fNotes to Paradise Lost


CTR = Codex Telleriano-Remensis. Eloise Quiñones Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis: Ritual, Divination, and History in a Pictorial Aztec Manuscript (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995).

Mapa = Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2. Cave, City, and Eagle's Nest: An Interpretive Journey Through the Mapa De Cuauhtinchan No. 2, edd Davíd Carrasco and Scott Sessions (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007).


§1. The Restoration of the Red-Haired Scalp

1 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 107-111. Paul Radin, The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology (New York: Schocken Books, 1956) §§18-21, pp. 81-87. The original Hočąk text is missing, but the English translation of Oliver LaMère is preserved in Paul Radin, "The Hare Cycle," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3851 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago IV, #1: 96-134.
2 Thomas Foster, Foster's Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1, #3: p. 2 col. 4 - p. 3 col. 1.
3 "12. The Scalped Man," in Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [475-476].
3.1 "The Red Ducks," in Edward S. Curtis, The North American Indian (Norwood: The Plimpton Press, 1930) 19:166-168.
4 Ella Cara Deloria, Dakota Texts (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006 [1932]) ss. 337-355. Martha Warren Beckwith, "Mythology of the Oglala Dakota," The Journal of American Folklore, 43, #170 (October-December, 1930): 339-442 [389]. Julian Rice, Ella Deloria's Iron Hawk (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1993) 90-93, ss. 337-369.
5 Timothy P. McCleary, The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Lifeways (Prospect Hills, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1997) 65-67.
6 Alfred W. Bowers, Hidatsa Social and Ceremonial Organization (Lincoln: U of Nebraska Press, 1992) 195-197. The Cheyenne and Arapaho have counterparts to these brothers featured in other stories. They identify the seven with the stars of the Pleiades. Alfred L. Kroeber, "Cheyenne Tales," The Journal of American Folklore, 13, # 50 (July - September, 1900): 161-190 [180-183 (Stories XVIII and XIX)].
7 Alfred W. Bowers, Mandan Social and Ceremonial Organization (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004 [1950]) 286-295. Another variant is found in Ben Benson, "16. Black Wolf and White Owl," in Martha Warren Beckwith, Myths and Ceremonies of the Mandan and Hidatsa: Second Series. Publications of the Folk-Lore Foundations, #12 (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College, 1932) 149-154. In other editions, the title is given as Mandan-Hidatsa Myths and Ceremonies.
8 In this story, the hero, Sleepy Young Man, is hectored by his father to quit sleeping so late in the morning and to be a man who can confront the cannibals. Finally, the boy sets out in search of the cannibals. He acquires from an old grandmother a sinew which when thrown in the coals of the fire will contract. Its contraction creates a like contraction of the distances over the earth. The boy goes on and receives similar help from others, until he reaches an iron teepee. Inside lives the wife of the seven cannibals, who are distinguished by their red hair. She gives him her form and the necessary intelligence for the success of his mission. He finds the dwelling place of the cannibals, and subdues the geese who are there to give the alarm. He sleeps with the prominent cannibal, and after delousing him, cuts of his head while he sleeps. He flees closely followed by the cannibals, and upon reaching the iron tent, enters in. The cannibals stick their heads in the opening of the teepee, and the woman slams shut the door, cutting their heads off. The boy returns home with the seven red scalps. Found, "69. Sleepy-Young-Man and the Cannibals," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 126-133.
9 "Red-Hair's (Icíoce) Hair," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 141-143.

§2. The Mayan Lost Paradise

1 Bierhorst, The Deetkatoo, 55-57. Robert Redfield and Alfonso Villa Rojas, Chan Kom: A Maya Village (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1934) 330-331; Alfred M. Tozzer, A Comparative Study of the Mayas and Lacandones (New York: Macmillan, 1907) 153.

§3. The Floral Tree of Tamoanchan

1 Michael D. Coe, Mexico, 3d ed. (London: Thames and Hudson: 1962) 84. Karl A. Taube, The Major Gods of Ancient Yucatan, Volume 32 of Dumbarton Oaks Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology Studies Series (Washington: Dumbarton Oaks, 1992) 85. John M.D. Pohl, "Screenfold Manuscripts of Highland Mexico and Their Possible Influence on Codex Madrid: A Summary," in The Madrid Codex: New Approaches to Understanding an Ancient Maya Manuscript, edd Gabrielle Vail and Anthony Aveni (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2004) 367-413 [401].
2 Tamoanchan Chalchiuhmomozco was a place encountered by a set of migrating tribes. It is located at Amecameca. Alfredo López Austin, Tamoanchan, Tlalocan: Places of Mist. Trs. Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano and Thelma Ortiz de Montellano (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 1997) 53-55. Tamoanchan is said by others to be a cave in Cuauhnahuac in the state of Cuernavaca. López Austin, Tamoanchan, Tlalocan: Places of Mist, 53.Yet another Tamoanchan is located near the Gulf coast. López Austin, Tamoanchan, Tlalocan: Places of Mist, 55-57.
3 López Austin sums up the difficulties situating Tamoanchan: "Tamoanchan is one of the most difficult places to locate. Some scholars attributed a mythical nature to it, but one derived from a liberal interpretation of a real geography. Other scholars accepted its dual nature, real and imaginary. Still others denied the possibility of its existence. All of us are still debating its uncertain location." López Austin, Tamoanchan, Tlalocan: Places of Mist, 52.
4 Coe, Mexico, 84; Nigel Davies, The Toltecs until the Fall of Tula (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977) 105; Jean-Claude Delhalle and Albert Luykx, "The Nahuatl Myth of the Creation of Humankind: A Coastal Connection?" American Antiquity, 51, #1 (1986): 117-121 [121].
5 Pohl, "Screenfold Manuscripts of Highland Mexico and Their Possible Influence on Codex Madrid: A Summary," 401.
6 Michel Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," with a reply made to comments by Doris Heyden; Ulrich Köhler; Berthold Riese; Jacques Soustelle; Rudolf Van Zantwijk; Charles R. Wicke; Karl A. Wipf, Current Anthropology, 24, #5 (Dec., 1983): 575-588 [577].
7 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 40, Folio 18v; 266, Folio 19r, Hand 2. The identity of Hand 2 is not known. He was the primary commentator on the veintena sections. Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis,161b.
8 Eloise Quiñones Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis: Ritual, Divination, and History in a Pictorial Aztec Manuscript (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995) 40, Folio 18v; 265, Folio 18v, Hand 3. Hand 3 is that of Fray Pedro de los Ríos (Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis,161b).
9 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 29, Folio 19r (this is out of position, and should be facing page 40; the Folio on page 41 should be facing page 29). The tree is also shown bleeding in Codex Borgia, 11, 19, 24, and 66; Codex Laud, 38; Codex Tonalamatl Aubin, 15; Codex Boturini, 2; Codex Féjerváry-Mayer, 28; Codex Vaticano 3738 A, 28r; Codex Nuttall, 49 (44, Dover edition). López Austin, Tamoanchan, Tlalocan: Places of Mist, 111-115 and Table 1; Eduard Seler, "Venus Period in the Picture Writings of the Borgian Codex Group," Mexican and Central American Antiquities, Calendar Systems, and History, ed. Charles P. Bowditch. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 28 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1904) 355-391 [369, fig. 96f].

Bleeding Tree of Tamoanchan (Seler, 1904: 369, fig. 96f)

10 as shown at Mitla — see Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), trs. by Charles P. Bowditch & Frank E. Comparato; edd. J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) 5:54.
11 Yoneda does not identify this component as a phallus. He relates it to an object which he does not identify (element L17), which occurs elsewhere in the Mapa, pictured lying on the ground near a rite being performed apparently for Tezcatlipoca. This object seems to be clearly an atlatl (spear thrower). So the second element of the "V" shaped device may be an atlatl, or perhaps an atlatl-as-phallus. Keiko Yoneda, "Glyphs and Messages in the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2: Chicomoztoc, Itzpapalotl, and 13 Flint," trs. Scott Sessions, in Cave, City, and Eagle's Nest: An Interpretive Journey Through the Mapa De Cuauhtinchan No. 2, edd Davíd Carrasco and Scott Sessions (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007) 161-203 [172b, 174 fig. 7.6b,e].
12 "Itzpapalotl embodied the figure of the great Mother Earth Moon. This twofold aspect, in which life becomes death and death life, and one depends on the other, recurs often in Aztec myth and ritual." Elizabeth Baquedano, "Earth Deities," in Oxford Encyclopaedia of Mesoamerican Cultures, ed. David Carrasco (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001) 1:350-351 [351a].
13 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 29, Folio 19r (this is out of position, and should be facing page 40; the Folio on page 41 should be facing page 29).
14 Osvaldo Garcia-Goyco, "The Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2 and the Cosmic Tree in Mesoamerica, the Caribbean, and the Amazon-Orinoco Basin," in Cave, City, and Eagle's Nest: An Interpretive Journey Through the Mapa De Cuauhtinchan No. 2, edd Davíd Carrasco and Scott Sessions (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007) 357-387 [381, fig. 13.16].
15 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 266, Folio 19r, Hand 3.
16 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 260, Folio 11r, Hand 3.

§4. Morning Star and Atamalcualiztli

1 For the Atamalcualiztli, see Burr Cartwright Brundage, The Jade Steps: A Ritual Life of the Aztecs (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1985) 32-35; Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," 575-588; Michel Graulich, "Atamalcualiztli: Fiesta azteca del nacimiento de Cintéotl-Venus," Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl, 32 (Jan. 1, 2001): 359-370; Patrick Saurin, "Atamalcualiztli, ou à la recherche du Tamoanchan perdu, essai d'interprétation d'une fête religieuse des anciens mexicains," Archives de sciences sociales des religions, 119 (July-September, 2002): 147-168.
2 Anthony F. Aveni, Skywatchers (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) 81-83.
3 Generally, each day is 8 behind its successor (Rabbit > Flower = -8; Flower > Grass = -8 ...) except for the lost day. The day coefficients drop by 4, the year coefficients go up by 4.
4 William Matthew O'Neil, Time and the Calendars (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1976) 121; Aveni, Skywatchers, 189. More precisely, the variation is between 581.6 days and 586.3 according to Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli, Scritti sulla storia della astronomia antica, 3 vv. Collana Mimesis. Scritti sulla storia della astronomia antica, Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente (Milan: Mimesis Edizioni, 1997 [1925-1927]) 3:156.
5 Stephen C. McCluskey, "Maya Observations of Very Long Periods of Venus," Journal of the History of Astronomy, V.14:2, #40 (1983): 92-101 [93].
6 Here are some Mʰ II dates from the XVIᵀᴴ century: December 28, 1527 (2-Reed of 9-Reed), December 26, 1535 (10-Reed of 4-Reed), December 23, 1543 (5-Reed of 12-Reed), December 22, 1551 (13-Reed of 7-Reed), December 20, 1559 (8-Reed of 2-Reed).

§5. The Year One

1 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 254b, Folio 3r, Hand 3; original text on 9, commentary 143b-144.
2 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 254b, Folio 3r, Hand 2.
3 Michel Graulich, "Atamalcualiztli: Fiesta azteca del nacimiento de Cintéotl-Venus," Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl, 32 (Jan. 1, 2001): 359-370 [365, 367].
4 Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, ...
5 Spectrum Commodities, s.v. "Mexico," viewed March 6, 2011.
6 The Aztec calendar count began on 3 September 635 a.D. (OS), which was 1-Water of 1-Reed (on 1-Izcalli {I}). The first Mʰ III occurs on 25 April 642 (1-Flower of 7-House on 17-Ochpaniztli {XII}).
7 Here is the same table in the Cortés correlation:

Calendar Year I Sequence
MSHC Heliacal
Rise of MS
Xiuhpohualli Date
(Cortés)
Tonalpohualli Date
(Cortés)
Julian
Day
I Jan. 31, 679 5-Hueitecuilhuitl (IX) 5-Reed of 5-Rabbit 1969092
II Sept. 5, 680 18-Izcalli (I) 16-Vulture of 7-Flint 1969675
III April 12, 682 17-Ochpaniztli (XII) 15-Flower of 8-House 1970259
IV Nov. 19, 683 13-Hueitozoztli (V) 16-Death of 10-Reed 1970845
V June 25, 685 12-Panquetzaliztli (XVI) 15-Dog of 11-Flint 1971429

8 Christine Hernández, "'Yearbearer Pages' and Their Connection to Planting Almanacs in the Borgia Codex," in The Madrid Codex: New Approaches to Understanding an Ancient Maya Manuscript, edd. Gabrielle Vail and Anthony Aveni (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2004) 321-364 [330 and 333 fig 11.4]. Here is a table of average rainfall in millimeters for various locales in central Mexico taken from WorldClimate, ss.vv. The rainy season is indicated by a blue background, with aquamarine indicating the transition period.

Average Rainfall (mm) Coörd. Elev. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Time Span
Cuernavaca, Morelos 18.92° N
99.20° W
1560m 14.4 7.6 7.5 25.4 64.1 260.9 257.1 241.4 245.7 97.7 21.6 4.4 1389.9 443 months
1946-1987
Puebla, Puebla 19.03° N
98.20° W
2166m 7.8 6.6 9.4 24.2 79.6 166.8 142.1 148.2 152.0 63.6 22.8 8.2 844.1 1038 months
1878-1970
Mexico City (Airport) 19.43° N
99.00° W
2234m 8.1 5.2 11.4 19.4 48.7 105.8 128.5 121.0 109.6 44.3 15.3 6.5 634.3
1113 months
1878-1987
Texcoco, Mexico 19.52° N
98.80° W
2353m 8.7 5.8 13.7 33.0 73.5 113.5 137.9 136.7 107.5 56.2 17.9 8.7 742.4 609 months
1921-1976
Presa Requena, Hidalgo 19.92° N
99.30° W
2109m 8.4 4.8 10.0 26.2 57.0 98.9 114.0 95.9 86.2 39.9 13.8 8.6 577.7 695 months
1927-1987

9 Here is the same table in the Cortés correlation:

MSHC III Dates, XVIᵀᴴ Century
MS
Rise
Tonalpohualli
(Cortés)
Xiuhpohualli
(Cortés)
Julian
Day
2 Aug 1529 3-Rain of 11-House 16-Tlaxochimaco (X) 2279738
31 July 1537 11-Rain of 6-House 16-Tlaxochimaco (X) 2282658
28 July 1545 5-Flint of 1-House 15-Tlaxochimaco (X) 2285577
26 July 1553 13-Flint of 9-House 15-Tlaxochimaco (X) 2288497
24 July 1561 8-Flint of 4-House 15-Tlaxochimaco (X) 2291417
22 July 1569 3-Flint of 12-House 15-Tlaxochimaco (X) 2294337

10 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 260, Folio 10v, Hand 3. Keber has "27ᵀᴴ" in place of my "23ᴿᴰ." I read "23ᴿᴰ" in the original text (Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 24, Folio 10v) — see the restatement elsewhere in the text where it has this value.
11 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 276b, Folio 49r, Hand 3. Just prior to this, he says, "They tied the years, and at this time the count of fifty-two years began again; this year always begins the [...] 24ᵀᴴ of February; that is the new year." Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 276b, Folio 49r, Hand 3; the original text is at Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 101, Folio 49r, Hand 3. The new year was actually 7-Jaguar of 2-Reed = January 15, 1559 (OS). February 24, 1559 (OS) = 8-Jaguar of 2-Reed, so in this instance, the error was in counting one dot too many in those attached to the day sign "Jaguar."

§6. The Flint Years

1 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 254a. Original text: Keber, 6 (fol. 1v, Hand 3).
2 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 276a (fol. 47r), original text on 97 (47r).
3 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 238b (fol. 47r).
4 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 61 (fol. 29r) for the years 1388 and 1396; 62 (fol. 29v) for 1404; 64 (fol. 30v) 1412 and 1420; 65 (fol. 31r) for 1428 and 1436.
5 Fray Diego Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and The Ancient Calendar, trs., edd. Fernando Horcasitas and Doris Heyden (Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1971) 147-148.
6 Elizabeth Baquedano and Michel Graulich, "Decapitation among the Aztecs: Mythology, Agriculture and Politics, and Hunting," Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl, 23 (1993): 163-178 [173].
7 Saurin, "Atamalcualiztli, ou à la recherche du Tamoanchan perdu," 149. On this point, Saurin says, "We know that the festival of Atamalcualiztli occurred during the month of Tepeilhuitl or the month Quecholli. But the god Mixcoatl was famous during the month of Quecholli. Tamales were offered during that same month. Given these considerations, it is arguable that the renovation of the Temple of Mixcoatl, conducted every eight years, was in connection with the celebration of Atamalcualiztli." (149 nt 5)
8 Saurin, "Atamalcualiztli, ou à la recherche du Tamoanchan perdu," 149.

§7. The Mystery of Cinteotl and Venus

1 Ivan Šprajc, "The Venus-Rain-Maize Complex in the Mesoamerican World View: Part I," Journal of the History of Astronomy, 24 (1993): 17-70 [61-62 nt 136]. See also, Ivan Šprajc, "The Venus-Rain-Maize Complex in the Mesoamerican World View: Part II," Archaeoastronomy 18 (Supplement to the Journal of the History of Astronomy, 24, 1993): S27-S53.
2 Dieter Dütting, "Aspects of Classic Maya Religion and World View," Tribus, 29 (1980): 107-167 [149].
3 J. Eric Thompson, "Sky Bearers, Colors, and Directions in Maya and Mexican Religion," Contributions to American Archaeology, #10 (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 436, August 30, 1934): 211-242 [225].
4 Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble, Florentine Codex: Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, General History of the Things of New Spain, 2nd ed., revised (Santa Fe, 1981) 2:231; Ángel María Garibay Kintana, Veinte himnos sacros de los nahuas (Mexico City, UNAM Instituto de Historia, 1958) 104.
5 R. C. E. Long, "The Venus Calendar of the Aztec," Notes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnology, 2 (1944-1945): 139-141.
6 Michel Graulich, "Mythes et rites des vingtaines du Mexique central prehispanique," unpublished doctoral dissertation (Brussels, 1979-80) 47, 410, 703f; Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," 575-588 [577f].
7 This is the sequence of 1-Flower of 1-Rabbit dates on Mʰ I going back to remote antiquity: 9 Jan 727, 4 Feb 623, 2 March 519, 28 March 415, 23 April 311, 19 May 207, 14 June 103, 10 July 2 b.C., 5 Aug 106 b.C., 31 Aug 210 b.C., 26 Sept 314 b.C., 22 Oct 418 b.C., 17 Nov 522 b.C., 13 Dec 626 b.C., 8 Jan 729 b.C., 3 Feb 833 b.C.

§8. The Other Year One: the Carina Conjecture

1 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 259, Folio 10v, Hand 3.
2 This table shows the occurrence of Flower days in Rabbit years. In addition, it also shows when 1-Flower fell in those years.

Octennials of Flower Days of Rabbit Years
 
Julian
Date
Julian
Day #
Day, Year
(12-Tecuilhuitontli)
Date of
1-Flower
Julian
Day #
 
Jan. 9, 727 1986603 1-Flower of 1-Rabbit
Jan. 9, 727
1986603
Jan. 7, 735 1989523 9-Flower of 9-Rabbit
Nov. 12, 734
1989463
Jan. 5, 743 1992443 4-Flower of 4-Rabbit
Sept. 11, 742
1992323
Jan. 3, 751 1995363 12-Flower of 12-Rabbit
March 28, 751
1995443
Jan. 1, 759 1998283 7-Flower of 7-Rabbit
Jan. 21, 751
1998303
Dec. 30, 766 2001203 2-Flower of 2-Rabbit
Nov. 20, 766
2001163
Dec. 28, 774 2004123 10-Flower of 10-Rabbit
Sept. 19, 774
2004023
Dec. 26, 782 2007043 5-Flower of 5-Rabbit
April 5, 783
2007143
Dec. 24, 790 2009963 13-Flower of 13-Rabbit
Feb. 2, 791
2010003
Dec. 22, 798 2012883 8-Flower of 8-Rabbit
Dec. 2, 798
2012863
Dec. 20, 806 2015803 3-Flower of 3-Rabbit
Oct. 1, 806
2015723
Dec. 18, 814 2018723 11-Flower of 11-Rabbit
April 17, 817
2018843
Dec. 16, 822 2021643 6-Flower of 6-Rabbit
Feb. 14, 822
2021703
Dec. 14, 830 2024563 1-Flower of 1-Rabbit
Dec. 14, 830
2024563
Dec. 12, 838 2027483 9-Flower of 9-Rabbit Oct. 13, 838 2027423
Dec. 10, 846 2030403 4-Flower of 4-Rabbit
Aug. 12, 846
2030283
Dec. 8, 854 2033323 12-Flower of 12-Rabbit
Feb. 26, 855
2033403
Dec. 6, 862 2036243 7-Flower of 7-Rabbit
Dec. 26, 862
2036263
Dec. 4, 870 2039163 2-Flower of 2-Rabbit
Oct. 25, 870
2039123
Dec. 2, 878 2042083 10-Flower of 10-Rabbit
Aug. 24, 878
2041983
Nov. 30, 886 2045003 5-Flower of 5-Rabbit
March 10, 887
2045103
Nov. 28, 894 2047923 13-Flower of 13-Rabbit
Jan. 7, 895
2047963
Nov. 26, 902 2050843 8-Flower of 8-Rabbit
Nov. 6, 902
2050823
Nov. 24, 910 2053763 3-Flower of 3-Rabbit
Sept. 5, 910
2053683
Nov. 22, 918 2056682 11-Flower of 11-Rabbit March 22, 919 2056802
Nov. 20, 926 2059602 6-Flower of 6-Rabbit Jan. 19, 927 2059663
Nov. 18, 934 2062522 1-Flower of 1-Rabbit Nov. 18, 934 2062522
...
June 15, 1558 2290283 1-Flower of 1-Rabbit
June 15, 1558
2290283

These dates do not correlate with the synodic cycle of Morning Star.
3 The years go (n)-Rabbit ➞ (n+1)-Reed ➞ (n+2)-Flint ➞ (n+3)-House ➞ (n+4)-Rabbit ➞ ... This means that Rabbit years set at eight year intervals will form this sequence: (n)-Rabbit ➞ (n+8)-Rabbit ➞ (n+16)-Rabbit ➞ (n+24)-Rabbit ➞ ..., that is, 8 is added to the coefficient of a Rabbit year to get the coefficient of the next octennial Rabbit year. Coefficient numbers over 13 have that number subtracted from them, so the sequence of year coefficients is: 1 ➞ 9 ➞ 4 ➞ 12 ➞ 7 ➞ 2 ➞ 10 ➞ 5 ➞ 13 ➞ 8 ➞ 3 ➞ 11 ➞ 6 ➞ 1. It may be seen that this sequence has the charm of being generated by the two Venus numbers, thus: add 8, subtract 5, add 8, subtract 5 ... The series of coefficients form two sequences whose coefficient numbers are three apart from their successors.

Number of Years 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104
Order of Years 1‑Rabbit   4‑Rabbit   7‑Rabbit   10‑Rabbit   13‑Rabbit   3‑Rabbit   6‑Rabbit  
  9‑Rabbit   12‑Rabbit   2‑Rabbit   5‑Rabbit   8‑Rabbit   11‑Rabbit   1‑Rabbit

This is a Moebius strip. Once the prefix number 13 is reached, the count starts over with 1. Flower days that are an octennial apart follow this same sequence, their coefficients matching those of the Rabbit year in which they fall. Within a given year, each Flower day is an interval of the base number (20) apart, in the following order: 1-Flower ➞ 8-Flower ➞ 2-Flower ➞ 9-Flower ➞ 3-Flower ➞ 10-Flower ➞ 4-Flower ➞ 11-Flower ➞ 5-Flower ➞ 12-Flower ➞ 6-Flower ➞ 13-Flower ➞ 7-Flower ➞ 1-Flower. These are derived by adding 7 to the coefficient of the previous Flower day. The two sequences formed by every other Flower day are in perfect numerical order. These two sequences, which can be seen to form a Moebius strip, are expressed in the table below.

Number of Days 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260
Order of Days 1‑Flower   2‑Flower   3‑Flower   4‑Flower   5‑Flower   6‑Flower   7‑Flower  
  8‑Flower   9‑Flower   10‑Flower   11‑Flower   12‑Flower   13‑Flower   1‑Flower

4 Graulich said incorrectly, at an earlier stage of his research,

It is well known that if his festival, Atamalcualiztli, took place every eight years, it was because every eight years, on the day 1 Flower, the 365-day cycle and the 584-day Venus cycle coincided: every eight years, then, 1-Flower falls on the same day of the same "month," and up to the 16th century the festival of Atamalcualiztli took place, theoretically, on the day of the heliacal rising of Venus.

Jacqueline de Durand-Forest and Michel Graulich, "On Paradise Lost in Central Mexico," Current Anthropology, 25, # 1 (Feb., 1984): 134-135 [135, Graulich's reply]. As can be seen from the table given in our text that a Flower day occurs every eight years, but not necessarily a 1-Flower day. Venus, for instance, rises with the sun on December 27, 778. The next 1-Flower day is of the year 2-Reed (13 September 779), 260 days later, during which time Morning Star is not in the sky at all. Eight years later, when Morning Star rises with the sun, the date is 9-Flower of 9-Rabbit (25 December 786). The 1-Flower day occurs on 26 October 786. The next 1-Flower date of the same month (in this case, Tecuilhuitontli) that has the same place in the synodic cycle of Venus will be 104 (2 x 52) years later.
5 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 259, Folio 10v, Hand 3.The following original text is given by Graulich: «dezian un aguero que el ano de un conejo el dia que estava esta rosa que nacia una rosa en la tierra y que luego se secava.» (Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 24, Folio 10v, Hand 3.) The translation is slightly modified from the literal version of Graulich. Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," 577b; original text, 577b nt 2.
6 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 276b, Folio 49r, Hand 3. Graulich gives the relevant part of the text: «... en las provinçias de la Guaxteca aparecia en la sierra una rosa que se dezia deste nombre muy preciado.» Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," 577b nt 3.
7 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 2:14.
8 This table shows the differences between the time at which the sun rises and the time at which η Carinæ sets for the three days that center on Jan. 9:

Date in 727 January 8 Δt Jan. 8 January 9 Δt Jan. 9 January 10 Δt Jan. 10
Sunrise 07:17:36 + 00:02:13 07:17:41 - 00:01:48 07:17:46 - 00:05:49
η Carinæ Sets 07:19:49 07:15:53 07:11:57

It can be seen that the smallest time differential (Δt) between sunrise and the setting of the star is for January 9, 727.
9 Its visible span is ~ 2° × 2°. Thomas Edward Oberst, Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the Carina Nebula: Observations, Operations and Upgrades of the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University (2009), 70. The Internet Encyclopedia of Science > Index "E" > Eta Carinae Nebula (NGC 3372). Viewed Jan. 30, 2011.
10 "The Carina Nebula contains the peculiar star η Carinæ (η Car). From the 1600s until the 1830s, it was usually reported as a second-magnitude (mᵥ = 2) star but sometimes as a mᵥ = 4 star. This variability went essentially unnoticed until, beginning in 1837, η Car brightened to mᵥ = 1 and fluctuated between mᵥ = 1 and mᵥ = 0 for nearly 20 years. ... After 1856, η Car faded, stabilizing to mᵥ = 7 or 8 around 1870. Except for the Lesser Eruption between 1887 and 1895, η Car has since been more or less stable, gradually brightening to a current magnitude of mᵥ = 6.21." Oberst, Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the Carina Nebula, 70-71.
11 David J. Frew, "The Historical Record of η Carinae. I. The Visual Light Curve, 1595–2000," The Journal of Astronomical Data, 10, #6 (2004) 15.
12 Edmond Halley, Catalogus stellarum australium: sive, Supplementum catalogi Tychenici, exhibens longitudines et latitudines stellarum fixarum, quae, prope polum Antarcticum sitae, in horizonte Uraniburgico Tychoni inconspicuae fuere, accurato calculo ex distantiis supputatas, & ad annum 1677 completum correctas ... (London: Thomas James, 1679) 22 ("In Ramis præcedentibus de quatuor Borea | Sequens"); see also, Duane W. Hamacher, David J. Frew, "An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae," Journal for Astronomical History & Heritage, 13, #3 (November, 2010): 9-10.
13 Hamacher and Frew, "An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae," 15.
14 For a time, η Carinæ was the second brightest star in the sky in the year 1843 (magnitude -1). Oberst, Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the Carina Nebula, 70. Edward P. Ney, "Star Dust," Science, 195 (NS), #4278 (Feb. 11, 1977): 541-546 [544c]; Roberta M. Humphreys and Kris Davidson, "The Most Luminous Stars," Science, 223 (NS), #4633 (Jan. 20, 1984): 243-249 [245a].
15 Oberst, Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the Carina Nebula, 71. Henbest and Couper, The Guide to the Galaxy, 220b. "The apparent fading between 1858 and 1870 was due to the formation of dust grains in the expanding ejected gas. These dust grains now absorb most of the star's visual and ultraviolet luminosity ..." Humphreys and Davidson, "The Most Luminous Stars," 245a.
16 Richard Hinckley Allen, Star-Names and Their Meanings (New York: G.E. Stechert, 1899) 74.
17 In 1862, for instance, Powell observed, "19. η Argûs. I am strongly impressed with the belief that the nebula about this variable star lost lustre very considerably in 1860; the fading away of η, which was going on at the time, ought to have brought out the nebula, whereas in my judgment the latter undoubtedly 'paled its fire'." Eyre B. Powell, "V. Second Series of Observations of Double Stars taken at Madras in 1859, 1860, 1861, and 1862," Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society, 32 (1864): 75-96 [92]. The star η Carinæ was once part of the constellation Argus.
18 Of the ten O3 stars (the hottest classified stars) known in 1982, six are associated with the Carina Nebula, all concentrated within a region 15 parsecs across. Humphreys and Davidson, "The Most Luminous Stars," 244c. Nolan R. Walborn, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 254 (1982): L15.
19 Nicolas Louis de La Caille, Cœlum australe stelliferum (Paris: Hipp. Lud. Guerin & Lud. Fr. Delatour, 1763) 148b, s. num. 966, where the entry is "Argùs. Æ ne." The entry under 968 indicates that η Carinæ was estimated by him to be a second magnitude star.
20 Nigel Henbest and Heather Couper, The Guide to the Galaxy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) 215b.
21 There are other very interesting astronomical events that occurred during the meteor shower in the year 727 (1-Rabbit). At the peak of the shower on January 17, Morning Star rose with the sun. When the meteor shower ended on January 23, 727 (OS) with the setting of the Carina Nebula, Jupiter was contained exactly within the crescent of the moon. When the moon rose on that day at 0437 hours, it completely occluded Jupiter, which during the morning gradually appeared to emerge from the moon, freeing itself at the same time that the nebula set.
22 Source: RA = 160 deg, DECL = -59 deg. Discovered by Carl S. Nilsson (University of Adelaide, South Australia) from radio-echo observations made at Adelaide Observatory in 1961. Meteor Showers Online > Eta Carinids, viewed, 2/2/2011. Carl S. Nilsson, "A Radio Survey of the Orbits of Meteors, PhD thesis (1962), University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. See also, G. Gartrell and W. G. Elford, "Southern Hemisphere Meteor Stream Determinations," Australian Journal of Physics, 28 (Oct. 1975): 591-620 [596, 609-610].
23 "Eta Caranids" in The Munich Astro Archive, viewed Jan. 27, 2011. Sixteen meteors were observed on the night of Jan. 25/26, 1979 in Australia. Michael Buhagiar of Perth, Western Australia, during the years 1969-1980, found a maximum of only 1 per hour coming on January 21.
24 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 255b, Folio 4v (Hand 3 and Hand 2).

§9. The Seduction

1 Radin, "The Hare Cycle," Winnebago IV, #1: 100-102, 125-131, trs. Oliver LaMère.
2 Thomas Foster, Foster's Indian Record and Historical Data, vol. 1, #3: p. 2 col. 4 - p. 3 col. 1. Told by Peter Menaige, interpreter at the old Minnesota Winnebago Reservation.
3 In their story, a man loses his powers because he violated the stipulation that he would never allow himself to be seduced by any woman he met in the wilderness. A hunter always had good luck and had plenty of furs and meat. One night a woman of the little people appeared before him, and they decided to marry. One day the woman prepared a very small meal, and her husband said, "I don't think that will fill us up," but even though he took nothing but a small bite, it was all he could eat. His hunting was now luckier than ever, but his spirit wife told him that he must never interact with anyone he met in the wilderness. One day he ran across a beautiful woman while he was out hunting. He could not resist her charms, and allowed her to put her arms around him. He fainted away, and when he woke up and returned to his lodge, he found that his wife was gone. Ever after he had no luck in hunting. John Bierhorst, The Deetkatoo: Native American Stories about Little People (New York: Harper Collins, 1998) 93-99.
4 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 265, Folio 17v, Hand 3.
5 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 179b, Folio 17v, Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," 577a.
6 Mary Miller and Karl Taube, An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya (London: Thames & Hudson, 1993) 168, s.v. "Tlazolteotl."
7 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 264, Folio 17v, Hand 3.
8 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 168, s.v. "Tlazolteotl."
9 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 24-25, Folios 10v-11r.
10 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 259, Folio 10v, Hand 3.
11 Eduard Seler, Codex Vaticanus No. 3773 (Codex Vaticanus B): An Old Mexican Pictorial Manuscript in the Vatican Library, Second Half, Text of the Reverse Side and Explanatory Tables, trs. Augustus Henry Keane (Berlin and London: T. and A. Constable, Edinburgh University, 1902-1903) 2:253.
12 Bowers, Hidatsa Social and Ceremonial Organization, 196.
13 A Cheyenne version identifies the dog brothers as the Pleiades. Alfred L. Kroeber, "Cheyenne Tales," The Journal of American Folklore, 13, #50 (July - September, 1900): 161-190 [§xviii, 181-182]. In the Arapaho, the white dog is identified with the sun (p. 209). Spotted Woman, "90. — The White Dog and the Woman," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 205-207; Cleaver Warden, "91. — The White Dog and the Woman," 207-209; River Woman, "92. — The White Dog, the Woman, and the Seven Puppies," 209-226. For a thorough review of the distribution of the Dog Husband Tale, see Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 209 nt. 1. See also, Janice R. Sheppard, "The Dog Husband: Structural Identity and Emotional Specificity in Northern Athapaskan Oral Narrative," Arctic Anthropology, 20, #1 (1983): 89-101.
14 Bear's Arm, "14. Dog-Man from Dog Den," in Beckwith, Myths and Ceremonies of the Mandan and Hidatsa, 142-143. Thanks to Kenneth S. Hanley for bringing this passage to my attention.

§10. Venus, 1-Flower, and 5-Monkey

1 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 260, Folio 11r, Hand 3.
2 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 259, Folio 10v, Hand 3.
3 Baquedano, "Earth Deities," 350b.
4 David H. Kelley, "Astronomical identities of Mesoamerican Gods," Archaeoastronomy, 2 (1980): S1-S54 [S37].
5 Doris Heyden, "La Diosa Madre: Itzpapalotl," Boletin del Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, 2d series, 2, #11 (1974): 3-14 [3a]. Susan Milbrath, "Gender and Roles of Lunar Deities in Postclassic Central Mexico and Their Correlations with the Maya Area," Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl, 25 (1995): 45-94 [69 et seq.].
5.1 Seler, Collected Works, 4:269a.
6 Heyden, "La Diosa Madre: Itzpapalotl," 3a nt 1.
7 Heyden, "La Diosa Madre: Itzpapalotl," 4 fig 1. She identifies the figure of Tlazoltéotl in Codex Borgia 55 as being a form of Itzpapalotl.
8 Milbrath, "Gender and Roles of Lunar Deities in Postclassic Central Mexico," 69-73.
9 Milbrath, "Gender and Roles of Lunar Deities in Postclassic Central Mexico," 71-72.
10 Milbrath, "Gender and Roles of Lunar Deities in Postclassic Central Mexico," 70-71.
11 The affinities of Xolotl to Huehuecoyotl have long been appreciated. "Tales such as these [about Xolotl] are strongly reminiscent of the coyote stories of the northern continent, and it is possible that Xolotl himself is only a special form of Coyote, the trickster and transformer, especially as Ueuecoyotl ("Old Coyote"), borrowed from the more primitive Otomi, was a recognized member of the Aztec pantheon, as a god of feasts and dances, and perhaps of trickery as well." Hartley Burr Alexander, Latin-America, in The Mythology of All Races, vol. 11 (Marshall Jones Company, 1920) 83.
12 Brundage, The Jade Steps, 32.
13 Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, Primeros Memoriales. Paleography of Nahuatl Text and English Translation by Thelma D. Sullivan. Completed and Revised, with Additions, by Henry B. Nicholson, Arthur J. O. Anderson, Charles E. Dibble, Eloise Quiñones Keber, and Wayne Ruwet (University of Oklahoma Press, 1997) 145-146 (Folio 279). This is also found in Bernardino de Sahagún, Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain. Trs. Charles E. Dibble, Arthur J. O. Anderson. Archaeological Institute of America, Monograph 14, 2:238-239. Translated with an original text and commentary by Seler, Collected Works, 3:278-283.This is the translation given in Seler (3:278) —

1. The flower, my heart, is burst open,   ...   8. I will bring my flowers,
he, the lord of the midnight.   the (yellow) maize flower,
2. Our mother has arrived,   the (white) popped maize flower (= Beureria huanita)
The goddess has arrived, Tlaçolteotl.   from the land, where the flowers grow.
3. The maize god is born,   9. The old Xolotl plays ball, plays ball,
in the house of the descent (house of birth),   Xolotl plays ball on the magic ball ground,
at the place where the flowers are (the garden, the paradise),   (Xolotl,) the lord of the jewel land.
(the god) "one flower."   Look, whether Piltzintecuhtli descends into the house of darkness, into the house of darkness.

14 Brundage, The Jade Steps, 33.
15 Brundage, The Jade Steps, 33.
16 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 54a, s.v. "Calendar."
17 Seler, Collected Works, 3:281a.
18 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 190a, s.v. "Xochipilli."
19 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 40a, s.v. "Ahuiateteo."
20 Miller and Taube, Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, 40a, s.v. "Cihuateteo."
21 Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," 577b-578a. .
22 I have not so far found a source that identifies Cinteotl with Venus. Such an identity may be supposed in the interval of one Venus Cycle that subsists between rites. Could the Venus Cycle interval have been chosen because it was Quetzalcoatl who first supplied corn to the marketplace?
23 Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," 577b nt 3.
24 Graulich translates it as, "in the Huaxteca there appeared in the mountains a rose bearing this name 'most precious'." Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," 577b.
25 For the name Tlacopili, see Edouard de Jonghe, "Histoyre du Mechique, manuscrit français inédit du XVIe siècle," Journal de la Société des Américanistes, Nouvelle Série, 2 (1905): 1-41 [32].
26 See de Jonghe's comment in Histoyre du Mechique, 32 nt 4; and Eduard Seler, Codex Fejérváry-Mayer, English Edition by A. H. Keane (Berlin and London: T. and A. Constable, Edinburgh University, 1901-1902) 64, 98.
27 Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 276b, Folio 49r, Hand 3.
28 We could entertain the idea that the "precious name" is huaxteca. The word Huaxtlan comes from huaxi, the Nahuatl word for the guaje (huaje) tree, the mimosoid Leucaena leucocephala, known in English as the "White Leadtree," "Jumbay," and "White Popinac." This tree has perfectly globular, white, nebulous flowers that could serve as models of the Carina Nebula. The Tree of Tamoanchan in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis is shown with flowers of this type, but in addition, is shown with flowers of many other sorts, giving rise to the notion that it is a tree of many, or even all, flowers. Nevertheless, the idea that the "most precious" name is huaxteca seems highly implausible on the face of it. For huaxi as the origin of huaxteca, see Francisco Pimentel, conde de Heras, and Francisco Sosa, Obras completas de D. Francisco Pimentel: Cuadro descriptivo y comparativo de las lenguas indígenas de México, o Tratado de filología mexicana. Edd. Jacinto Pimentel y Fagoaga, Fernando Pimentel y Fagoaga (Mexico City: Tipografía Económica, 1903) 2:236. Hubert Howe Bancroft, The Native Races. Volume 5, Part 5 of The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft (San Francisco: A. L. Bancroft & Company, 1886) 208 nt 71.
29 Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," 578b.
30 The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 7:27-7:42.
31 His death date is given as the year 1-Reed of 895/896: The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 5.21, 8:1-8:3, in John Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs: the Codex Chimalpopoca (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1992). His birth was fixed in the year 1-Reed of 843/844: The Annals of Cuauhtitlan, 3.56, 8:2. This newer scheme had the charm of making Quetzalcoatl's lifetime exactly equal in length to one calendar round (52 years).
32 The previous 1-Reed day fell on 7 May 726 in the year 13-Calli (Julian day number 1986355), the next 1-Reed day was on 22 January 727 (Julian day number 1986615), 1-Reed of 1-Rabbit. The succeeding 1-Reed day will have been 1-Reed of 2-Reed, 9 October 727 (Julian day number 1986875).

§11. A Coda of Beginnings

1 Graulich, "Myths of Paradise Lost in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico," 577b.
2 Paul Radin, "The Blue Man," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook 55; Paul Radin, (untitled), Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3858 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago IV, #5: 4-16.
3 Radin, "The Blue Man," Notebook 55.
4 The use of manure for plant food may have been one of the consequences of the Fall. In a euhemerized story about Tamoanchan Chalchiuhmomozco, the migrating tribes who settled there found the site so holy that they could not defecate there. However, since in those days they possessed certain magical powers, they proceeded to fly to another place to relieve themselves. López Austin, Tamoanchan, Tlalocan: Places of Mist, 54.