Susman's Winnebago Notebooks

at the American Philosophical Society Library,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Accession Number, X 5.2

Compiled and crossed-referenced by Richard L. Dieterle


This is a catalogue of the Winnebago notes and texts compiled by Amelia Susman Schulz that are kept at the American Philosophical Society Library in Philadelphia.


| Notebook 1 | Notebook 2 | Notebook 3 | Notebook 4 | Notebook 5 | Notebook 6 | Notebook 7 | Notebook 8 | Notebook 9 | Notebook 10 | Notebook 11 |


Susman Notebooks, Book 1
Phonetics
May 18 - Aug. 3, 1938

Reel 53

Biographies & Miscellaneous page
Schedule -
Wordlist of 414 entries, numbered (5/18/38) 1-20
       3 x 5 note card with headings and numbers 14a
Unnumbered wordlists, many without English equivalents (5/23/38) 21-38
"Life of Winnebago" (5/30) 39-49
"Biography" (5/30) 49-71*
Wordlists and notes on phonetics (7/29) 73-84†
Notes on phonetics (filmed in reverse order) (5/18-8/1) a-z, za, zb
       inserted after page s is an 8.5 x 11 unlined sheet containing a phoneme
       chart for the labial /p/
s/t
       just before page t is an 8.5 x 11 unlined sheet containing sketches of
       phonemic relationships and a few words in Hočąk. These sheets belong
       with those in Book 2 (see below).
s/t
End of Book 1 second unnumbered page after z (= zb)
*there is no page 72.
†there is no page numbered "74."

Susman Notebooks, Book 2
Winnebago Texts by Sam Blowsnake
May 29 - Aug. 31, 1938

Reel 53

Stories /Other Items page
List of expenses per diem -
Ethnographic notes
1-6
       attitudes of women towards men 1
       learning bead work 2
       dog sacrifice 2-3
       supernatural consequences of divulging Medicine Rite secrets 3-4
       foresight about hunting, hospitality, Indian ponies 4
       status, symbolism, and use of the bow 5
       menstrual seclusion and courtship 5
       short wordlist 6
Twins cycle by Sam Blowsnake: Birth of the Twins to their father's attempt to escape, with linguistic notes usually on succeeding page or at the top of a page
7-103
       The Birth of the Twins 7-52
       The Twins Disobey Their Father
52-98
       The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee (continued in Book 3) 98-103*
              a brief phonetic note post 101
              syllabic alphabet on larger sheet of paper post 101
Notes on phonetics (lettered pages were filmed in reverse order), 8/3-8/31
104, a-q
       8/3-4 a†
       8/4 f-g
       8/5 g-h
              inserted after page g is an 8.5 x 11 unlined sheet containing rough notes
              on phoneme sequences for /p, b/, /k/, /t/.
g/h
              just before page h is an 8.5 x 11 unlined sheet containing a phoneme chart
              for the labial /p/. These sheets belong with those in Book 1 (see above).
g/h
       8/18 i-k
       8/24 k-n
       8/26 n-o
       8/29 o
       8/30-31 p-q
End of Book 2 q
*pages 102 and 103 were filmed at the end in reverse order.
†there are no pages lettered b, c, d, e.

Susman Notebooks, Book 3
Winnebago Text by Sam Blowsnake
Aug. 30 - Oct. 10, 1938

Reel 53

Stories /Other Items page
Twins Cycle: attempt of their father to escape, to the Twins' departure for the Otherworld 1-47
       The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee (continued from Book 2) 1-13
       The Twins Get into Hot Water 13-26
       The Twins Kill a Waterspirit 27-42
       The Twins Visit Their Father 42-47
Wordlists (9/15-9/29) 47-59
Songs 60-77
       Love Song 60
       Peyote Songs 60-61
       Medicine Dance Songs 61-66
              Drum Song 61
              Otter Skin Song, sung just before the shell shooting 62
              Diagram of the Medicine Lodge with the places where each song was sung 62-63
              Song 2. Description of accompanying Medicine Rite activities 63
              Song without a Drum. Note on new members 64
              Dance Song 65
              Crying Song (sung by East Band Leader) 65-66
                     The same song is then sung in Menominee (not given) 66
       Morning Song (to obtain a blessing from the Sun) 66-67
       Love Song 67
       The Moccasin Game and Its Songs 68-69
              Description of Moccasin Game 68
              Song sung by a Sioux (in Hočąk) on the occasion of a Hočąk man having
              lost his sisters gambling in the Moccasin Game
68
              Teasing Songs (in the Moccasin Game) 68-69
       War Dance Song, "Sung knowing he would die" 69
       Wordlist of verbs (10/1) 70
       Night Spirit Songs 71-73
              Two Songs 71
              Night Spirit Dance Song 72-73
        Vision Songs 73
       Doctoring Song, sung with gourd accompaniment 74
       Grizzly Bear Spirit Dance Song ("protects warrior from fatal shot") 74
       Buffalo Songs 75
                Ceremonial Warbundle Song 75
                War Dance Song with Big Drum 75
                War Dance Song 75
        Love Songs 76-77
        Wordlist, untranslated (10/4) 77
Beginning of Sam Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite 78-106
        Medicine Rite people are superior because of their knowledge 78-79
        Size of Medicine Lodge 80
        Ordinary people respected the holiness of the ceremonies and lodge 80-82
        The tobacco pouches used in the ceremony, mock death of novitiates 83-90
        Respect in which the Medicine Rite was held 90-93
        How members used the medicines at their command 94-96
        Some Medicine Rite members are able to fly 96-98
        Metamorphosis into bears and hawks 98
        Fear of Medicine Rite members 99
        Powers came from the spirits 100
        Cost of joining and cost of participation (some expressed in dollar amounts) 100-104
        The attractions and holiness of the rite (continued in Book 4) 104-106
Wordlists 107-109
        Wordlist (10/5) 107
        Vision Song (of the Arrow), "learned not long ago" 108
        List of words, most of which are untranslated (10/6) 108
        Wordlist (10/10) 109
Notes on phonetics (9/1-10/6) a-f, k*
        9/1, 9/2 a
        9/19-9/22 a-b
        9/22-9/25 c
        9/26-9/28 d
        9/28-10/1 e
        10/1-10/4 f
        10/6. Wordlist for the study of accent and vowel length f, k
End of Book 3 k
*in the microfilm, page k is filmed twice, once as the last page and previously just after page 109. There are no pages g and h.

Susman Notebooks, Book 4
Sam Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite
Oct. 7 - 25, 1938

Reel 53

Account of Rite & Miscellaneous page
Ledger of expenses -
How Sam Blowsnake Joined the Medicine Rite (continued from Book 3) 1-117
background of Sam Blowsnake's father 1-3
father's uncle big in the Medicine Rite 3-4
father's uncle makes Sam's father his replacement in the Rite 5-7
his father picks Sam as his replacement in the Rite 8-17
the father's uncles approve 17-18
they begin teaching Sam Blowsnake the Medicine Rite 19
cutting of the oak lodge poles 20-27
the building of the lodge 27-29
2 loose sheets: a chart of pronouns, a diagram of the layout of the lodge 27/28
ceremonial objects set out and participants arrive; the feast 30-32
the oldest man, the leader, announces Sam's candidacy; his speech 33-40
the placing of the packets of tobacco for the first night ceremony 40-42
first night: grandfather's opening speech 43-54
4 crying songs sung as the people wept for the departed Master 54-55
grandfather's second speech: eulogy to the departed Master 56-62
Sam urged to travel the Road of the virtuous departed Master 63-66
the grandfather will teach him everything about the Rite 66-68
the Rite is very holy and therefore difficult to enter into 69-74
the first songs to be taught to Sam is for the ears of the spirits 75-85
songs given 81-85
18 stanzas given in syllabic script 83/84
vocabulary and paradigms 85-86
further songs and dances 87
grandfather's third speech: the Rite is from Earthmaker and the spirits 88-93
with morning, the ceremony breaks up 93-94
Sam so amazed by what he heard that sleepiness was not a problem 95-96
the second night — grandfather speaks again: because the Rite is Earthmaker's,
it is the Road to take
97-111
since he is a member of a community, they will know if he has acted rightly 111-114
the spirits will know as well (continued in Book 5) 115-117
Notes on phonetics, 3 pp. (filmed in reverse order) 10/7-10/26
3 pp. of loose 3 x 6 inch slips, two per page, with numbers and untranslated words -

Susman Notebooks, Book 5
Winnebago Text by Sam Blowsnake
Oct. 25 - Nov. 2, 1938

Reel 53

Account of Rite & Miscellaneous page
Sam Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite 1-53
grandfather's speech, second night continued (from Book 4): good and evil,
temptation, self-control of anger
1-12
metaphors of the thorns and the small harassing birds 12-13
the members of the Rite have the power to cure themselves of these wounds 13-17
the metaphors of the thorn bushes and the fire 17-22
taking care to walk on the Road 22-24
what the other members will say when they arrive 24-26
what is to be done on each night 27-29
the arrival of the bands and the construction of their lodges 29-33
Sam goes after a large stone for the fire, and sticks 33-35
Sam and his grandfather fetch each band in turn to the central lodge 36-43
food is cooked and the grandfather talks about the Medicine Lodge way 44-46
the fire and its significance 47
Linguistic notes and wordlists 48-50
Medicine Rite: women should be treated kindly 50-53
Linguistic notes and wordlists 53-86
Linguistic notes 53-57
Wordlists 57-64
Linguistic notes 64-68
Wordlists 69-73
Linguistic notes 74-86
Sam Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite (resumed) 86-110
directions and places 86-89
impersonators of the spirits make speeches on behalf of the new member
(continued in Book 6)
90-110
Linguistic notes a-j
End of Book 5 j

Susman Notebooks, Book 6
Sam Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite
Nov. 23, 1938 - Jan. 2, 1939

Reel 53

Account of Rite & Miscellaneous page
loose sheet with possessive pronouns -
Description of the Medicine Rite (continued from Book 5) 1-103
       after speeches, men strip to enter sweat lodge 1-6
       the use of green sticks to place the hot stone into the water of the sweat lodge 7-10
       tobacco ritual in the sweat lodge 11-13
       speeches of the spirit impersonators: the one in the first place 14-22
       songs for the spirits (songs not given) 23-28
       two pages with diagonal cross-out lines 24-25
       the one in the second place speaks 29-38
       Linguistic notes inserted 35-36
       the one in the second place sings songs (not given), sprinkles stone,
       ritual shooting
39-42
       the one in the third place speaks 43-48
       various songs sung (not given) 49
       the one in the fourth place speaks 50-55
       tobacco offering 55-56
       one in the fourth place (south) sings songs (not given) 57-58
       East gives a prayer 58-61
       songs sung (not given) 62-63
       everyone exits the sweat lodge and the ceremonial house 63
       they wash in warm water 64
       return to ceremonial lodge, the placement of food, grandfather's speech
       about it
65-70
       the men of the four positions make speeches about the holiness of the food 71-80
       the men of each of the four positions salute the ancestors 80-83
Wordlists 83-86
       eating followed by all saluting the ancestors in turn 87-90
       order of departure stated 91-94
       each makes a round, salutes the ancestors, sings a song of thanksgiving,
       then departs (continued in Book 7)
95-103*
Wordlists and linguistic notes 104-109
3 pp. of loose slips with linguistic notes post 109
Ethnographic notes 111
Wordlists 112-117†
End of Book 6 117
*following page 103 is an unnumbered page, which in turn is followed by a page numbered "103" again. After this, follows page 104 as regular numbering resumes.
†page 115 has one line written on its verso side. Pages after 111 are unnumbered.

Susman Notebooks, Book 7
Sam Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite
Dec. 9, 1938 - Jan. 13, 1939

Reels 53/54

Account of Rite & Miscellaneous page
Sam Blowsnake's account of the Medicine Rite (12/9/1938) (continued from Book 6) 1-29
       offering of tobacco to Fire, Earthmaker, and Hare with a request that they
       obtain life, and that the initiate not miss the Road
1-17
       offering of tobacco to the one in the east, who gives sunshine and flora 17-21
       offering of tobacco to the one in the north, who freezes evil things 21-24
       offering of tobacco to the one in the west, who gives cleansing rain 24-26
       offering of tobacco to the one in the south, who makes the Road, and whose
       wind "grows life"
26-29
East Spirit Songs (12/19/1938) 29-31
Dancing Songs (12/19/1938) 31
Medicine Rite songs in syllabic script (12/19/1938) 32*
Medicine Rite songs, interlinear (12/19/1938) 32b-34†
Sam Blowsnake's account of the Medicine Rite (resumed) (1/5/1939) 34-90
       the ceremonial lodge is cleaned and the fire prepared 34-35
       Blowsnake's grandparents put out the tobacco pouches 36
       Blowsnake's grandmother sees an image of her dead husband in the tobacco,
       an omen that her grandson will reach a full life as he did
37-40
       gratitude expressed to the ancestors, and life asked for the initiate 41-49
       songs are sung 49-51
       the pipe is passed around 52-58
       medicine passed around and chewed 58
       the leader and his band enter the lodge and give salutations 58-62
       speech of the leader 62-69
       songs sung 69-70
       the leader recalls the departed in sorrow, and looks forward to the initiation
       of the new member
70-74
       the leader talks about the song that came from Earthmaker 75-79
       the band does a circuit of the lodge, assume their positions, and sit down 80-85
       the next band comes in and does the same (continued in Book 8) 86-91
Ethnographic and linguistic notes 93‡
Last page of Reel 53 93
Reel 54
Wordlists. Pages sequenced by letters. Some inconsistent numerical pagination, but in reverse order. Filming was done in reverse order. page
       12/12/1938 a-d
       12/14 e
       12/15 f-g
       12/16 h-i
       12/19 j-k
       12/20 k-l
       12/21 l-r
       1/3/1939 r-t
Paradigms & grammatical notes. Continuation of pagination by letters. Filming was done in reverse order.  
       1/4/1939 u-x
       1/5 x-z (96)
       1/5, continued in reverse numerical pagination 95-94
       1/6, no page number -
*following page 32 is a sentence in syllabic script on a 3 x 5 note card.
†page 32b is unnumbered, numbering resumes on the next page at 33.
‡there is no page 92. It may have been omitted from the filming.

Susman Notebooks, Book 8
Sam Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite
Jan. 13 - 17, 1939

Reel 54

Account of Rite / Stories page
Sam Blowsnake's account of the Medicine Rite (continued from Book 7) 1-115
       speech in praise of the ancestors 1-2
       remembrance of the dead man whom the initiate is replacing 3-5
       crying songs to be sung 6-15
              Song I — Crying Song 9
              Song II (not given) 15
       a procession is made of the lodge 16-18
       the third band makes a circuit of the lodge, then stops at the east 19-20
       the leader of the third bands speaks as the other had, then they take their places 21-23
       the fourth band enters, and does as its predecessors did 24-35
       Blowsnake's grandfather greets the bands 35-39
       Sam Blowsnake (the initiate) presented to the bands 39-41
       sounds made by the pouches 42
       the initiate is saluted by the participants 43-45
       the drum 45-46
       the leader's salutations to all and their response 47-51
       the leader's speech 52
              Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 5) 52-91
       leader to sing four greeting songs and dance songs 91-94
       initiate placed in front of dancers 94
       the leader describes how the "arrows" (shells) are going to be shot 95-100
              The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 1) 101-108
       initiate sings 108-109
              Song III — Initiate's Song 109
       shell ritual 109-113
       songs with drum and rattles 114-115
       participants shoot one another with shells (continued in Book 9) 115
Kinship terms 116-117
Diagram of kinship relationships 118
End of Book 8 118

Susman Notebooks, Book 9
Sam Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite
Jan. 16 - 19, 1939

Reel 54

Account of Rite / Stories page
Sam Blowsnake's account of the Medicine Rite (continued from Book 8) 1-137
        after salutations, everyone sits down 1
        four singers stand in a line in front of the drum with four women behind them 2-3
        the leader speaks 4
               The Buffalo's Walk 5-10
                        Salutation Song 10
        the leader and his band chant in turn in front of each cardinal position 11-17
        salutations go around the circle and are completed about midnight 17-19
        Blowsnake's grandfather stands up and make a speech about his departed
        brother and the feast, in effect of the dead, that they are now eating
19-27
        the pipe is passed 27-29
        gifts given the Blowsnakes by the bands 29-30
        the leader of the third band speaks, concludes with thanksgiving songs 30-33
        the drum is brought to the center, and songs and dances are performed 34
        the leader of the North band speaks as had the others 35-38
        the leader of the West speaks of power, then sings crying and thanksgiving songs;
        he promises the power of the West (rain)
38-42
        the leader of the fourth band (South) speaks as the other had 42-43
        Blowsnake's grandfather sang shooting songs 43-44
        the bands engage in the shooting ritual 45-46
        near morning the participants slip out into the woods, where they stamped the
        ground and make the Road of the Medicine Lodge, east, north, west,  south
47-51
        Blowsnake's grandfather speaks to Sam and what they want for him 52
               Journey to Spiritland (v. 6) 52-79
              Testing the Slave 82-92
              The Gift of Shooting 100-107
        Sam Blowsnake acquires shells and an otter skin pouch 108-115
        how Sam Blowsnake was instructed on being shot with a shell and his
        first experience of this (continued in Book 10)
121-137
Lexical notes (Jan. 16) 138
End of Book 9 138

Susman Notebooks, Book 10
Sam Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite, other texts
January 19 - June 12, 1939

Reel 54

Account of Rite & Miscellaneous page
Sam Blowsnake's account of the Medicine Rite 1-75
       Sam Blowsnake's instructions on being shot with a shell and his first
       experience of this (continued from Book 9)
1-15
       participants return home one at a time just after dawn 15-16
       next day of the Medicine Rite 17-75
       preparation of the lodge 17-20
       Blowsnake's grandfather speaks and sings 20
       first band (East) comes in, does a circuit of the lodge; the leader speaks and sings 20-22
       the other bands enter and do as the first had done 22-26
       the first band dresses Sam Blowsnake in a good costume 26
       he does a circuit of the lodge 27-28
       after dancing songs, Sam is picked up 29
       arrows to be tossed up 30
       speeches about the drum and life-and-light, then they threw up the arrows 31-32
       gifts given in the Rite 33-37
       grandfather goes around touching the others on their heads as they cry 37-41
       salutations 42-43
       Sam spoken to by his grandfather: those in the Medicine Rite are like his family 44
       Earthmaker made a white oak, and scrapings of it will be put in Sam's mouth;
       he must never use his mouth for bad words or he will lose his soul
45-47
       laying of hand on mouth, ear, heart, eyes while singing, so that he might be true in
       all these symbolic organs
48-52
       grandfather tells the ancestors that Sam is to be on the Road 53-56
       the leader of the second band speaks 56-57
       the next leader speaks, says that he is going to shoot the old life out of Sam, then
       sings an arrow song and reloads the pouch
57-60
       Sam ritually dies, then is made to sit up 61-62
       change of clothing 63-64
       division of the gifts 65-67
       feasting begins 68-70
       singing as in the previous night 70
       shooting ritual into the afternoon in which Sam participates; Medicine Rite people
       enjoyed themselves shooting one another
71-73
       the four bands sung thanksgiving songs, then danced out of the lodge near dusk 74
       summary of what Sam Blowsnake did not tell about the Rite's historical context 75
End of the Medicine Rite account 75
Green Corn Dance 76-77
Buffalo Songs 77-78
Magic 78
Heroka 79
Songs (Hare to Elephant, Sun to Hare, Mouse Song, etc.) 84-91
Musical instruments: drum, flute, rattle 91
Trickster's duck song 93-94
Syllabic text 97-98
Songs 100
Things taught to children 100-120
Notes on stems 121
End of Book 10 121

Susman Notebooks, Book 11
Winnebago Texts by Sam Blowsnake
? - Sept. 7, 1939

Reel 54

Accounts page
Things taught to children: remarks on the spirits 1-31
Numbered Hočąk words, some with syllabic equivalents 32-35*
Syllabic text 36-38†
Phonetic notes (July 7, 1939) 39-40‡
Grammar and vocabulary notes (Aug. 7, 1939) 41-43
Phonetic notes (stress) (Sept. 7, 1939) 44-49
End of Book 11 49
*there are two consecutive pages numbered "33." Pages 34-35 are numbered 33-34.
†the 36th page is numbered as "35"; the 38th page is numbered as "39."
‡the 39th page is numbered as "41." After this the pages are unnumbered.