Notes to Redhorn, God of the Chichimecs

Preface

1 Durán also gives the name Yemaxtli. Fray Diego Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, trs., edd. Fernando Horcasitas and Doris Heyden (Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1971) 141. He was called Mixcóatl by the Chichimecs, Otomi, and Matlatzinca; Camaxtli was most particularly the god of Tlaxcala and Huexotzinco. Thomas Athol Joyce, Mexican Archaeology: An Introduction to the Archaeology of the Mexican and Mayan Civilizations of Pre-Spanish America (New York: Putnam, 1914) 32. The god Taras is said to be another form of Mixcoatl worshipped by the Tarascans. Manuel Orozco y Berra, Historia antigua y de la conquista de México (Tip. de G. A. Esteva, 1880) 1:107, citing Sahagun, 3:138.

Attributes

The God of the Hunt

0.1 Paul Radin, "Chief of the Heroka," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #33, p. 65.
0.2 Paul Radin, "The Man's Head," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #51.
0.3 Radin, "Chief of the Heroka," 49; Susman records the breathing as ahé. Amelia Susman, Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1939) Book 10: 79. Informant: Sam Blowsnake.
1 Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, 141.
2 Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), translated by Charles P. Bowditch & Frank E. Comparato; J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) 3:260.
3 Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, 143.
3.1 Seler, Collected Works, 4:219a.
4 Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, 143, 335 plate 13. See the wooden idol shown in Seler, Collected Works, 5:56 fig 70a-d.
5 Seler, Collected Works, 5:41a.
6 Seler, Collected Works, 5:57a.
7 Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, 148.
8 Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, 456.
8.1 Michel Graulich, Mythes et rituels du Mexique ancien préhispanique. 2d ed. Mémoire de la Classe des Lettres, Collection in-8°, third series, vol. 21 (Louvain-la-Neuve: Académie royale de Belgique, 2000) 333.
9 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 295. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan.
20 Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, 142. Durán's says of the celebration in Huexotzinco, "It was the greatest of all, and was received with all the applause in the world, with a maximum of merrymaking." Below is a tabulation of select dates (Alfonso Caso calibration) when the Aztec day of 1-Quecholli would have fallen.

Julian Gregorian Julian Day Tonapohualli   Julian Gregorian Julian Day Tonapohualli
Oct. 24, 1550 Nov. 3, 1550 2287492 5-Water of 6-Rabbit May 5, 779 May 9, 779 2005712 13-Water of 1-Rabbit
Nov. 5, 1500 Nov. 15, 1500 2269242 7-Rain of 8-Flint May 5, 778 May 9, 778 2005347 12-Lizard of 13-House
Nov. 18, 1450 Nov. 27, 1450 2250992 9-Water of 10 Rabbit May 5, 777 May 9, 777 2004982 11-Rain of 12-Flint
Nov. 30, 1400 Dec. 9, 1400 2232742 11-Rain of 10-Flint May 5, 776 May 9, 776 2004617 10-Jaguar of 11-Reed
Dec. 13, 1350 Dec. 21, 1350 2214492 13-Water of 1-Rabbit May 6, 775 May 10, 775 2004252 9-Water of 10-Rabbit
Dec. 25, 1300 Jan. 2, 1300 2196242 2-Rain of 3-Flint May 6, 774 May 10, 774 2003887 8-Lizard of 9-House
Jan. 7, 1250 Jan. 14, 1250 2177627 3-Lizard of 4-House May 6, 773 May 10, 773 2003522 7-Rain of 8-Flint
Jan. 20, 1200 Jan. 27, 1200 2159377 5-Jaguar of 6-Reed May 6, 772 May 10, 772 2003157 6-Jaguar of 7-Reed
Feb. 1, 1150 Feb. 8, 1150 2141127 7-Lizard of 8-House May 7, 771 May 11, 771 2002792 5-Water of 6-Rabbit
Feb. 14, 1100 Feb. 20, 1100 2122877 11-Jaguar of 12-Reed May 7, 770 May 11, 770 2002427 4-Lizard of 5-House
Feb. 25, 1054 March 3, 1054 2106087 2-Lizard of 3-House May 7, 769 May 11, 769 2002062 3-Rain of 4-Flint
Feb. 26, 1050 March 4, 1050 2104627 11-Lizard of 12-House May 7, 768 May 11, 768 2001697 2-Jaguar of 3-Reed
March 10, 1000 March 16, 1000 2086377 13-Jaguar of 1-Reed May 8, 767 May 12, 767 2001332 1-Water of 2-Rabbit
...
May 8, 766 May 12, 766 2000967 13-Lizard of 1-House
April 29, 800 May 3, 800 2013377 8-Jaguar of 9-Reed May 8, 765 May 12, 765 2000602 12-Rain of 13-Flint
April 30, 799 May 4, 799 2013012 7-Water of 8-Rabbit May 8, 764 May 12, 764 2000234 11-Jaguar of 12-Reed
April 30, 798 May 4, 798 2012647 6-Lizard of 7-House May 9, 763 May 13, 763 1999872 10-Water of 11-Rabbit
April 30, 797 May 4, 797 2012282 5-Rain of 6-Flint May 9, 762 May 13, 762 1999507 9-Lizard of 10-House
April 30, 796 May 4, 796 2011917 4-Jaguar of 5-Reed May 9, 761 May 13, 761 1999142 8-Rain of 9-Flint
May 1, 795 May 5, 795 2011552 3-Water of 4-Rabbit May 9, 760 May 13, 760 1998777 7-Jaguar of 8-Reed
May 1, 794 May 5, 794 2011187 2-Lizard of 3-House May 10, 759 May 14, 759 1998412 6-Water of 7-Rabbit
May 1, 793 May 5, 793 2010822 1-Rain of 2-Flint May 10, 758 May 14, 758 1998047 5-Lizard of 6-House
May 1, 792 May 5, 792 2010457 13-Jaguar of 1-Reed May 10, 757 May 14, 757 1997682 4-Rain of 5-Flint
May 2, 791 May 6, 791 2010092 12-Water of 13-Rabbit May 10, 756 May 14, 756 1997317 3-Jaguar of 4-Reed
May 2, 790 May 6, 790 2009727 11-Lizard of 12-House May 11, 755 May 15, 755 1996952 2-Water of 3-Rabbit
May 2, 789 May 6, 789 2009362 10-Rain of 11-Flint May 11, 754 May 15, 754 1996587 1-Lizard of 2-House
May 2, 788 May 6, 788 2008997 9-Jaguar of 10-Reed
...
May 3, 787 May 7, 787 2008632 8-Water of 9-Rabbit May 11, 753 May 15, 753 1996222 13-Rain of 1-Flint*
May 3, 786 May 7, 786 2008267 7-Lizard of 8-House
...
May 3, 785 May 7, 785 2007902 6-Rain of 7-Flint May 24, 701 May 28, 701 1977242 13-Rain of 1-Flint*
May 3, 784 May 7, 784 2007537 5-Jaguar of 6-Reed
...
May 4, 783 May 8, 783 2007172 4-Water of 5-Rabbit June 6, 649 June 9, 649 1958262 13-Rain of 1-Flint*
May 4, 782 May 8, 782 2006807 3-Lizard of 4-House
...
May 4, 781 May 8, 781 2006442 2-Rain of 3-Flint June 18, 600 June 21, 600 1940377 3-Jaguar of 4-Reed
May 4, 780 May 8, 780 2006077 1-Jaguar of 2-Reed
...
Aug. 7, 400 Aug. 8, 400 1867377 11-Jaguar of 12-Reed

The asterisk (*) indicates the calendar name of Mixcoatl. An interesting arithmetical discovery is that there are only four days on which 1-Quecholli can fall: Water, Lizard, Rain, Jaguar (in that order). Just like the four years, they too count down by one every solar year (365 days). Each day name is in one-one correspondence with a year name: Water-Rabbit, Lizard-House, Rain-Flint, Jaguar-Reed. Every day number is one unit less that the year numbers, e.g., 1-Lizard of 2-House, but 13-Rain of 1-Flint, as the number system counts to 13 and starts over with 1.

The following table shows how to calculate the various tonapohualli dates for each of the days of Quecholli. Where the coefficient exceeds 13, subtract 13 from it to get the correct value.

Day Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5
1-Quecholli (n)-Jaguar of (n+1)-Reed (n+1)-Rain of (n+2)-Flint (n+2)-Lizard of (n+3)-House (n+3)-Water of (n+4)-Rabbit (n+4)-Jaguar of (n+5)-Reed
2-Quecholli (n+1)-Eagle of (n+1)-Reed (n+2)-Flower of (n+2)-Flint (n+3)-Snake of (n+3)-House (n+4)-Dog of (n+4)-Rabbit (n+5)-Eagle of (n+5)-Reed
3-Quecholli (n+2)-Vulture of (n+1)-Reed (n+3)-Crocodile of (n+2)-Flint (n+4)-Death of (n+3)-House (n+5) Monkey of (n+4)-Rabbit (n+6)-Vulture of (n+5)-Reed
4-Quecholli (n+3)-Movement of (n+1)-Reed (n+4)-Wind of (n+2)-Flint (n+5)-Deer of (n+3)-House (n+6)-Grass of (n+4)-Rabbit (n+7)-Movement of (n+5)-Reed
5-Quecholli (n+4)-Flint of (n+1)-Reed (n+5)-House of (n+2)-Flint (n+6)-Rabbit of (n+3)-House (n+7)-Reed of (n+4)-Rabbit (n+8)-Flint of (n+5)-Reed
6-Quecholli (n+5)-Rain of (n+1)-Reed (n+6)-Lizard of (n+2)-Flint (n+7)-Water of (n+3)-House (n+8)-Jaguar of (n+4)-Rabbit (n+9)-Rain of (n+5)-Reed
7-Quecholli (n+6)-Flower of (n+1)-Reed (n+7)-Snake of (n+2)-Flint (n+8)-Dog of (n+3)-House (n+9)-Eagle of (n+4)-Rabbit (n+10)-Flower of (n+5)-Reed
8-Quecholli (n+7)-Crocodile of (n+1)-Reed (n+8)-Death of (n+2)-Flint (n+9)-Monkey of (n+3)-House (n+10)-Vulture of (n+4)-Rabbit (n+11)-Crocodile of (n+5)-Reed
9-Quecholli (n+8)-Wind of (n+1)-Reed (n+9)-Deer of (n+2)-Flint (n+10)-Grass of (n+3)-House (n+11)-Movement of (n+4)-Rabbit (n+12)-Wind of (n+5)-Reed
10-Quecholli (n+9)-House of (n+1)-Reed (n+10)-Rabbit of (n+2)-Flint (n+11)-Reed of (n+3)-House (n+12)-Flint of (n+4)-Rabbit (n+13)-House of (n+5)-Reed

The vertical order of days (down a column) is the following: Jaguar, Eagle, Vulture, Movement, Flint, Rain, Flower, Crocodile, Wind, House, Lizard, Snake, Death, Deer, Rabbit, Water, Dog, Monkey, Grass, Reed. It is interesting to note that 5-Quecholli and 10-Quecholli (the last day of the festivities) fall on days whose four names are precisely those given to years, and in the same order (Flint, House, Rabbit, Reed).

The Stag God and His Deer Wife.

1 Andrews and Hasig analyze the word this way:

Mixcoacihuatl [i.e., Mixcōācihuātl] (Mixcoatl's-woman or Woman-dedicated-to-Mixcoatl). A compound noun: embed, Mixcoatl; matrix, (CIHUĀ)-TL, "woman." Mixcoacihuatl is the female deer. The name suggests that it is the preferred prey of Mixcoatl, the hunter.

Hernando Ruiz de Alarcón, Treatise on the heathen superstitions that today live among the Indians native to this New Spain, edd. James Richard Andrews and Ross Hassig. Volume 164 of Civilization of the American Indian series (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999 [1629]) 231.
2 Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 3:50.
3 Walter Krickeberg, Las antiguas culturas mexicanas. Trs. Sita Garst and Jasmin Reuter (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1961 [1956]) 140.
4 Located on the volcanic rock of the Cerro de la Campana near the village of Guadalupe in Pueblo. Seler, Collected Works, 6:1b fig. 8; 6:2a. Reproduced in Guilhem Olivier, "Sacred Bundles, Arrows, and New Fire: Foundation and Power in the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2," in Cave, City, and Eagle's Nest, 288a fig. 10.7a. The stag foot earbob is also found in the Mixcoatl portrayed in the Codex Magliabecchiano, 13.3, folio 42r, reproduced in Seler, Collected Works, 6:2a fig. 9.
5 Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, 145, 464.
6
7 The sister-in-law is one of the primary joking relatives, and is therefore expected to tease her brother-in-law. Verbal teasing is ražič, which is contrasted to ružič, a teasing by action. The episode in question occurs in Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 117.
8 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 115.

The Lunar Wife

1


God of War.

1 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 118-121.
2 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 1-16 [1].
3 Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," 2.
4 John Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #37: 1-70.
4.1 Paul Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #14: 1-67 [53-56] (q.v.). Cf. Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," q.v.
4.2 Sam Blowsnake, Waretcáwera, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Winnebago V, #11: 223-251. An English translation is found in "The Twins," in Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 95-97. Informant: Sam Blowsnake of the Thunderbird Clan, ca. 1912.
5 Eloise Quiñones Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis: Ritual, Divination, and History in a Pictorial Aztec Manuscript (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995) 147a.
6 Seler, Collected Works, 6:2; Krickeberg, Las culturas antiguas mexicanas, 140.

The Champion of the Ballcourt.

1
20 Karen Bassie-Sweet, Maya Sacred Geography and the Creator Deities (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008) 219.

The Solar Connection.

1
20 Bassie-Sweet, Maya Sacred Geography and the Creator Deities, 219.
21 J. Eric S. Thompson, Maya History and Religion (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970) 234, 237; D. Tedlock, Popol Vuh, 239-240; Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya, 97.
22 Thompson, Maya History and Religion, 237.
23 Thompson, Maya History and Religion, 237.

The Dying God.

1

Human or Divine?

1 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan), and Julia Small (Otoe), "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," in Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [457].
2 John M. D. Pohl, "Themes of Drunkenness, Violence, and Factionalism in Tlaxcalan Altar Paintings," RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics, #33, Pre-Columbian States of Being (Spring, 1998): 184-207 [185a, 186 fig 1].
3 Pohl, "Themes of Drunkenness, Violence, and Factionalism in Tlaxcalan Altar Paintings," 196-197.

The Red Man.

1 Timothy P. McCleary, The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Lifeways (Prospect Hills, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1997) 51-57.
8 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 617.
9 It is said that Tezcatlipoca transformed himself into Camaxtli in Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 621. We may deduce that Camaxtli is derived from the Red Tezcatlipoca. See Mary Miller and Karl Taube, An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya (London: Thames & Hudson, 1993) 116a, s.v. "Mixcoatl."

The Candy Striped God.

1 Miller and Taube, An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 116a, s.v. "Mixcoatl."
2 Seler, Collected Works, 5:41b.
3 Miller and Taube, An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 166a, s.v. "Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli."
4 Those who were sacrificed were known as the uauantli, "the striped ones." The same body paint design appears on representations of the war dead. Seler, Collected Works, 6:38a.
5 Seler, Collected Works, 5:41a.
5.0 "His [Camaxtli's] entire body was striped from top to bottom with white stripes." Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, 143; an old priest "was painted from head to foot with the same white stripes which adorned the idol," Durán, 145; the hunters during Quecholli "smeared their bodies with stripes of white paint," Durán, 146; at Quecholli, the hunters' "legs were smeared with white chalk," Durán, 456.
5.1 Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 1:13.
6 Åke Hultkrantz, The Religions of the American Indians, trs. Monica Setterwall (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979 [1967]) 270-271; Arild Hvidtfeldt, Teotl and *Ixiptlatli: Some Central Conceptions in Ancient Mexican Religion (Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1958) 119-120.
7 Seler, Collected Works, 5:41a-b.
8 Seler, Collected Works, 5:41b.
9 Diaz-Granados and Duncan, "Reflections of Power, Wealth, and Sex in Missouri Rock-Art Motifs," in The Rock-Art of Eastern North America, 149.

Herokaga and the Heroka, Mixcoatl and the Mixcoa.

1 John Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #37: 1-70 [55-56].
1.1 The Omaha, who are related to the Hočągara, tell of a race of dwarves that bear some resemblance to the Heroka. "The Wild People or Ga-da-zhe, were dwarfs who made their abode in caverns. They had tiny arrows which they shot at such human being as had offended them; their arrows penetrated the flesh without breaking the skin, but showed beneath the surface; and, by and by, serious results might be feared. These dwarfs carried rattles of deer's claws on their arms; they used to dispute with the hunters after they had killed deer, etc., claiming the game for themselves; but they always vanished as soon as the hunter thrust his spear or ramrod into the wound. These dwarfs abducted people, or, rather, caused them to wander from home and become crazy; sometimes such people never returned home." James Owen Dorsey, "Siouan Folk-lore and Mythologic Notes," The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, 7, #2 (March, 1885): 105-108 [107].
1.2
Rev. Gilbert L. Wilson, "The Iktomi Myth," Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, 1 (1906): 474-475 [475]. Another source says, "I have also asked old men of Crow, Cheyenne, and Blackfoot tribes about arrowheads, and all told me the same thing: Old Man Coyote, Wihio, Napi — the legendary culture heroes, or tricksters — made them." Reginald Laubin and Gladys Laubin, American Indian Archery, Volume 4. Volume 154 of Civilization of the American Indian Series (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991) 118. These tribes generally make arrowheads out of bone.
1.3 Wilson, "The Iktomi Myth," 475. The reverend goes on to say, "While we were discussing the subject a big Sioux stalked into the shop. Mr. Allen turned toward him. 'Arrow-head — flint — how made?' he asked. The Indian laid the flint in his palm. 'Iktomi, — leetle spider men — so big,' and he indicated a little being some four inches high. ... This story is wide spread among the Teton Dakotas [Lakotas]. It was told me, exactly as above, by a Santee, and to a friend of mine by a Yankton Dakota." Wilson, "The Iktomi Myth," 474-475. The Sioux make the exact same claim that the Hočągara do: the flint arrowheads are not made by them, but are found lying on the ground.
1.4 Charles Edward Brown, Wigwam Tales (Madison, Wisc.: Charles E. Brown, 1930) 12. See also, Joseph Brown, Teaching Spirits: Understanding Native American Religious Traditions (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010) 58.
1.5 "[There is a] widespread Dakota tradition to the effect that arrowheads of stone now found are not the work of human beings but of the spider Inktomi ..." Amos E. Oneroad and Alanson B. Skinner, Being Dakota: Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton, ed. Laura L. Anderson (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 2005) 107. "... folklore has it that those found on the ground are said to have been made by black spiders." Oneroad and Skinner, Being Dakota: Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton, 108.
1.6 "Unktomi and the Arrowheads," in Marie L. McLaughlin, Myths and Legends of the Sioux (Bismarck, North Dakota: Bismarck Tribune Company, 1916) 77.
1.7 Wilson D. Wallis, "Beliefs and Tales of the Canadian Dakota," The Journal of American Folklore, 36, #139 (Jan.-Mar., 1923): 36-101 [38].
2 "Red-Woman and Flint-like-young-man," in Lowie,"Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 128-133 [129].
2.1 McCleary, The Stars We Know, 46.
2.2 McCleary, The Stars We Know, 45.
2.3 Frank Bird Linderman, Pretty-Shield: Medicine Woman of the Crows (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003) 26.
2.4 McCleary The Stars We Know, 70.
2.5 "Corn-silk and the Seven Stars," in Edward S. Curtis, The North American Indian, being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska. Ed. Frederick Webb Hodge. 20 vols. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1907-1930) 4:117-126 [123-124].
3 John Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs: the Codex Chimalpopoca (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1992) 189.
4 Leyenda de los Soles, 78:30.
5 Leyenda de los Soles, 78:30-79:15. For the translation of the name and their associations with the cardinal points, see Seler, Collected Works, 5:51b.
10 Paul Radin, "The Chief of the Heroka," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 33: 1-66 [65]; cf. Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 1-16.
11 "The Chief of the Heroka," 41.
12 "The Chief of the Heroka," 49.
13 "The Chief of the Heroka," 48.
14 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 623.
15 Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 1:10-17.
16 "The Chief of the Heroka," 65.
17 Leyenda de los Soles, 75:25-75:33.

Masks of Life and Death.

1 Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 1:17-18.
2 mixcitlathuiticac moteneua tlayoualli. Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), translated by Charles P. Bowditch & Frank E. Comparato; J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) 5:44b-45a, 5:97a.
3 Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) 147-153.
4 Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations: The German Text, with a Revised English Translation, ed. & trs. Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe. 3d edition (Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2001 [1953]) §67, pp. 26-28.
5 Stephen Williams and John M. Goggin, "The Long Nosed God Mask in Eastern United States," The Missouri Archaeologist, 18, #3 (1956): 4-72. See also Timothy R. Pauketat, Cahokia: Ancient America's Great City on the Mississippi (New York: Viking, 2009) 143-147.
6 Mound 3, Yokem Mound Group; Pike County, Illinois. Whelk shell, +1200-1400. National Museum of the American Indian, 24/3506.
7 Duane C. Anderson, "A Long-Nosed God Mask from Northwest Iowa," American Antiquity, 40, #3 (July, 1975): 326-329 [327].
8 Anderson, "A Long-Nosed God Mask from Northwest Iowa," 328. The profile shown was engraved on the inside of the shell, and the complementary profile was engraved in the corresponding spot on the outside of the shell.
9 This is the short-nosed variety of prosopic maskette as seen on the ears of the pipe sculpture known as "Big Boy" (q.v.). James A. Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center: the Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern Oklahoma, 2 vols. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, #29 (Ann Arbor : Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, 1996) 523b.
10 Carol Diaz-Granados, "Marking Stone, Land, Body, and Spirit," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South (New Haven: Yale University Press and The Art Institute of Chicago, 2004) 148, fig. 20.
11 An engraving from Spiro.
11.1 William H. Holmes, Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans. Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Issue 2 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1883) 179-305 [297, plate 70].
12 Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 149-150.
13 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 115-118.
14 Jimm G. Good Tracks, Ioway-Otoe-Missouria Dictionary, 99b, s.v. Waⁿkístowi.
15 John Harrison, "The Giant or The Morning Star," translated by Oliver LaMere, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a, Story 8: 92–117 [112-114].
16 Carol Diaz-Granados, "Marking Stone, Land, Body, and Spirit," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South (New Haven: Yale University Press and The Art Institute of Chicago, 2004) 148 fig. 20.
17 A. A. MacDonell, Vedic Mythology (Delhi: Motilal Barnassidas: 1974 [1898]) 30.
18 Ṛg Veda 10.16.3; cp. 90.3, 158.3, 4.
19 Atharva Veda 5.24.9.
20 Atharva Veda 13.1.45.
21 Ṛg Veda 7.35.8; 10.37.1.
22 Ṛg Veda 1.502.
23 Ṛg Veda 4.13.3. Spáś means, "one who looks or beholds, a watcher, spy, messenger (esp. applied to the messengers of Varuṇa) ... [Cf. Lat. spex in auspex; Gk. σκώψ]." Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990 [1899]) 1268b, s.v. स्पश् — 2. Spáś.
24 Ṛg Veda 1.50.7; 6.51.2; 7.60.2; 7.61.1; 7.63.4.
25 Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990 [1899]) 256a-b, s. v. कणॅ kárṇa. The birth of Karṇa is related in Mahābhārata 1.67 (Ganguli translation, p. 144-145).
26 Scully, "Some Central Mississippi Valley Projectile Point Types," 14-15; Lynne G. Goldstein and Sannie K. Osborn, A Guide to Common Prehistoric Projectile Points in Wisconsin (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1988) 58-59; William Jack Hranicky, Lithic Technology in the Middle Potomac River Valley of Maryland and Virginia (New York: Taylor & Francis, 2002) 232-235.
27 Melvin L. Fowler and Robert L. Hall, "Archaeological Phases at Cahokia," in "Perspectives in Cahokia Archaeology," Urbana: Illinois Archaeological Survey, Bulletin 10 (1975): 1-14 [3]. Robert L. Hall, "Chronology and Phases at Cahokia," in "Perspectives in Cahokia Archaeology," Urbana: Illinois Archaeological Survey, Bulletin 10 (1975): 15-31. Hranicky, Lithic Technology in the Middle Potomac River Valley of Maryland and Virginia, 233. Michael John O'Brien, W. Raymond Wood, The Prehistory of Missouri (University of Missouri Press, 1998) 236.
28 Hranicky, Lithic Technology in the Middle Potomac River Valley of Maryland and Virginia, 233.
29 Lithics-Net > Madison. Goldstein and Osborn, A Guide to Common Prehistoric Projectile Points in Wisconsin, 60-61.
30 William Jack Hranicky, Lithic Technology in the Middle Potomac River Valley of Maryland and Virginia, 173; William Jack Hranicky, Prehistoric Projectile Points Found Along the Atlantic Coastal Plain (Boca Raton, FL: Universal-Publishers, 2003) 117. First identified as a type by Edward G. Scully, "Some Central Mississippi Valley Projectile Point Types," Mimeographed paper, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1951). Noel D. Justice, Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points of the Midcontinental and Eastern United States: A Modern Survey and Reference (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995) 124-127.
31 "The AMS dates for three pictograph panels at Picture Cave were published in "American Antiquity" (2000 or 2001) and the weighted average of the dates given as A.D. 1025. The older panel that you are working with differs stylistically from the dated pictographs and is probably late 9th or early 10th century at the latest!" James R. Duncan, personal communication, July 14, 2010. Carol Diaz-Granados, Marvin W. Rowe, Marian Hyman, James R. Duncan, John R. Southon, "AMS Radiocarbon Dates for Charcoal from Three Missouri Pictographs and Their Associated Iconography," American Antiquity, 66, #3 (July, 2001): 481-492.
32 2 Ursæ Minoris = SAO 181 = HD 5848 = HIP 5372. When the constellation boundaries were redefined, this star ended up in the constellation Cepheus. Other stars less bright have names, but this one, oddly enough, does not.
33 The name Yildun comes from the Turkish Yilduz, "Star."
34 Susan Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999) 251-253. Among the Siouan Mandans, the principal soul is thought to travel through the sky as a shooting star. Alfred W. Bowers, Mandan Social and Ceremonial Organization (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004 [1950]) 97. The Pleiades star cluster is said in Peru to be the eyes of Viracacha, the god of thunder and creation. Anthony Aveni, Stairways to the Stars: Skywatching in Three Great Ancient Cultures (New York: J. Wiley, 1997) 153. For the "star eyes" of the Aztecs, see Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), translated by Charles P. Bowditch & Frank E. Comparato; J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) 2:186a-b, 2:188b, 2:217b, 2:225b, 3:108a, 3:112b, 3:136b-3:137a, 3:217b, 4:111a, 4:133b, 4:226a, 5:5b, 5:45a, 5: 319a-b. The star-denoting eyes were also called "night eyes" by the Aztecs — see Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 182a. Among the Mixtec, stars (tinoo dzinin) are eyes (tenuu). Jill Leslie Furst, Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus I: A Commentary. Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, State University of New York at Albany, Publication #4 (Albany: the Author, 1978) 13-14. This symbolism is widely distributed over Mesoamerica. Herbert H. Spinden, "A Study of Maya Art: Its Subject Matter and Historical Development," Memoirs of the Pebody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 6 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913) 209, Fig. 239; 214. Hermann Beyer, "Symbolic Ciphers in the Eyes of Maya Deities," Anthropos 23 (1928): 32-37; "El ojo en la simbología del México antiguo," El México Antiguo (Mexico City) 10 (1965): 488-493. Franz Termer, "Observaciones etnológicas acerca de los ojos entre los antiguos Mexicanos y los Mayos," El México Antiguo 9 (1961): 245-273 [250]. Jean-Jacques Rivard, "Cascabeles y ojos del dios Maya Ah Puch," Estudios de Cultura Maya (Mexico City), 5 (1965): 75-91. Horst Hartung, "Astronomical Signs in the Codices Bodley and Selden," in Native American Astronomy, ed. Anthony F. Aveni (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977) 37-41 [38]. Pettazzoni records the following:

As for the stars as eyes of the sky itself, this is a quite wide-spread notion. Among the ancient Mexicans it even found expression in art, in the so-called Codices of their picture-writing, which include some representations of the heavens as dotted with eyes. It still survives among the present-day inhabitants of Mexico, as the Cora and Huichol. Among the Wiyot or Wishosk of central California the stars are called "eyes of the sky." Among the Alacaluf of Tierra del Fuego they are the eyes of Xolas, their Supreme Being. Likewise among the Cashinawa (Western Amazon basin), the stars are the eyes of the sky-Being. Sometimes it is certain particular stars which are his eyes. Thus, among the eastern Pomo in California the stars in general are supposed to be eyes, but the polestar is the eye of Marumda, the Supreme Being. In ancient Peru the seven Pleiades were the eyes of Viracocha. In the central district of the island of Flores the stars are the eyes of Dua Nggae the Supreme Being, who is thought of as being the pair Heaven and Earth. Among the Masai, who are Nilotic Hamites, the stars are the eyes of Ngai, the chief sky-god, and a falling star is one of his eyes which is coming nearer the earth in order to see better.

Raffaele Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," Numen, 2, ##1-2 (Jan.-May, 1950): 1-27 [8]. "Among the Cora of ... Mexico, Tetewan, goddess of he night sky and the lower world, has many "sights," presumably eyes, looking every way, and the same is said of Hatsikan, the Morning Star." Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," 19. A raconteur of a Shoshone story says that after the Cottontail brothers made the Moon out of the Sun's gall bladder, "They made stars out of some other part of the body — maybe the eyes." Annie Bealer, "Cottontail Shoots the Sun," in Anne M. Smith, Shoshone Tales (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993 [1939]) 100. The Greek Άργός Πἄνόπτης | Argós Panóptēs, "Bright All-Eyes," seems to have represented the night sky, with his hundred eyes being the stars, as when Ovid describes him as stellatus ... Argus, "starry Argos" (Metamorphoses 1.644).

Argos Panoptes had "many" or "a hundred" or "ten thousand" eyes, or, according to the Aigimios, four, presumably distributed between two faces, for we actually find him two-faced on some vases. In one he has in addition eyes all over his body, and that was how Kratinos conceived of his panoptai, that is the followers of a philosophic school of which he was making fun in the comedy with that title.

Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," 18-19.
35 "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," in Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [457-458].
35.1 "Blue Horn's Nephews" (q.v.), pp. 57-60, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Notebook 58: 1-104 (missing its ending). The lost ending of this story (pp. 104-107) was found inserted between pp. 107 and 108 of "Coonskin Coat," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 59.
36 Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Martha Warren Beckwith, Myths and Hunting Stories of the Mandan and Hidatsa Sioux, Publications of the Folk-Lore Foundation (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College) #10 (1930): 22-52 [42].
37 Ronald Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology (Rosebud Sioux Reservation: Siñte Gleska University, 1992) 39. He continues —

The tioṡṗaye would seek ways, perhaps through a ceremony, to interpret these marks. Among the Laǩoṫa, twins are recongized as special. Some of them are born with marks indicating a previous life. Also some children at age 2, 3 and 4 recollect and speak of aspects of their past lives which are verifiable, such as old camp sites. Sometimes they use words long out of common usage. It is recognized that some twins come back to restore knowledge which would otherwise remain lost to the Laǩoṫa people.

38 Louis F. Burns, Osage Indian Customs and Myths (Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 2005 [1984]) 86; Alice C. Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, The Omaha Tribe (Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press, 1992 [1904-1905]) 61-62.
39 James R. Duncan and Carol Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, 25, #1 (Spring, 2000): 1-23 [6].
40 Francis La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 109 (Washington, D. C.: United States Printing Office, 1932) 230 s.v. "alive," and 290 s.v. "to live."
41 La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, 109 s.v. ni-óⁿ, 237, s.v. "breath (the)."
42 Stephen R. Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1890]) 342a, s.v. ni-yá.
43 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 340b, s.v. ni.
44 La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, 124a, s.v. pa.
45 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 402a, s.v. pa.
46 W. C. McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," Yearbook, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 9 (1929): 215-230.
46.1 Pauketat, Cahokia, 147.
46.2 Burr Cartwright Brundage, The Jade Steps: A Ritual Life of the Aztecs (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1985) 59. See Sahagún, Florentine Codex, 2:23 (chapter 13).
46.2.0 Codex Ixtlilxochitl, 110v.
46.2.1 William G. Fecht, "Long-Nose Mask Ear Ornaments," Prehistoric Artifacts of North America, 20, #4 (1968): 7-9. Duncan and Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 4.
46.3 Jimm Goodtracks, Báxoje-Jiwére-Ñú’achi Ich’e Wawagaxe — Ioway-Oto-Missouria Dictionary (2010) 1 s.v. =kan.
46.4 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 507, s.v. wa-káŋ.
46.5 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 508, s.v. wa-káŋ-da.
46.6 Goodtracks, Báxoje-Jiwére-Ñú’achi Ich’e Wawagaxe — Ioway-Oto-Missouria Dictionary, 87, s.v. Wakáⁿda.
46.7 La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, 193a-194b, s.v. Wa-ḳóⁿ-da.
46.8 La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, 194b, s.v. Wa-ḳóⁿ-da-gi.
46.9 Goodtracks, Báxoje-Jiwére-Ñú’achi Ich’e Wawagaxe — Ioway-Oto-Missouria Dictionary, 86b, s.v. wakáⁿ.
46.10 The expression used is hik'ik'awaxâro (hikika-waxoro), which is translated as "to shed skin." Hikika is akin to hikikax, "to be dressed in a color" (Miner), "to wear, be adorned with" (Marino-Radin); and hikikaž, "to be dressed in" (Marino-Radin). The word waxoró means, "to peel something; to use a drawknife on" (Miner). For the phrase hik'ik'awaxâro, see Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman # (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago II, #5: 171 (= Winnebago II, #1: 157, s. 49); Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 112, 151, 337 nt. 31 ("The ritualistic term for reincarnation is 'skin-shedding'."). At Winnebago II, #6: 22 (= Radin, The Road of Life and Death, 94 ¶ 2, cp. 337 nt. 31), the interlinear text has the word hōiⁿkī́kāwāẋâ, which is translated as "it peels[,] peeling (like snakes)." Radin has an interesting comment on the opposite page:

x hōikī́kawaẋâra = [Wacdjiⁿgéga had acomplish made a certain life for the Indians, which they were to follow. If they followed it they when they died they went to a place called wanoẋitcinak ghost village, from whence they were called by Maⁿuna's servant to him. There they were given the choice of living over again in any form of animal life they wished. It is re[incarnation] this living again that is referred to in —(skin sheding.) Winnebago II, #6: 21 verso

For the Ioway, see Goodtracks, Báxoje-Jiwére-Ñú’achi Ich’e Wawagaxe — Ioway-Oto-Missouria Dictionary, 87a, s.v. wakáⁿ.
46.11 A figure from Tongres in Belgium has a phallus mounted on its head, and another in place of its nose. Weston La Barre, Muelos: A Stone Age Superstition about Sexuality (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984) 20.
46.12 Richard Broxton Onians, The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time, and Fate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951) 236-246.
14.13 Onians, The Origins of European Thought, 239-240.
14.14 Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.594; Statius, Thebaid 6.423.
14.15
47 Mary Carolyn Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago: An Analysis and Reference Grammar of the Radin Lexical File (Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December 14, 1968 [69-14,947]) ss.vv. ni, nį.
48 La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, 354a, s.v. "water."
49 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 122-123.
50 Mark 7:31-35, 8:22-25.
51 Albert Samuel Gatschet, "Hočank hit’e," in Linguistic and Ethnological Material on the Winnebago, Manuscript 1989-a (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, 1889, 1890-1891) s.v. nąǧidak — "1. dead man’s spirit, 2. soul, 3. shadow, 4. man’s reflection in the water" (q.v.); Marino, s.v. nąǧi ("soul, ghost, spirit"); nąǧirak ("soul, vital principle, the spirit"); Kenneth L. Miner, Winnebago Field Lexicon (Kansas City: University of Kansas, June 1984) s.v. nąǧírak ("ghost, shadow"); Hocąk Teaching Materials, edd. Johannes Helmbrecht and Christian Lehmann, 2 vols. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2010) 1:151, s.v. nąąǧírak. This is an old Siouan word: cf. Ioway, náxire, naxíre, "soul, spirit"; wanáxi, wanáxe, wanáxire, wanáxira, "ghost, spirit, soul"; Jimm Goodtracks, Báxoje-Jiwére-Ñú’achi Ich’e Wawagaxe — Ioway-Oto-Missouria Dictionary, 10b, s.v. naxi, náxire; 89a, s.v. wanáxi. Osage, wanóⁿxe, "soul"; nóⁿxe, "spirit, sanity"; La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, 332, s.v. "soul"; 117, s.v. nóⁿxe; 197, s.v. wanóⁿxe. Dakota, naġí, "soul, spirit of a person, manes, shades, ghosts, the shadow"; wanáġi, "the soul when separated from the body, a ghost, the manes, a shadow"; Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 519b, s.v. wanáġi; 320b, s.v. naġí; John P. Williamson, An English-Dakota Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1992 [1902]) 216b, s.v. "soul"; 200a, s.v. "shadow." Hidatsa, nokidáḣi, "a human shade, a ghost"; dáḣi, "a dim shadow or shade." Washington Matthews, Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians. Department of the Interior, United States Geological and Geographical Survey, Miscellaneous Publications, #7 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1877) 143, s.v. dokidáḣi; 225, s.v. "Ghost"; 143, ss.vv. dok, doḣ; 138, s.v. dáḣi; 158, s.v. idáḣi; 234, s.v. "Shade."
52 Onians.
53 Åke Hultkrantz, The Religions of the American Indians, trs. Monica Setterwall (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979 [1967]) 133; Åke Hultkrantz, The North American Indian Orpheus Tradition, in Statens Etnografiska Museum, Monograph Series 2 (Stockholm, the Museum, 1957): 69ff. Similar ideas are entertained by people on the other side of the world. "The belief is that between the Laughlan Islands and the island of Vatum in the Trobriand group, to which their souls should go, there is a great snake over which they must pass. The snake asks each soul for her tattooing. The soul takes off her tattooing and gives it to the snake, who covers itself with it. The snake then becomes broad and flat and the soul passes over, as on a bridge. If the soul is not tattooed the snake shrinks, becomes very narrow, and the soul falls into the sea and cannot reach Vatum. These wretched souls become fish." "Notes," Nature, 65, #1689 (March 13, 1902): 445b.
54 Carol Diaz-Granados, "Early Manifestations of Mississippian Iconography in Middle Mississippi Valley Rock-Art," Visualizing the Sacred: Cosmic Visions, Regionalism, and the Art of the Mississippian World, edd. George E. Lankford, F. Kent Reilly III, and James F. Garber. The Linda Schele Series in Maya and Pre-Columbian Studies (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011) 76.
55 William Tomkins, Universal Indian Sign Language of the Plains Indians of North America, 5th ed. (San Diego, published by the author, ca. 1931) s.v. "Spirit."
56 Weston La Barre, Muelos: A Stone Age Superstition about Sexuality (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984).
57 Alice S. Straus, "Northern Cheyenne Ethnopsychology," Ethos, 5 (1977): 325-357 [327].
58 La Barre, Muelos, 49. For the soul as a resident in the marrow of the bones, see Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 30-31.
59 Father Paul Le Jeune, Jesuit Relations, 1636. Quoted in Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 30.
60 John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, "The Iroquoian Concept of the Soul," Journal of American Folk-Lore, 8, #29 (1894): 107-116. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 30.
61 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 96.
62 Paul Radin, "The Two Friends Who Became Reincarnated: The Origin of the Four Nights Wake," The Culture of the Winnebago as Described by Themselves (Baltimore: Special Publications of the Bollingen Foundation, #1, 1949) 12-46. Informant: John Rave (Bear Clan). The original text is in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 43, 1-62. This story is discussed in Claude Lévi-Strauss, "Four Winnebago Myths," Structural Anthropology, vol. 2, trs. Monique Layton (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976) 198-210.
63 Richard Broxton Onians, The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time, and Fate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951) 96-97.
64 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 100-102. Paul Radin, The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology (New York: Schocken Books, 1956) §§10-11, pp. 72-74. The original Hočąk text is missing, but the English translation of Oliver LaMère is preserved in Paul Radin, "The Hare Cycle," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3851 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago IV, #1: 48-59.
65 George Lankford, The "Path of Souls": Some Death Imagery in the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms: Interpretations of Mississippian Iconography, edd. F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007) 174-212 [191-192].
66 Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States, 4 vols. (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Company, 1856) 4:240. For the Ioway it is Wanáxi Chína Náwun, “Spirit Village Road”. Goodtracks, Báxoje-Jiwére-Ñú’achi Ich’e Wawagaxe — Ioway-Oto-Missouria Dictionary, "M" 5b, s.v. "Milky Way." Cf. the Dakota Wanáġi-taćaŋku, "the Milky Way" (literally, "Road of the Spirits"). Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 519b, s.v. Wanáġi-taćaŋku; 90a, s.v. ćaŋkú; Williamson, An English-Dakota Dictionary, 108a, s.v. "milky-way"; Lakota, Wanagi Tacanku, "the Spirit Road," Eugene Buechel and Paul Manhart, Lakota Dictionary (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002) 341a, s.v. Wanagi Tacanku; Jan Ullrich, New Lakota Dictionary (Bloomington: Lakota Language Consortium, 2008) 950b, s.v. "Milky Way," 569b, s.v. wanáǧi tȟačȟáyku. Farther afield, we have Creek, poyvfekcv ennene, "the road of ghosts," Jack B. Martin and Margaret McKane Mauldin, A Dictionary of Creek/Muskogee (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000) 80b, s.v. nene; 100b, s.v. poyvfekcv; 100b, s.v. poyvfekcv ennene; 272a, s.v. "Milky Way." Ojibwe, Tchibekana, "Road of the Dead," Frederic Baraga, A Dictionary of the Ojibway Language (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1878]) 170a, s.v. "Milky Way"; 237b, s.v. mikana; 382a, s.v. tchibekana.
12.11 Seler, Collected Works, 5:41a.
13 Radin,Winnebago Hero Cycles, 115-118.
13.1 John Harrison, The Giant or The Morning Star, translated by Oliver LaMere, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a, Story 8: 112-113.
13.2 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 123-129.
14 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 123-129. Cf. W. C. McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," Yearbook, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 9 (1929): 215-230.
15 Kathleen Danker and Felix White, Sr., The Hollow of Echoes (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978) 24-25. Informant: Felix White, Sr.
16 Mary Miller and Karl Taube, An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya (London: Thames & Hudson, 1993) 63, s.v. "clowns."
17 Philip Phillips and James A. Brown, Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings: from the Craig Mound at Spiro, Oklahoma. 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.: Peabody Museum Press, ca. 1975-1982) 1.20-21 (figure a).
18 Amos E. Oneroad and Alanson B. Skinner, Being Dakota: Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton, ed. Laura L. Anderson (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 2005) 191 nt 93.

  The "becoming heyoka" was involuntary, involving particular visions or dreams of the Thunder Beings, the terrifying, anti-natural powers, god Heyoka, his representatives or totems, or dreams interpreted by the dreamer or his medicine-advisors as symbolic of those deities.

Thomas H. Lewis, "The heyoka Cult in Historical and Contemporary Oglala Sioux Society," Anthropos, 69, ##1-2 (1974): 17-32 [17].
19 James Owen Dorsey, A Study of Siouan Cults, in the Annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Volume 11, 1889-1890 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1894) 361-544 [468-471].

  Before hunting I used always to offer my pipe full of tobacco to Spider, after which I would smoke it. Sometimes before I had finished smoking that same pipe-full, a moose, a deer or an elk would come right up to the place where I was sitting. That happened many times; thus I know it is very true. Every time, after offering tobacco to Spider, I killed something.

Wallis, "Beliefs and Tales of the Canadian Dakota," 38.
20 Stephen R. Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1890]) 144b-145a, s.v. He-yó-ka.
21 Dorsey, A Study of Siouan Cults, 468 §217.
22 Amos E. Oneroad and Alanson B. Skinner, Being Dakota: Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton, ed. Laura L. Anderson (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 2005) 191-192.
23 Are the similar looking names heroka and heyoka cognate? Heroka means "without horns." If heyoka is divided as he-yoka, the meaning of he is the same as it is in Hočąk — "horn." Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 140b, s.v. he3. There is only one word in Dakota that begins /yo/. Given the /o/ ~ /u/ in all Siouan languages, the from yuka suggests itself. This word means, "to strip off," with the meaning "stripped off horn" given to the compound. Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 628, s.v. yu-ká. This would be similar to he-roka in Hočąk, since in the myth of how they got such a name, Herokaga stripped off his only horn to use as a fire weapon. This too recalls the close association of Heyoka with the Thunderbirds.

Brothers, Good and Bad.
1

The God Who Fathered Himself.
1 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 622.
2 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 623.
3 «hoy sale Camaxtle como su hijo Queçalcovatl.» Bartolomé de las Casas, Apologética Historia de las Indias (Madrid : Bailly, Bailliére é hijos, 1909) Ch. 172, 1:456b. Emily Umberger, "Antiques, Revivals, and References to the Past in Aztec Art," Anthropology and Aesthetics, 13 (Spring, 1987): 62-105 [73]. This mask was a mosaic work of turquoise stone («poníanle tambien una máscara, que suele ser de piedras turquesas puestas como la obra que llaman musaico»).
3.1 Las Casas, Apologética Historia de las Indias, 1:326-328; Henry B. Nicholson, Topiltzin Quexzalcoatl: The Once and Future Lord of the Toltecs (Boulder: The University Press of Colorado, 2001) 57.
4 W. C. McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," Yearbook, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 9 (1929): 215-230.
5 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 134-136.
6 Plenty Hawk, "1. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," in Lowie,"Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 74-85 [85].
7 McCleary, The Stars We Know, vii, 31, 37-42.
8 Plenty Hawk, "1. Old-Woman's-Grandchild," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 52-57 [57], cf. 74. Called Kā́lisbāpitua in McCleary, The Stars We Know, 37, 41.

The Morning Star Connection.
0 ...
1 ...
2 Miller and Taube, An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the May, 166, s.v. "Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli."
2.1 Patrick Saurin, "Atamalcualiztli, ou à la recherche du Tamoanchan perdu, essai d'interprétation d'une fête religieuse des anciens mexicains," Archives de sciences sociales des religions, 119 (July-September, 2002): 147-168 [149].
3 We see the assumption, "Morning Star (known by the Winnebago as Red Horn)," Carol Diaz-Granados and James R. Duncan, "Reflections of Power, Wealth, and Sex in Missouri Rock-Art Motifs," in Carol Diaz-Granados and James R. Duncan, edd., The Rock-Art of Eastern North America: Capturing Images and Insight (Tuscaloosa & London: University of Alabama Press, 2004) 146, and 148-149 (where, curiously, they say he is also called "Hawk"), 150 (where one of his sons is identified with Morning Star), 203. The identity is maintained elsewhere by Diaz-Granados, Brown (where he is also said to be identical to a falcon-like Birdman), and F. Kent Reilly, who goes so far as to call Sam Blowsnake's Redhorn Cycle, "the Morning Star myth" — see James A. Brown, "The Cahokian Expression: Creating Court and Cult," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South (New Haven: Yale University Press and The Art Institute of Chicago, 2004), caption to fig. 1, 115; Carol Diaz-Granados, "Marking Stone, Land, Body, and Spirit: Rock Art and Mississippian Iconography," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand, 148; F. Kent Reilly, "People of Earth, People of Sky: Visualizing the Sacred in Native American Art of the Mississippian Period," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand, 133.
4 John Harrison, The Giant or The Morning Star, translated by Oliver LaMère, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a, Story 8: 92-117.
5 "Reason for Milky Way," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3862 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago I, #3: 105, 107b.
6 In speaking of the Morning Star, the Crow elder Wyola reported,

[My grandfather] said, "Don't point at that star. He is sacred." Baptists told him it is the Devil. We don't know for a fact, but they said that it is the Devil. Bird Far Away [a Baptist lay-minister at Lodge Grass in the 1920s] spoke to him about it. He told my grandfather that the Morning Star may have a lot of different stories about it, but it is the Devil. Maybe Baptists are afraid of this star [laughs].

This suggests that Christian ministers were substituting their own mythology in order to discourage the worship of Morning Star. Timothy P. McCleary, The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Lifeways (Prospect Hills, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1997) 34.
7 Pages 46-49 of Paul Radin, "The Man's Head," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #51: 1-61 (English only); Winnebago V, #13: 1-21, 26-61, and Winnebago V, #10: 22-25.
8 The Giant or The Morning Star, by John Harrison, translated by Oliver LaMere, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a, Story 8: 92-117 [98-99].
9 Paul Radin, "The Chief of the Heroka," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #33, 65-66. Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Sons," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7, Story 7a.
10 Willard Van Orman Quine, Word and Object (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960) 141-156.

Orion: Hunter, Arrow, Firedrill, Portal of Souls
10 "On a night when all of the stars light up, very bright, people say, 'Kukéht asū́k' [lodges on the other side]. When people are facing death, they become afraid, and say things such as, 'I am afraid to die, I don't want to die.' They are told, 'Don't be afraid, even if you die you will be alive up there.' This is what the term 'Kukéht asū́k' means. People of many generations ago that have died, have moved camp and are all together, well and happy. They were here with us, but now they are gathered up there. There are many of them. Some have gone up there and they were told to come back because their time was not yet. That is how we know of these things. We are told of them by people that have been there and back. This is how we speak of the term heaven. This is the significance of the term, 'Kukéht asū́k'." McCleary, The Stars We Know, 79.
20 Leonard Crow Dog, "The Ghost Wife," American Indian Myths and Legends, edd. Richard Erdoes and Alfonso Ortiz (New York: Pantheon Books, ca. 1984) 462-463.

God of Fire and the Silver Xonecuilli
1 Seler, Collected Works, 4:202a.
10 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 115b-116a, s.v. "Mixcoatl," following Walter Krickeberg, Las antiguas culturas mexicanas. Trs. Sita Garst and Jasmin Reuter (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1961 [1956]) 126.
11 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 176.
12 «... las estrellas del cielo del norte (mimixcoa) se transformaron en estrellas del cielo del sur (huitznahua).» Krickeberg, Las culturas antiguas mexicanas, 140.
13 Zelia Nuttall, "The Atlatl or Spear-Thrower Used by the Ancient Mexicans," Archaeological and Ethnological Papers of the Peabody Museum, 1, #1 (1888-1904): 173-207 [203 plate I, #7].
14 Based on Seler, Collected Works, 3:214 fig. 38.
15 Detail from the rendering of Mixcoatl in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis.
16 Based on Seler, Collected Works, 4:202 fig. 11b.
17 Seler, Collected Works, 4:202a.
18 Seler, Collected Works, 4:206b-207a.
19 Seler, Collected Works, 4:196.
20 Bernardino de Sahagún, Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain. Book 7: The Sun, Moon, and Stars, and the Binding of the Years. Trs. Charles E. Dibble, Arthur J. O. Anderson. Archaeological Institute of America, Monograph 14, Book 1, Chapter 10.
20.1 Seler, Collected Works, 4:162b.
21 Hernando Alvarado Tezozómoc, Cronica Mexicana, ed. Jose M. Vigil (Mexico City: Ireneo Paz, 1878 [1598]) 451.
22 Seler, Collected Works, 5:55a-b; 4:145.
23 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 189b, s.v. "Xiuhcoatl."
24 Sahagun, Florentine Codex, Book 1, Chapter 1, quoted in Seler, Collected Works, 3:215b. War is referred to as "fire and water," the former being clear enough as a symbol of destruction, but the latter is more obscure. Water in Nahuatl is atl, the the spear thrower is the atlatl, which to the Nahuatl ear sounds like "water-water." So war, which employs the atlatl, is signified by water (atl). Cf. Seler, Collected Works, 4:131a, where the designation for war, atl-tlachinolli, is translated as "fire flood."
25 Seler, Collected Works, 3:216a.
26 Seler, Collected Works, 4:146a.
27 Sahagún, Florentine Codex, 7:13.
29 José Manuel Pedrosa, "Bocina," in Gran enciclopedia cervantina, edd. Carlos Alvar, Florencio Sevilla Arroyo (Madrid: Centro de Estudios Cervantinos, January, 2008) s.v., 1381-1383.

"... it cannot be above three hours; for the mouth of the hunting horn is at the top of the head, and makes midnight in the line of the left arm."   ‹‹no debe de haber desde aquí al alba tres horas, porque la boca de la Bocina está encima de la cabeza, y hace la media noche en la linea del brazo izquierdo.››

Miguel de Cervantes, Adventures of Don Quixote de la Mancha, Part I, Chapter XX, 199ᵇ, trs. Charles Jarvis (London: G. Routledge, 1858) 85-86. It was also given this name in Italian as early as 1310 in Dante's Inferno, Paradiso, Canto XIII, where it is called Corno.
31 Robert L. Hall, "The Material Symbols of the Winnebago Sky and Earth Moieties," in The Meaning of Things: Material Culture and Symbolic Expression, ed. Ian Hodder (London: Unwin Hyman, 1989) 178-184 [181].
32 Sahagún, Florentine Codex, 7:67 line 1 Citlalxonecuilli.
32.0 There may have been some confusion between Ursa Major and Minor. Just as in the Old World both were called "the Bear," so in the new we find that Xonecuilli, being itself a descriptive term, has been applied to the other Ursa constellation which fits the xonecuilli's S shape as well. Nuttall tells us, "To Don Mariano Rojas, the oldest inhabitant of the town of Tepoztlan (Morelia) in which the Nahuatl language is not only spoken, but cultivated, I am indebted for the interesting personal communication that one of his earliest recollections is that of his old grandfather pointing out to him the seven stars of the constellation of Ursa Major and telling him that its name was Xonecuilli." Zelia Nuttall, "A Penitential Rite of the Ancient Mexicans," Archaeological and Ethnological Papers of the Peabody Museum, 1, #1 (1888-1904): 437-462 [460].
32.0.1 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, Ch. 4, p. 619.
32.1 This is a decisive consideration for Hall. Hall, "The Material Symbols of the Winnebago Sky and Earth Moieties," 181. He also points out that before Polaris (of Ursa Minor) assumed the position of Pole Star, it had been held by Thuban of Draco, a constellation which itself has the reverse S shape. Hall, 181-182.
33 Sahagún, Florentine Codex, 7:38 fig. 21-11.
34 «... la estrella Xonecuilli que es la encomienda de Santiago, que es la que está por parte del Sur, hacia las Indias y chinos ...» Hernando Alvarado Tezozómoc, Cronica Mexicana, ed. Jose M. Vigil (Mexico City: Ireneo Paz, 1878 [1598]) 574.
35 Anthony F. Aveni, Skywatchers (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) 34 fig. 12. The fact that it is a mirror image means that it is a backward S and not compatible with the illustration in Sahagún.
36 Aveni, Skywatchers, 36.
37 Nuttall, "A Penitential Rite of the Ancient Mexicans," 461 note.
38 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 66a, s.v. "color."
39 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 170-172.
40 Hall, "The Material Symbols of the Winnebago Sky and Earth Moieties," passim.
40.1 Paul Radin, "Winnebago Tales," Journal of American Folklore, 22 (1909): 288-300. E. W. Lenders, "The Myth of the 'Wah-ru-hap-ah-rah,' or the Sacred Warclub Bundle," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, 46 (1914): 404-420. Told by Joseph LaMère, Bear Clan, to Radin in the summer of 1908 and to Lenders in Aug.- Sept., 1909.
40.2 Charles E. Brown, Wisconsin Indian Place Legends (Madison: Works Progress Administration, Wisconsin, 1936): 5; Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 166.
40.3 Mary Carolyn Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago: An Analysis and Reference Grammar of the Radin Lexical File (Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December 14, 1968 [69-14,947]) 159, sv mąče.
40.4 Kenneth L. Miner, Winnebago Field Lexicon (University of Kansas: June, 1984) s. v.
40.5
41 Based on Seler, Collected Works, 4:218 fig. 12.
42 Based on Seler, Collected Works, 4:219 fig. 16a.
43 Based on Seler, Collected Works, 5:54 fig. 63.
44 Wisconsin Historical Society, Image ID: 26878.
45 Based on George Catlin, Portrait of Kakajuka, detail.
50 Seler, Collected Works, 3:213. See also Guilhem Olivier, "Sacred Bundles, Arrows, and New Fire: Foundation and Power in the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2," Davíd Carrasco and Scott Sessions, Cave, City, and Eagle's Nest: An Interpretive Journey through the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan, Issue 2 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007) 297b.
50.1 Nuttall, "The Atlatl or Spear-Thrower Used by the Ancient Mexicans," 173-198 [post 198 plates II and III].
51 Seler, Collected Works, 3:213b.
52 Sahagún, Florentine Codex, 2:159 — "And there were two head fire-dirlls; they became as his horns; they were on two sides. (auh ume in quammalitli, iuhquin iquaquauh muchioa, nenecoc in mamani.)"
53 Seler, Collected Works, 3:213a. Since these fire sticks are entwined with his hair, they are called mi-tzontli, "arrow wig," and tlacoch-tzontli, "spear wig."
53.1 Paul Radin, "The Sun," Transcripts in English of Winnebago Tales, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago IV, #7L, 1-9 [5, 8].
54 Louise Phelps Kellogg, "The Winnebago Visit to Washington in 1828," Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, 29 (1935): 347-354.
55 There were fifteen members of the delegation plus the interpreter Pauquette. Hojįnąžįga is not mentioned among the few sketched by Kellogg.

[Col. John] Kinzie prepared for their return journey and had the tribesmen fitted out with clothes by a fashionable tailor, who made them fifteen blue frock coats, as many pair of leggings to match, sixteen blue cloth caps (perhaps one for Pauquette), cloth and ribbon for the squaw, three dozen pair of stockings and twelve pairs of shoes. ... Horses, saddles, and bridles were there bought for them, and they journeyed homeward to their separate Wisconsin villages, with many gifts to testify to the welcome they had received. The visit of the chiefs was justified by its results. The expense of $10,272.05 to the government was less than a war would have been.

Kellogg, "The Winnebago Visit to Washington in 1828," 353-354.

The Long Arms of the Milky Way.
1 McCleary, The Stars We Know, 61.
2 Gray Bull, "2. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 85-94 [93].
3 Seler, Collected Works, 5:55a-b; 4:145.
4 Bā-ā́ritsg-e in Crow. Plenty Hawk, "1. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," 83.
5 According to the Hidatsa. Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Beckwith, Myths and Hunting Stories of the Mandan and Hidatsa Sioux, 23.
6 Gray Bull, "2. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," 91.
6.1 Shown to the far left in Plate 21 in Susan Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999) post 348.
6.2 Linda Schele and Mary Miller, The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art (Fort Worth: Kimbell Art Museum, 1986) 194 plate 73a.
6.3 Susan Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya, 282b.
7 Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Beckwith, Myths and Hunting Stories of the Mandan and Hidatsa Sioux, 22-30.
8 Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Beckwith, Myths and Hunting Stories of the Mandan and Hidatsa Sioux, 33 (arrowheads), 40 (flaming arrow).
9 Grandmother's Knife, "3. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 94-98 [98]. Gray Bull, "2. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," 91. McCleary, The Stars We Know, 60.
10 Plenty Hawk, "1. Lodge Boy and Thrown Away," 83.
11 Gray Bull, "2. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," 93.
12 See McCleary, The Stars We Know, 64 —

Ihkaléaxe [Sirius] has a helper, and this helper is suppposed to be a giant, a huge man. They call him Ischéenmuluxpawishe [Cedar Between the Eyes]. They say he has a cedar chip between his eyes, so that's why they sall him Ischéenmuluxpawishe. He is the one that takes the dead people back to the Other Side, or where they go when they die. They attribute cannibalistic tendencies, they say that this man, this giant, Ischéenmuluxpawishe, he eats the dead people and that's why they fear him. He has cannibalistic tendencies.

So the souls of the dead are taken to Spiritland by a star in the Big Dipper, one who is also responsible for the devouring (decay ?) of the flesh.
13 Grandmother's Knife, "3. Lodge Boy and Thrown-Away," 98.
14 Lankford on fork in Milky Way.
18 Ronald Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology (Rosebud Sioux Reservation: Siñte Gleska University, 1992) 22, 39.
19 The Sixth Grandfather, Black Elk's Teachings Given to John G. Neihardt, ed. Raymond J. DeMallie (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984) 404-409. Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge, 26-28.
20 McCleary, The Stars We Know, 66. George Reed, jr., Dictionary of the Crow Language, Master of Science thesis, Dept. of Foreign Literatures & Linguistics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1974) 72, s.v. óoshi — "cooked, ready (of food), burnt, dyed"; 92, s.v. "red" — hísshi.
21 Robert H. Lowie, The Religion of the Crow Indians, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 25, pt. 2 (New York: Published by Order of the Trustees, 1922) 316. "The Woman who Married Worms-in-his-face," in Lowie,"Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 119-128 [125].

Three Deer

Notes.

Center of the Cosmos
1
22 This is not an act of cruelty by Redhorn's sister-in-law, but behavior expected of her as a joking relative. The joking relation obtained for one's father's sister's children, mother's brother's children, mother's brothers, sisters-in-law, and brothers-in-law. Radin tells us, "In the two cases last named [sisters-in-law and brothers-in-law] not only was a man permitted to joke with those relatives but he was supposed to do so whenever he had an opportunity. Under no circumstances were any of these individuals supposed to take offense. This relationship was of course reciprocal." Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 85.
23 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 115-118.
24 Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) 56, 151.
26 Paul Radin, "The Red Man," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #6: 61-66.
27 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 12-13.
28 Paul Radin, "Coon Skin Fur Coat," Winnebago Notebooks (American Philosophical Society Library) Notebook #59: 1-122; Paul Radin, "White Wolf," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) Notebook #10: 1-64.
29 Paul Radin, "A Man and His Three Dogs," in Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3853 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago IV, #6: 143-147.
30 Jigi Hočųk’ čínoknǫkšgúni. Wągwášoše xetéra hočįčį́nįgią gičoínegi. P’įxjį. Xetéhi nąúje, hahí warújenįk gip’į́giži čaraxúrašana rúčgigis’áže. Sagerékjege wágiúnąkše. James StCyr, "Fleetfoot," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #19, Story II: 18.
31 The material on the Deer Clan and centrality comes from Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 198-201; and "Deer Clan Origin Myth," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3899 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #19a: 1-13. See the Deer Clan Origin Myth.
32 A. A. MacDonell, Vedic Mythology (Delhi: Motilal Barnassidas: 1974 [1898]) 30.
33 Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990 [1899]) 256a-b, s. v. कणॅ kárṇa.
36 Harrison, The Giant or The Morning Star, 112.
37 "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," in Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," 427-506 [457-458].
38 When a head is taken, its ghost may follow after the warparty and shove stragglers so that they stumble. This shows that the ghost is more drawn to the head than to any other part of his body. Paul Radin, "The Two Friends Who Became Reincarnated: The Origin of the Four Nights Wake," The Culture of the Winnebago as Described by Themselves (Baltimore: Special Publications of the Bollingen Foundation, #1, 1949) 12-46. Informant: John Rave (Bear Clan). The original text is in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 43, 1-62. This story is discussed in Claude Lévi-Strauss, "Four Winnebago Myths," Structural Anthropology, vol. 2, trs. Monique Layton (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976) 198-210. Outside Native America, the head is identified with the soul, and the deceased are sometimes called "heads." Richard Broxton Onians, The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time, and Fate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951) 96-97. For a fuller discussion of this topic, see "The Gottschall Head."
39 Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Martha Warren Beckwith, Myths and Hunting Stories of the Mandan and Hidatsa Sioux‎, Publications of the Folk-Lore Foundation, #10 (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College, 1930) 22-52 [42].
40 Timothy P. McCleary, The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Lifeways (Prospect Hills, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1997) 57-62; Plenty Hawk, "1. Spring Boy and Thrown Away," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 74-75.
41 Ronald Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology (Rosebud Sioux Reservation: Siñte Gleska University, 1992) 26-27. He mentions a 1986 version by Ollie Napesin which no doubt connects the Hand asterism to the story told in DeMallie. The Sixth Grandfather, Black Elk's Teachings Given to John G. Neihardt, ed. Raymond J. DeMallie (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984) 404-409.
42 Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge, 22.
43 In a variant of this story, the child's name is Haçouusā, which means "Little Star" or "Star Child." Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 332-338 [335]. In another variant, the child is called "Moon Child" (Hiiciisisā). Caspar Edson, "137. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 339. Hiiciis means both "Sun" and "Moon." "138. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 340-341 [341 nt 1]. Consequently, in one story he is said to be the son of the Sun and called Hiiciisteiā. This same story also calls him Housā, "Porcupine's Son," and even Biaxuyan, "Found in Grass." "138. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 340-341. George A. Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance: The Ceremony of the Offerings Lodge. Field Museum Anthropological Series (Chicago: the Museum: 1903) 5:212-228; George Lankford, The "Path of Souls": Some Death Imagery in the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms: Interpretations of Mississippian Iconography, edd. F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007) 174-212 [198]. There is another version of this story in six variants: Fire Wood, "134. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 321-329; Long Hair, "135. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 330-331; Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338; Caspar Edson, "137. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 339; the source of this variant is an old woman of the tribe, "138. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 340-341. Yet another variant is contained in a footnote: Philip Rapid in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 339-340 nt 3.
44 Lillian Brave (One Kernel of Corn Woman), "63. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup," in Douglas R. Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians. Volumne 2, Stories of Other Narrators: Interlinear Linguistic Texts. Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians, 4 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991) 2:693-715. Other versions of this myth: Ella P. Waters (Yellow Bird Woman), "85. The Star Husband and Old Woman's Grandson," in Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians, 2:889-922. White Bear, "15. The Girl who Married a Star," in George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Arikara (Washington, D. C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1904) 56-60. For a discussion of the Hand asterism, see George E. Lankford, Reachable Stars: Patterns in the Ethnoastronomy of Eastern North America (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2007) 226-239.

Stories

The Five Sons of the Primordial God.
4 Kathleen Danker and Felix White, Sr., The Hollow of Echoes (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978) 24-25. Informant: Felix White, Sr.
5 Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagos (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923) 410-411.
6 Louis L. Meeker, “Siouan Mythological Tales,” Journal of American Folklore, 14 (1901): 161-164.
7 George E. Lankford, Reachable Stars: Patterns in the Ethnoastronomy of Eastern North America (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2007) 124.
8 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 617.
9 Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 2:24-2:52, in John Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs: the Codex Chimalpopoca (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1992).
10 Leyenda de los Soles, 75:6-76:17, in John Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs: the Codex Chimalpopoca (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1992) 139-162.

The Virgin Birth from a Swallowed Stone.
1 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 3:59-4:2, Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs, 28.
2 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 100, s.v. "Itzpapalotl."
3 ," in Robert H. Lowie, Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 128-133 [130].
4 Leyenda de los Soles, 80:50.
5 Naopi-sica, "The Stone Boy," in J. R. Walker, "The Sun Dance and Other Ceremonies of the Oglala Division of The Teton Dakota," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History Vol. XVI, Part II (1917): 194.
6 Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagos (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923) 409-411 [410].
7 Alfred L. Kroeber, Gros Ventre Myths and Tales, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 1, Part 3 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, May, 1907) 98.
8 George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 14-15 (Rock); 184-185 (Light Stone).
9 James R. Walker, The Sun Dance & Other Ceremonies of the Oglala Division of the Teton Dakota, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 16, Part 2 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1917) 194.

The Courtship of the God of the Hunt.
1 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, Chapter 7, p. 623. From the same source we learn that one of these women was Coatlicue (Quatlique), Chapter 11, p. 626.
2 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, Chapter 6, p. 622.
2.1 Muñoz Camargo, Historia de Tlaxcala (Mexico City: Oficina tip. de la Secretaría de fomento, 1892) 40-41. See also, Seler, Collected Works, 5:53b.
3 Leyenda de los Soles, 80:29-80:49.
4 Auh ye no cepa ya in Mixcohuatl ye no cepa quinamiqui, çan no maxauhticac, çan no quiman in chimalli in imiuh. Auh ye no cepa icpacpa quiz in mitl, ihuan ce iyomotlan, ihuan ce quimacuic ihuan inic [nappa] tzallan quiz. Auh niman in ye yuhqui, nima[n] ye iccana, itlan motecac in cihuatl in Huitznahuac, ca yehuatl in Chimalman. Auh niman ye ic otzti. Leyenda de los Soles, 80:44-80:49; Nahuatl text from Walter Lehmann, "Traditions des anciens Mexicains," Journal de la Société des américanistes de Paris, 3, #2 (Oct. 15, 1906): 239-294 [§§74-75, 278-279].
5 Paul Radin, "The Dipper," Notebooks, Freeman #3850, 3896, & #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #50: 198-211.

The Brothers of the God of the Hunt Try to Kill Him
1 Edouard de Jonghe (ed), "Histoyre du Mechique, manuscrit français inédit du XVIe siècle," Journal de la Société des Américanistes, 2 n.s. (1905): 1-41 [34-35].

The Attack of the Rejected Consort
1

The Warbundle of Burnt Human Remains
1 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 132-134.

The Two-Headed Being, the Talisman of Victory
10 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 623.
11 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 123-129. Cf. W. C. McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," Yearbook, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 9 (1929): 215-230.
12 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan), and Julia Small (Otoe), "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [457].
13 Leyenda de los Soles, 80:17-80:28.
14 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 623.
15 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 123-129. Cf. W. C. McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," Yearbook, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 9 (1929): 215-230.
16 Small and Small, "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," 457.

The Death, Removal, and Resurrection of the God of the Hunt
1 The Chronicles of Michoacán, trs., edd. Eugene R. Crane and Reginald C. Reindorp (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970) 63-64. John M. Ingham, "Human Sacrifice at Tenochtitlan," Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 26, No. 3. (Jul., 1984): 379-400 [390].
2 The affinity of the second story to that of the Chronicles was first noted by Walter Lehmann. See Die Geschichte der Königreiche von Colhuacan und Mexico (Codex Chimalpopoca), ed., trs. with commentary by Walter Lehmann, Quellenwerke zur Alten Geschichte Amerikas, 1 (Stuttgart-Berlin: W. Kohlhammer, 1938) 333 nt 1. Graulich, Mythes et rituels du Mexique ancien préhispanique, 184.
3 The Chronicles of Michoacán, 22.
10 Robert L. Hall, "The Cultural Background of Mississippian Symbolism," in The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex: Artifacts and Analysis. The Cottonlandia Conference. Ed. Patricia Galloway (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989) 239-278 [247]. Here is Hall's original summation of his comparisons:

    1. A hero believed to have been associated with the morning star engages in contests with an unusual enemy (giants, or giants and bears, or lords of the Underworld); he is defeated and beheaded, and his head is hung up.
    2. The hero has a son or twin sons by each of two wives, one of whom was a woman with red hair or a woman associated with blood who belonged to the village of the extraordinary enemy.
    3. Twin sons of the hero or a son of the hero and a companion grow up, discover the heads or bones of the father or fathers in the village of their killers, recover them, and quicken (or reassemble) them after destroying the enemy.
    4. The ball games conclude with the killing or sacrifice of the members of the losing side.
    5. There is an episode when the head of the decapitated hero (or his rescuing son) spits at someone with a blood-associated name (or spits blood) after the death of the hero.
    6. The episode of the recovery of the remains of the father(s) by the son(s) is followed by a statement relating to the immorality of the soul (or of the name of the deceased).

11 Seler, Collected Works, 3:132; Walter Krickeberg, Mitos y leyendas de los aztecas, incas, mayas y muiscas (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1971) 135; Graulich, Mythes et rituels du Mexique ancien préhispanique, 183-184.
12.1 McCleary, The Stars We Know, 61-62.
12.2 Small and Small, "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," 456-458.
12.3 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 123-132.
12.4 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 1-16 [7-13].
12.5 The Chronicles of Michoacán, 390.
12.6 Popol Vuh ...
15 Graulich, Mythes et rituels du Mexique ancien préhispanique, 184.
20 Munro S. Edmonson, Quiché-English Dictionary. Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, Publication 30 (New Orleans: Tulane University Press, 1965) 71, s.v. mazat.
21 Hall, "The Cultural Background of Mississippian Symbolism," 245.

The God of the Hunt is Avenged by His Son
4 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 1-16 [13-14].
5 Leyenda de los Soles, 81:3-81:43.
5.1 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 1-16 [12].
6 Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas, 621.
7 Leyenda de los Soles, 77:32, cf. 77:48-77:52.
8 Leyenda de los Soles, 81:32-33.
9 Leyenda de los Soles, 81:34-35.

The Departure Scene and the Legacy of the God of the Hunt
1 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, §11, p. 132.
2 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 2:56-3:4, in John Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs: the Codex Chimalpopoca (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1992) 26-27.
3 Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs, 27 nt 16. See the example discussed in Solier, Ancient Mexican Costume, 52-53 and Plate XV; Joyce, Mexican Archaeology, 19 [... ?].
4 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 25:47, Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs, 70.
5 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 56:20-56:24, Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs, 114.
5.1 Phillips and Brown, Pre-Columbian Shell Engraving, Part 1, 190 Fig. 247.
5.2 E. K. Burnet, "The Spiro Mound Collection in the Museum," Contributions of the Museum of the American Indian. The Heye Foundation, 14 (1945): 1-47, plates 1-94 [Plate 75]. Phillips and Brown, Pre-Columbian Shell Engraving, Part 1, 192 Fig. 251.
6 James A. Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center: the Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern Oklahoma, 2 vols. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, #29 (Ann Arbor : Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, 1996) 523b.
7 Hamilton, "The Spiro Mound," 34-35. Spectroscopic analysis has yet to be carried out on this artifact — Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523b.
8 Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523b. "Both of the holes interrupt the 'feather' or 'spade' pattern on the blanket without their being a border or rim around the holes. Just such an absence of rim would be consistent with holes drilled after the blanket pattern had been finished."
9 It's interesting to note that the pictograph of Mixcoatl at Cerro de la Campana shows him wearing, like Big Boy, a three strand necklace. See Seler, Collected Works, 6:1. Strings of shell wampum beads may also have been given out as "emblems of the rank derived from personal exploits and inherited honor." James Allison Brown and Alice Mossie Brues, The Spiro Ceremonial Center: The Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern Oklahoma, 2 vols. (Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, 1996) 265, 270. Duncan and Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 8, 20.
10 Hamilton, "The Spiro Mound," 34-35. Charles C. Willoughby, "Textile Fabrics from the Spiro Mound," Missouri Archaeologist, 14 (1952) 107-124 [113], comments, "We may be sure that feather garments from capes to long cloaks were not uncommon use throughout the United States from New England to California in early historic days, although but few of them have been preserved. Some of them were not only warm and serviceable, but were beautifully wrought in attractive designs in various colors."
11 Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523b.

12 The diamond inscribed on top of his flat hat could reflect the diamond shape of Orion as it runs from Mintaka at the top, to 311 Orionis, Algiebba, 42 Orionis, ς Orionis, Alnitak, Alnilam, and back to Mintaka. The queue would be formed by the Sword Stars, 42 Orionis, M42, and Nair al Saif. As seen from the back, the queue would hang over the left shoulder. As Orion rises, it is this queue that hangs lowest in the sky and is therefore "red."
13 Hamilton, "The Spiro Mound," 35; Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523b.
14 Reilly identifies Redhorn and Morning Star, and thinks that Big Boy is "Morning Star" himself. Reilly, “People of Earth, People of Sky," 132. Brown expresses some reservations about this view. Brown, "The Identity of the Birdman," 99.
15 Codex Magliabecchiano, 13.3, folio 42r, and Codex Vaticanus B, 70.
16 Mary Henderson Eastman, Chicóra: and Other Regions of the Conquerors and the Conquered (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo and Co., 1854) 21.
17 George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Caddo (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1905]) 33.
18 Williams & Goggin, "The Long Nosed God Mask in Eastern United States," 35-37, 53. Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523a, thinks that the noses are short because of the "limitation the material places on the sculpture."
19 Brown and Brues, The Spiro Ceremonial Center: The Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern Oklahoma, 529. Duncan and Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 21.
20 John Breck, The Shape of Biblical Language: Chiasmus in the Scriptures and Beyond (Yonkers: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1994).
21 Cedric Hubbell Whitman, Homer and the Heroic Tradition (New York: W. W. Norton, 1965).
22 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 186-187.
23 Helmbrecht and Lehmann, 123a, s.v. horušík; Marino-Radin, 153, s.v. cik > horucik, "to wear in ears." The meaning is attested (Ao ℒo diAi K n K = horušik-anąga, "he wore on his ears, and") in the "Dipper," Paul Radin, "The Dipper," Notebooks, Freeman #3850, 3896, & #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebooks #49-50: 1-267 [92] (q.v.); in "Hog's Adventures" (ǧ'eǧ'éra ... horušíkše, "he wore ear-bobs"), Charles Houghton, Untitled, trs. Oliver LaMère, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a: 121-131 [129] (q.v.); (įčo nąčáwa akiwake horušíkše, "he wore faces on the sides of each ear") Paul Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #14: 1-67 [3] (q.v.).
24 Marino-Radin, 101; Lipkind; Helmbrecht and Lehmann, 172b, s.v. ru-, "with hands."
25 Marino-Radin, s.v. cik.
26 Helmbrecht and Lehmann, 24, s.v. ho-, where they say, "This is a grammatical element of the verb unknown in English. In most cases, it can be translated as 'in something' or 'into something'."
27 The raconteur says, Horúšikra-šgé rohą́xjį hanį́kareže, "He also took back a lot of wampum with him" RS [Rueben StCyr ?], "Snowshoe Strings," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #60: 4-33 [21] (q.v.).
28 Helmbrecht and Lehmann, 218a, s.v. woorúšik. So too in Miner. This is also attested in earlier works. In "Morning Star and his Friend," worúšigenàñka, is translated as "the earbobs." John Harrison, The Giant or The Morning Star, translated by Oliver LaMere, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a, Story 8: 92-117 [112] (q.v.).
29 RS [Rueben StCyr ?], "Snowshoe Strings," 4-33 [16-17] (q.v.).
30 James Owen Dorsey, Winnebago-English Vocabulary and Winnebago Verbal Notes, 4800 Dorsey Papers: Winnebago (3.3.2) 321 [old no. 1226] (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, 1888) 82 pp.
31 Merrell, Henry. "Winnebago Dictionary." Merrell (1804-1876), a fur trader at Portage, created this list in the 1830s for his personal use; his manuscript was loaned to the Wisconsin Historical Society in 1899 so this 20-page typed copy could be made; the location of the original manuscript is not known. In US Mss 6F, folder 1. The meaning "wampum," is attested by both Foster (q.v.) and Dorsey.
32 Dorsey, Winnebago-English Vocabulary and Winnebago Verbal Notes.
33 In addition, the same meaning is given to woru-shik in Jipson's dictionary. Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923).
34 Small white and purple wampum beads are worn by a Secotan on his ears. David I. Bushnell, Jr., "The Origin of Wampum," The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 36 (Jan. - June, 1906): 172-177 [174, post 176 Plate XVII, fig. 1].
35 "... although they be thus poore, yet is there in them the ſparkes of naturall pride, which appeares in their their longing deſire after many kinde of ornaments, wearing pendants in their eares, as formes of birds, beaſts, and fiſhes, carved out of bone, ſhels, and ſtone, with long bracelets of their curious wrought wampompeage and mowhackees, which they put about their necks and loynes; theſe they count a rare kinde of decking ..." William Wood, Wood's New-England's Prospect, Volume 131 of Burt Franklin Research & Source Works Series. Publications of the Prince Society, Boston Prince Society (Boston: B. Franklin, 1865) 73-74. William H. Holmes, Art in Shell of the Ancient Americans. Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Issue 2 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1883) 179-305 [256-257]. Verna L. Cowin, "Shell Ornaments from Cayuga County, New York," Archaeology of Eastern North America, 28 (2000): 1-13 [8].
36 Radin, Winnebago Tribe, 119 nt. 4.

The Son of the God of the Hunt Recreates Humans from Their Powdered Bones
0 I subsequently discovered that Hall had independently noticed these correspondences years earlier. He says,

Note here that the two sons of Red Horn, half-brothers, recovered the bones of their father and of all the dead villagers and restored them to life after grinding them to a powder. This should remind us of the familiar Mexican myth of Quetzalcoatl and his nahual or twin or spirit double who entered the Underworld and recovered the bones of Aztecs who had perished with the end of the Fourth Sun. They then had these bones ground into a powder and restored to life as the first Aztecs of the Fifth Sun. Quetzalcoatl's twin was Xolotl, and Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl were manifestations of Venus as the morning star and evening star. Quetzalcoatl was also a long-nosed god.

Robert L. Hall, "The Cultural Background of Mississippian Symbolism," in The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex: Artifacts and Analysis. The Cottonlandia Conference. Ed. Patricia Galloway (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989) 239-278 [243].
1 León-Portilla has "precious vessel of clay." Miguel León-Portilla, Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind, trs. Jack Emory Davis (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963) 108.
2 Histoyre du Mechique, 26-27. Here is my translation of this passage: "(26) All this having been done, the gods Tezcatlipuca and Ehecatl deliberated on making people to possess the earth, and immediately saying it, Ehecatl descended into the underworld in order to demand from Mitlantentli the ashes of the dead in order to create other human beings, of which the god of the underworld presented only a bone of the length of an ell and some ashes. And no sooner had he presented the bone than he repented greatly, for it was of all things, that which he wished the most to have, and for this reason followed Ehecatl in order to take back the bone; but Ehecatl fleeing, dropped the bone on the ground and it broke itself, for which reason humans emerged short; for, they say that (27) men of the first world had been as large as giants; he therefore carried the rest of the bone and the ashes and put them in a paztli (vase), in the which he summoned all the other gods that they might create the first man, for which they assembled themselves, sacrificing from their own tongues, and so commenced the first day of the creation of man, the forming of his body, which animated itself immediately, and, on the fourth day, having made the man and the woman; but they did not make them very large right away, otherwise being in accord with the natural course of things."
3 Leyenda de los Soles, 76.18-77.2. For a commentary on this myth, see León-Portilla, Aztec Thought and Culture, 107-111.
4 §11 of the Redhorn Cycle.
5 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 1-16 [11-14].
5.1 Joaquín García Icazbalceta, Nueva colleccíon de documentos para la historia de México (Mexico City: Francisco Diaz de Leon, 1891) 3:237, 239. Seler, Collected Works, 3:274.
6 Seler, Collected Works, 5:263b-266b.

The God of the Hunt's Child Commits Incest
1 Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 6:13-8:4.
2 Paul Radin, "The Red Man," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook 6: 1-72.
3 George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 188-189.
6 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 138a, s.v. pulque, say that Quetzalcoatl "slept with his sister while in a drunken stupor." The only text that seems to suggest this is the Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 6:39-6:52. There it says that they got drunk together, and Aoctle quichïuhqueh in tlahuizcalpan, "They did nothing till dawn" (Jordan), or "From then on they did nothing at daybreak" (Bierhorst). The Nahuatl text is from the website of David K. Jordan, "The Death of Quetzalcöätl," 48-D, viewed November 1, 2010. For a closer look at this story, see the Appendix.
7 Radin, Winnebago Tribe, 85.

The Waterspirits Steal the Food from the Son of the God of the Hunt
1 Leyenda de los Soles, 77:3-77:26. The primary versions of the Hidden Corn Myth are shown in John Bierhorst, The Mythology of Mexico and Central America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) 89.
2 Paul Radin, "The Chief of the Heroka," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 33: 1-66. See "The Chief of the Heroka."
3 The Shipibo see Orion as a tinamou whose leg was bitten off by a pursuing cayman. Peter G. Roe, "Mythic Substitution and the Stars: Aspects of Shipibo and Quechua Ethnoastronomy Compared" in Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. Ed. Von Del Chamberlain, John B. Carlson and M. Jane Young (Bognor Regis: Ocarina Books / Center for Archaeoastronomy, 2005) 206a, 212a.

The Slain Giant
1 Paul Radin, "Wears White Feather on His Head," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #4: 1-50.
2 Leyenda de los Soles, 81:51-82:9, in Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs, 155-156.

The Fire Sticks of Orion
95 Susan Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999) 252h.
96 Thomas F. Kehoe and Alice B. Kehoe, Solstice-aligned Boulder Configurations in Saskatchewan. Canadian Ethnology Service, Mercury Series, Paper 48 (Ottawa: National Museum of Man, 1979) 25; David Vogt, "Medicine Wheel Astronomy," in Clive N. Ruggles and Nicholas J. Saunders (edd.), Astronomies and Cultures (Niwot: University of Colorado Press, 1993) 163-201 [174].
97 Anthony F. Aveni, Skywatchers (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) 37; Barbara Tedlock, The Road of Light: Theory and Practice of Maya Skywatching, in Anthony Aveni (ed), The Sky in Mayan Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992) 18-42 [29].
98 Radin, "Intcohorúcika," 12-14.
99 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 63.
100 Bernardino de Sahagún, Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain. Book 7: The Sun, Moon, and Stars, and the Binding of the Years. Trs. Charles E. Dibble, Arthur J. O. Anderson. Archaeological Institute of America, Monograph 14, Part 8, Book 7. (Santa Fe: School of American Research, 1953) fig. 21; Aveni, Skywatchers, 32 fig. 10.
101 Cowan makes an interesting observation that applies to the present odd depiction of Orion. He notes that the northeast Yavapai called the Belt of Orion "Mountain Sheep," but their western tribe depicts this same constellation as four stars in a straight line. "We might gather from this that there was a tendency to perceive the stars in linear arrangements. These perceived clusters of stars have a loose Gestalt-like meaning for the observer; their patterns are representative, but unlike the myths of the western world, each point in the star group retains its identity. Each star is not seen as an individual playing a smaller part in a larger scenario." Thaddeus M. Cowan, "Effigy Mounds and Stellar Representation: A Comparison of Old World and New World Alignment Schemes," in Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America, ed. Anthony F. Aveni (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975) 217-235 [220].
102 Michael D. Coe, "Native Astronomy in Mesoamerica," in Anthony F. Aveni (ed.), Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1975) 3-31 [26]; Aveni, Skywatchers, 36.
103 Antonio de Nebrija, Dos excelentes diccionarios latino-español (Salamanca, 1492) y español-latino (1495), s.v. astilejos.
104
105
106 Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) 5:41.
107 Seler, Collected Works, 5:45b.
108 Seler, Collected Works, 5:45.
109 Seler, Collected Works, 5:41.
110 Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 1:7, cf. 3:27; Michel Graulich, "Las Peregrinaciones Aztecas y el Ciclo de Mixcóatl," Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl, 11 (1974): 311-354 [327].
111 Lankford.

The Hand and the Fire Drill
112 Bernardino de Sahagún, Wahrsagerei, Himmelskunde und Kalender der alten Azteken (Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España), Libros 5-7 (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1950) 42-45. Here is the Nahuatl text: Auh ynic mitoa mamalhuaztli, ytech moneneuilia yn tlequavitl. yehica yn yquac tlequauhtlaxo, ca momamali yn tlequavitl, ynic vetzi, ynyc xotla, ynic mopitza tletl. no yoan ynic nematlatiloya, ynic momatlatiaya toquichti, yehoatl quimacacia. mimacacia, ymacaxoya, mitoaya, quilmach, yn aquin amo nematlatile, ymac tlequauh tlaxoz yn mictlan, yniquac omic. yehica yn toquichti muchi tlacatl momatlatiaya, nenecoc ynmac quiuiuipanaya, quitetecpanaya yn innematlatil. yc quitlayehecalhuiaya yn mamalhuaztli. yniuh vipantoc, tecpantoc, noyuh quiuiuipanaya, quitetecpanaya yn inmac ynnematlatil.
113 John Bierhorst, A Nahuatl-English Dictionary and Concordance to the Cantares Mexicanos: with an Analytic Transcription and Grammatical Notes (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985) ss. vv.
114 Paul Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) #14, 45-64.
115 Radin-Marino, Lipkind, Susman, Miner, s.v.
116 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:224. The variant of this myth says nothing about the old woman making the bow-lance for Little Star. There he simply has it as his possession without any indication of its origins. Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 332-338.
117 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:225. The narrator of the variant story uses "bow" and "lance" interchangeably. Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338 [338 nt 1].
118 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:225 nt 1. In a variant of this story, it is said that, "The bow had a swallow tied to it at one end, then a bluebird, then, in the middle where it was held, a king-fisher, next a chicken-hawk, and at the other end a small dark bird. Eagle, wood-pecker, prairie-chicken, crow, magpie, and all birds' feathers were tied to the bow." Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338 [337].
119 Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance, 5:228.
120 Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338 [338 nt 1]. A snake that Little Star spared attached his body to the hero's bow. "There were also berries on it, strung like beads and painted white. This string of beads was the snake's body. The Little Star said: 'The upper end points to the sky; it belongs to mankind. You are the lower end, the earth.' They separated, the snake going underground, and he on his way with the bow." Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338 [337-338].
121 Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) ...
122 K collection.
123 Edward Winslow Gifford, Culture Element Distributions, XII: Apache-Pueblo. University of California Anthropological Records, 4: 1. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1940) 53-154 [156, no. 2273].
124 Seler, Collected Works, 1.147a.
125 Popol Vuh, translated with commentary by Dennis Tedlock, revised edition (New York: Simon & Schuster: 1996) 314, and for the Quiché calendar day-signs, see 205.
126 Seler, Collected Works, 1.123; Aveni, Skywatchers, 141, Table 15.
127 Seler, 5.334.
128 Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya, 264.
129 Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya, 256, Table 7.2.
130 According to Starry Night Software (www.starrynight.com), set at Mexico City.
131 Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya, 264.
132 Carl Lumholtz, Symbolism of the Huichol Indians, Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 3, pt. 1 (New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1900) 57-58; Seler, Collected Works, 4.193-194.
133 Cora vocabulary of P. Josef Ortega cited in Seler, Collected Works, 4.194a.
134 Gabrielle Vail, The Deer-Trapping Almanacs in the Madrid Codex, in Papers on the Madrid Codex, edd. Victoria R. Bricker and Gabrielle Vail, Middle American Research Institute, Publication 64 (New Orleans: Tulane University, 1997) 73-110.

Conclusions and Reconstructions
3 Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 1:17-18.
4 Martha Warren Beckwith, "Mythology of the Oglala Dakota," The Journal of American Folklore, 43 (1930), #170 (October-December.): 339-442 [386-389].

APPENDIX

Paradise Lost
See Notes to Paradise Lost

Archaeology

Other Mississippian Raptors

113 Ill-Pe-X1, from a mound near Peoria, Illinois. Brain and Phillips, Shell Gorgets, 370. William H. Holmes, "Eccentric Figures from Southern Mounds," Science, 3, #62 (April 11, 1884): 436-438 [438b fig. 6]. Thomas, Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology, 309 fig. 192; Wilson, The Swastika, 889 fig. 243, copper plate repoussé, Cat. no. 91507, NMNH. Thruston, The Antiquities of Tennessee and the Adjacent States, 334 fig. 343. Shown also in Willoughby, "Notes on the History and Symbolism of the Muskhogeans and the People of Etowah," 22 fig. 8c; and Fundaburk and Foreman, Sun Circles and Human Hands, plate 49c. This is Ill-Pe-X1, Brain and Phillips, Shell Gorgets, 368 Table 25, 370; cf. Ga-Brt-E20, Brain and Phillips, Shell Gorgets, 135, 370.
114 Cade describes the upright threat display this way,

Whether a potential predator or a conspecific, all falcons employ an Upright Threat display, in which the bird orients its body vertically, spreads its tail, holds it wings out from the body, and fluffs out its feathers to the maximum extent, especially those on the breast, cheeks, naps, and crown. The bird hisses and cackles and strikes out with its feet or its beak.

Tom J. Cade and R. David Digby, The Falcons of the World (Ithaca: Comstock/Cornell University Press, 1982) 40; Roland H. Wauer, The American Kestrel: Falcon of Many Names (Neenah: Big Earth Publishing, 2005) 48. The "tooth" in the upper bill distinctive to falcons is shown in red.

William Robert Ogilvie-Grant, Guide to the Gallery of Birds in the Department of Zoology of the British Museum (London: Printed by order of the Trustees [by] Taylor and Francis], 1905) 208 fig. 8.
115 Burns, Osage Indian Customs and Myths, 159 fig. 15; 166.
116 But if we count the black stripes, there are 3 x 4 = 12, a repetition of the number of moons in a year. A more exotic possibility is that the number 9 represents moons (in keeping with the lunar theme), in which case 9 x 29.53 = 265.77, an approximation to the 260 day tonalpohualli calendar, just as 30 x 12 could represent the xiuhpohualli calendar. It should be stressed that there is no evidence for this one way or the other, but is presented as an interesting possibility consistent with the data.
117 Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 32, cp. 33 fig. 3.1.
118 Colors and trees are associated with the six directions by Philip Longtail of the Hočąk Buffalo Clan. James Owen Dorsey, "Miscellaneous Winnebago Notes from Phillip Longtail, 1893 " (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives) 4800 Dorsey Papers: Winnebago 3.3.2 [325]. Earthmaker gives Spider six additional eyes "one eye for each of the four directions and one eye for each of the other directions." Joi StCyr, "Why Spider has Eight Eyes," in David Lee Smith, Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997) 96. For the Lakota, see Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge, 32-33.
119 Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge, 17, 33.
120 Duncan and Carol Diaz-Granados, "Empowering the SECC: The 'Old Woman' and Oral Tradition," 211.
121 For this ritual, see Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 216-218.
122 Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 217 Song.
123 "These are not real birds, but they are symbols." Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 140.
124 Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 50, 66, 134, 166, 190, 214, 218, 219, 221.
125 Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 134.
126 Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 50.
127 Bailey, The Osage and the Invisible World, 216.
128 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 161 nt. 1.
129 Willoughby, "Notes on the History and Symbolism of the Muskhogeans and the People of Etowah," 24 fig. 9, 26 fig. 10; Fundaburk and Foreman, Sun Circles and Human Hands, plate 31.
130 Willoughby, "Notes on the History and Symbolism of the Muskhogeans and the People of Etowah," 20 fig. 7; Fundaburk and Foreman, Sun Circles and Human Hands, plate 31.

Astronomical-Calendrical Codes in Allegories about Quetzalcoatl

Quetzalcoatl Finds His Father (852).
1 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 4:4-9.
2 Leyenda de los Soles, 81:5-9.
2.0 Bart Jan Bok and Priscilla Fairfield Bok, The Milky Way (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981 [1941]) 2. Henbest and Couper, The Guide to the Galaxy, 155b. Popol Vuh (Tedlock), 256-257. Known as the "Road of Xibalba," or the "Black Road," to the Quiché Maya (Popol Vuh, 354).
2.1 Codex Vaticanus 3773, folio 29, cited in Seler, Collected Works, 6:3a fig. 11.

Quetzalcoatl Builds His Bridge (871).
3 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 4:22-24.

The Toltecs Summon Quetzalcoatl (874).
3.1 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 4:26.

The Death of Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl (884).
4 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 4:31.
4.1 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 188b, s.v. "Xiuhcoatl."
5 Manuel Aguilar-Moreno, Handbook to Life in the Aztec World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) 147, s.v. "Ahuiateteo (Gods of Pleasure)." This probably derives in part from the five "useless days" (nemontemi) that form the intercalary cadenza to the solar calendar.
6 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 168a, s.v. "Tlazolteotl."
7 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 6:29.
7.1 The position of Halley's comet, and comets generally, is a matter of some uncertainty since their orbits have not been verified to the degree of perfection required for distant extrapolation into the past. Starry Night User's Guide for Macintosh and Windows (Toronto: Simulation Curriculum, 2009) 196-197. However, it seems that in this case, they couldn't have been too far off.
8 Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs, 34 nt 49.
9 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 7:16-21.
10 The eclipse data were collected from the NASA Eclipse Web Site, Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak and Chris O'Byrne (NASA's GSFC). Sunrise data obtained from Starry Night Software.
11 The eclipse obscuration diagram was produced from Jürgen Giesen's web site, Eclipse Magnitude and Obscuration; see also his Physik und Astronomie. Applets, Programme, Materialien.
11.1 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 7:32.
12 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 2:14.

The Decline and Fall of Quetzalcoatl (896).
13 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 7:37-42.