Young Man Gambles Often (Hočįčįwaki'ųk'ega)


Hočąk Syllabic Text with an English Translation


(1) There a village lay. It was also the seat of the chief. The chief had twenty children, ten males and ten females. And the parents were old. They were done having children. Now they were very old, but in the course of time, (2) the old woman was again pregnant. Finally, she gave birth. Unexpectedly, she gave birth to a boy. The second generation were very fond of him. And as thing were thus, in the course of time, he had already gone about walking, and he was full of mischief. And then when he was able to go out with the boys, (3) he would not return home. He would sleep over.

And in time Kunu, the son of the chief, said, "I know something: my brothers, my sisters, this little brother of ours, he should be the chief; he should have charge of the village; they may call him, 'Naxixununika (Youngest Son), Our Own Chief,' they shall always call him," he said. (4) Ever since that time, that is the way they have called him. "Youngest Son, Our Own Chief," they would call him. He never slept at the lodge. He would continue in as many places as he went. Only once in awhile would he go back there. (5) Now having stood, leaning on the central lodge pole, there he remained until he would go out again.

Finally, again when he at last grew old enough to gamble, after he knew it, he gambled. Everything he was wearing they won from him here. Then he went back. (6) Again he stood leaning against the center lodge pole. He was completely naked. Only a little thing was tied to him as he entered. "Hąhó, what have you done again, Youngest Son, Our Own Chief," they said. Then he told them that they had won. Then Kunu gave him all the things he owned. Then they put plenty of clothing on him. (7) Then he just disappeared again. He went back. He was gambling again. Again he lost everything. Again when he returned there, Hénaga (Second Born) gave him all the things that he had. He also made clothing for him. Again he went forth. Already he was doing a great deal of gambling again. (8) Finally, he lost everything. When at the lodge again, once more Hágaga (Third Born) gave him all the things that he had. He also made clothing for him. Again they won it all. Thus he kept on and as many things as his elder brothers had, all these they won from him. And again they won all the things that his parents had also. (9) Again as many things the women placed with them as they had, all these they won from him. Finally, then, all the good dishes that they had, all these he also lost.

Then someone made a date to go on the warpath. The Youngest Son was not anything much. Hágaga went everywhere with him. (10) Consequently, he abandoned gambling. He was really anxious for it. He was always going around with the one with whom he had made the date to go on the warpath. And finally, when he was ready to go, this one which they do (Farewell Dance), they did very much. Youngest Son, he himself was beating the oval drum. "Koté, Our Own Chief does not step much in the dance," they said. (11) Then they started out. On the way they stopped. As they were going to count up the number, there Youngest Son got up and said, "My dear young men, I am going to say something," he said. "Hąhó," they said. (12) Then he said, "I know this thing: all of these are young men, as many as there are, and as many helpless old people as there are have been left behind. Something may befall them — I think this is not the way. I don't think it's good to leave them thus. It is good if some stay at home, I think. (13) If some should come upon them here at this place of lodges, they would all be killed, I think, so half of the young men should stay at the lodges, I think. All these things are too much and besides how will they [the enemy] be enough for us? As many as should not go, I will call out their names," he said. Then he started to call out the names. (14) He called out as many as gambled regularly, the ones who habitually gambled. "That's about half at least," he said.

Some were sorry, but he was their chief and there was no help for it. When he got ready to come home with them, he had a talk with all his brothers. (15) He asked them what sort of thing that they alone liked best. They told him. Then they came home. He returned home with exactly half of them. He was saying, "Kote-e-e! this is something good that we are doing. How are they going to be enough for us? These are a bit much; but we can gamble. We can do it," he was saying. (16) "Okay," they said to him. They bore pain in their hearts, but they said that to him anyway. Then when they got back, sure enough already they started to gamble. It was good as he began to win. He returned it. Everything that had been lost, he got it back for them and would do it over again. (17) Then he placed before them hanging back on the wall where his brothers resided, whatever sort of thing that they liked. Again he put back for the women all the kinds of things that they liked. And also what he lost of his parent's he won it all and more. (18) Then he gave it back to them and played again.

Then finally one day the men came back giving the victory whoop. Youngest Son ran over to them. Unexpectedly, in front was his brother Kunu carrying the Warbundle. There he undressed. He rubbed himself with mud and he said, "My dear older brothers, (19) let me carry it for you," he said. There he carried it, the Warbundle. They came and went around the village. Unexpectedly, in the lead Youngest Son was carrying the Warbundle. "Korá! What a bad fellow he is. If he knew such as this, why did he turn back with us," they said. (20) The gamblers were the ones who said it. They did the Victory Dance a lot. When his older brothers got back to the lodge, unexpectedly, the things that they liked best were stuck between the wall and the lodge poles. They were very thankful. When the Victory Dance was over, again right away he already began to gamble. (21) He was winning all the time, then he would give it back to them and play with them again.

Then again one day, one of them set a date to go on the warpath. Again Youngest Son would not come away from there. He said that he was very sorry. And to the young men with whom he gambled, (22) being related to some of them, also he told them the same, that he was very sorry. This time he was going to go, he was telling them. Again, this time he would never go anywhere else. He would never leave the man who set the war date. Even before he had also done it, but this time he would go, is why he did it he said. (23) Then when they were ready to start, they made their war camp on the edge of the village. There they did the Death Dance very much. Youngest Son, it was he who was beating the drum, they say. This time the chief was going along. It was said that he did not have to do much of anything. (24) Then they started. There on the way they counted them. Again there he stood up. There he spoke, saying, "Before I was very repentant when they were blessed, as not anyone came into the lodge-nest. I should have gone; I thought very much; at this time I dread very much to leave the village. (25) I do not keep it in mind. Perhaps surprisingly, when we have all left the place, the only thing left standing of our fireplaces will be the ashes. I do not keep it in mind. I am going to return with some of the young men," he said. "Hąhó, the chief is right in what he says," they said. Again he began to point them out. (26) Unexpectedly, they were the gamblers. "It's not true," they thought, but he was the chief and also there was no help for it. There he came home with them. Again he said to them, "Perhaps we would not be the ones who are victorious. (27) It is better that we had not gone," he was saying. "Okay," they would say. Their hearts ached very much, but they would say that.

Right away they already began to gamble. "Again Youngest Son, Our Own Chief, has returned home," they were saying. "Again he has brought home half the number with him," they were saying. (28) And all the time he was winning from them at gambling. Yet why everything? Again, finally, the men came back giving the victory whoop. Again they came running towards him. Unexpectedly, at the forefront was his brother Hena, having been named Warbundle Bearer. Again there he undressed in a hurry and (29) he made himself muddy and carried it for his older brothers. As they came out circling around, unexpectedly, in front again was Youngest Son, in front carrying the Warbundle. "Korá, what a bad thing, if he knew this, for what did this one lead us back?" said the his gambler companions. (30) And again they did the Victory Dance very much.

When this was over, they went again for the third time. Still what he had done before, that he now did. Yet again they went for the fourth time. There, following them, he reached a campsite. From there he came home. (31) On the fourth occasion, his companions also gave up. So then, they also did not start out. And sure enough, he returned again with some of them that did go. And they said, "Indeed, he is afraid to go to war, that is why he says this," they said about him. (32) And when they returned the fourth time, they came giving the victory whoop. After he met them there, there again he carried the Warbundle for his brother Haga who was the first victor and who carried it. There he carried it. They came back and went around the village. (33) Again he was already going about there in the lead carrying the Warbundle. "Korá! the one who's doing this is continually doing this all the time. He who does this is quite a fearful one. If he knew something like this, he should have hesitated before he went traveling. Therefore, he does not go," they were saying. Again they did the Victory Dance a great deal there. (34) Finally, when they were done, then at the very least he would always be out gambling.

One day these said, "A great many people are coming towards us," they said. "They are great big people," they said. "There are so many that the end of them is not visible," they said. (35) Then he went back to the lodge. He went there and sat down. "The more people that come, the more pleasure there will be to gamble with them this time," he was saying. Hagagasgé, Youngest Born, how can you speak thus? The weeping people cry aloud. They cry for their own children. If they defeat us, they will kill us. (36) Therefore, the people are frightened. Then he said, "What is there to be frightened about? Also, gambling against them will only make it more interesting," he said. Just then one already came. "Hąhó chief, where will we camp?" he said. "There next to the valley at the edge of the village, there you may camp," said the chief. (37) "So that we will have plenty of room to play," he said. A small boy nearby said it. And there he stood for a long time. Then they said to him, they said, "He is the chief. What he says, that you will do as he says," said Kunu. He went there. When he got there, he pointed it out for them. (38) And he did not come way. He was going about there.

After meeting two young men there, he said to them, "Koté young men, as the sun had already risen high when you came, a game could also could have been performed," he said. "Koté, it is thus," but they did not do anything. "Tomorrow will be the day. (39) That is the day, but today still one thing could be done," he said. "Koté! niží! this also — koté! I used to gamble. Therefore, that is why I say this. And this also — it is the one who speaks, I, who am the chief," he said. "Koté, is that so?" they said. "Yes, I am the chief, I am he," he said. "Koté, then let's go tell the chief," the two of them said. (40) "What do they call you?" they asked him. "'Youngest Born, Our Own Chief,' they call me," he said. "Well koté, we will go and report it there. One of them went over there. When he got there, he peeped in. "Hąhó, what errand have you come to do?" the chief said. (41) Then he said, "There is a little boy there who says that he wants to play something this evening. If the chief were willing, we would do it, we are saying, my friend and I. Therefore, that is why I have come. He it is who is also the chief, he says. 'Youngest Son, Our Own Chief,' they call him," he said. (42) If we win, hišją́ge, you may also have one of his limbs for soup," he said. And the chief said, "That's right, they say that," he said. "The chief is a little boy," he said. He said, "That's right, you may do it. (43) You may do me some good, as I will be drinking some soup. That's right, you may do it," he said. Then he returned.

"Koté, you have returned to the lodge," he said. "Hąhó, koté, what will we play?" he said. "Koté, we will play kicking one another," they said to him. "Hąhó, koté, I like doing that sort of thing," he said. (44) Then they said to him, "Koté, do you know what the betting rules are?" they said. "Hąhą'ą," he said. "Well, we will bet one against the other," he said. "Okay, if you bet with me, I am willing," he said. "Koté little boy, I mean to bet bodies," he said. (45) "Well, I never have done what you mean. I have gambled there, although then, if I defeat you, I will kill you, and furthermore, if you defeat us, you can kill us," he said. "All right, then, we shall do it, if you think I won't kill one of you," he said. (46) "Hąhó, then, we shall be equal to four of you, as you are the chief," and that is why they said it to him. "Okay," he said. He was equal to four. Then he said, "Koté, well, still if we should have one of our moccasin strings loosen during intensive play, we can stop and fix it, can't we?" he said. (47) "Yet we could be caused to be left behind if one were loosened and we stopped and perhaps fixed it," he said. "Or if one of our legging strings was loosened, we can stop and fix it, can't we?" he said. "Yes, that is always done," the Giant said. "All right," he said.

Then the Giant was the first to get ready to kick him. And his friend said, (48) "Friend, if you splatter his head, you will have wasted enough for a meal," he said. "Friend, that's what I was thinking," he said. He kicked him with a light glancing blow. Then he ducked, but it still caused him to go whirling along. There he landed on all fours. (49) He got up quickly and looked about him. Korá, they just whooped at him. "Well, yes, it is my turn to kick you. And then you may look out for yourself," he said. Then he came up running. He kicked him. Yet he knocked himself back as he struck him there in the knee cap. (50) As it was very solid to the kick, he fell flat on his back. Again they just shouted at him. Now there was much noise from the whoops.

Then at the village they said, "Go and see there, as Youngest Son, Our Own Chief, must be doing something," they said. (51) One of them came to see. Unexpectedly, they said, "Koté, Youngest Son the Chief, one of your men is here, there he is," they said. "Clear a way for him. Let him come here," he said. So they made a way for him and he went there. He said to him, "Koté, I am gambling. (52) Also, you can make a bet for me," he said. I am also doing this one that I have left, besides here again those others bet against me. I am made equal to four of them, as I am the chief. But you, therefore, will only be equal to one," he said. And thus it was. He dreaded it very much, but it was the chief who was speaking. (53) So he bet against one there. Then again they kicked at him. Then they stood together there. "Hohó, it happens that they are going to kill me first." Then again they kicked at him. Again he kicked him a little harder, growing rather stronger. He ducked and he was just barely missed. (54) After the force of the blow, he was sent rolling along. He landed there on all fours. He got up very quickly and looked around. Again they shouted at him very much. They made a great deal of noise with their whoops. He kicked him in turn. He came running up and kicked him just above the knees, (55) and knocked himself down. He fell flat on his back and they shouted at him.

Again they made whoops at him. "You two go over there," they said. "Youngest Son, Our Own Chief, must be doing something there," they said. The two of them came over there. (56) Again when they got there, they said, "Koté, Youngest Son the Chief, two men of yours have come over here," one of them said. "Tell them to come over here," he said. They came over there. He said to them, "Koté, I am gambling. I am equal to these four, but you are only equal to one of them. (57) This also — the one that came over before you is bet against the one that he is standing with," he said. Again he is betting against only one there. Then they kicked him again. Again he kicked him a little more forcefully. Again after he ducked, just barely, after he ducked, he just barely missed him. (58) Again he went tumbling over and over. He landed there on his hands and feet. He turned about very quickly and throwing himself around, he looked about him. Again they shouted at him. He would be kicking in his turn, so he came up running and kicked him. Again it was just above the knee cap on which he stood. He bounced back. (59) He fell flat on his back and they shouted at him. Again they shouted at him.

They said again, "Many of you go to stand by him, but one must come back to report on what they are doing," they said. Again they sent a number of them. They came there. When they saw them, they said, (60) "Youngest Son the Chief, many men of yours are standing here," they said. "Tell them to come here," he said. "Clear the way for them," he said. So they cleared the way for them there and there they came. "Now then, I am gambling. Make your bets with them," this one said. "Also all of us are to be bets," he said. (61) There again they put themselves up against one apiece. Now there were very many. Then he said, "Now then, whenever you tell me to kick him hard, I will kick him hard. You all know how I broke them up when I kicked them hard. (62) Whenever you tell me to do it hard, we shall win," he said. "I will break him up," he said. "All right, do it hard," they said. "All right," he said. And again he would kick him. This time he kicked him very hard. He was careful with him before, as he was alone of all those who were, but as it now was, there were so many that he kicked him hard. (63) He ducked. Again it just barely missed him. Again he went tumbling over and over. There he landed on all fours. Very quickly he turned around, throwing himself around, he looked about and unexpectedly, when he got there he saw a woman at the end where they were standing, (64) a very beautiful woman. She herself was not big. "Korá, a nice looking woman is looking at me as I am doing this," he thought. "I will try hard," he thought. Then he said, "Koté, wait, my moccasin strings have come loose. I will carefully tie them up," he said. (65) "Koté, he is right. He is dragging his moccasin strings," they said. There he sat down and carefully tied his moccasins over again. He tied one of the arrows there, and also on the other side. Thus he did and he said, "All right." He came up on his tip toes. (66) Already he came up on his tip toes and he had the tied arrow on. There he kicked in one of the arrows. He groaned and turned over. Before the chief left him, he kicked him on the other side of his body. There again he kicked in one of the arrows. Then he fell to the ground. (67) The blood began to flow from his mouth. There he killed him.

In turn the common people gave a shout. Then he said to them, "Shoot them with the arrows and kill your own men," he said. "I too will also kill my own man," he said. He shot all four of them with arrows and killed his own men. (68) All the rest did that. Then he did it. He cut off all four heads. He took the heads, all four of them. "You also must do in this way to your men," he said. So they all did it. Then he said to them, "When you get home, hang them above the fireplace. (69) In the morning, you may break them open. Do not do so prematurely. However, I will remain here and look around. Perhaps this also: I might induce one of them to gamble," he said. Then he gave away the human heads. When he was there with those with whom he used to gamble a great deal, he divided them among them. They went back and told of it. (70) Unexpectedly, they had arrived home with human heads. They went home and told of it. "Youngest Son Our Own Chief was gambling when we got there," they said. "He competed with one of them in 'Kick One Another' and broke up his ribs," they said. (71) We all made bets, so he told us to invite the heads," they said. There in the village they were somewhat encouraged.

And Youngest Son still went about from lodge to lodge. Still he went around and peeped into them. Also, sometimes he would enter and he would sit there on the fire log and would talk to them. (72) Also, he was the chief. They all knew that. And now it was dark. And he was still going about. Unexpectedly, there at the very end of the village where he had gone, a fire was starting to burn brightly. He went towards it. It was not from a lodge in the village. (73) It was by itself. When he went there, unexpectedly, it was a lodge, a small lodge. There was a woman, the very beautiful woman that he had thought, it was she. He went in there. There he went and sat down. The woman watched the young man closely. (74) Then he said, "Why are you living alone?" "Well, because this is where I live," she said. "Well, it is my menstrual period," she said. "Hą," he said. "Well, I came and peeped in and you were all alone, so I came in," he said. "Still, I was going about looking around. All the lodges were full of people. Of the lodges they are lodging in, you are the only one in the village living alone. (75) So I came in to keep you company," he said. Because I went around trying to gamble and I failed," he said. "Hą," she said. The young woman watched him very closely. Then the young woman said, "Was it you? And there was great shouting, (76) so I looked and there a young man was at 'Kick One Another' and they were shouting at him," she said. "Hąhą'ą, I was doing it. I was indeed just fooling with him so that some of my people might come. Indeed, I was doing it to wait for them. Many of them came. I went at him hard and broke them up. I broke up the ribs on both sides," he said. "Hą," she said. (77) Still she watched him. She did it because she thought she used to see him. When he arrived, she longed for him is why she did it. And she said, "When I was little, I used to see one whom I dreamt that I would marry. Is it you?" the young woman said. "Hąhą'ą, it is I. Indeed, I wondered when you would recognize me, (78) so I did not say anything. I recognized you when you went over there, so I have been looking around for you. Ever since you came I knew it. You were wondering where you also saw this one. You watched me very closely. I wondered, 'When would she recognize me?'," he said. "Hą," she said. (79) "Well then, come over and sit down," she said to him. She went and said to him, "Would you eat? I have boiled food," she said. "Okay," he said. A kettle was on. She was trying to get this cooked. She was stirring the fire. The fire sent the sparks flying up. It was this that he saw that brought Youngest Son there. Then she dished it out for him. (80) It was dried corn mixed with blueberries. It was beans without backs. "Well, let's eat together," he said. "Hąhą'ą," she said. Then he said, "Tell your relatives something: never be one of the gamblers, as they will never defeat me. I will still defeat them in any game. (81) Even then, I used to beat them all. Do not let your parents, relatives, a woman, or your men do it, as they will never defeat me," he said. (82) All right, I will tell them," she said. "Ho," he said.

He already started. His older brothers also went. When they arrived there, across the valley was visible a very small target. There Youngest Son had an arrow that he would never let go of. As long as it was, he never bet against them. "Well, hąhą́, Chief Youngest Son, we will bet against one corner of the village," they said. "All right," he said. They bet against one corner of the village. "Well, hąhą́, these will do it," they said. He meant two men. They were very large. (84) And there were bunches of muscles on their limbs. The arrows which they held were frightening. They were long and it seemed impossible for them to miss anything. Those that Youngest Son had were not anything by comparison. Then he did it. (85) He said to one of the gamblers with him, "Koté! let us shoot with them." Then he gave him four arrows. He told him, "We are to use these." "Hąhó," he said. The common people were very discouraged. Then one of the Giants hit the mark first. Then the man also hit it. (86) He did it with it. He sent it flying. In turn the Giant hit the mark. Again he did it with it. He sent it flying. In turn the man hit it. Again he did it with it. He sent it flying. The fourth time that he shot it, the man hit the target. Youngest Son played in his turn. (87) They did the same again. They kept on shooting better until Youngest Son got the target with the last one. There they were defeated. And he put them in four rows. When he shot his arrows, he would kill everyone with just one shot. Four times he shot them. (88) He caused them all to be destroyed. And then they went home. Youngest Son still remained there. He did not go home. As soon as he had left the young woman that he married the night before, her mother came there. She arrived and peeped in. My dear daughter, you got married," she said. She knew it. (89) "Hąhą'ą," she said to her. "Mother, it's an ordinary human that I'm with," she said. Then she said, "My dear daughter, here you have chosen to do it," she said. Then she said, "Mother, he said something: we must never be one of the gamblers, he said. Also, my brothers will never defeat him, he said. He is a winner, he said," she said. (90) "He is the one, the chief, that they talk about," she said. "Hąhą'ą, there last night this one when playing Kick One Another, broke up one of them good they say. He is the one who may have gone there," she said. "Hišją́ge, I'll tell your older brothers," she said. Then she went home. (91) When she arrived home, "Old man, our daughter has gotten married," she said. "Hą," he said. "She has a chief. She married the one who is told about of these people. And he says that none of the brothers must take part in a single game. He says that he will never be defeated. (92) Therefore, he is a winner," she said. And they were present there and said, "Hohó, what can he be?" they said. Again she said, "You must not doubt what your sister has said," she said. "Hišją́ge, it shall be so then," they (two) said. "It is the one whom they spoke about who here last night broke up one man's ribs, she was saying. (93) He is the man," they said. And it was he.

The first time that they gambled, they did not make a single thing. Again the second time they gambled, he got through and then again remained there going around the place. Again two young men there, these two friends, were saying, (94) "Friend, last night he broke up one of these friends, they say. We used to put it to them when we played against them, and this one is no big thing to beat," they were saying. Just then he came near. Then they sort of edged off towards him. (95) Then he came up to them. "Koté young men, I thought, could we still have another one again as we quit gambling while the sun was yet high up? So I am still staying here yet," he said. You came for nothing but gambling. (96) You said it, but we were not gambling there but once. When you do it that way it seems as if we have not gambled at all," he said. "Koté, we will inform the chief and if he consents, we'll do it," they said. "He will give his consent seeing as how you are going around busily trying to find it," he said. (97) "This also: I am the chief and I am willing," he said. Then one of them went to the chief's lodge. He went there and peeped in. "Hąhó," they said, "you have come for something," they said. "There is a boy over there who is saying that we have time enough for a game. (98) So that is why I came here. We two said together that we would visit if you were willing, we thought," he said. "Hišją́ge, you can also make yourself soup from one of his limbs," they said. "Hąhó, you speak well for me," he said. Thus he returned and said, when he got there, "Hąhó, we can go ahead and do it," he said. "Well then, which one will do it?" they two said. (99) "I myself will do it," said one of them. Then they called two of them over there. They came over. "Koté, he wants to gamble. Still, they are coming, we two thought," he said. "They always do four against him as he is the chief," he said. "Hąhó," they said. He didn't think that he was anything much.(100) Then they would be drinking soup.

Then when he was ready to play there, Youngest Son said, "Once we start and one of our moccasin strings comes loose, can we stop and wait while we tie it up?" he said. "Yes, of course. (101) That is the way they always do it," they said. "Hąhó égi, you will kick me first, as you a coming as the avenger," he said to him. "All right," he said. Then he said, "Friend, be kind of easy, if you smash the head to pieces, you will be wasting a meal," he said. "That's what I was thinking," he said. (102) Then he kicked him. He ducked. He missed him, but he went tumbling over and over, and landed on his hands and feet. They shouted at him. It was his turn to kick the Giant, so he came up running and kicked him, (103) just above the knee cap that he stood on. He bounced back. As he fell on his back, they shouted at him. Again they shouted at him. "Hąhó, he must be doing something over there, so many of you must go over at once. Be sure that one of you comes back and reports on what they are doing," they said. (104) They started to run to where he was. Many of them came there. When they saw them they said, "Youngest Son, the Chief, many men of yours have come," they said to him. "Clear the way for them and have them come here," he said. They came there. (105) Hąhó koté, I am gambling. Make your bets with them. I have bet against those other ones also," he said. There they bet against one apiece. Then he said, "Hąhó, whenever you tell me to do it hard, if I do it hard, immediately I will break him up," he said. Then three times they kicked one another (106) and then they said, "Hąhó, about now our chief, kick him hard!" they said to him. Then when he was kicked at, his moccasin strings came loose. Then he fixed it. There he tied on of the arrows to each side. (107) Thus he did and he came up running and kicked in the arrow, sending it into his heart. He groaned and turned over, so he kicked him again on the other side. Thus he did. He killed him. "Hąhó, thus I would do to him, I had said. He has been broken up," he said. Then again he killed all his own men and they cut off their heads. (108) As he said before, so he said again. The ones he had, he gave to the heaviest gamblers with him.

Those human heads that they first took home, when they broke them open in the morning, others unexpectedly contained white wampum. Again, others contained white wampum. (109) Then again this time they knew what would be in them. So when they got them home, immediately he hung them above the fireplace. And again the next morning they broke them open and they got a lot of wampum. (110) Youngest Son went again to his wife. Now when he got there he said, "Hąhó, my dear wife, I have returned," he said. "Hą," she said. When he got there, immediately she dished it out for him. She dished out boiled dried corn, blueberries, and beans without backs. (111) Then they ate together. There he slept again. Again he warned her to warn the men. "Your brothers must not come and do a single thing," he said. Then in the morning he went home again. In the morning they again broke open the human heads and they got wampum of many different kinds. (112)

Then immediately the game challenger came back again. "Hąhą́ Youngest Son the Chief, they wish to try you over in a game, they say, so I came to tell you of it," he said. "Hąhó," he said. "They said it would be a race," he said. (113) Then when they got there, they again bet against a corner of the village. "Hąhó, these will be the ones who will do it," they said, and there they came and stood. They had quite the muscles on their limbs. They had also tied strips of fur to themselves. And they also had wolf tails tied on themselves. And they had elk hide tied to themselves. (114) Fox hide also, that hide they also tied to themselves. And Youngest Son was also with one of his gamblers. The oak that stands at the end of the earth, there at this turning point we will return," they said. They started to run. The Giants started off running as two elks. (115) They did the same. The four elks took off running. They kept on making them. Yet as one of them would be using a form, they also always did the same. Youngest Son arrived and said, "Hąhó, now's the time to find a woman," he said. (116) There they were left behind. They ran to the end of the earth, and they stuck the goal at the turning point and they started to run back again the way they had come. Still there on the way back they met them. When the ones who were bet arrived at the turning stake, unexpectedly, it pointed in a different direction. (117) "Hohó, it has been done some time ago," he said. Where the sun was when they arrived there, there was a stick tied with grass that pointed at the sun when they placed it, but the sun had gone far by the time they had gotten there. That's how they knew that it had been done some time ago. Then when Youngest Son got back near, there he ran in his natural form. (118) Unexpectedly, in succession, they came into view. "Hąhó, it is our chief who is coming," they were saying. Unexpectedly, they it was. They were together. They came up running as they returned. They had been running a race between themselves for as long as they had come into view. (119) Youngest Son was beaten. He laughed. When he got back: "Koté, I did not run my best, but you ran very hard," said Youngest Son. "Jáha-á, what became of them?" they said. "We were with them, but they were so slow that we left them there. (120) It will be some time before they will be back. They were taking their time," he said. "There we raced between ourselves," he said. then finally they got back. "Jáha-á," they said to them. They were a long time in coming. "About now because of their feet, you should not have outrun them," they said. (121) There they killed their bets. They killed all those who were up for bets. He also killed four of them. Always thus would he bet with them. Again he told them to go on home. "I will remain again. I might be able to induce one of these to play us again," he said.

(122) Again he was going about there. Again there two friends said, "Korá, this guy played 'Kick One Another' often and defeated them. They talk about him. Friend, we used to beat them badly, so let's beat him. When this one goes back, what is he going to do?" they said. (123) And they wished to try him, so they kept around him very close. Sure enough, there he came. "Koté young men, this makes me restless, as we played only once and then quit. Again we could have also done another one," he said. Then they said, (124) "Koté, if the chief would not object to anything, we could do it. Shall I go ask him?" one of them said. Youngest Son said, "Koté, go ask him. This also: I myself am the chief, this is why I say it," he said. He used to do it, as we have been to him twice and he has always given his consent," he said to him. "He does not refuse," he said. (125) Then one went there. He arrived there at the chief's lodge. "Ho," said the chief. "Was there something that you came for?" he said. "Hąhą'ą, there is a boy over there who is saying that he wants to gamble. The reason that I came is that if it is okay to do it, we would go ahead," he said. "Hišją́ge, we will also give you one of the limbs. (126) From it you can also make this into soup," he said. "Hąhó, you speak for me well," he said and then he said, "Go ahead and do it," he said. Then he returned. "Hąhó, he is willing. We can do it," he said.

"Hąhó," he said. "Well, let's do it right away." "We will of course try you over in the game of kicking," they said. (127) "Hąhó koté, the kicking game is the only one I always really like," he said. Then again they had four against him as bets. "And you will kick me first, seeing as how you are the avenger," he said. So again they kicked him first. He ducked and they missed. (128) After being struck by the wind, he nearly fell to the ground. He kept on tumbling over and over again until he landed on his hands and knees. They shouted at him. It was his turn to kick so now he came running up and kicked him just a little above the knee cap upon which he stood. He knocked himself back. (129) He fell flat on his back and they shouted at him. Again the Giants shouted at him. "Again he must be doing something over there. Go over to where he is. Many of you had better go so that one will come back to report," they said. "Hąhó," they said. When they came there, when they saw them, they said, "Youngest Son the Chief, there are men of yours coming here. (130) Many are standing," they said. "Clear the way for them, and have them come here," he said. "Hąhó, I am gambling. Make your bets with them," he said. They bet against one apiece there. And then he said, "Hąhó, you know how I used to do in 'Kick One Another'. (131) If I do him hard, I will break him up," he was saying. Again, when he did him hard, he killed him. Then they took the heads back with them. He gave all four of them again to those sorts with whom he habitually gambled there. "And yet here I will remain to visit around. You may go on home," he said to them. (132) Perhaps this also: I might be able to coax one to gamble again," he said. Again he stayed around there until it had already gotten dark, then he went home.

He got back home again. "My dear wife, I have returned," he said. There was the boiled food. She dished out some for him. She made it. It was dried corn, fruit, boiled beans without backs. (133) There he was near her again and he told her what he was going to do. Her brothers believed her, so they never took part.

Then again in the morning, they were doing a certain kind of ball game (Hahįpijigere). (134) He played in association with one of his companions. Again with one of these he played. This ball game is thus: there is a tree such that a tree limb extends up above for a good throw of the ball, yet this must be just high enough to hit. This they would throw at. If he hits the tree, the ball is still under his control. (135) He would throw at one of them. If he hits him, this one becomes the "ghost-carrier." Those who have run away go towards a tree a little distant. If he is hit before he touches the tree, he is "it," the ghost-carrier. Then again if one throws at the tree and misses it, (136) then they would all try to get the ball. If someone got it, he would throw it at the tree (limb). The one who gets the most ghost-carriers is the winner. The one who hits them all the time would be the winner. They were doing the game Hahipijigere. This is the way it is described. This is an interesting Indian game. (137) And this was the way that they played with them. Again they won. They ran very quickly so they were never able to hit them. There again they killed the men and then went home. They went home there. "But I will be remaining here. I might be able to induce them again to play one more," he said. And there he was going about. (138) There again the two friends wished to try him, so again they told the chief. Again when the men were there, when they came again to look for him, he bet against them there and defeated them. Again they took the heads back with them. Per usual they contained a great deal of wampum.

(139) Then the fourth time would be the next morning, and there he returned to his wife. And there was the boiled food. She again dished some out for him, and they ate. Then he said, "Hąhą́, tomorrow I will play against them for the last time. And there I want to say something to you. When the gambling is over for the last time, then you must gather them into one lodge and remain there, (140) your brothers and parents. And in the morning you had better go back there. And the lodge must be made strong by tying the lodge poles better and posting them very deep into the ground. And I shall come forth. I myself shall come forth to do it, (141) but I will not be in the same state of mind as I am now. And when I come towards you there, you must cry out very loudly, 'My dear husband, it is I! You always told me you loved me!,' you must say very loudly," he was saying. "If thus only, if I hear you, I will not do anything to you," he said. (142) "All right," she said.

Then there he slept and in the morning right away he went back to his lodge. And when he got back there, he went to the center pole and sat. He would never sit at the regular sitting place, except rarely when he got there. (143) And immediately the game-challenger arrived, awakening him. And already they started to come over. "Hąhó, it is to be wrestling, it is said," they said. "Hąhó," he said. Then they came there. There were two great big fellows. Their limbs were protruding with muscles. "Hąhó," he said. He invited one (to become his partner). (144) "We shall combat them," he said. He was going to have one of his gambling partners with him. Then at last using their arms only, they took hold of one another. They had come very far to eat. Then Youngest Son said, "Hąhó, as you are the avengers, you will swing us first," he said. (145) So they grabbed hold of him and they would throw him to the ground, but he would always land standing up. Finally, he climbed up and hung around his neck, choking him. Finally, he did it so much that he fell on top of him. A great shout went up for him. As he (his partner) saw him, he did it also, and he fell on top of him. Thus it was. (146) Again they killed them. Then when the went home, the Giants there were filled with fear. "It seems as though we will not be able to defeat him, so we had better try and save ourselves," they said. Some had already fled.

Then at a distance there stood a hill. He was to go there, (147) and to the youngest of his older brothers he said, "If by tomorrow at noon I have not overcome myself, you will all die. Therefore, I encourage you to do this: offerings of tobacco, this you must bring me. (148) And white deerskin with tobacco you must throw me, wherever I am lying. I am saying to do it there and don't be afraid of me. If I fail to overcome myself there, then thus it will be there," he said. Then he went to the hill. And very early the next morning, (149) when the sun started coming up and brightening, then unexpectedly, from the hill, something cried out. It was very loud. Then the earth shook. They looked at him and unexpectedly, it was a very large and very white animal. (150) It was great with might. Finally, it came. It was immense. When he got to one of them, he caused it to suddenly disappear. He did it as he came along. Finally, he came towards his wife's lodge. There she shouted very loudly, "My dear husband, it is I, you said that you did love me," she said. (151) Yet again she would say it. She would say it very loudly. Even then he gave the lodge a glancing blow. He nearly knocked it down, but he went on by. Then he went on chasing them. When he reached the end of one road, he would then take up another one. He ended all of them. (152) Then he came back. Yet it was not long before he came back. Then he went to the hill there. When he got there, unexpectedly, he was doing much. He dug at four places in the ground and there now he was rolling. (153) Then tobacco together with white deerskin offerings were placed there. He would go and see him there. He would put in tobacco again for him. But he would still remain the same. Now the sun was straight above. They were frightened. "It will be difficult," they were saying.

(154) Then the Giantess was going towards him. She had a doll and four eagle feathers, the tobacco, she took that much and went there. There she threw the doll at him. Then the tobacco and the four feathers of eagles, these she threw to him there. (155) He licked the doll. Then the woman sat downwind from him. She sat naked. He licked the doll. Next he then went and licked the woman. (156) Finally, he laid down then and there and began to bring forth the water. He sweated very much. He breathed as if he were dying. His body began to return to human form. Finally, now all of him was now what it used to be. "Hąhą́," he said, "it is good, my dear wife, you have saved me as I am unable to overcome myself. (157) Then let them fumigate the lodge," he said. So she ran back to the lodge. She came to the chief's lodge there. "I came after clothing. And again, have them fumigate the lodge, he said," she said. (158) "Hohó, it is good," they said. She brought him clothing. And when she arrived there, he put them on and together they came home. And they came back there. And then he sat in his seat. Together with his wife there, only then did he also know whether he was married to that one.

(159) "After, it was thus about over, as I was unable to overcome myself. It was because of her, my wife, she was the one who saved you. She was the one who took it on. She was the one who did it, taking the child there. That is she who became full of ideas. Then she finally got on my mind, and in this way she brought it (the doll) to me. (160) Then I would marry her, I meant. She has helped you this much: she has saved the village," he said. "Instead, she has made life for the people," he said. "And of all the women on the face of the earth, she alone of women do I like," he said. "Therefore, the reason that I came here will have been to marry her. (161) And I knew that they were going to do this, therefore, I came here. And had they ended you, I would not have liked it. Had I not come here, they would have ended you. Therefore, I am living here in this (form). And they dwell here. In this hill right here are my parents. (162) Here in this hill are four who were created great. Father, he himself, is one of them. Therefore, we were created to bless people. And this village lay here and I was made chief, making my parents very proud. Here my parents sit," he said.

(163) Then they ate. The woman was a cannibal Giantess, but she did not eat people. She was the only one who was that way. All the Giants ate people. Then Youngest Son did it. One day he boiled up some medicine. He used four kettles. (164) Then he said to his wife, "Go after one of your brothers," he said. She was a princess (yųgiwi). She went after her oldest elder brother. He was frightened. They were very much afraid of Youngest Son. When she took him back there, he said, "My dear brother-in-law, sit down here," he said. (165) He made them sit there and also made them drink the medicine. Finally, it made them vomit. He vomited a great deal. He did a lot. Finally, he vomited up a small piece of ice. It was about the size of his mouth, and he had great difficulty in vomiting it up. Again he vomited up another one. (166) He vomited up four of them. And now he stopped vomiting. And he said, "Jáha-á, my dear brother-in-law, are you not hungry?" he asked him. "Brother-in-law, I am hungry," he said. They dished him out some venison. (167) After they dished him out a large plate full, he ate it up, not leaving anything much. "Hohó, it is good, my dear brother-in-law. It is good, my younger sister. I wonder if this must be the way that food tastes to humans. A very bad thing we had been doing in what we had perhaps always been eating. Hohó, it is good, my dear brother-in-law. (168) This is the way that the people must perhaps get along happily when they eat. It is good, it is good," he said. He went home. And the next morning he returned. He was not that way before, but now he liked the people very much. (169) Then at that time he told them of the use of the medicine and gave them some to take home with them. "You know how I did it for you, so you can now do it for them," he told him. He came on home. When he got home, there was not much of anything that they did not do for him. They were very desirous of it. There he did it. One after another they kept coming. (170) When one gets through vomiting and gets hungry, then he usually comes over there. They would eat a great deal. When they got through, they would thank him very much. Finally, they all came. Then they came and lived in the midst of the village.

Then they had a child. (171) It was a boy. When this one was old enough to walk, he would disappear. Sometimes for two days, and at first they used to hunt for him. Then he told them. Then he told them that he had gone to his grandma's and grandpa's place, saying this so that they would not hunt for him. (172) Finally, then one day Youngest Son said he was going right home. As to the child at least — any of the places he had made his own, he could be there where he had finally resided, they said. Then the Giants would also go home, he said. (173) "The 'Good Giants' they will always call you," he told them. Therefore, Good Giants came to be. They say that about half the Giants did not eat human flesh, and they loved the humans, it is said. Hąhą́, it is ended, thus far.1


Commentary and Comparative Material. The title of this story is shown by the Hočąk to be someone's name, Hočįčįwaki'ųk'ega, the -ga denoting a person's name. He is clearly the protagonist, the name meaning "Young Man Gambles Often" (Hočįčį-waki'ų-k'e-ga).

"the second generation"wąkinųpra, literally "the second people."

"he was full of mischief" — this is a characteristic of all males destined to be powerful, especially if they are of spirit origins.

"only once in awhile would he go back there" — this is very uncharacteristic of a chief, since he has many duties concerned with the welfare of members of the tribe and these usually keep him at home.

"you will have wasted enough for a meal" — they are particularly concerned about the head, since in a feast, the head of the victim goes to the foremost warrior.

"white wampum" — probably in error for "black wampum," which is actually given in the translation. Nevertheless, the word used is worúšikska (wo so diAiKi rK) rather than worušiksep (wo so dAiKi rele).

"they kept on making them" — that is, they kept on making animal transformations in whose forms they could run.

"to find a woman" — this is a colloquialism meaning, "Let's start to really run." It could refer, as an insult, to turning their competitors into the status of women; or it could refer to the speed with which they might return for the sake of a woman.

The story makes the child the chief of the tribe, but not the war chief. This means that he is the Thunder Chief, who is also known as the Peace Chief. Such a chief is never permitted to go on a warpath, since this contradicts his function. Therefore, the young chief's participation in a warparty is anomalous. On the other hand, he never actually goes the full warpath; in fact, he hardly begins before he turns back. His gambling pattern is like the economy of the peace chief. In real life, the peace chief is given many items of wealth by the people as tokens of esteem. He keeps none of these for himself, however, but gives them all away to people who are in need. In the story, the young chief loses everything he owns and even what his family owns, but eventually wins back just what they want most. In victory, he surrenders everything that he has won. Clearly, it is victory itself that the chief loves best, the material advantages are of no interest to him. The removal of the gamblers from the warparty is also symbolic. One of the roles of the peace chief is to review the standing of every warparty before it departs. If he feels that the warleader has not had the blessings required for success, he will bar the departure of his warparty. In other words, he does not permit gamblers to go on the warpath: they must have demonstrable grounds for their war expectations and be as risk free as they can possibly be — otherwise, they are debarred from going forth. It is also made clear that the chief cannot permit all the men to go off to war at the same time, otherwise, who would defend the village against the attacks of enemies in their absence? Unlike the offensive war, which is thought to have a certain outcome, the status of the defense is uncertain: no one knows when the enemy will strike, except a fortunate few who have that kind of vision. The rest are subject to uncertainty and risk, the very elements that lie at the root of gambling. Thus the gamblers are those who stay at home in the defensive posture. By leaving a contingent of men at home, the chief also makes warfare more of a gamble for the enemy, as they cannot expect to find a purely undefended village to sack.

As it gradually becomes clear, Youngest Born is not just the holder of the fire of sovereignty, he is an incarnation of that fire himself. In the Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth we are told that the first thing that the four Bird Clan brothers did when they reached the earth was to start a fire. This, along with tobacco, was their special gift from Earthmaker. Therefore, Fire is the youngest born. In another version of the advent of fire, it is said that after all the clans had first met to form the Hočąk nation, they attempted to start a fire, but none could do it save the Thunder Clan. This is why they are the chiefs.

In our story, there are 10 brothers and sisters. The number twenty is of significance because it represents the total number of digits on the hands and feet — except for one possessed by males only. Fire is this twenty-first digit, the instrument of fecundity, since it is he that transports the sacrifice to the spirits. This is like insemination, in that something is lost from the social body only to be planted elsewhere where it will grow to fruition in the course of time. The sacrifice is a seed that is planted by Fire and which germinates in the rebirth of plant and animal life here on earth. Thus sacrifice is like a cycle of birth and death, a cycle of renewal and eternal sustenance. The imagery of Youngest Born is naturally attached to the fire drill, which has obvious phallic associations. Just as the Agni ("Fire") of India is said to be tethered to a pole (Ṛg Veda 2.2.1; 1.143.7), Youngest Born is said to spend his time at home leaning against the center pole of the lodge. The center is where the fireplace is kept, with the smoke hole directly above. Thus the lodge resembles in some way the fire drill, with a central pole next to the fire. The fire drill is his home lodge where he was born. In this "lodge" he arises from the punk placed at the base of the fire drill. The material used as punk is dry, highly flammable vegetable matter. As such it no longer is of an age to reproduce itself. Thus Youngest Born's mother is described as too old to have offspring. As a child the fire is very mischievous: it is hard to control and prone to damage things if not carefully guided and constrained. However, when the fire is sufficiently "mature" to leave the fire drill, it goes to live elsewhere (especially staying over night, where it gives light and heat). Once the fire is released from its lodge in the fire drill, it goes elsewhere to perform its functions. Fire is very old, yet it is started anew frequently. Thus it is called "Grandfather," but here is said to be the youngest born. This too has a parallel in India:

Being produced every morning for the sacrifice Agni appropriately receives the very frequent epithet, exclusively connected with him, of "youngest" (yaviṣṭha, yaviṣṭhya). Like some other gods, Agni is also spoken of simply as "young." At the same time he is old. . . . He is thus sometimes in the same passage paradoxically called both "ancient" and "very young" (Ṛg Veda 10.4.1-2).2

Fire is the medium through which people communicate with the spirits. Consequently, sacrifices are made into the fire, particularly tobacco. Sacrifices of inscribed white deerskins are made by sending them up through the smoke hole of the lodge, as though they were being sent heavenward by the actions of fire in the form of smoke. Fire's own deerskin is inscribed with a picture of flames [inset], those of other spirits with their own appropriate emblems Thus in the "gambling" of sacrifice, the fire loses not only his own clothes, but those of his relatives. He is said even to have lost the family dishes. Dishes were made of wood. Since fire eats the wood and lives off it, and sacrifices including food are placed on the wood of the fire, the logs are therefore analogous to dishes. They are also the platform upon which the sacrifices are transported to heaven, in the sense that the fire springs from them and in effect is the mouth or tongue of the spirits in the receipt of their offerings.

Fire beats the drum because the radiation of sound is analogous to the radiation of light. The "gamblers" (the sacrificers) do not go out on the warpath, but are brought back to the fire. This may express the fact that the sacrificers are creators, not destroyers. This is also true of Fire as Peace Chief. The Fire calls the sacrificers to him to "gamble." Everything the sacrificers lose, they regain again, all from the agency of Fire. Then the warparty comes home, and Fire is said to have "undressed himself, and muddied his body with mud." At a superficial level, this is what the old Hočąk warriors did to paint themselves for war: they made themselves vermilion in color from head to toe, a color like muddy water, then they dabbed themselves with clay, creating spots. For Fire, however, to undress has hitherto seemed to mean to give up deerskin offerings to the spirits through the smoke hole of the lodge. Muddying himself would be to have something brown poured over him. Keeping to this imagery, this brown substance resembling in color mud, would be tobacco, which is said to be poured on the head of Fire when it is offered up as sacrifice to the spirits. Like the clay or "mud" war paint, it is designed to aid in the conquest of the enemy. It is a summary and image of the sacrifice at the warbundle feasts and other occasions in which the war aims are reinforced by spiritual support through sacrifice. It is Fire that carries the warbundle, not because the victory bundle is in any way committed to the flames, but that it is a counterpart to Fire. The warbundle is a conduit of power from the spiritual to the temporal world: it contains items charged with power designed to be translated into victory. Thus the warbundle is a kind of inverted fire, accomplishing the same mission that Fire does without being something translated to the spirit world, but rather translated from it. So the warbundle is something of the fire from heaven to earth. It is thus Fire that is the conduit of victory as the medium of sacrifice, and it is warbundle-as-fire that plays this same role in the context of actual combat. Indeed, it was always the trademark of the Hočągara that they burned the lodges and belonging of those that they overcame, a physical expression of the transference of fire in the form of the sacred descent of victory as well as a consecration of the enemy to the spirits as in a sacrifice, through the medium of fire. (This recalls the complete destruction of property in many of the cities given over to the Israelites by the hand of Yahweh, where everything was broken up as if it were a sacrifice to him who gave it to them.)


Comparative Material. The Arapaho have an episode in a myth that resembles the incident in our own myth where the (presumed) Waterspirit is propitiated by the protagonist's wife. When a man came home from hunting buffalo, he found a Hiintcäbiit (Waterspirit) coiled around his teepee. The man told his wife, who was trapped inside, to take four different eagle feathers and a buffalo hide and wave them in front of her. After dong this, she tied the feathers to the corner of the robe, and gave it to the Hiintcäbiit. It was gratified, and the couple took it to a spring where it was to live. It was grateful and gave them blessings.3


Links: Giants, Fire.


Stories: featuring Giants as characters: A Giant Visits His Daughter, Turtle and the Giant, The Stone Heart, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, Morning Star and His Friend, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Old Man and the Giants, Shakes the Earth, White Wolf, Redhorn's Father, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Roaster, Grandfather's Two Families, Redhorn's Sons, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, Little Human Head, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Sun and the Big Eater, The Big Eater, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Origins of the Milky Way, Ocean Duck, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Wears White Feather on His Head, cf. The Shaggy Man; in which fire plays a role: The Creation Council, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Four Steps of the Cougar, East Shakes the Messenger, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, North Shakes His Gourd, The Descent of the Drum (v. 2), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2); featuring Good Giants as characters: White Wolf, Shakes the Earth; mentioning oak: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Children of the Sun, Turtle's Warparty, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Waruǧápara, The Creation Council, The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), Sun and the Big Eater, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Roaster, Little Human Head, The Shaggy Man, Wears White Feather on His Head, Peace of Mind Regained, The Dipper (leaves); mentioning drums: The Descent of the Drum, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Buffalo's Walk, The Spirit of Maple Bluff, Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 5), Trickster and the Dancers, Redhorn's Father, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Elk's Skull, Ghosts, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Great Walker's Medicine, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 1b), Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, Trickster and the Geese, Turtle's Warparty, Snowshoe Strings, Ocean Duck, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Hog's Adventures, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts; mentioning dolls: Little Human Head; mentioning shells: The Gift of Shooting, The Markings on the Moon, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men, Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Wild Rose, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2) (wampum), Wolves and Humans (oyster), Bird Clan Origin Myth, The Lost Child, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (v. 2), Turtle's Warparty, The Lost Blanket (mussel), The Annihilation of the Hočągara I, Hare Visits the Bodiless Heads (crab); mentioning wampum: The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), Little Human Head, Turtle and the Giant, Snowshoe Strings, The Chief of the Heroka, The Markings on the Moon, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (v. 2), Mijistéga’s Powwow Magic and How He Won the Trader's Store, Bird Clan Origin Myth, The Blessing of Kerexųsaka.

The events of this story have a great many parallels with those of The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear.


Themes: a little boy is made chief: The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, Ocean Duck. the youngest offspring is superior: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Twins Cycle, The Two Boys, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Children of the Sun, The Creation of the World (v. 12), The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Įčorúšika and His Brothers, The Raccoon Coat, Wojijé, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Sun and the Big Eater, Buffalo Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth (vv. 4, 7), Snake Clan Origins, South Enters the Medicine Lodge, Snake Clan Origins, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth; the (peace) chief of the tribe goes on a warpath: Trickster's Warpath; the chief of the tribe spends his time gambling: The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear; anthropophagy and cannibalism: A Giant Visits His Daughter, Turtle and the Giant, The Witch Men's Desert, The Were-Grizzly, Grandfather's Two Families, The Roaster, Redhorn's Father, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, The Lost Blanket, White Wolf, The Shaggy Man, The Twins Get into Hot Water, Partridge's Older Brother, The First Fox and Sauk War, The Fox-Hočąk War, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Morning Star and His Friend, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Seven Maidens, Šųgepaga, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Shakes the Earth, The Stone Heart, Thunder Cloud is Blessed; contests with the Giants: Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Redhorn's Father, White Wolf, The Roaster, Little Human Head, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Redhorn's Sons, Morning Star and His Friend, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, Sun and the Big Eater, The Big Eater, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, The Old Man and the Giants, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Shakes the Earth, The Origins of the Milky Way, The Shaggy Man, Grandfather's Two Families; two opponents play the game Kicking Each Other (Nąkįxjage): The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Twins Get into Hot Water (v. 3), The Shaggy Man, Bladder and His Brothers; in a game in which the contestants kick one another, a hero secretly ties weapons to his moccasins and thereby kills his opponent when he kicks him: The Shaggy Man; racing to the end of the world and back: Old Man and Wears White Feather, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Green Man, The Roaster, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), Sun and the Big Eater, The Big Eater; a human turns into a (spirit) animal: How the Thunders Met the Nights (Thunderbird), Waruǧápara (Thunderbird), The Dipper (hummingbird), Keramaniš’aka's Blessing (blackhawk, owl), Elk Clan Origin Myth (elk), Sun and the Big Eater (horse), The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Were-Grizzly, Partridge's Older Brother (bear), The Woman who Loved her Half-Brother (bear), Porcupine and His Brothers (bear), The Shaggy Man (bear), The Roaster (bear), Wazųka (bear), The Spotted Grizzly Man (bear), Brass and Red Bear Boy (bear, buffalo), White Wolf (dog, wolf), Worúxega (wolf, bird, snake), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (buffalo), The Brown Squirrel (squirrel), The Skunk Origin Myth (skunk), The Fleetfooted Man (otter, bird), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (otter), The Diving Contest (Waterspirit), The Woman who Married a Snake (snake, Waterspirit), The Omahas who turned into Snakes (four-legged snakes), The Twins Get into Hot Water (v. 3) (alligators), Snowshoe Strings (a frog), How the Hills and Valleys were Formed (v. 3) (earthworms), The Woman Who Became an Ant, Hare Kills a Man with a Cane (ant); contestants race to an oak tree at the edge of the world and back: Old Man and Wears White Feather, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), Sun and the Big Eater, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Roaster; head hunting: White Fisher, Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath, A Man's Revenge, How Little Priest went out as a Soldier, Little Priest's Game, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), The Dipper, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Porcupine and His Brothers, Turtle's Warparty, Ocean Duck, The Markings on the Moon, Wears White Feather on His Head, The Red Man, The Chief of the Heroka, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Man with Two Heads, Brave Man, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, Redhorn's Sons, Fighting Retreat, The Children of the Sun, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Mijistéga’s Powwow Magic and How He Won the Trader's Store, The Were-Grizzly, Winneconnee Origin Myth; the heads of Giants are found to be full of wampum: The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), Turtle and the Giant; intimate contact with women during their menses: The Roaster, Hare Kills Wildcat; marriage to a Giant: The Stone Heart, A Giant Visits His Daughter, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Roaster, Redhorn's Sons, Redhorn's Father, White Wolf; warriors following the scattered tracks of enemies, go down one track, kill all they followed, then go down each of the other tracks in turn until they have made casualties of all the enemy: Grandfather's Two Families, Redhorn's Sons; Giants have ice in the pit of their stomachs: Redhorn's Father, The Stone Heart; Giants cease eating men after they vomit up an ice cube: Redhorn's Father; someone is blessed with a medicine: A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Fourth Universe, Great Walker's Medicine, Bow Meets Disease Giver, The Seven Maidens, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Tap the Head Medicine, The Seer, The Healing Blessing, A Weed's Blessing, A Snake Song Origin Myth, The Origins of the Sore Eye Dance, The Elk's Skull, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, A Peyote Vision, The Sweetened Drink Song.


Notes

1 Young Man Gambles Often (Hočįčįwaki’ųk’ega), in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago V, #22: 1-173. Syllabary without translation. The handwritten English translation is in Young Man Shoots for Them Often, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 56: 1-85. A typed English translation is found in Young Man Shoots for Them Often, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3861 [3891] (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, pre-1930) Winnebago IV, #8s: 1-23.

2 A. A. MacDonell, Vedic Mythology (Delhi: Motilal Barnassidas: 1974 [1898]) 91.

3 George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 17.