Foster’s Vocabulary List
English - Hočąk


| Hočąk - English | Hočąk Syllabary, Transliteration, and Pronunciation |


This is a version of Dr. Thomas Foster's word list, of which only a fraction was published ("abandon" - "chafe").1


English

Hočąk

abandon a family tų́ne
abandon a house rukó
abandoned watųnéreną́
abandoning watų́nečeną́
abandonment watų́ne
abash irošík
abashed irošíkhireną́
abashing irošíkhinąkšą́nąn
abdomen nexára
abortion (foetus slipped) wakek kikąš´
abortion (moon before time she brings forth) wira kení hináni wakékšųn
above wąkáeča
abrupt (hill is high) xéra hankšį
absent (not here is) ąká kináni
accident ikinú
accord hakíčkus
accurate wokizók
accusation (he accuses him) hiraráčįneną́
accustomed oų́mąkšą́ną
ache tek
ache, belly- nixaték
aches (my arm aches) áiįtekšą́ną
acorn hújera
across the river niakaíeča
across harúče
active wakó
adore ruxóp
adrift hoikára
adze wikikán
afar harí
afloat kihá
afoot (on the ground there moves) maíečíwá
afoot maiečáowé
afraid ną́kewa
after (a little back) hágeník
again žigé
aged man wąkenúnik
aged woman hitókenik
agent, Indian (the chief our father) hųk´hią́čhírera
agent, Indian (the chief their father) hųk´hią́čhiwíra
agitated, as earth mąnaïxką́ka
agitated, as water ninaïxką́k'a
ago, long sírič
agreeable (pleasing-very) kipįníske
agriculture (land-tilling) mą́ožú
aground harazí
ague, fever sinihínukísera
aim (straight-make) iróčą́ųn
air, sky, clouds mąxí
alarm (fright) naxíre
alert (adj) akikikéri
alike ikíske
alive - he is alive nią́mpeną́k
alive nią́mp
all over (the place) rakįčé
all anąč
almost or similar to black (brown) sepeníske
alone įnékí
I am alone
įnékiąnį
Thou art alone
įnékiranį́
He is alone
įnékinąnk'šą́na
We are alone
įnékianiwį́
Ye are alone
įnékirą́niwį́
They are alone
įnékinąnkšą́ną
alongside, by hičéčéča
altar (prayer eating table) aramíhe warújera
alter ičáhi
always kušíp
ambush wirápe
American (Big Knife) Mąxįxátera, Maíxátera
ammunition (that which we do with) wiųn´
ancestors, his š'ákwahíra
ancestors, my š'ákwahára
ancient (very old) s'íračaxčį́
angel (the Creator-his-men) wąkwanį́na
angel aženį́na (French loan wort)
anger naskí
angry - I am angry wokitaík
animals (game, that which we eat) waniújkera
ankle (foot-sinew, joint) siką́na
ankle bone (tarsus) siká hušarek
annoy awéhi
ant takąškéra
anus ųzį́ra
anyone ikuižą́
apart hį́čap
apex isawara
apparent čątį́
applause hąąąą! (long, trawn out through the nose) See "yes."
apple k'šéra
apportioned (to divide amongst) gįručéwakiki
April Hoïrukénąną
arm bands (above the elbow) ahúčkera
arm bone (humerus) haožep hušárek
arm pit áhoku ošorójera
arm ára
arm, lower (end of the arm) aiïsawára
arm, my arm aches áiįtekšą́ną
arm, my áänina
arm, to take by the (arrest) arukwás
arm, upper (root of the arm) ahúčera
armed, he is (sharp things in his possession) wapahíenį
arms (sharp things) wapahí
arms, to carry or raise up on the įruanare
around hirowakíx
arrest (to grasp or take by the arm) arukwás
arrived back (passed this way returning, or come-went) kirikári
arrived kiri
arrow seed (arrowhead) masúra
arrow mána
arrowhead (arrow seed) masúra
arrowhead mapára
ash tree axoxóke
ashamed, he is irošíkšąną
ashamed, I am irohíšikšą́ną
ashes raháč
ask watá
asking, he is watáčeną́
asleep
aspen waškéra
assemble stokí
assist kičíre
astonished koré
astray, stolen manúni
August (gray month) wihóčera
Aurora Borealis (man's play or play above) wą́kwoéskač
autumn, last čąnį́ną
autumn, next or coming čąnig
autumn, the present čąníte
avaricious (he is tight or close) wakses
awake (adj) ikixčį́, ikį́
awaken oneself ikixį́k
awaken someone ruxį́k
away kararé
awl wókera
axe (the iron that we do with) mązera, mą́zųre
babbler (mouth-blower) itáče, itaiéča
baby nįksčą́kenígera
bachelor wąkhočąna
back behind a man nakaíeča
back bone huhára
back of the body nakára
back of the house čietakaíeča
back there (behind) hákaieča
back, returned - came back again before reaching the point set out for háksčakį́ri
back, small of the pika'owiwi'sera
backbone huhára
backwards, to walk haksčámani
bacon (pork smoked) gukúšetaxí
bad (it is not good) ąkáepį́ną
bad, evil šišig
badger xokéra
bag
bait hówaruč
bake, roast rokį́
bald šára
baldheaded páshara
bands, arm (above the elbow) ahúčkera
bands, wrist (bracelets) apára
banner, flag wiwašík
baptism nią́waxų́
bare, naked nanóka
barefoot siróka (< sira, "foot," and oka, "naked")
bark (wood skin) nąhára
bark cover (cache) nąháwaką́nak
bark to smoke (kinnikinnick) roxį́šučkéra
bark, to gather nąhárųháwa
barley (wheat-long-tailed) waiskápsinčsaréč
barrel kókawąnąną
barter, exchange, swap ikiručą́
basin mą́zwaské
basket waxsapá
bass fish wirára
basswood ("linden") tree híške
bathe híra
battle kizá
bay, bend, hollow hoaïk'šék
beads (wampum) wǫrušíkera
beak (bird-nose-long) waníkpasáréjera
bean (little leg) huníkera
bear (v.) (bring forth child) wakekšų́
bear húnjera
bear, black hųnčsépera
bear, female haksiáka
bear, grizzly mąčó
bear, male (killed or tamed) hąką́ka
beard (hairy mouth) ihį́na, ihįšékera
beat (as the pulse) ną́čkeixą́na
beaten (trodden hard) anačás
beaver rápera
because (used as a conjunction when the first clause gives the effect and the second the reason for it) igų́kini
beckon wakihú
bed womį́nkera
bed, to get out of kikáwaną́ne
bed, to go to mį́ngre
bed, to make a womį́ž
bedstead (bed with wooden legs) womį́ǧuna
bee hezígera
beef čéra
beeswax hezíkekį́niča
beet (red turnips) zizikešújera
before čą́nį
beg (to ask) wáta
beggar (one who habitually asks) watakéra
begin (new-make) čekų́
beginning čekųnaíeča
be gone! kararé!
behead (head cut off) paramą́wa
behead (head sawed off) parawajkís
behind (back there) hákaieča
bell, open mą́zčįwį́čįwį́
bell, round mą́zkorokora
belly ache nixaték
belly nixára
belong - field sowed by me, my field mąwažúrereną́
belong - there you belong ečaniné
belong - these fish belong to me honą́nkre niewanį́
belongs - it (animate) belongs to him or them eaninéreną́
belongs - it (animate) belongs to me nihára
belongs - it (inanimate) belongs to me anįnérená
below (adv), lower kuží
below (prep) kuhaíeča
bend, hollow, bay hoaïk'šék
benumbed hand (dead hand) náperaték
berry házera
bet warehí
between (severed in two at the middle) wočákenaíeča
bewitched waką́waxió
beyond (the other side) asąčaíeča
beyond you kušík
Bible (the big book) wawagą́x xáte
Bible (the prayer book) aramíhe wawagáxera
big xáte
bind - he binds with a ribbon zeniparáairuskíč
bind ruskíč
birch bark čačą́wahára
birch čačą́wą
bird waník, waníkera
bird's nest waníkoma
bird-nose-long (beak) waníkpasáréjera
bitter ski
black bear hųnčsépera
black flour cake (buckwheat bread) waiskápseptúč
black man (Negro), black spirit people waxopį́nįsepera
black sep
blacksmith mazų́na
bladder téxera
blanket waiį́na
blanket, black waiįsép
blanket, blue/green waiįčó
blanket, buffalo čeháwaiį́
blanket, red waišúč
blanket, white waiįská
blind in one eye (eye with a hole in it) hį́ščapóx
blind hǫščaník
bloated owó
blood waį́ra
bloody (blood is all over) waį́ra rakįčé
blow - he blew his nose parakuruhį́k
blow down (wind blows down) maíïtáčahí kiwą́k
blow on anything owehų́
blow on, or fan, oneself kitu
blow, as the wind maíïtaíečahí
blow, as with the mouth owehų́
blue/green (denotes spectrum from blue through green) čo
bluff hehą́kši
blunt (not sharp) čučúx
board (flat, wide wood) napárás
boat wájera
boat, steam péčwajera
body irohíra
bog makihą́
boil over, to araxį́č
boil héra
bondage (slave, prisoner) wanįhí
bone the hair falls over (shoulder bone) hiréč hušárek
bone hušárek
bone, back huhára
bonnet (woman's hat) henų́k wokąnákera
book wawagáxera
book wawagą́x
boots (wooden moccasins, long legs) náwakučé husaríč
born - child is brought forth nikšą́kižčų́
born - it is born, she is delivered wakekšų́
borrow woną́č
both akiwake
bottle páxera
bottom of a kettle réxeča
bottom réčera
bottom-up (turned over, upside down) akarašú
bow (head bent) pak'sí
bow (weapon) mąčgúra
bow of boat (nose of boat) wačpára
bowels shípera
box kókera
boy hočį́čį́, hočįčį́kera, hočįčįníkera
boyish (conducts himself as a boy) hočįčį kį́čeną
bracelets (wrist bands) apára
branch of a tree nązazáč
brand of fire péčuxíni
brass mązíra
brave, fierce wašóše
bread, buckwheat (black flour cake) waiskápseptúč
bread, corn meal wįčą́wazera ručópera
bread, wheat flat cakes waiskáp pareparéčera
break (sever) a string wakinaná ruwáx
break a hole in - with a hammer, he struck the boat, a hole in mąžiročį́ hiročį́ wájerá kiháp
break a leg hurakišíš
break a piece off nikékičáp
break a plow márupurúra kišíš
break by cutting with a knife mąšíš
break by punching or shooting pošíš
break by striking iročį́gihux
break glass inohąmpkįhúx
break off rukónug
break rock įnikixčúx
break to pieces rušišíš
break with the mouth rašíš
break wood with the foot nąšíš
breakfast (early eating) kaniwarúč
breast mą́kera
breath wónihára
breathe - he breathes well pį́niháha
breathe - he breathes nihahaną́k
breathe niháha
breech cloth taní woruhį́č
brethren, cousins kįnúpera
brick (clay hardened) réhorotaksís
bridge (log to walk over or on) nąhámani
bridge, iron mąznąhámani
bridle (mouth string) iruskíčera
bring - he brings it anikúheną́
bring - he brought or came with it anikíri
bring it to me aníkuré
broad (very wide) parastí
brother, elder brother kinúpera
brother, his elder (as called by siblings) čitorá
brother, his younger (as called by siblings) hisųkrá
brother, his hinína
brother, my elder (as called by sisters only) čitohára
brother, my younger (as called by siblings) hisų́khara
brother, my hinįhára
brother, your elder (as called by siblings) čitoráka
brother, your younger (as called by siblings) hisųkráka
brother, your hinináka
brow, eye čexáhį́na
brow, forehead péra
brown (similar to or almost black) sepeníske
brown číkisį́č
brush (sweeping brush) wikisínč
brushy (as a field, marsh, etc.) hątápšišík
bubble (water foam) ničak
buck čaxátera
buckskin čahárušáwą
buckwheat bread (black flour cake) waiskápseptúč
buckwheat flour waiską́p sépera
buckwheat grain waiskap poroporáč
bud (thick point wood) nąsáwaošókera
buffalo (earth-traveling cattle) čémąórájera
buffalo blanket, robe čeháwaiį́
buffalo skin čehára
buffalo čéxčį́na
buffalo, cattle če
build (house-make) čių́n
bull češų́čkaiįrasá, čewą́kera
bullets, musket balls (round lead) hižų́kmąpóropóro, ižúkemą póropóra
bunch hočík
bundle warušį́
burn (consumed as food by eating) wačép
burn taxu´
burning, consumed by tačép
burst čox
bury in a hole or grave woxe
bury or cover in snow waáwuná
bury xe
but (in the middle or end of a word) aké
butter čewazní hikíni
butterfly miníkera
button mąkirohi
buy, trade ruwį́
by and by hirarexčį́ki, haraxčį́
by, alongside hičéčéča
cabbage (big leaves) nąápxátera
cache (bark cover) nąháwaką́nak
cake tuč
calf čenį́ksi
calico waipárihoxúkera
call - he calls you nikikó
call - I call you (as in the sense of summoning to a council or feast) nikikoną́k
calm hatáki
candle stick iratážakaré okárera
candle iratážą kárera
cane, reeds xoharawa
capsize hakárašų́
cards, playing (from French pek, "spade") pekųna
care irakára
careful hitoį́
careless winíkité
carpenter nąhikišáera
carpet čiwomį́žera
carrion wanióčketák
carry on the back, pack kįnare
carry on the head (place there on the head) nasuéča kaną́kre
carry aninare
carry, or raise up, on the arms įruanare
cat hičúkera
catfish howíx
Catholicism (cross-makers) aramíhe ųna
cattail (the flag) (lodge covers) wičíra
cattail flower (crooked hair) k'šohį́na
caterpillar (hairy worm) wakíri-hįšégera
cattle, buffalo če
cattle, earth-traveling (buffalo) čémąórájera
cave, cavern mą́na orua
cedar, red wáxšujera
cellar (earth under) mąxuhaieča
cemetery wanaxíwomį́gera
census kíwagáxera
center kisákeča
certain (truth) iskéwe
certain - I am certain iskewáhe
certain - you are certain (you say true) iskewašé
chafe rusép
cheek bone hiščáhušarékera
chief, the, our father hųk´hią́čhírera
chief, the, their father hųk´hią́čhiwíra
child is brought forth (born) nikšą́kižčų́
child, bring forth (bear) wakekšų́
clavicle (collar bone) čašé hušárek
clouds, air, sky mąxí
collar bone (clavicle) čašé hušárek
come back again before reaching the point set out for háksčakį́ri
come-went (arrived back) kirikári
conducts himself as a boy (boyish) hočįčį kį́čeną
consumed as food by eating (burn) wačép
consumed by burning tačép
corn meal bread wįčą́wazera ručópera
cousins, brethren kįnúpera
cover, bark (cache) nąháwaką́nak
cranium, skull (man's head) wągšíkpá
Creator, the men of (angels) wąkwanį́na
crooked hair (cattail) k'šohį́na
crooked k'šo
cross aramíhe
cut off head (behead) paramą́wa
cutting with a knife, to break by mąšíš
dead hand (numb hand) náperaték
divide amongst (apportioned) gįručéwakiki
do, to make ųn
the iron that we do with (axe)
mą́zure
that which we do with (ammunition)
wiųn´
doe (mother deer) čahų́na
early eating (breakfast) kaniwarúč
early kani
earth-traveling cattle (buffalo) čémąórájera
earthquake mąnaixką́ka
eat  
that which we eat (game animals)
waniújkera
eating (that which is eaten) waruč
elbow ašawákera
end of the arm (lower arm) aiïsawára
even, just kíske
evil, bad šišig
exchange, swap, barter ikiručą́
eye brow čexáhį́na
eye with a hole in it (blind in one eye) hį́ščapóx
fan, or blow on, oneself kitu
female bear haksiáka
femur (thigh bone) huožéphušą́rek
fibula (little bone) hušarék xono
field sowed by me, my field mąwažúrereną́
fierce, brave wašóše
finger bones (phalanges) nąmp hušarékera
fire brand péčuxíni
fish - these fish belong to me honą́nkre niewanį́
flag wiwašík
flag, he possesses or carries the wiwašíkąni ną́kšąną
foam, water (bubble) ničak
foetus slipped (miscarriage) wakek kikąš´
foot bones (metatarsus) síhušárek
foot sira
foot, to break wood with the nąšíš
foot-sinew, joint, ankle siką́na
forehead, brow péra
fright naxíre
game, animals (that which we eat) waniújkera
gather bark, to nąhárųháwa
glass, to break inohąmpkįhúx
good, it is not (bad) ąkáepį́ną
grasp or take by the arm (arrest) arukwás
gray month (August) wihóčera
green/blue (denotes spectrum from blue through green) čo
grizzly bear mąčó
hair hįšégera
hair
hairy mouth (beard) ihį́na, ihįšékera
hairy worm (catterpillar) wakíri-hįšégera
hammer, with a mąžiročį
hand bones (metacarpus) nąmp hušarékera
hand, dead (numb hand) náperaték
hardened clay (brick) réhorotaksís
hat wokąnákera
hat, woman's (bonnet) henų́k wokąnákera
head bent (bow) pak'sí
head cut off paramą́wa
head sawed off parawajkís
head šikpa
head, carry on the nasuéča kaną́kre
head, man's (skull, cranium) wągšíkpá
heart vein is throbbing íxkaka
here is kináni
hill is high (abrupt) xéra hankšį
hip (ilium) rekakeri hušárek
hole kiháp
hollow, bend, bay hoaïk'šék
house-make (build) čių́n
humerus (arm bone) haožep hušárek
ilium (hip) rekakeri hušárek
inquire of, to wiwą́x
iron bridge mąznąhámani
iron that we do with (axe) mązera, mą́zųre
joint, ankle, foot-sinew siką́na
just even kíske
kettle, bottom of réxeča
kinnikinnick (bark to smoke) roxį́šučkéra
knee cap (patella ) huporo hušárek
knife, to break by cutting with a mąšíš
land-tilling mą́ožú
lead, round (musket balls, bullets) ižúkemą póropóra
leaves nąáp
leaves, big (cabbage) nąápxátera
leg bones huhúšarek
leg, little (bean) huníkera
leg, to break a hurakišíš
linden (basswood) tree híške
little xono
log to walk over or on (bridge) nąhámani
Long Knife (American) Mąxįxátera, Maíxátera
long saréč
lower, below kuží
make, to do ųn
male bear (killed or tamed) hąką́ka
man's head (skull, cranium) wągšíkpá
man's play (Aurora Borealis) wą́kwoéskač
meat, chunk of róra
metacarpus (hand bones) nąmp hušarékera
metatarus (foot bones) síhušárek
middle, severed in two at the (between) wočákenaíeča
miscarriage (foetus slipped) wakek kikąš´
miscarriage (moon before time she brings forth) wira kení hináni wakékšųn
moccasins wakučé
moon before time she brings forth (abortion, miscarriage) wira kení hináni wakékšųn
mother deer (doe) čahų́na
mouth string (bridle) iruskíčera
mouth, hairy (beard) ihį́na, ihįšékera
mouth, to break with the racíš egižéškeną́
mouth-blower (babbler) itáče, itaiéča
moves, on the ground there (afoot) maíečíwá
musket balls, bullets (round lead) ižúkemą póropóra
naked oka
naked, bare nanóka
necklace (of beads) wanapína
new-make (begin) čekų́
nose - he blew his nose parakuruhį́k
nose of boat (bow) wačpára
nose pa
not ąká
oak, burr píksi
old, very s'íračaxčį́
other side (beyond) asąčaíeča
pack, carry on the back kįnare
patella (knee cap) huporo hušárek
phalanges (finger bones) nąmp hušarékera
place there on the head (carry on the head) nasuéča kaną́kre
play, man's (Aurora Borealis) wą́kwoéskač
pleasing-very kipįníske
plow, to break a márupurúra kišíš
point wood, thick (bud) nąsáwaošókera
pork smoked (bacon) gukúšetaxí
prayer eating table (altar) aramíhe warújera
prisoner, slave (bondage) wanįhí
pulse, beat as the ną́čkeixą́na
punching, to break by pošíš
quaking waškéra
radius and ulna huizi hušárek
raise, up or carry, on the arms įruanare
red šuč
reeds, cane xoharawa
returned, back - came back again before reaching the point set out for háksčakį́ri
returning, passed this way (arrived back) kirikári
rib bones ruhíhušárek
ribbon he binds with zeniparáairuskíč
river, across the niakaíeča
roast, bake rokį́
robe, buffalo čeháwaiį́
rock, to break įnikixčúx
root of the arm (upper arm) ahúčera
round bell mą́zporopora
round lead (bullets, musket balls) ižúkemą póropóra
sacrum bone sinč hušarékera
same time, at the egižéškeną́
sawed off head (behead) parawajkís
scapula (shoulder blade) áporohušárek
seed, arrow (arrowhead) masúra
severed in two at the middle (between) wočákenaíeča
sharp things (weapons) wapahí
sharp things in his possession (armed) wapahíenį
sharp, not čučųx
shatter kįxúx
shooting, to break by pošíš
shoulder bone (bone the hair falls over) hiréč hušárek
similar to or almost black (brown) sepeníske
simultaneously ekižéškeną́
sinew of the foot; joint, ankle siką́na
skin hára
skin, buffalo čehára
skin, wood (bark) nąhára
skull (bone of the head) nasų́hušárek
skull, cranium (man's head) wągšíkpá
sky, air, clouds mąxí
slave, prisoner (bondage) wanįhí
small of the back pika'owiwi'sera
snow, to bury or cover in waáwuná
spirits waxopį́nį
steam boat péčwajera
sternum (breast bone) mą́khušárek
stingy, avaricious wakses
stolen, astray manúni
straight-make (aim) iróčą́ųn
striking, break by iročį́gihux
string, break (sever) a wakinaná ruwáx
string, mouth (bridle) iruskíčera
struck, he hiročį́
swap, exchange, barter ikiručą́
sweeping brush (brush) wikisínč
swollen - it is swollen ną́tis
tail sinč
take by the arm (arrest) arukwás
tarsus (ankle) siká hušarek
the prayer book (Bible) aramíhe wawagáxera
thick ošók
thick point wood (bud) nąsáwaošókera (see isawara)
thigh bone (femur) huožéphušą́rek
throbbing, heart vein is íxkaka
thumb bone šak hušárek
tibia (big bone) hušarék xáte
tilling, land mą́ožú
time, at the same egižéškeną́
top of a bushy tree nąxáhač
trade, buy ruwį́
tree, top of a bushy nąxáhač
trodden hard anačás
truth (certain) iskéwe
turned over, upside down (bottom-up) akarašú
turnips zizikera
turnips, red (beets) zizikešújera
ulna and radius huizi hušárek
upside down, turned over (bottom-up) akarašú
very wide (broad) parastí
walk backwards, to haksčámani
wampum wǫrušíkera
wampum, fine white wórusuksíkera
water foam (bubble) ničak
wax (bee) hezíkekį́niča
weapons (sharp things) wapahí
well! (at the beginning of a word) aké
well, he breathes well pį́niháha
wheat flat cakes, bread waiskáp pareparéčera
wheat, long-tailed (barley) waiskápsinčsaréč
white wampum, fine wórusuksíkera
white ska
whole, the pąną́k
wide para
wind pipe nihára
wind throws down maíïtáčahí kiwą́k
wind, to blow as maíïtaíečahí
woman henų́k
woman's hat (bonnet) henų́k wokąnákera
wood skin (bark) nąhára
wood, flat wide (board) napárás
wood, thick point (bud) nąsáwaošókera
wood, to break with the foot nąšíš
worm wakíri
wrist bands (bracelets) apára
wrist bone (same as radius & ulna) hueze hušárek
wrist huïzíra
yes (see "applause")

Notes

1 Thomas Foster, Foster's Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1, #2: p. 4, coll. 3-4 ("abandon" - "beckon"); vol. 1, #3: p. 4, coll. 2-4 ("bed" - "chafe").


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