he got used to them, he would go about the country some and look at the country.

One day he shot one of his arrows there and it came down into a spring of water and the blue earth in it was very good. It was very blue. He took some and painted himself with it, and he enjoyed it so much that he stayed around there. Then he thought that his brothers-in-laws must be home, so he started home. Sure enough, when he came near home he heard their voices. When he entered they said, "Oh my, brother-in-law, it is good. Oh my, is it possible? It is good." He did not know why they said it. So he went and sat down. Then they asked him again, where it was, but he did not know what they were talking about. Then he said, "I do not know what you are talking about," he said. Then they said to him, "Brother-in-law, you have killed a beaver," they said to him. "I did not kill anything," he answered. "Brother-in-law, you have killed one. If you have not killed it, you have at least found one. We are very fond of them, but we are not able to find them," they said. "The paint that you have painted your face with is beaver dung. You have found a beaver," they said to him. "Is that so?" he said. "There was a spring and the mud was so blue (15) that I put some of it on my cheek, I did not know that it was that kind when I did it," he said. "Ah, it is good," they said to him. Then the next morning he went to show them where it was. Then there was a small hill and he pointed it out to them and said, "That is it." Then he brothers-in-law said, "Let us surround him as they are very shy, and let our brother-in-law shoot it himself," they said. So he went and waited for it at the spring and they lent him one of their warclubs. It was burnt black here and there. It was a flat one. "You must not hit him very hard," they told him. Then they went about the hill and at the spring a large one appeared. He made a motion to hit him with the warclub, and it made a great noise and he knocked it over. He had killed it. They came and thanked him. "It is good, brother-in-law! This is the only rare thing, of all the animals that we eat, and furthermore we are not able to kill them." He said it because it was big. There they dressed it, and packed it home. When they got home the women thanked him again very much. Then they said, "Now then, let us eat with our parents," they said.

So, where the Thunder village was, there they started for with their Waterspirit. They arrived there. "Oh my, our children have returned from their hunting camps," they said. "They also come home with a human," they said. (20) Then in the middle of the village was a long lodge, and there they went and entered. "Oh my, our children have returned," they said. Then they told of it. "This one our sister has married. Shortly after she came home with him, he killed a beaver, so we came home that we might eat together, we said," they said. "Ah, my children, it is good. You have dreamt. The humans are clever," they said. Right away they went and got the attendants and the kettles were put on right away. Then the inviter went around and invited people and the lodge became full already. Then when the old man talked, there he told that his son-in-law was the cause of the feast, that he had killed a beaver, and that he (the chief) wished to eat with them, is why he did it, he said. They responded in a chorus. Then the attendants dished out for them. There they ate very much. When they were through eating, they all thanked them. Then from that time on they lived in the village.

Then again one day, as he was out shooting arrows, there again was a nice spring of water on the top of a little hill. The white foam was so nice there he painted his arrows with it. Then he came back in the evening. When he came back into the lodge, they noticed it right away. They all began to thank him at once. "It is good, son-in-law. Wherever it is, that is what we always long for. What a great thing," they said. His brothers-in-law also thanked him. Then again, in the morning (25) he went to point it out to them. When they came near in sight of it, he pointed it out to them. They are very shy, so let us surround it and head it off," they said. "And also let our brother-in-law kill it himself," they said. And they lent him a warclub again. Then he went and waited for it at the spring. Then when they scarred it up, it came up at the spring. There again he killed it. He made a great noise. Then they dressed it. They skinned it. They packed it on their backs and came home. Finally, they packed it home. When they came with it, there was quite a commotion and a great deal of noise. "The human has killed another beaver," they would say. Then when they got home, right away again they went after the attendants, and they put on the kettles. The inviter was around and even now the lodge was filled. Then they feasted. When they were through they thanked him very much again. After this was done, he did the same thing again afterwards. As he knew them well enough by this time, so afterwards when he found one, he would paint his face with the blue mud, when it was very blue. And so if it was very white, it would be the same. It would be a Waterspirit home. So after awhile he did nothing but look for Waterspirits.

Finally, a child was born to him. It grew very fast and when it was able to walk (30), then the old man said, "Now then, my daughter, they have been here for a long time. About now, perhaps, they are lonesome for him where he came from, so about now you should go back with him, my daughter," he said. Then the woman came to be a daughter-in-law among the humans. Finally, when they got near home, there at a little hill near the village, he left his wife. There he went on home alone. When he got home, unexpectedly, the village was in low spirits. They were in mourning, and unexpectedly he entered his home. They were very surprised. They had given him up for dead, but he had come back and they were very thankful. The criers went about the village to announce his return. Then he said, "My first born is over here," so his sisters ran over there. When they got there, there a woman was sitting. When they got very near her, she turned around suddenly and looked at them and there was a great noise. The women were very much frightened, but that was the only time she did it. Then they went home with her. When they arrived home with her, they were very fond of the child. They passed it from one to the other, and would never let him down. The only time it would get to its mother was when it wanted to nurse. One day they gave the daughter-in-law presents of white deerskin, tobacco, red feathers, and dogs. These they placed before her. She was very thankful, and she took them out in the wilderness where the ground is pure. There they came after them. There the Thunder villagers (35) had much enjoyment.

After some time had elapsed, the man was walking about alone and he was whispered to again. He stopped and looked around, but he could not see anything, so he went on again, and again he was whispered to. So he stopped again and looked around, but he could not see anything. He walked on again, and it was said to him again, so he stopped again, and looked about, but he could see nothing. The fourth time it was said to him, but he could not see anything, so he started to walk on again, and then someone talked. It was a woman that said, "Ah, why do I say it? He doesn't like me, so he didn't look at me. When I first said it and failed, I should have given it up," she said. The woman that stood there was very handsome. He thought his wife was handsome, but she was not in it with this one. He just thought his wife an old woman. Then he said, "I could not see you. Whatever you may have to say, you are irrepressible," he said. Then the woman said, "You always listen to your wife. You are afraid of her. Therefore, that I wish you would not do," she said. And the man said, "What benefit do I get from her that I should fear her in whatever I would do?" he said, and the woman said, "Then let us go home." "All right," said he, and went home with her. There, finally, they came to a long lodge and they entered it. (40) After awhile, one came from hunting. Thus they commenced to do. There were ten men that returned. They were the woman's brothers. The men were thankful. "It is good, our young sister, that a human should like you and that he has married you. It is good our brother-in-law that you have blessed us and have married our young sister. It is good," they said. There he remained. One day he took his arrows and was going around looking over the country, and there he came to a spring of water and the mud in it was nice and blue, so he rubbed some on his cheeks and in the evening about the time that his brothers-in-law would be home, then he returned home. When he got home and entered the lodge, they all began to thank him. "It is good our brother-in-law, wherever we are, we long for these animals. It is good," they said. Then the next morning, he went to show them where it was. There on a little hill which they came in sight of, there he pointed it out to them. "That is it," he said. "All right, let us surround it, as they are very shy," they said. They also said, "Let our brother-in-law kill it himself. Lend him a warclub," they said. So they lent him one. They lent him a warclub that was burnt here and there. Then to the spring he went and waited for it. Then when they went around the hill, it tried to come out from the spring and get away, but he killed it, and when his brothers-in-law came there, they dressed it and packed it on their backs and went home. When they got home, the woman was very thankful. Then the men said, (45) "Let us go home that our village might be thankful also, as we have never been able to get this kind before. Let us partake of it with our parents, as they also must long for it," they said. "All right, Let us do that," they said.

So there they went home. Finally, they came to a large village. When they entered the village and they were seen, they were very happy. "The chief's children have returned! The chiefs have returned and they have come home with a human," they kept saying, and in the middle of the village was a long lodge, there they went and entered. "Oh my, the children have returned," said two old people that were there. And they thanked them for the human. "It is good daughter that this human should marry you instead of disliking you. It is good. You have surely dreamed. The humans are the cleverest. It is good my son-in-law that you have blessed us. That you have done this we have dreamt in broad daylight," he was saying. Then the men said, "Father and mother, the human killed a beaver and we came right home. As we never have anything of that kind, we said so. We brought it home," they said. "Oh my, it is good, " the old man said, and began to thank him some more. "Now then, we are not the only ones, so let your people be thankful also. So send for the attendant," he said. So they went after the attendant, (50) and right away he had the kettles on, and the inviter was out and the lodge became full, and they all thanked him, and when they were through and all had gone away, then they boiled over for the son-in-law. They boiled him dried corn mixed with fruit and beans without backs.

Then again one day, he took his arrows and went away. He started from the village. As they remained in the village since their return to it, he was going about there and unexpectedly there was a little hill which he went on top of and there was a spring of water and there was very white foam in it. There he painted his arrows with some of it. Then he went home in the evening. He wandered about till evening, then he came in and right ways they saw it. Again they began to thank him all at once. Right away in the morning, he went to show them where it was. When they came in sight of it, he pointed it out to them. "That is it," he told his brothers-in-law. Then they said, "Now then, we will have to surround it as they are very shy," they said. And then their brother-in-law they lent a warclub to. Then at the spring he waited for it. Then when they went about on the hill, he tried to come out at the spring, but there he killed him. Then when they got there, they thanked him. There they cut it up, and packed it on their backs and went home. (55) When they got to the village there was much noise made. "The princess' husband has killed a beaver," they said. When they got home, right away they went and got the attendants and as soon as they came, they put on the kettles, and the inviter was out and already the lodge was filled. Then they feasted very much. When the feast was over, there was much thanking. When they were through and all had left, then the son-in-law, they would cook for. Dried corn with fruit and beans without backs, that kind they would boil for him. Thus he would do. He would kill Waterspirits. When he killed one, they would thank him very much and he liked it, so finally he would do nothing but hunt for them. Finally, the woman gave birth to a child. She had a boy. Then when he was able to walk, then the woman's father said, "Now then, my daughter, even now the son-in-law has stayed a long time. Where he came from, there they must be lonesome for him. So it is about time my daughter that you went there, wherever he is from," he said. Then they got them ready and they started home.

Finally, when they got home, the woman remained a little distance away and the man went on home alone. When he got home, they were happy. Then he said, "My first born (60) is over there on the way," he said, so his sister ran over and they came home with her. The women were very delighted with her. They were very friendly to her, they treated her as a sister. Then they made the woman some presents of tobacco, white deerskin, red feathers very much they placed before her. She thanked them very much, then she placed them on top of the lodge at night. In the morning they were gone.

And again the man was out in the wilderness and someone hissed to him four times, and there he saw a woman who was very pretty. His wives were very pretty it seemed, but this one was even better. There again he went home with her, and it was the same as before. She had ten brothers, and he stayed there a long time, but he was not reported as killing anything there. He was at the Waterspirits' land this time, it is said. So when he had a child there, he came home. Again he came home with a baby that was able to walk very lively. The third one, and the fourth time he did the same again.

He went to the wilderness and there he was hissed to the fourth time. And it was a woman that said it. With this one again, he went home, and again they got home to a long lodge. And the woman had ten brothers. There again he stayed for some time. He was not reported as killing anything. Finally, the woman gave birth to a child and then they (65) went home. Again, when they got near home, the woman remained at a short distance and the man went on alone. When he got home and told them that he had brought a woman, then they came after her again. They were all there now, all of his four wives. Then the last one that he came home with they gave presents to of tobacco, white deerskin, and red feathers. They gave her very much.

The women always treated one another with great respect. Finally, one of the Thunder women got jealous, saying that he paid her the least attention. Finally, she said it right out to him and the others began to say the same. Thus they began to say until finally they had a fight. The Thunder woman and the Waterspirit woman finally they all got into it. The Thunder woman and the Night woman took each other's part and the two Spirit women also took each other's part. Finally they tore up the lodge. As they were great spirits therefore the humans did not dare try to stop them. Finally, their brothers came. There they stopped their sisters. There they stopped and they said to their brother-in-law, "Now then, brother-in-law, whichever you like, you will have your own choice, as you can marry but one of them, and with her you will go through life. As it is, it will not do. They will do (70) some mischief if you keep on this way, and if they harm one another, it will not be good," they said. And the man chose the Waterspirit woman. Therefore, the Thunders could not get along with the Waterspirits as they are jealous of one another. They desire to kill one another whenever two of them meet, they would start in to fight right there, and they would fight until one or the other was killed. Therefore, among the humans it is the same. Jealousy is the strongest hatred. It is said, "Therefore, whenever two women marry one man, they will surely get jealous and fight one another, because even these were great spirit women, but they could not hold out," it is said. And therefore, it is said that it is hard for two women to marry one man, it is said. Whenever one of the women gets a lot of the presents it is reported and then they would think, "Even she has done this," they would think, and that would start it. Even in the beginning, therefore, these are the thoughts that all think and get jealous. When two women marry one man, there was where jealousy started, it is said. Therefore, whoever marries, they always have trouble over jealousy, it is said.

The end.1


Commentary. "a partition" — people who are raised behind a partition are thought to be very holy, usually a spirit incarnate.

"whistled" — elsewhere, this is usually described as "blowing air between the teeth," a kind of hissing. It is considered rude. However, much of teasing is done with verbal rudeness. If the person is a "joking relative" no offense should be taken under any circumstances, but otherwise it would be treated as an insult. This kind of teasing by utterance is called ražič. In courtship both parties often practice ražič. The stem žič not only means, "to tease, show disrespect," but it also means, "to court."

"she was very white, and her hair was very red, and her face was very round, and her eyes were very dark"— the description of the Thunderbird woman is in some ways surprising, as she seems to have attributes that are more appropriate to night, or even lunar; the exception being her red hair. However, such women are the brides exclusively of the Nightspirits, which may explain their nocturnal attributes.

"some would bring large snakes with them, and some of them brought tree dwellers" — these are holy animals. In fact the word waką, which denotes snakes, also means "holy." The "tree dwellers" (noči) are frightening quasi-mythological creatures conventionally called "Woodspirits" (Wakaį́čųna), whose eyes glow in the dark. They are said to look rather like cats except that they have two small horns on their heads. They dwell in trees. If a person sets eyes upon one of these creatures, even in a dream, some ill fortune will befall him.

"very small dried corn mixed with blueberries" — to contemporary sensibilities this may seem a bit unpalatable, but in the old days it was considered one of the very best foods, especially if served with bear ribs.

"blue" — this is the special color of Waterspirits, being the conventional color of water. The Hočąk word is čo, which denotes both blue and green at once (sometimes called "bleen" or "grue").

"beaver dung" — by "dung" is meant a precipitate. Normally, the white calcium carbonate of caves is said to be Waterspirit dung, but the blue mud is also a precipitate and may be so called as well. Thunderbirds call Waterspirits "beaver."

"a small hill" — holy beings who are present on earth typically live in mounds or hills.

"burnt black" — this is the Thunderbird Warclub, which is an alloform of the lightning weapon, and is therefore burnt.

"in the middle of the village" — the chief's lodge is located in the middle of the village because that is the safest place to be in the event of an attack.

"they are lonesome" — residence is patrilocal, so after the completion of son-in-law service, the woman's father speaks in this formulaic way as a polite way of recognizing that it is time for his son-in-law to return to his people.

"she turned around suddenly and looked at them and there was a great noise" — the Thunders can shoot lightning from their eyes, which explains why there was a great noise when she looked at them.

"they gave the daughter-in-law presents of white deerskin, tobacco, red feathers, and dogs" — the presents are the full suite of offerings made to Thunderbirds and other spirits of note, especially when their aid is being solicited.

"in the wilderness where the ground is pure" — such sacrifices, which are abandoned in the wilderness, were called nąbiruǧáč. There they will have been mystically translated to the Thunder village whence she had come, after the fashion peculiar to all sacred offerings and sacrifices.

"very handsome" — this is a Nightspirit woman. Inasmuch as she is associated with the night sky, she is bound to be very beautiful.

"blessed us" — we learn from this story and a few others that while we tend to think of blessing as unidirectional from spirits to humans, it is in fact more of a reciprocal relationship. The offerings made by humans are a blessing to the spirits. Furthermore, spirits have a kind of intellectual blind spot that makes humans seem clever by comparison. This includes the human's ability to find Waterspirits for the Thunders and Nights. To give them this special food is a great blessing to these spirits. Therefore, in certain restricted ways, the humans are to the spirits as the spirits are to the humans.

"a warclub that was burnt" — the club that the Nightspirits use was given to them by their in-laws, the Thunderbirds.

"the attendant" — this is usually the man's nephews (sister's sons). They are responsible for setting up the feast and even supplying the food through hunting, although in this case the son-in-law has already done that. Supplying food was considered the normal obligation of son-in-law service. This service took the place of the bride price paid in other cultures.

"the inviter" — the attending a feast was by invitation only, so the inviter was sent out to each person who was asked to attend.

"on top of the lodge at night" — the Nightspirit woman places her offerings atop the lodge at night, since she is making the offering to the Nighspirits who travel the sky at that time.

"this one was even better" — Waterspirit women are considered perhaps the most beautiful of all. This may be due to the reflection seen on a still blue pond.

"the Thunder woman and the Waterspirit woman" — in Hočąk society, all marriage is between couples from opposite moieties. The Upper Moiety contains the Bird Clans (Thunderbird, Eagle, Hawk, Pigeon), the Lower Moiety contains all the rest (Buffalo, Bear, Wolf, Deer, Elk, Waterspirit, Fish, Snake). The moiety split reflects the split between the Above World and the Below World, reflected most radically in the opposition between Thunderbird and Waterspirit. The story is trying to show that those who ignore the natural divide between moieties or their corresponding worlds, is heading for conflict.

"they stopped their sisters" — brothers play the role of protectors. Sisters and daughters are referred to as "our women" even after they are married. Sisters have to recognize the authority of their brothers.

"among the humans it is the same" — the story argues for monogamy, although men have the right to marry any number of women. A man with many wives is thought to be greedy, but this story stresses that he also will live in a stressful environment.


Links: Thunderbirds, Waterspirits, Nightspirits.


Stories: featuring white faced (lunar) women: The Woman Who Became an Ant, The Roaster; mentioning Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Thunderbird and White Horse, Bluehorn's Nephews, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (vv. 1, 2), The Man who was a Reincarnated Thunderbird, The Thunder Charm, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Story of the Thunder Names, The Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Brave Man, Ocean Duck, Turtle's Warparty, The Quail Hunter, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn's Sons, The Dipper, The Stone that Became a Frog, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, The Spirit of Gambling, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Aračgéga's Blessings, Kunu's Warpath, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Glory of the Morning, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Big Stone, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Song to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning Nightspirits: The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga, The Big Stone, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Fourth Universe, Battle of the Night Blessed Men and the Medicine Rite Men, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Ocean Duck, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Sun and the Big Eater; about the interrelationship between Thunderbirds and Nightspirits: How the Thunders Met the Nights, Ocean Duck, The Big Stone, Sun and the Big Eater, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga; in which Waterspirits occur as characters: Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Green Waterspirit of Wisconsin Dells, The Lost Child, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Bluehorn's Nephews, Holy One and His Brother, The Seer, The Nannyberry Picker, The Creation of the World (vv. 1, 4), Šųgepaga, The Sioux Warparty and the Waterspirit of Green Lake, The Waterspirit of Lake Koshkonong, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Devil's Lake — How it Got its Name, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Waterspirits Keep the Corn Fields Wet, The Diving Contest, The Lost Blanket, Redhorn's Sons, The Phantom Woman, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Great Walker's Warpath, White Thunder's Warpath, The Descent of the Drum, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, Snowshoe Strings, The Thunderbird, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (v. 2), The Two Children, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, Waruǧápara, Ocean Duck, The Twin Sisters, Trickster Concludes His Mission, The King Bird, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Great Walker's Medicine (v. 2), Heną́ga and the Star Girl, Peace of Mind Regained, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Spiritual Descent of John Rave's Grandmother, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Shaggy Man, The Woman who Married a Snake (?), Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Sacred Lake, Lost Lake; mentioning red feathers (as an offering to the spirits): The Red Feather, Bear Clan Origin Myth (v. 4), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, The Elk's Skull, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Great Walker's Medicine, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Twins Visit Their Father's Village, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Were-fish (v. 1), Disease Giver; mentioning springs: Trail Spring, Vita Spring, Merrill Springs, Big Spring and White Clay Spring, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, Bear Clan Origin Myth, vv. 6, 8, Bird Clan Origin Myth, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, Bluehorn's Nephews, Blue Mounds, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Lost Child, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Wild Rose, The Omahas who turned into Snakes, The Two Brothers, Snowshoe Strings, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Nannyberry Picker, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, The Two Boys, Waruǧápara, Wazųka, The Man Who Fell from the Sky, Turtle and the Witches.


Themes: the chief's son lives behind a partition in the lodge and never goes outside except out of necessity: Ocean Duck; a being has red hair: Redhorn's Sons, Redhorn's Father, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (vv. 1 & 2), The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, A Wife for Knowledge, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle; red as a symbolic color: The Journey to Spiritland (hill, willows, reeds, smoke, stones, haze), The Gottschall Head (mouth), The Chief of the Heroka (clouds, side of Forked Man), The Red Man (face, sky, body, hill), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (neck, nose, painted stone), Redhorn's Father (leggings, stone sphere, hair), The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father (hair, body paint, arrows), Wears White Feather on His Head (man), The Birth of the Twins (turkey bladder headdresses), The Two Boys (elk bladder headdresses), Trickster and the Mothers (sky), Rich Man, Boy, and Horse (sky), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Spirit), Bluehorn Rescues His Sister (buffalo head), Wazųka (buffalo head headdress), The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (horn), The Brown Squirrel (protruding horn), Bear Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Deer Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (stick at grave), Pigeon Clan Origins (Thunderbird lightning), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (eyes), Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (scalp, woman's hair), The Race for the Chief's Daughter (hair), Redhorn Contests the Giants (hair), Redhorn's Sons (hair), The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle (hair), A Wife for Knowledge (hair), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (hair), The Hočągara Contest the Giants (hair of Giantess), A Man and His Three Dogs (wolf hair), The Red Feather (plumage), The Man who was Blessed by the Sun (body of Sun), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (body of the Warrior Clan Chief), Red Bear, Eagle Clan Origin Myth (eagle), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (Waterspirit armpits), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Waterspirits), The Roaster (body paint), The Man who Defied Disease Giver (red spot on forehead), The Wild Rose (rose), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (warclub), Įčorúšika and His Brothers (ax & packing strap), Hare Kills Flint (flint), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head (edges of flint knives), The Nannyberry Picker (leggings), The Seduction of Redhorn's Son (cloth), Yųgiwi (blanket); a girl grows up with numerous (nine or ten) brothers as her only siblings: The Chief of the Heroka, Little Human Head, The Shaggy Man, Waruǧápara, The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2); an unseen creature hisses (blows puffs of air) at someone: Wears White Feather on His Head, The Man who went to the Upper and Lower Worlds, The Brown Squirrel, The Dipper, Hare Kills a Man with a Cane; a human being physically travels to Spiritland without having died: The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Sunset Point, Snowshoe Strings, The Thunderbird, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Star Husband, White Wolf, Waruǧápara, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Shaggy Man, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Aračgéga's Blessings, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, The Lost Blanket, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Boy who would be Immortal, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, Rainbow and the Stone Arch (v. 2), Trickster Concludes His Mission; a human joins up with the Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Waruǧapara, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Dipper; powerful spirits eat snakes (even though they are sacred): The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Two Boys, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Dipper; a spirit has a (fasting) dream of a human: White Wolf, The Thunderbird; a human marries a spirit: The Thunderbird (a Thunderbird), How the Thunders Met the Nights (a Nightspirit), The Shaggy Man (a Bear Spirit), White Wolf (a Wolf Spirit), The Woman who Married a Snake (a Snake Spirit), The Star Husband (stars), Little Human Head (a Louse Spirit), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (Buffalo Spirit), The Phantom Woman (Waterspirit); marriage to a yųgiwi (princess): The Nannyberry Picker, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, The Big Stone, Partridge's Older Brother, Redhorn's Sons, The Seduction of Redhorn's Son, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, The Roaster, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, The Two Boys, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Shaggy Man, The Thunderbird, The Red Feather, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, The Birth of the Twins (v. 3), Trickster Visits His Family, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, Redhorn's Father, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Morning Star and His Friend, Thunderbird and White Horse, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Shakes the Earth, The Nightspirits Bless Čiwoit’éhiga; a mortal is an affine of the Thunderbirds: The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (v. 3); a human has an easy time hunting something that the spirits find hard to get: Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, The Thunderbird, Waruǧápara, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds; a man pleases his father-in-law with his hunting prowess: The Thunderbird, Little Human Head, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle; powerful spirits refer to strong animals by names denoting smaller and weaker animals: How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Two Boys, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Waruǧápara, The Thunderbird, The Lost Blanket, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, Redhorn's Sons (cf. the inverse theme, Buffalo Spirits calling grass "bears" in, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle); a Waterspirit that has been killed for food is called a "beaver" by spirits: The Thunderbird, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Waruǧápara, The Twins Disobey Their Father, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, Bluehorn's Nephews; a mortal is returned to earth from the spirit village that he is visiting: Waruǧápara, The Thunderbird, Two Roads to Spiritland, The Shaggy Man, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Snowshoe Strings, White Wolf, The Foolish Hunter, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Petition to Earthmaker; when someone who had been missing for a long time returns to his village, he finds that they are in mourning over his presumed death: Ocean Duck; in human form, Waterspirit women are extraordinarily beautiful: The Phantom Woman, The Nannyberry Picker, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (v. 2); polygamy: Bladder and His Brothers (v. 2), The Spotted Grizzly Man, The Green Man, Wazųka, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Markings on the Moon, Redhorn's Sons, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, Hare Kills Sharp Elbow, Hare Gets Swallowed, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister, The Spirit of Gambling; a human lives with Waterspirits:The Nannyberry Picker, The King Bird, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Phantom Woman; jealousy: The Diving Contest, Hog's Adventures, Wazųka, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, The Fleetfooted Man, Bluehorn's Nephews, Redhorn's Sons, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Lost Blanket; the war between Thunderbirds and Waterspirits: Traveler and the Thunderbird War, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Brave Man, The Lost Blanket, Ocean Duck, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, The Thunderbird, Heną́ga and the Star Girl, Waruǧápara, Bluehorn's Nephews.


Notes

1 Paul Radin, "The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) #44: 1 - 74.