The Creation Council

by Richard L. Dieterle


The Creation Council was a meeting of the progenitors of the clans from which the Hočąk nation was formed.1

Earthmaker conceived this council before he had created humanity. He assembled the animals together in the east where the sun rises,2 and told them that twelve kinds would be selected to become the first Hočągara.3 Most accounts suppose that Earthmaker had already created other humans before he sent any animals to the Creation Council. The first to arrive were the Bird Clans (Thunderbird, Hawk, Eagle, and Pigeon),4 who landed on an oak at Red Banks (Mogašuč) on the shores of Te Rok, "Within Lake" (Green Bay).5 Some in the Wolf Clan say they were already there when the Bird Clans arrived and that initially the Bird Clans were too afraid to visit the lodge of the Wolf people.6 Most others, including members of the Wolf Clan, hold that the Wolves were actually the last to arrive at Within Lake.7 Earthmaker had given the Bird people the gifts of tobacco and fire.8 The first thing that they did was to build a fire in the oak tree and bring it down to earth. However, at Within Lake was a white Waterspirit with great inward curving horns. He made the waters swirl, and all kinds of things erupted to the surface culminating in the ejection of burning embers. Then the Waterspirit himself arose.9 In a sense, therefore, he had been there all along, even before the Bird Clans landed, and may be the reason why some say that the Waterspirits were the first to arrive.10 The Elk and Deer were originally brothers and emerged from the center of the earth. The Deer roamed over the whole earth, but kept coming back to the center.11 The Elks were sinless creatures, so people often chose to be reincarnated in that form. Earthmaker told the eldest of the Elk brothers about the Creation Council, so he led the Elk people to Red Banks.12 However, it was the youngest of the Buffalo brothers who divined on his own that there would be a Creation Council.13 The Wolf people, who originally lived in the middle of the sea,14 had specifically asked if they might be allowed to become human. Once this was allowed, they swam to the shore.15 By most accounts the Bears were the last to come to shore.16 Some of the Bear people were especially powerful because they had emerged from the water as ravens, only later to change back into bears.17 As the Bears advanced toward the rendezvous place, living things with dangerous parts - thorns, briars, hawks, eagles, snapping turtles - were transformed into Soldiers who followed in their train.18 The others, who had by now met up, heard the war whoop of the Bear people in the distance and said, "Here come the Soldiers!"19 As the animals of each future clan traveled to the place of rendezvous, they resolved to give their descendants and even their dogs names that memorialized the incidents that happened along the way.20 By now the Earth Clans had met, but they still awaited the arrival of another member of the Creation Council. When the white Waterspirit came up, they said, "Now we have a chief and can be divided into groups."21 Then they all set out for the Creation Council at Red Banks, and as they walked there they gradually became human. It is said that this is the order in which they arrived: "Earth" (Buffalo), Deer, Snake, Elk, Bear, Fish, and Waterspirit.22 However, it is said of the Snake Clan that it arrived at the council last, and was the smallest and least significant among them. It sat by the door. Nevertheless, the others, it is said, declared, "He is a likely chief."23

 
A Cedar Glade at Red Banks
Reproduced with permission from the Department of Natural Resources
A Sprig of Cedar

In the meantime a black hawk,24 had built the lodge in which the Creation Council was to be held. This lodge was the Thunderbird lodge.25 It had four doors, each of which opened on one of the cardinal points.26 The first one to visit him there was his brother the Warrior (Hawk) clansman.27 After the four Bird clansmen had lodged together, they went hunting. At first they were not successful, but later the Warrior went out and came back with a human being for food.28 Finally, the Earth Clans came up to the Thunderbird lodge.29 Earthmaker had decreed that the moieties were to be equal, so no one volunteered to be chief.30 They said to the Waterspirit, who was foremost among the Earth people, "Should we not make a fire?" But the Waterspirit did not know how this was done, nor did anyone else there.31 Then the Thunderbird came up and he made the fire.32 But it is said that at first the fire only smoldered until the Deer, who was wearing a chief's medallion, came up and blew on the embers. Only then did it blaze up. For this reason the Deer people claim a partial chieftainship.33 It was because the Thunderbird had started the fire that he was made paramount chief.34 After they made the fireplace, they organized an Eagle Feast. The Snake people prepared fish and the Deer people acted as attendants. After the feast the Deer people took the smoke of burning red cedar leaves and purified the lodge.35 The Elks were in charge of seating.36 The Bear and Wolf Clans sat opposite each other as befits their friendship relation. That is why they refer to each other as "my opposite."37 There the Buffalo and Waterspirit made a solemn compact of friendship.38 A black hawk then convened the Creation Council.39 There, as Earthmaker had charged them, they divided into clans and gave themselves names.40 The chief said, "It is done," but they heard the howl of a wolf in the distance, and someone said, "We had forgotten him." So they included the Dog or Wolf as one of the clans.41 Others say that the dog came gradually closer and closer to the Creation Council, then peeped its nose in the lodge. Then it was made one of the clans.42 At the council they all agreed to form a single nation, but they had yet to decide what language to speak. The Thunderbird said, "Let us speak Ho-čąk, for čąk is a word of praise, and every word that passes our lips will therefore be praise to Earthmaker." Thus they became the Hočągara.43 The Creation Council concluded with each new clan taking away a brand of the original fire for itself. Then they dispersed to their own homes. The Creation Council took place in summer, when the grass is about knee high.44

As to the fate of the Creation Lodge, it was said that in time the clans fell to fighting one another when they gathered in the great lodge, so that it had to be abandoned owing to the sacrilegious spilling of blood.45


Comparative Material.The Oto are very closely related to the Hočągara, so their version of the first meeting of the clans is of some importance. This is how it goes: On the first morning after Wakąda created the world, the first four brothers, Hana, Huhanguia, Higi, and Higini, arose from the waters and none trod the land before them. They walked all over this earth looking for the Secret of Happiness. Then they came upon the bowl of the peace pipe, but they did not know how to use it. So one day Higini set out by himself to see what he could discover on his own about the matter. His other brothers followed him secretly. Unexpectedly, he came across a man who looked like a beaver. Higini said, "What are you doing in my world?" The Beaver replied, "What are you doing in my world?" Higini became angry, and yelled, "The world is mine. I am a Bear clansmen, and I could conquer you with ease!" "Well," said the Beaver, "perhaps you are right, after all we only just got here." Still Higini was about to do him violence, when, unexpectedly, his brothers suddenly appeared and intervened, saying, "Don't hurt him Higini, he may be our brother." "Yes," said the Beaver, "I am indeed your brother. Let me and my brothers join you, and together we will search for the Secret of Happiness." Then they gave one another names from their own clan. The Beaver cut down the wood needed for the stem of the pipe, and to give it decoration, the woodpecker offered his head, and the eagle offered four of his finest feathers.

Hana, who guarded the pipe, told his brothers how they must now find some way to make use of it. So the two clans set out on their journey again. Finally, they came to a river where they saw a man who looked like an elk sleeping on the bank. The Bear leapt upon the sleeping Elk man, but the victim yelled, "Don't kill me — I am your brother!" The other Bears said, "We cannot have such as this for a brother, the horns growing out of his head are ridiculous." But Beaver jumped in and said, "Let us spare him, for he may be a help to us." "Yes," said Elk, "I can indeed make a contribution. It is I who have the means to make your pipe work. In my hooves I have the power to make pageji (fire)." "Well, then, it is good. Show us what you can do brother," said the Bears. Elk took bark from the red willow and mashed it into the pipe. Then with friction from rubbing his hooves together, he created the first fire. Thus they were able to smoke the Secret of Happiness for the first time.

As they went along, they came across a man who looked like a coyote. He was sleeping in the sun atop a hill. Bear grabbed him, but this time he said nothing threatening, but only, "Come with us and be our brother." The Coyote was delighted and immediately joined them. While they were giving each other names from their own clan, unexpectedly they heard a terrifying scream from above. Then a man who looked like an eagle yelled down at them, "What are you doing in my world?" "It is our world," exclaimed the four clans. Then Eagle said in wrath, "No it is not. Wakąda made this world for me alone, so you all can go back to the waters whence you came!" Higini shouted back, "You are not right, Eagle Chief. We were the first ones to set foot on this earth, so it is ours. Yet it is big enough for all of us, so why not become our brother and join us?" Now the Eagle man was embarrassed that he had acted with such hostility, and he consented to join his people to the other clans.

After they had all traveled on for some time, they came across a man who looked like a snake. "Do not hurt me," said Snake, "may I not become a member of your tribe?" The five clans consulted together for a long time, then the Bear Chief answered for them: "Yes you may bring your clan in with us, but I shall never call you brother, for you do not have feet upon which to walk." Even though Snake had now joined them, the Bear clansmen did not exchange names with him as they had done with the others.

One day Higini went out on his own and climbed to the summit of the highest hill. When he looked around, he saw the largest man he had ever seen, so he ran back to his other brothers and told them of it. Elk said that they should kill him, but Beaver said, "Why do we have the Secret of Happiness if we never use it? Let us smoke with him and make him our brother." When they walked up to him with the peace pipe, he said, "What are you doing in my world? Wakąda created this earth for me alone, so all of you get out!" Hana replied, "In fact it is our world and you are destroying our pastures. Who exactly are you?" "I am the Buffalo Chief," he replied, "but if the world is yours as well, I guess I'll have to share it with you." So they offered him the peace pipe, but he would not smoke it with them. Beaver said, "Let us not be at odds, but join with us." "Yes," added Elk, "be our brother. We have extraordinary powers — look." Then Elk struck his hooves together and relit the pipe. When Buffalo saw Elk start a fire with his hooves, he was amazed. "I shall be proud to have such clever brothers," he said. Then the Bears exchanged names with him. Buffalo said, "You indeed have a great power in the fire, but I too have a power to contribute. This is the power of my medicine, a power to cure those who are sick." This they received gladly, and made Buffalo the medicine man of their tribe. "It is good," said Hana. He continued: "We are seven and we are complete, for seven are the stars of our constellation [the Big Dipper]. Because I was the first to set foot on this earth, I shall be the one to rule over the tribe, and the Bear shall be the chief's clan." "It is good!" said the rest.

They held council and decided what the function of each clan would be. Hana said, "It shall be the duty of the Bear Chief to take over the detailed management of the entire village during the summer moons. During times of drought, the Bear Chief will lead the rituals designed to bring rain. During the fall, the Buffalo Chief will manage the village. He shall decide when the time is right to harvest and store the crops, and he will lead the harvest celebration in the autumn." The Buffalo Chief was to use the special medicine power of his clan to cure those who came down sick. The Beaver Clan was to be in charge during the snow season. He would supervise the building of mud lodges, and the drying and storing of meat. The Elk Chief would manage the village during the three spring moons. He was to determine the time to fertilize and plant crops, and was to show the people how to make the tools of cultivation. He would lead the people in the celebration of spring and the rites of spring that go with it. He was to be in charge of planting after getting a blessing from Wakąda. The Coyote Chief will teach the people wisdom and cunning, and the Eagle Chief is to give hope and courage to those who need it," added Hana. Then the Snake Chief spoke and said, "I too will make a contribution: I will clear the land for the building of the village, and I will construct the chief's lodge. In this lodge we may store the Secret of Happiness." "It is good," replied Hana. Then he built the chief's lodge, and all the other lodges were built around it for protection. In this lodge, Elk created the first fire, and as it blazed up, the seven held their first council.46

The Truhohi Yokuts in their story of the creation of the earth, say that the several kinds of animals spread over the earth and became people. Kroeber says parenthetically, "Usually in Indian myths the 'first people' turn to animals."47


Links: Spirits, Thunderbirds, Wonáǧire Wąkšik, Fire, Earthmaker, Buffalo Spirits, Waterspirits, Bear, Bear Spirits, Fish Clan Origins, Blue Bear, Black Hawk, Black Hawks, Hawks, Snakes.


Stories: about the Creation Council: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Tobacco Origin Myth, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth, Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Buffalo Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, see also, The Creation of Man; about the origins of the Hočąk nation: The Hočąk Arrival Myth, The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Great Walker's Warpath, The Annihilation of the Hočągara I, First Contact; mentioning Earthmaker: The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Lost Blanket, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, The First Snakes, Tobacco Origin Myth, The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Seven Maidens, The Descent of the Drum, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, The Spider's Eyes, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Fourth Universe, Šųgepaga, The Fatal House, The Twin Sisters, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Bear Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Masaxe War, The Two Children, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Gift of Shooting, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Stone Heart, The Wild Rose, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Lame Friend, How the Hills and Valleys were Formed, The Hočąk Migration Myth, The Necessity for Death, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The War among the Animals, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, Blue Mounds, Lost Lake, The Hočągara Migrate South, The Spirit of Gambling, Turtle and the Giant, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara, The Hočągara Contest the Giants, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Bird Origin Myth, Black and White Moons, Redhorn's Sons, Holy Song, The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, Death Enters the World, Man and His Three Dogs, Trickster Concludes His Mission, Story of the Thunder Names, The Origins of the Milky Way, Trickster and the Dancers, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, The Creation of Evil, The Blessing of Kerexųsaka, Song to Earthmaker, The Blessing of the Bow, The Origin of the Cliff Swallow; mentioning the Thunderbird Clan: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, Waruǧápara, The Greedy Woman, Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Wolf Clan Origin Myth (v. 5), The Thunderbird; about the Hawk (Warrior) Clan: Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Berdache Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2); featuring Black Hawk as a character: Morning Star and His Friend; mentioning black hawks: The Thunderbird, Partridge's Older Brother, The Woman who Loved her Half-Brother, Waruǧápara, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Morning Star and His Friend, The Race for the Chief's Daughter; featuring Pigeon as a character: Pigeon Clan Origins, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Bird Spirits, The Creation of Man (v. 2); mentioning pigeons: Pigeon Clan Origins, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Waruǧápara, The Twins Disobey Their Father, The Lost Blanket, How the Thunders Met the Nights, Bird Origin Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, The Creation of Man (v. 2), The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Gottschall: A New Interpretation; about Bird Spirits: Crane and His Brothers, The King Bird, Bird Origin Myth, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Wears White Feather on His Head, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Thunderbird, Owl Goes Hunting, The Boy Who Became a Robin, Partridge's Older Brother, The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother, The Foolish Hunter, Ocean Duck, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Quail Hunter, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Hočąk Arrival Myth, Trickster Gets Pregnant, Trickster and the Geese, Holy One and His Brother (kaǧi, woodpeckers, hawks), Porcupine and His Brothers (Ocean Sucker), Turtle's Warparty (Thunderbirds, eagles, kaǧi, pelicans, sparrows), Kaǧiga and Lone Man (kaǧi), The Old Man and the Giants (kaǧi, bluebirds), The Bungling Host (snipe, woodpecker), The Red Feather, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Waruǧápara, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Black and White Moons, The Markings on the Moon, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna (chicken hawk), Hare Acquires His Arrows, Keramaniš’aka's Blessing (black hawk, owl), Heną́ga and Star Girl (black hawk), Worúxega (eagle), The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (eagle), The Gift of Shooting (eagle), Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, The Hočąk Migration Myth, Blue Jay, The Baldness of the Buzzard, The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster (buzzards), The Shaggy Man (kaǧi), The Healing Blessing (kaǧi), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (kaǧi), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Įčorúšika and His Brothers (Loon), Great Walker's Medicine (loon), Roaster (woodsplitter), The Spirit of Gambling, The Big Stone (a partridge), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, The Fleetfooted Man, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4) — see also Thunderbirds, mentioning elks: Elk Clan Origin Myth, The Animal who would Eat Men (v. 1), The Elk's Skull, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, Deer Clan Origin Myth, Hočąk Clans Origin Myth, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Buffalo Clan Origin Myth, Origin of the Hočąk Chief, Little Fox and the Ghost (v. 2), The Great Fish; See The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits; in which fire plays a role: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Four Steps of the Cougar, East Shakes the Messenger, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, North Shakes His Gourd, The Descent of the Drum (v. 2), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2), Red Cloud's Death, see Young Man Gambles Often (Commentary); mentioning oak: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka, Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Children of the Sun, Turtle's Warparty, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Waruǧápara, The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna, Young Man Gambles Often, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), Sun and the Big Eater, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Roaster, Little Human Head, The Shaggy Man, Wears White Feather on His Head, Peace of Mind Regained, The Dipper (leaves); mentioning red cedar (juniper, waxšúč): The Journey to Spiritland (vv. 4, 5) (used to ascend to Spiritland), The Seer (sacrificial knife), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (sacrificial knife), Redhorn's Sons (coronet of Thunders, lodge), Aračgéga's Blessings (coronet of Thunders), The Twins Disobey Their Father (trees found on cliffs of Thunders), Partridge's Older Brother (smoke fatal to evil spirit), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (purifying smoke), The Dipper (incense), Sun and the Big Eater (arrow), The Brown Squirrel (arrow), Hare Kills a Man with a Cane (log used as weapon); mentioning Creation Lodges (Wogųzočíra): Hare Secures the Creation Lodge of the Medicine Rite, The Descent of the Drum, The Four Steps of the Cougar, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, The Boy who would be Immortal, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, East Shakes the Messenger, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 1), Peace of Mind Regained, South Enters the Medicine Lodge; mentioning feasts: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (Chief Feast), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (Eagle Feast), Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth (Waterspirit Feast), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (Mąką́wohą, Waną́čĕrehí), Bear Clan Origin Myth (Bear Feast), The Woman Who Fought the Bear (Bear Feast), Grandfather's Two Families (Bear Feast), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (Wolf Feast), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Feast), Buffalo Dance Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (Buffalo Feast), The Blessing of Šokeboka (Feast to the Buffalo Tail), Snake Clan Origins (Snake Feast), Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief (Snake Feast), Rattlesnake Ledge (Snake Feast), The Thunderbird (for the granting of a war weapon), Turtle's Warparty (War Weapons Feast, Warpath Feast), Porcupine and His Brothers (War Weapons Feast), Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega) (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), White Thunder's Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Fox-Hočąk War (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Šųgepaga (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2) (Warbundle Feast, Warpath Feast), Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (Warpath Feast), Kunu's Warpath (Warpath Feast), Trickster's Warpath (Warpath Feast), The Masaxe War (Warpath Feast), Redhorn's Sons (Warpath Feast, Fast-Breaking Feast), The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits (Fast-Breaking Feast), The Chief of the Heroka (Sick Offering Feast), The Dipper (Sick Offering Feast, Warclub Feast), The Four Slumbers Origin Myth (Four Slumbers Feast), The Journey to Spiritland (Four Slumbers Feast), The First Snakes (Snake Feast), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (unspecified), Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts (unnamed); set at Red Banks (Mógašúč): Annihilation of the Hočągara II, The Great Lodge, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (vv. 1, 2, 3, 5), Bear Clan Origin Myth (vv. 2a, 3, 8, 11, 12), The Winnebago Fort, Blue Bear, Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, The Hočąk Arrival Myth, The Creation of Man (v. 10), Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins (fr. 1), Eagle Clan Origin Myth, Elk Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Deer Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth, Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief, Šųgepaga, Gatschet's Hočank hit’e ("St. Peet," "Hočąk Origins"), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (v. 1), The Seven Maidens, First Contact, Big Thunder Teaches Čap’ósgaga the Warpath; set at Green Bay, "Within Lake" (Te Rok): Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (vv. 1, 2, 3), Story of the Thunder Names, Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Deer Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), Bear Clan Origin Myth (v. 4), The Seven Maidens, Ioway & Missouria Origins, Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief, Great Walker's Warpath, The Annihilation of the Hočągara I (v. 2), The Fox-Hočąk War (v. 2), First Contact, Gatschet's Hočank hit’e.


Themes: spirits meet in a council: The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Black and White Moons, Holy One and His Brother, The Children of the Sun, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 5), The Gift of Shooting, East Shakes the Messenger, The Descent of the Drum, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, South Enters the Medicine Lodge, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Boy who would be Immortal; animals assemble in a great council: Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, Snake Clan Origins, Why Dogs Sniff One Another.


Notes

1 For the term "Creation Council," see Walter Funmaker, The Winnebago Black Bear Subclan: a Defended Culture (Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota: December, 1986 [MnU-D 86-361]]) 56-57. Informant: One Who Wins of the Bear Clan. Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 185. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan.

2 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 182 (informant: a member of the Bear Clan).

3 Funmaker, The Winnebago Black Bear Subclan, 56-57.

4 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 194. Informant: a member of the Waterspirit Clan.

5 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 165, 168 (informant: a member of the Thunderbird Clan), 171 (informant: a member of the Wonáǧire Wąkšik Clan).

6 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 191. Informant: a member of the Wolf Clan.

7 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 166 (informant: a member of the ), 172 (informant: a member of the Wonáǧire Wąkšik Clan), 192 (informant: a member of the Wolf Clan).

8 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 165. Informant: a member of the Thunderbird Clan.

9 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 194. Informant: a member of the Waterspirit Clan.

10 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 185. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan.

11 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 199. Informant: a member of the Deer Clan.

12 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 202. Informant: a member of the Elk Clan.

13 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 197. Informant: a member of the Buffalo Clan.

14 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 190-192. Informant: a member of the Wolf Clan.

15 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 191. Informant: a member of the Wolf Clan.

16 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 183 (informant: a member of the Bear Clan).

17 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 181 (informant: a member of the Bear Clan), 182 (informant: the father of the former).

18 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 187. His informant for this Bear Clan myth was a member of the Thunderbird Clan.

19 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 182. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan.

20 See Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 165, 169 (Thunderbird Clan), 171-172 (Wonáǧire Uąnkšik Clan), 191, 192 (Wolf Clan), 182 (Bear Clan), 199-201 (Deer Clan).

21 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 194. Informant: a member of the Waterspirit Clan.

22 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 166. Informant: a member of the Thunderbird Clan.

23 Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3862 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago I, #3: 88.

24 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 192. Informant: a member of the Wolf Clan.

25 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 194. Informant: a member of the Waterspirit Clan. Said to have been built by the chief in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3862 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago I, #3: 79.

26 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 181. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan.

27 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 166. Informant: a member of the Thunderbird Clan.

28 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 171. Informant: a member of the Wonáǧire Wąkšik Clan.

29 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 194. Informant: a member of the Waterspirit Clan.

30 Felix White, Sr., "Origin Story of the Winnebago Clans," in David Lee Smith, Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997) 15-16. Informant: a member of the Wolf Clan.

31 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 185. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan. Oliver LaMère, "Clan Organization of the Winnebago," Publications of the Nebraska State Historical Society, 19 (1919): 86-94 (88). Oliver LaMère was a member of the Bear Clan.

32 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 183, 185. Informants: members of the Bear Clan. LaMère (Bear Clan), loc. cit.

33 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 201. Informant: a member of the Deer Clan.

34 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 183. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan.

35 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 172. Informant: a member of the Wonáǧire Wąkšik Clan.

36 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 197. Informant: a member of the Buffalo Clan. LaMère (Bear Clan), "Clan Organization of the Winnebago," 90.

37 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 181. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan.

38 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 197. Informant: a member of the Buffalo Clan.

39 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 192. Informant: a member of the Wolf Clan.

40 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 194. Informant: a member of the Waterspirit Clan.

41 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 192. Informant: a member of the Wolf Clan.

42 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 166 (informant: a member of the Thunderbird Clan), cf. 172 (informant: a member of the Wonáǧire Wąkšik Clan).

43 White, "Origin Story of the Winnebago Clans." Informant: a member of the Wolf Clan.

44 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 166. Informant: a member of the Thunderbird Clan.

45 Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3862 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago I, #3: 79.

46 Bernice G. Anderson, Indian Sleep Man Tales: Authentic Legends of the Otoe Tribe (Caldwell, Idaho: the Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1940) 105-117.

47 A. L. Kroeber, "Indian Myths of South Central California," University of California Publications, American Archaeology and Ethnology, 4 (1907), #4: 169-250 [Story #15, p. 246].