Snowshoe Strings

narrated by RS [Rueben StCyr?]


The manuscript, which is in the hand of Paul Radin, is easier to read than most of his manuscripts. About 40% of the hand written interlinear text has no English translation, but almost all of the untranslated words could be found elsewhere, but in cases where the reading is doubtful, question marks appear after illegible letters. It was Radin's habit to use Greek letter abbreviations for common whole words or syllables. In this manuscript, the use of these abbreviations is much more limited, and the appearence of '#' as a sentence terminator shows that his knowledge of Hočąk was at that time less sophisticated. Therefore, this manuscript predates those in which extensive use of abbreviations occur. Some of these abbreviations are interpreted in other manuscripts, so their values are known from those sources. The Greek and other symbols used in the text appear in the table below:

α ε η ρ ϕ ω #
égi gają žesge ánąga hąké žégų period (.) or comma (,)

In the translation, words supplied by the editor (Richard Dieterle) are found in brackets '[ ]'. It was also necessary for the editor to supply all punctuation and to determine the beginning and ending of most sentences.


English Translation


 

p. 4 —
Éja uáñkikínųbra nųpíwi čiánuñgwišguni. Hąpga
[There] [men brothers] [two] they were living. [Day by day]

 


 

wažóninášaną ’uwáñkšguni hų́jerášaną t’éhires’áže, aíreną.
hunting only they would do [bears only] [they used to kill], [it is said].

 


 

Wop’íñkeréra go’jowírehiže, aíreną. Žegų ’ųnañks’ášguní
Meat racks over yonder it reached, [they say]. [Then] when they were going on a hunt

 


 

hagaréžą wažóniąnaíregáją* hinuñgížą híže, aíreną.
[as] [they went hunting] [a woman] went there, [they say].
*The preceding word, wažónyaraíre, is crossed out.

 


 

Mąz´era karaniáwañga pánakárak’iánañga čirokéinegíži hominógera
With her axe and her bundle on her back as she entered [the lodge] the seats

 


 

waičųže, aíreną. Kikínųpenáñka hiníhirájega hominóñki
she chose, [they say]. [These two brothers] the older one in his seat

 


 

p. 5 —
éja pąn´akarakéreže, aíreną. Égi žégų
[there] she placed her bundle, [they say]. [And] [thus]

 


 

hiánañga. Warára hoínoñkhišgúni, žégų nąną
she did. Work she started into, [and so] wood

 


 

wuxéreč híže, aírena. Hoxjanáñxjiñgáją hijaí t’at’águhú?reže,
she had piled up high, [they say]. [Very early after] [more ?] they came talking along,

 


 

aíreną. Hoikáwakirináñk hiregíži wa-iną́bra rokóną
[they say]. [Went in, back] [when they did ?] thankful [much]

 


 

waírešguni. Xetéjega wešgúni, "Mąnégųs hisuñk harášaną
[they said]. The older [he said], "Always with my yr. br. only

 


 

hakaraíkiža wokíxap čųšgúni égi miánañgwíną
with [him] associates without [and] we sat

 


 

hąkéga hačuñgére hakíriwígašge naíñkišérera hajégere heréšanúną.
[never] even when we barely reach home to look? after him? then we would be.

 


 

Ep’į́ną. Hinuñkčegerá nąjąnájąwige waš’uñgáją hirsírajíwire."
[It is good]. [Daughter-in-law] because you pity us is why you came that you've come to us."

 


 

p. 6 —
Hiníhirájega žégworokáją. Hožégų ’únañks’ášguni. Hagaréžą
[The older one] she married. [Thus ?] [she would do ?]. [At times]

 


 

hisúñkhiráka hą́héregi hikíñgają teé hininá
the younger brother [at night] when he arrived [this one] his older brother

 


 

hinúñgókit’ákše. Hinuñgoñka wákše, "Jagúižą rohiš’úwiže?*
[he] was talking to a woman. [That woman] was saying, ["What one] have you for a body?
*At the end of this word nąjegë has been crossed out in favor of wiže.

 


 

Jagúižą hišjawį́že?" Égi hininá wešgúni,
[What one] would kill you?" [And] the older brother said,

 


 

"Hañké wažąniižą* hičáwinína. Égi hinuñgóñka
["Not] [nothing] [my wife]."† [And] [this woman]
*wažą́nižą has been crossed out in favor of the form given. See seven words below.
†The translation has "we do not die."

 


 

žigé wašgúni, "Higwósge wažą́niižą
[again] [she said], "Surely [something]

 


 

hišjáwišgúni." Hisúñkhiráka nañǧirejį́pše, aírera.
you must die of." [Younger brother] became afraid, [they say].

 


 

"Teéwažąšíšigi herenáñguni hiníhara wa-ų́jšgúni k’onúkjąne."
"A bad thing it must have been but my brother [he] does this that he's married to her."

 


 

p. 7—
Égi žigígų hagaréžą hik’iñgáją teé hinuñgóñka
[and] [then again] [once] [when he arrived] [this one] [that woman]

 


 

wi’uañǧenihéra žigéakše, "Jagúižą hišjáwiže?" Ákšguni
the questions she had asked. She was saying, ["What one] [would kill you?"] [She went]

 


 

égi hiníhiráka naxurúk hirešgúni. égi
[and] [his brother] [s]he persuaded, [he thought]. [And]

 


 

wéže aíreną, "Séwająją́wine érohí wa’uañjąwiną.
[he said] [they say], "Snowshoes that we wear for? body we're using.

 


 

Hižą waigíčgirgízwigiži čáwinána," eže, aíreną.
[One] if it were cut for us we would die," [he said], [they say].

 


 

Haíninégi nañkíkarára nawíšguniže. Hakikížu hahiránañga
[The next day] [hunting] they went. Together they went

 


 

hahíkixaíres’áže, aíreną. Haraíregíži wa’ų́že, aíreną.
and they would always part on the way, [they say]. When they went [he did this], [they say].

 


 

p. 8—
Hinúñgenóñka hikárohoánañga howárairegíži éowáreže, aíreną.
[That woman] [s]he got herself ready when they went she went, [they say].

 


 

Náñguokíxara hirahigíži xetéjega howáregíži eowáreže,
When to the fork of the road she got [the older one] where he went she went,

 


 

aíreną. ’Uą́higáją nąwáñgeja ų́nañk’ų.
[they say]. In? she went there up in a tree he was.

 


 

Hirahíže. Hųč´gihap wa-únañkše, aíreną. Sáramaį́ja
She got to him. Cutting into a bear he was, [they say]. Snowshoes (in ground)

 


 

wak’šuánañga hijáxjįhigáją égi ajáže, aíreną.
he put them when she reached there [and] he saw her, [they say].

 


 

Óružák’jį́nunige sára gigíčgisše, aíreną. Gičgísgéži
He spoke much pleadingly, but [the snowshoes] she cut, [they say]. [She cut them]

 


 

uáñgenoñka t’éxjįšibréže, aíreną. Égi hinúñkjega
[that man] he fell dead, [they said]. [And] [the woman]

 


 

p. 9—
wešgúni, "Teé wax’ópini rokonaį́žą* higaírekjánohe,"
she said, ["This one] spirit a great they would call,"
*The word yagék ("I call") is crossed out after this word.

 


 

éšgúni.* Hisúñkhirájega awúñk gip’įže, aíreną.
[she said]. [The younger brother] instead [s]he liked, [they say].
*The word t’ehígiži ("when she killed him" ?) is crossed out after this word.

 

 


 

Ásge hiníhirájąne t’éhiánañga* hisúñgera† harogíkje
[And so] [the older brother] she killed [the younger brother] she would marry
*A letter is smudged out between "i" and "á".
†Just before this word, égi ("and") is crossed out.

 

 


 

wagių́že, aíreną. Žégųhi[ρ] čirowákešeže, aíreną.
[she had], [they say]. [Thus and] [s]he went back to the lodge, [they say].

 


 

Gigíži pánakurúzanañga hisúñkirájega eja minóñkše,
When she got back [kurúzanañga = she picked up] to younger brother [there] [she sat down],

 


 

aíreną. Égi hisúñkerájega nągwokixaíja kirigáją
[they say]. [And] [the younger brother] to the fork of the road when he got back

 


 

tée hininá háñke kirigúnįgžé. Hinuñkjega
[this one] [his older brother] [not] had not come by yet. [The woman]

 


 

sirá ejohówiránañga žigé kirigúže. "Hohó,
her tracks went by there [again] came back. "Ho ho,

 


 

p. 10—
hiníhara t’é-iñgígiganí," hirége, aíreną. Hokaraníreže, aíreną.
[my older brother] she must have killed for me," [he thought], [they say]. He went to hunt him, [they say].

 


 

Hijáhigáją t’éixjínoñkše hišjáranúñǧokonañk sérahoruxáčgają
[When] he got there real dead his eyes filled with ice [when he looked at the snowshoe]

 


 

teé gičgízirežé. Eja mináñgenoñga p’į’ų́že,
[this] [she cut in two ?]. [There] he sat [he did],

 


 

aíreną. P’įhį́nusgíčenañga hakikáše gigižé, aíreną.
[they say]. Again he tried it joined [it came], [they say].

 


 

Žégunhigáją hininá nią́pše kikáwa’ų́ kirikáreže,
[And then after that] [his brother] [alive] [he arose] [he came back],

 


 

aíreną. Wanaį́šguni hakikížu karawíšguni. Hinúñgenoñka
[they say]. Peacefully together they went home. [That woman]

 


 

wanaį́šguninañk’ų teé hisųñk’inóñka hijá hakikížu
peacefully she was when [this one] [that younger brother] [the other] [together]

 


 

p. 11—
hit’át’aguhaíreže. Hákariégiánañga pą́nakuruzánañga homináñkšunuéja hagíminañkše,
[talking]. She hurried up and [returned to ?] where she used to sit [she sat down there],

 


 

aíreną. Žigigų́ wagi-ų́že, aíreną. wažónina
[they say]. [Then again] [they went back], [they say]. [The hunt]

 


 

haraíregíži wirónoñkránañga hiníhirájega sára gigíčgičgisjįže,
when they started she followed them [the older brother] [the snowshoe] [cut],

 


 

aíreną. Žégų hiánañga kirigíži žige
[they say]. [And so] [she did] [she arrived there] [again]

 


 

agéja mináñkše, aíreną Égi hisúñkhirájega
[on the other side] [she sat down], [they say]. [And] [the younger brother]

 


 

nañguokíxaija kirigíži žigí perésše, aíreną.
[a branch of the trail] [she arrived] [there] [to know, be conscious, remember], [they say].

 


 

Ásge hininá hokiraníneže, aíreną. Hijáhigíži
[And so] [the older brother] he went to hunt for, [they say]. [When he got there]

 


 

teé hininá t’éxjináñkše sára gičgíčgísjįže.
[this one] [the older brother] [real dead] [snowshoes] [cut].

 


 

p. 12—
Hañké p’į́’ų p’įníže. Ğáakše, aíreną. Hininá
[Not] [it was not possible to fix it.] He cried, [they say]. [The older brother]

 


 

karak’iánañga gúže, aíreną. Kirigíži wa’ųšgúni.
he carried and came home [coming], [they say]. [He arrived there] he did.

 


 

Hinúñgenóñka čañgerót’unéže. Ijániñgenúniñke mąčgúra hirejį́že,
[That woman] he threw out doors. Although she screamed [the bow] he hit her,

 


 

aíreną. Irojíñgają wakį́nąšge húsarejį́žą t’ąt’ąp rahaže,
[they say]. [Cheek struck, after which] a long frog a long legged one jumped away,

 


 

aíreną. Hiboǧ?ápjį niñkje yaréra. Jagú
[they say]. Finish you entirely [I am doing ?]. [How]

 


 

waką́nąšgé husáreč airánihékje yarége? Hañké
[the long frog] [the long legged one] could they ever say ? [I made ?] ? [Not]

 


 

niñgíunína," higéže, aíreną. Hininá kurúzanañga
I did not do it to you," [he said], [they say]. [The older brother] [he picked up]

 


 

hųjá hiroéjąnañgá čirópčañgéja hazáč hakarat’ųpše,
bear skin he wrapped him in and [outside the door] on a platform [lay out face down ?],

 


 

aíreną. Hañkéšge warújenáže, aíreną. Hoikéwigížo
[they say] [Not also] he did eat, [they say]. When [he went into his lodge]

 


 

p. 13 —
míñkše, aíreną. Ğagą́k’ų "Wárakirakáni! hininá
[he laid down], [they say]. [As he cried,] "Wárakirakáni! [my brother]

 


 

hit’et’éže." Hit’et’égi wéže, aíreną, "Jagú
[he] spoke." [When he spoke] [he said], [they said], ["What]

 


 

’uñgáją naǧákšáwañkše? Kikáwa ánañga wanaį́šguni
[he did, and then] are you crying? Arise and [peacefully]

 


 

minañgére. Wažį́hikjonkáre šuruxúrukíži jasge ąijášanúną žigé
sit up. What I will say if you accomplish it as you used to see me [so again]

 


 

žeësgékjonehéna hąhéra jobóhą égi žigé
[I would be] [in nights] [four] [and] [again]

 


 

hąhera jobóhą* hañké hųšúruxúčeniñgiži nyą́aį́pjonąhéną.
[the night] [four (times)] [not] if you do not look at me I will come to life.
*The following word, hąhera ("nights"), is crossed out.

 


 

Šuruš’ákiži hisúñkaxjį wanǫjojaį́sge wairágiš’uñkjonahéną,"
If you fail younger brother very miserable [thing] you will have done to me,"

 

 


 

higéže, aíreną. Egí hiųjáže aíreną.
[he said] [they say]. [And] he tried, [they say].

 


 

Hąhéra tąníhą ruxúrukše, aíreną. Hijobóhǫna
[The nights] three [he was able], [they say]. [The fourth]

 


 

p. 14 —
higų́ wiraǧepgíži ruxúruikjéra hare núnige higų́
[then] at sunrise to accomplish it it was time [but] [then]

 


 

wiraǧép hukjenisgegáją (hañké kikúruxúrugeni)* horuxúčše,
as the sun was about to come up [not] [he made for himself ? + he was able] he looked,
*the parenthetical material appears two lines below and is inserted by an arrow.

 


 

< WIDTH="11%">[you will be doing to me]
aíreną. "Hohó hisúñkaxjį hihéxjiąnihéra wanǫ́jojaį́sgewairagiš’úną.
[they say]. "Ho ho, [my younger brother] [I most emphatically say that saying] [a very miserable thing][you have done to me].

 


 

Hajikáragenína hačį́ja wanaǧirak hostohíra heregíži
I am going already [where] spirit gathering place is [came to be]

 


 

eyáwaténą." Hininá kuruxéže, aíreną. Wioirásan?iñk
then I'm going." [Older brother] he chased, [they say]. Went there

 


 

égi hapahíreže, aíreną. Haki oxjanáñxjiñgi
[and] [he went towards], [they say] [Finally,] [in the late evening ?]

 


 

p. 15 —
hisúñkirájega péjokit’ų́že, aíreną. Tee, uwoírakírakúni,
[the younger brother] he built a fire, [they say]. [This one], wárakirakáni,

 


 

hininá čowé hiéja hišgé pejią́
[the older brother] [before] [reached there ?] [and himself] [a fire]

 


 

taéjiaihíže, aíreną. Hisúñkirájega hijot’ą́bireže. Hija higáją
[starts a fire], [they say]. [The younger brother] jumped towards it. When he went there

 


 

hinina hañké niñgenáñgeniže. Hakja p’eč
[older brother] [not] was not anywhere. [Back, backward] [fire]

 


 

eá-niéja gigáją tee hininá.
[at, in the water] he got [this] [older brother].

 


 

Žigé hijá kirináñkše égi hinihiranáñka
[Again] [there] came back [and] the older [brother]

 


 

wéže, aíreną, "Hisúñkaxjį, jagú p’ią’ųtegáją
[he said], [they say], ["My younger brrother,] [what] good am I going for

 


 

hišúruxašanañk hakjá? Kerép’įnanigáją," wakšą́šinúnige hañké
that you are chasing me [to see]? You ought to go back," turn back he told him [not]

 


 

raxúrukniže (#) aíreną. Hą́hera jobǫhą́nañga
[he finally did not get him to] [,] [they say]. [The night] [the fourth]

 


 

žigé hąhéra jobǫ́hą jobǫ́hąna hainigáją
[again] [the nights] [four] [the fourth] [morning, after]

 


 

hisúñkiráka hoix’íñkše # Ejahí hokikúruš’ák
[younger brother] was played out [.] There exhausted

 


 

p. 16 —
k’ąnéže # Uáñkšik eja čínañki
he fell down [.] [Man] [there] lived

 


 

mąñǧeniñgyožų́regi éja k’ąnéže. Húñgera hinúñgwahíra
and crop that they put in [there] [it fell down]. [The chief] daughters

 


 

hinuñgaíriánañga égi Wihąná hątáginąjenáñkše #
the oldest one and and Wiha, the second born were fasting [.]

 


 

Wihañgá hątéježe # Uañgížą hihątéježe
Wiha dreaming had been [.] [A man] she was dreaming of

 


 

# X’epgéniñkhajákjér?feže hikarapárezjéže # Wihą́jega
[.] Soon she would see him she had knowledge of [.] Wiha

 


 

mañǧéja jíže # Eja jigáją
[the place of the crop] [she reached] [.] There when she came

 


 

wičą́wą mañǧieregíži kisákjina tee uañkšígižą
a squash field that was [in two] [this one] [a man]

 


 

hajiówežé. Jánigmasína eréhiže. Wičą́wąnášge wanąwáwax?
had walked by. Like drunken walk. Squash vines

 


 

jiréže. Wanąp’į́našge howárera hoerákše. Worúšik
he broke here and there. His neckwear about it was scattered. Wampum

 


 

p. 17 —
wanąp’į́ airegíži [η] wagi’ų́že. Wihañgá wawekíže
neckwear [they would say] [thus] he had. Wiha picked them up

 


 

# [α] [ω] hi[ρ] hirowáreže
[.] [And] [and then] [he went] she trailed him.

 


 

Te éja hahiákše. Hagaírašánañxjį nihájik’arákše.
[Lake] at he was. At long intervals only he would breathe.

 


 

Hųšą́wañxjį wa’uáñkše # [α] Wihañgá
Very poor he was [.] [And] Wiha

 


 

te áregáją ’yáhą́teajára hiréže #
[this one] is it? that I've been dreaming about [she thought] [.]

 


 

Hik’ų́he čírowákareže # Gigíži wasúičakųže
In haste she went to the lodge [.] When she got there (parched corn)*
*Radin's parentheses.

 


 

[α] [ω] hi[ρ] waweže #
[and] [so] [she went] she pounded [.]

 


 

[α] žeé rušjoñgí watújenipérez* ’ųž´e
[And] [that one] [completed ?] (soup of corn —-) [she did]
*-eniñk is crossed out from the end of this word. The parentheses are Radin's.

 


 

# Hinuná téžésge* hínuñk ’uąjagi
[.] Her older sister [did just this way] her when she saw
*"te asge" is crossed out just before this word.

 


 

nąj´isgíže. "Teé jaga ’uñ[ε] wa’únañk?
she scolded her. ["This one] why is she doing this?

 


 

Hątá-ginájera warújikišárerera ’uñxjínañk." Hižíąčhirégi wéže,
The faster is handling food very much." Their father [he said],

 


 

p. 18 —
"Hičáñgeniñgerága [ω] ’únoñkhíre hišgé žésgírege
["Your little sister] [and so] leave her alone [thus] she thinks

 


 

wa’unáñkšaną."* Hik’ųhé watujera tujígiži hiją
is why she is doing it." In haste the ground corn [when she had cooked it] [to the other one]
*An unattached note at the top of the page reads, "i.e., one is entitled to do as one likes."

 


 

nįónuwáñkše. Haníhigíži nihą́ja hisge?žó giwáx’ųže
she ran with it. When she took it there in his throat ? [some —] [cried out in pain ??]

 


 

hagáčúñgare ’unáñk’ų nąhiže. Hąpsáreč haní’ųšgúni.
with great difficulty [he did] he swallowed. [All day long] she took care of him.

 


 

Hagaréžą ’únáñk’ų watújera ženą́higíži žigíesgé
[At times] [she made] what they were cooking when she exhausted [it] some more

 


 

’ų́ñgiže # Hinuñgahigųžige nąjisgíže. X’okénuñka
she went and made [.] [Now again the woman] [scolded her]. (Parent)*
*The parentheses are those of Radin.

 


 

hokarawíñgenoñkše aire[ε]. Žigé watujerá hisge
was taking her side [they say]. [Again] [what she was cooking] [some]

 


 

’uñgíži žigiágineže. Hanįhigíži ’ųnihára žigé
[when she made it] she took it over. When she arrived [she did ?] [again]

 


 

žésge gigižé. Hagaréžą ’unañk’ų wanąį́čųhíže.
[thus, that way] [when she got there]. [At one time] [he did] he recovered consciousness.

 


 

p. 19 —
"Jásge hirapą́resš(?)e?" "Hąhą́ą," éže. Ejokít’at’anihéže.
["What] are you conscious?" ["Yes,"] [he said]. She remained speaking to him.

 


 

Hoxjánagíži hakižú kirenąį́že roǧiže #
[When evening came] [with him] she tired to go with he objected [.]

 


 

Jagú ráže’sgé nañk’áją hanikižuw?akérikjíže [η],
[What] account am I that I should go home with you?" [so],

 


 

h?anúnige ánañk’ų raxúrukše # Hoxjána
but even then? [as she said] until she persuaded him [.] [In the evening]

 


 

gíži hakížu kereže # Hakížužigíži
[when] [with him] [s]he went [.] When he took her home

 


 

hagijaįja miñks’ágiži. Éja wágikárawíže. Čigowikáwakaraíregiží
in the partition she used to lay. [There] they went back to. When they first entered the lodge

 


 

hinuñgoišip wawesį́winoñkáją. Hajagí wežé #
the —- [woman always ?] she watched them. When she saw him [she said] [,]

 


 

"Žigé tee jágu wanañǧižą čokárekíri,"
["Again] [this one] [how, what] a ghost (corpse) she has brought home,"

 


 

eže # Hią́čiranóñka wešgúni, "Teéja
[she said] [.] The [father] [he said], ["At the lake ?]

 


 

p. 20 —
jagú i?ragégają hičúñgenikragá hañkagá ho’é (?) raginigni,"
[how, what] — you mean? to say to her [grandson] never do you cease saying,"

 


 

hišgé [η], "Hírege wo’ų́jegáją hąhą́regi
[also] [thus], "She thinks she does it [when day came]

 


 

naįnegíži uañgáñka." Wéže # "Jasgé
when they slept [these men ?"] [He said] [,] ["How]

 


 

mąíra hañké [α] niñgiižą ašgé
a spring of water [not] there [one somewhere] close by

 


 

nąžį́niže?" "Hižą [α] jéną. Eja
not standing?" ["One] [here] [it stands]. There

 


 

niyáñkwają́wine," [α] eowį́nekjéra hirároáguną," eže
we get our water," [and] let us go over there I would desire to bathe," [he said]

 


 

# Hijahíregíži hëbéja minóñkšiže #
[.] [When] they went [there] [a] distance from he told to sit [.]

 


 

"Egí įpénihája s’iniñkhánihékjanéną mąíjega,"
"Here wait for me I will be gone some time spring,"

 


 

eaže. Higíži kikárušúrujeniñká hiráže #
[he said ? .] When he got he undressed and he bathed [.]

 


 

Mąíjega éja kewánoñga mąk’úhąna howáreže.
A spring [there] [that amphibian ?] under he went.

 


Hųč Wákčexi aíregi žésgéžą wa’ų́ježe.
[Bear] [Waterspirit] [they say] [this kind] [he was].

 


 

p. 21 —
Níñgyo-wájigíži eja gigíži p’iñkók’ųže #
Where he came from [there] when he returned he fixed himself [.]

 


 

Uañkp’íñ[g]s’agí hijaíra xjįžé. Horúšikrašgé roháñxjį
He used to be handsome [more] [very]. Wampum very much

 


 

haníñkareže. Worúšik gizą́jią́ hareánañga sgasáreč
he took back with him. [Wampum] beaded together one [it became ?, and] white wampum

 


 

hisagų́žą žénuñga haniñkáreže. Hagaréžą giǧépše.
a cane [finished] [he took back with him]. Finally [appeared ?].

 


 

Hejá kirigáją hinuñgenúñka ǧakenúñkše.
[There] [when] he came back [from the lake] [the girl] [was crying].

 


 

[ϕ] kiriniñge wanúñkše. Haíninégi ik’įnegáją
[Not] because he would not return is why she was saying. [The next morning] when they woke up

 


 

pežíjąhí wairesį́wįsíwiñkára hinuñgá wa-iníhiruáš’hiánañga
when else? the watcher older sister [= woman] raised her covering, the end of

 


 

horuxúč šgúniže. Tée hižą́ wanañǧi
[she looked] [perhaps ?]. [This one] [one] ghost

 


 

konúnihára ténoñkše. Uañk p’íñxjįžą. Worúšigenóñka
that had called [that one ?]. [Man] [very handsome]. [That wampum]

 


 

p. 22 —
haną́č wikiweníneže # Sgasárejera uañgenúniñgenóñka
[all] was distributed among them [.] [The white wampum] [that old man]

 


 

e’sagų́kje hok’úineže # Činañgaregíži nañkíkarara
he will use as a cane they gave to him [.] [When the village] hunt

 


 

ruš’ágenañkše # [α] watahóčinoñká wešgúni
they were failing it [.] [And] [at that corn? place?] [he said]

 


 

hiwáñxše # Wijájera gigairánañga
arrows he asked for [.] The crier was told

 


 

mąstóhi wašíže # Mąnaroháñxjį stógigíregíži
arrows were gotten together he told them to [.] [Very many arrows] [when they brought them together ?]

 


 

wažóninešgúni. Sániñk siniógurégi higų́ čiroášgeniñk
they went hunting. [Side] [going where it is cold] [still] near the village

 


 

wa’ų́že # Moš’ógera nąpáseraišgi hižą́
[he did] [.] The woods [knolls] and stumps also [one]

 


 

gų́čgášge hųjerižą́ t’áginañks’áže. Žee rušjoñgíži
when he would shoot at a bear would fall dead. [That] [made, completed ?]

 


 

činoñk’ sañgiéja wióročąjéja howárešgúni. Hųwą́na
[village] other [sun stands straight = noon] [he went for]. [Elk]

 


 

p’aséjopíhi aíregáją hiráwahas kiri[ρ] čiroášgéja
four-cornered [herd] [and then] he drove [he brought] back near by [the village]

 


 

p. 23 —
hakirí t’éwahiže # wažónina hirunáñxjį
[he had come home] and killed them [.] [The hunt] very soon

 


 

gíže. Hičąwína weže, "Jáhaá, wažónina
he returned. [His wife] [she said], ["an exclamation], [the hunt]

 


 

rakírigíni. "Hąhą́ą," eže, [α] wešgúni
[you arrived ?]. ["Yes]," [he said] [and] [he said],

 


 

"Saníñksiniógurégi higų́ ašgéniñk [α] hųč
["Side-cold—— ?] [a little while later] [short distance] [here] [bears]

 


 

t’eháną. [α] žigé saníñgeregí hųwą́
[I killed]. [And] again [when on the cold side] [elk]

 


 

t’eháną. Jánuñga wak’iñkip’íñgiži wakųták," haraíregíži
[I killed]. All that are able to pack carry it back," [when they went]

 


 

eže # Wijájera wijájaže # Jánuñga
[he said] [.] [The crier] [sent a message ?] [that] [All]

 


 

wak’iñkiip’į́na hiharóhowi[ρ]. Wak’ųtágera hinékjoneháwiną.
[who are able to pack] they got ready. To transport [they would be going].

 


 

Watahóčira wažónina rokóna wagiuñkirigéjini wak’ųtágera
[The corn place ?] [the hunt] [much] [went back —-] [to transport]

 


 

’uñxjíneže # [ω] ’únuñks’áže # Hagaréžą
they did [much] [.] [Thus] [they used to do ?] [.] [At one time, at times]

 


 

hąhéregi tée, woírakírakúni, hininá
[at, in the night] [this one], woírakírakúni, [the older brother]

 


 

hajit’et’éže. Wešgúni, "Hahoísuñkáxjį! Tokéwehíra roík’ona,
came and spoke. [He said], "O, hello, my younger brother! Very hungry [you went forth ?],

 


 

p. 24 —
géjini wa’ųhúną. Čawį́na kuruxiñgenuñgahik’ųhé wohą́šíže
that's why I came." [Wife] he woke her up in haste and told her to boil

 


 

# Hųjeráhi mązázageniga warusgú hirakíųže
[.] [The bear] she slit up dried corn she boiled it with

 


 

# Hagaréžą tučgíži nąwą́sgexetéžą ejogíze[ρ]
[.] [At a time, at times] [when it was cooked] she dished it into (a big wooden dish)* [and]
*Placed in parentheses by Radin.

 


 

sinigigi[ρ]. Hijá gih?áreže # Wanaį́šguni
she cooled it. [Then, thereat, to him] she placed it [.] [Peacefully]

 

 


 

hokarakít’eže # nunigé [ϕ] hakjániúñkše #
[he spoke to him] [,] but [not] he did not see him [.]

 


 

Čebíxjįžé # [α] žée rušjoñgíži
He ate it up entirely [.] [And] [this one] [made, completed ?]

 


 

taníhura hogižúže # Haį́sereč hokarakít’ešgúni
[the pipe] he filled for him [.] [Long through the morning ?] [he spoke to him]

 


 

hąpgúgiži. Kerákarohógiži hisúñkhišáka renąį́že # *
then day came. When he was about to go away younger brother wanted to go [.]
*The following words occuring at this place have a line drawn through them and were not translated: roǧixjį núnige hinihiráka (He very much forbid him, but "My brother ...").

 


 

Ánañk’ų́ raxúrukše # [ϕ] eja
[He did say ?] he persuaded him [.] ["Not] [there]

 


 

p. 25 —
waǧǫnáže’sgé ha-úniąją́wine wažą́p’įnajege wašegíži š’uñkjéna[...].
of any account are we not getting along if we did anything, you think it will be well.

 


 

Hoijára jobóhą huñgíjiáje ’ųže #"
My steps 4 times step in [do] [."]

 


 

Hakižú kerežé. Wanáǧióči airegíži eja
[With him] [he started going back]. Ghost lodge [they would say] [there]

 


 

hakižúgiže čížą éjagi hoikáwawiže. Hininá
[to it] [a lodge] [if it is there] they went in. [His brother]

 


 

eja hagimináñkše hikijų́ja hahímináñgikjegé wa’uñgáją
[there] [he] went to sit along side of he started to go and sit [he did] but

 


 

hininá wežé, "Koté! éja hižą́ migóñkšaną.
[his brother] [he said], "Koté! [there] one is lying.

 


 

Hišjaróč?išánañgežé." Egé hijóruxučgają teégi
You might sit in its face." [So] so he looked the[re] [if this one]

 


 

hižą́ migóñkše p’eč hičejéja čą
one was lying [fire] [by, alongside] instead

 


 

hip’e ’yó?nañga. Hišjará x’ąwiówasa wa’ų́wañkše #
he rested his head. [Face] sprouted grass it was [.]

 


 

Žižíjaįhi hahí mináñgikjege wa’uñgášge. Žigésges’áže.
Somewhere else [he went] [sit] [he did]. It used? to be that way —-.

 


 

[α] wagešgúni težesgége wahere, "Šúnąną́š’į
[And] [he said to him] [in just this way, then?] he said to him, "Thus it is, why I said it, but you wanted to come

 


 

higeže #" Hąberági háñkaga nigížą xginíže.
[to ask] [.]" [When day] [not] not was there anyone stirring.

 


 

p. 26 —
Hoxjána kirigíži jajónegi hohópjirehe hireže. [ω]
[In the evening] [it arrived there] when right away they began to whoop. [And so]

 


 

woxéjireže. Hinųjerašge čañgerégi žegúiñkšáxete* ’uíneže.
it began to get noisy. [Women ——] outside [then] laughed [greatly] [they do it].
*Just before this word, "ω-i" is crossed out.

 


 

Hiraréxjiñ[ε] réǧh?arupárugížą gičgaíreže. Higų́ žige
After awhile [they teased and pulled on him ??] they tried. [A little while after] [again]

 


 

hinųbrá gičgaíreže. Jobohi [η] híreže
the second one they tried. In 4 places [thus] [they did]

 


 

# Howašíra jopíwawižé # Wašíra
[.] [The dance] there were 4 [.] [The dance]

 


 

jająnegi hoínoñkhíreže # Hisúñkhiranañgere kawéwahiže
already they started in [.] The younger brother bothered them

 


 

wajárenąhi[ρ] hininá roǧixjį núnige hainekéjiregíži
as he wished to go and see them [and] [older brother] [drummed ? much] [but] [he started? in the morning]

 


 

ánañk’ų raxúrukšgúni. Hininá hižą hičakáro higíži.
as he said [he finally got him to]. [Older brother] one [friend] he had

 


 

Hikitáni rawíšguni. Čekjína wašíra hižį́nahíregíži
Thus 3 of them together they went. [The first time] [the dance] they came to

 


 

hisgejá wožáwa hiranąįže. Hinuñgerášge hisgejá
[some of them (there?)] fun he thought it. [The women —-] [some of them (there?)]

 


 

p. 27 —
hinuñkp’į́ wajáže. Hokiwáši nąį́neže. Hinína
very handsome they (?) are. [Dance] with him they tried. [Older brother]

 


 

rogiǧijegéjini [ϕ] raxúruk hiraníže. Howášihijobéja
[forbid ——] [not] [he finally got him to] [he did not]. To the fourth [dance]

 


 

hatíreže. Wožáwara hiraíjairáxjįže. Hinųgerášge hisgejá
they went. [The fun] [much more ?]. [The women ——] [some of them (there?)]

 


 

hinúñk p’į wajáže. Hininá wešgúniže,
[woman] [good] [they are]. [Older brother] [he said,]

 


 

"Jasgégiži tégiži niruxúrukhiékjanéną. Hijá ’úñxji[ρ]
"Here surely they will persuade you. [To get there, arrive there, etc.] try hard

 


 

haganíñxjį nanaíñge," higešgúni. Wašíwajára čičejéja
and never try to sleep," he said to him. Watching them dance at the edge of the [lodge]

 


 

nąžíñgiži wašígikaraheránañga hawéhirešgúni hagaírašge aijarukázir[ρ]
[when standing] to dance they asked him and [they kept at him] [and from time to time] [they would grab by the arm ?]

 


 

rutínąį́nes’áže. Hagaréžą ’ų́ja’ų naxúruk hirešgúni.
and they would try to pull him. [In time] [finally] [he persuaded] [he thought].

 


 

p. 28 —
Wašíra horák hoináñkhišgúni. Hisgéja wožáwa
[The dance] he joined them. [Some of them there ?] [fun]

 


 

hiraną́įže. Hinų́bera nųpíwi hokiwášiže #
he thought it. [The second time] [two] he danced with [.]

 


 

Hąbijanáñgiži hinúñgenóñka čañgéja wakížu ’únañk’ųnąhíreže
Along near day [those women] [there outside] [he was with them] when they put him to sleep

 


 

# ω hir[ρ]. Irášgerugáñkireže #
[.] [And thus] [they did]. And even his mouth they twisted [.]

 


 

Haną́č hišjairá rugą́gañk hir[ρ] t’ųnanáñgireže.
[All] [his face] [they twisted] [they did] and they ran away from him.

 


 

Haį́ninégi wírahañkšíjinóñkáją hikį́že # Hañkí
[The next morning] when the sun had risen high [he awoke] [.] Not

 


 

kipárazenižé hišjará rugóñgoñkhiregá, hininá nigéčigíži
he was not aware [his face] [they twisted], [the older brother] where he lived

 


 

eja gišgúni. Hininá wežé, "Hisgejáxjį
[there] he returned. [The older brother] [he said], "Very handsome

 


 

uáñk hiránikírakšáną.* Hokikúruxujere," ánañga. Hokik’ją́bižą
man you are [to become a person]. Look at yourself," he said. A looking glass
*The word anañga ("he said"), which occurs here, is crossed out.

 


 

p. 29 —
hok’ųneh?eže. Hokikúruxučgáją tee hagágasgéžą [ϕ]
he gave him. [After he looked at himself] [this one] [he paid attention to that ??] [not]

 


 

wažą́ uañkšík hirakíraknižé wažą́nąną́č warugáñgireže.
[something] [a human being] he was not much of [that which they had twisted].

 


 

Irášge ikijaį́ja horugóñk hirežé. P’ára
[His mouth] on the side [twisted] [they did]. Nose

 


 

hišjasúrašge hanąj žesgaíreže. Nąčgéra tékše
eyes even [all] [they became like]. [The heart] [it ached]

 


 

[ω] rogéja miñkšé. Hąpsáreč hañkít’aníže
[and so] [inside] [he was laying]. [All day long] [he was not talking ?]

 


 

egí hininá weže kikáwa’ųšiže težésgége,
[and] [older brother] [he said] [he arose] [and did just this way],

 


 

"Šunąnąš’į́na roniñgiǧira hasgášu[ε]." P’iñk’ų́že #
"When you try to come I forbid you but still you came." He fixed him [.]

 


 

Hisúñgera nąbrá raxójeja hikióohi[ρ].
[The younger brother] [the hand] in ashes touched he had him.

 


 

Ročąwagigíži [α] wagešgúni, "Hisuñkáxjį hiwágera
He made them straight [and] [he said to him], ["O younger brother] [to obtain]

 


 

honí’ǫbra niñgek’éra naį́žiną šuruxúrukíži. Rohíra
life in we place [if it is the time for it to return] if you can. [The body]
is it possible for me to live?*
*Radin adds this at the end of the sentence as a more idiomatic translation.

 


 

p. 30 —
hinikárakísgejanéną rakárekjonáre. Ragigíži inyókiwehočirá
I will become like yours when you reach home. When you get home a sweat bath lodge

 


 

hyąš’uñkjéną šjañxjį [ϕ] hihiną́p’įni. įníxetéra hižą́
you must make very strong [not] it is not possible to get out. Big stone [one]

 


 

tašúč hi[ρ] [α] hųč hik’į́nina wožúrajopin?i? hiraíxak
make it red [and] bear oil (lard) containers full pouring on

 


 

hiš’ųñkjéną. Hirúšjonágiži* hijawaké wokjanéną. Hitanína
you'll use. When you get it ready I will enter in it. [The third]
*This word is preceded by hijá, which is crossed out.

 


 

hiraráhigi ep’á waíkaraičanína ruhás nįšíwi[ρ]. Hitajé wa’u[ρ]
you get to from that as I will begin to plead asking you to open up for me. [Rich in everything (thoroughly ?)] [do it, and]

 


 

wakáraži[ρ] hičaįwahíra čokehíra kar?ókehíra haną́č
encouraging our brothers-in-law* our grandfather [to obtain ?] [all]
*This word is connected by a line to the following at the bottom of the page: "i.e., tell them thoroughly."

 


 

wakáraže[ρ]. Jagúhi hexjįšge [ϕ] hiñgíruhas
[encouraging ?]. [Whatever] I say [not] [open it for me]

 


 

hiraníñkjeną. Hųč hókera hijóbera šušužénañgíži
they [must not do]. [Bear] stomach [the fourth one] when you use up

 


 

p. 31 —
nyá aį́pjanéną," éže # Gigíži hisúñkhirájega
I will become alive," [he said] [.] [When he got back] [the younger brother]

 


 

higik?árohože # Inyókewehočížą ’uñgíži šjąxjį́hiži
[encouraged them ?] [.] [A sweat lodge] [when he made ?] [very warm]

 


 

inížąšgé hirušją́ hi[ρ]. Hųčókera jopíwi
[a stone] ready [he went]. [Bear-stomachs] [four of them]

 


 

hųč híkinína hoixjį́ agík’ąnañkšé. Hoxjánañgíži
[bear] [the oil] [full] ready he placed them. [When it became evening]

 


 

hanąč hirušją́higíži wawogírakše # Hičą́wahíra
[all] he had ready he told them [.] [His brothers-in-law]

 


 

hiwañgéra hičókerášge wakáražíxjįže hininá git’ánihara
his sister-in-law [his grandfather] [to completely obtain] [the older brother] that had died

 


 

ruxúrug híregíži nią́bikjanahéže wigéže #
if [he was able] [he would do] [he will be alive ?] [he said to them] [.]

 


 

Hoxjánagíži inína hijókanáñkše # [α]
[When evening came] [the stone] [he heated ??] [.] [And]

 


 

[ω] hi[ρ] číraną́č horušų́že šjáñxjį
[and so] [he went] [filled the house ?] he covered [very hot]

 


 

hi[ρ]. Ara howírehíkjerašaną p’ax kéreže.
[he went]. [The arm] where it would go thro[ugh] only open he left.

 


 

p. 32 —
Čekjína hųč hókera hižą́ jorusi’regi
[The first time] [bear] [stomach] [one] that he pressed out

 


 

hininá hanáñkše # Hinųbra hijórusíregíži
[the older brother] he groaned [.] [The second time] [he pressed out]

 


 

hokíkém?eǧųǧą jireže # Hitanína hijorusíregiži
he blew upon himself he started to [.] [The third time] [he pressed out]

 


 

waikárat?e jiréže # "Hisúñkaxjį hačuñgere
he began to beg [he started] [.] ["O little brother] with difficulty

 


 

nia’ąbra (?) t’énañkjanéną. Hičą́wa hirášge," [η]
I had come to life you will kill me. [Brothers-in-law] [he could do]," [thus]

 


 

wigá mináñkše # Hijóbera hių́jire[ε]
he kept saying [he sat down] [.] [The fourth] [he tried ?]

 


 

[α] hičókire gikáračše # "Hoho
[and] [grandfather] he begged [,] "Ho ho

 


 

hičókeháxjį húñgera nigáją hiñgirúhagere t’éwinéjanéną."
[my dear grandfather] [the chief] you are open it for me they will kill me."

 


 

"Hó," eže # Wangenúniñgra t’ąpjiréže
"Ho," [he said] [.] [The old man] he started up

 


 

# Čiókiságeja hakíninąžį́neže. Hačuñgére ružéneže
[.] [In the center of the lodge] they held him. [Barely, with difficulty] he used it up

 


 

# Hininá nią́pše # Hąhéregi
[.] [Older brother] [was alive] [.] [At, in the, night]

 


 

heráhi?že # Hisúñgera, "Jasge, hinihára?"
he came to him [.] [The younger brother], ["What,] [my brother]?"

 


 

p. 33 —
Hišgé [η] hižé, hinuñga kanañkše
[Also] [thus] he did [do,] [woman] [take to wife]

 


 

# wažoní higášge hišge, [η]
[.] [Hunt] [he went ?] [also], [thus]

 


 

hižé. Waiką́ tee [α] žeją́na.
[he did]. [Sacred story] [this] [here] the end of it.

 


Source:

[1] RS [Rueben StCyr ?], "Snowshoe Strings," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #60: 4-33.