Hotchank hit’é

The Winnebago Language


Obtained from David StCyr,
at Winnebago Agency, Thurston Co.,
Nebraska, Aug 31 and Sept. 1-3, 1889,
and from John Michel StCyr, then in Washington, 1890. 1891.

by
Albert S. Gatschet

Table of Contents

Background Material

Source of the Manuscript

Dorsey's Cover Letter to Henshaw

Number Speaking the Language

Extracts from the Relation des Jésuites concernnig the History and Ethnography of the Winnebago People

Mention of the Winnebago in St. Peet, American Antiquities

Notice on the Winnebago Tribe

Hočąk Origins

Historic Note

Gatschet's Prospective Informants

Word Lists

Apparel

Artifacts and Artisans

Astronomy

Birds

Body Parts and Attributes

Clans & Moieties

Colors

Disabilities

Directions

Earth and Ground

Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles

Food and Drink

Games

Geographical Names

The Hočągara (Winnebago)

Insects

Kinship and Family

Mammals

Medicine

Meteorology, Weather

Minerals, Metals and Coinage

Miscellaneous

Naming Conventions

Nations, Tribes, and Ethnic Groups

Numerals

People

Personal Names

Plants

Quantity

Religion

Shapes, Patterns, Textures, Surfaces

Time

Waters

Grammar

Verbs

Objective Conjugation

Present Tense

Past Tense

Pluperfect

Subjunctive

Future Tense

Present Participle

The Verb "to be"

The Verb "to have"

Verbs and Forms Derived from Verbs

Verbs with Qualifiers of Situation

"Prepositions" & Related Words

Imperatives

Indexicals

Indirect Objects

Pronouns

Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns

Comparatives

Interjections and Exclamations

Interrogative Sentences

Sample Sentences

Comparative Material

Comparative Material

Notes

Notes by Richard L. Dieterle


Background Material


SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY

WASHINGTON, D. C. Jan. 13/92

Dear Mr. Henshaw:

I have examined (as far as I could without collating with my own Winnebago dictionary-slips) the Winnebago MS. of Mr. Gatschet, and I believe that it is one which ought to belong to the Bureau of Ethnology. His Winnebago myth is the only text that I have seen besides the letter in my collection. I find little trouble in reading intelligently what he has recorded in this MS.

Yours,

J. Owen Dorsey


Number Speaking the Language

There are about 3000 Winnebagos speaking the language, most are in Wisconsin, farming near LaCrosse, Stevens Point and Portage city.


Extracts from the Relation des Jésuites concerning the History and Ethnography of the Winnebago People

Year 1640, pg. 35; col. 1

Dont la seconde mer douce sont les Maroumine; plus auant encore sur les mesmes roues habitent les Ouinipigou, peuples sedentaires qui sont en grand nombre. Quelques Francois les appellent la Nation des Puans, à cause que le mot Algonquon ouinebeg sigifie eau puants; or ils nomment ainsi l'eau de la mer saleé, si bien que ces peuples se nomment Ouinipigou, parce qu'ils viennent des bords d'une mer dont nous n'avons point de cognaissance; et par consequent ils ne faut pas les appeller la nation des Puans, mais la nation de la mer.


On which the second fresh water sea are the Menominee, much before, again on the same routes, live the Winipigou, sedentary peoples, who are great in number. Some Frenchmen call them the "Nation of the Stinkards," on account of the Algonqui[a]n winebeg, signifying odiferous water, or they name in this way the water of the saline sea; quite well as these peoples call themselves Winipigou, because they live on the coasts of a sea of which we have no knowledge, and in consequence they do not call them the nation of Stinkards, but the nation of the sea.

pg. 35, col. 2

. . . les Ontarahronon, les Aoueatsiouaenhronon; les Attochingohronon; les Attiouendarankhronon.

 

. . . the Ontarahronon, the Aoueatsiouaenhronon; the Attochingohronon; the Attiouendarankhronon.

1636, pg. 92

La Nation du Castor . . . a peur des A8eatsi8aenrrhonon, š'est à dire gens puants, qui ont rompu le traicté de paix, et ont tué deux des leurs, dont ils ont fait festin.

 

The Nation of the Beaver . . . has fear of the Aweatsiwaenrrhonon, that is to say, the Stinkard tribe, who have broken the treaty of peace, and have killed two of them, on which they have feasted.

1639, pg. 55

La Nation des Puants, qui est un passage des plus considerables pour les païs Occidentaux, vn peu plus Septentrionaux.

 

The Nation of the Puants, who are a crossing of the most considerable sort for the nations of the west, a little more for the northern ones.

cf. 1649, 27 where the Aou — are represented as being an Algonqui[a]n nation.
1656, pg. 39

La Nation de Mer, que quelques vns ont appelétes Puants, à cause qu'ils ont autrefois habité sur les r?o?ues de la mer qu'ils appellent Ouinipeg, š'est à dire eau puante.

 

The Nation of the Sea, which some have called the Puants, on account that they have in former times lived upon the way to the body of water that they call Winipeg, which is to say, the odiferous waters.

[Huron áwän' water; a it (pronoun), tsíwayän sour and bitter, rúnąn people, men]
1648, pg. 62.
Un autre troisième lac, que nous appellon le Lac des Puants, qui se décharge sussi dans notre mer douce; . . . rest h?abité d'autres peuples d'une langue inconnuë, c'est à dire qui n'est ny Algonquine ny Huronne. Ces peuple sont appellez les Puants, non pas à raison d'aucune mauvaise odeur qui leurs soit particuliers, mais à cause qu'ils l?e disent estre venus des costes d'une mer fort élongneé, vers le Septentrione, dont l'eau estant saleé, ils se nomment les peuples de l'eau puante. cf. 1654, pg. 9.

Les Ondatouatandy et Ouinipegong qui fort partie de la Nation des Puants.

 

Another third lake, which we call the Lake of the Puants [Winnebago], which discharges itself into our fresh water sea; . . . a living vestige of other peoples of an unknown language, which is to say that it is neither Algonqui[a]n nor Huron. These people are called the Puants, not for any reason of bad odor which their let us say particulars [have], but on account of the fact that they say it to be in proximity to the coasts of a very long body of water, about the north, where the water being saline, they name themselves the peoples of the odiferous water.

The Ondatouatandy and Winipegong who [are] strong opponents of the Nation of the Puants.

1660, pg. 9

Le lac des Ouinipegouek (un grande baye de celuy des hurons) . . . called so . . . pourcequ'il est enuironné de terres ensouffreés, d'où sortent quelques sources qui portent dans ce lac la malignité que leurs eaux ont contracteés aux lieux de leur naissence. (See Introduction)

 

The lake of the Winipegouek (a great bay of that of the Hurons) . . . called so . . . because it is encompassed by sulphurous earth, from which originate several sources which carry in this lake the malignity which their waters have contracted from the place of their origins.

1670, pg. 97

Nous arrivá mes le? à l'entreé du Lac des Puans, que nous avons appelé le Lac Saint Francois; il est long d'envin?en 12 h?e?ues et large de 4 . . .

 

We arrived before the entrance to the Lake of the Puans, which we have called Lake St. Francis, it is long in length 12 (—), and of 4 wide . . .

1671, p. 41. 42

La Mission de St François Xavier embasse huit Nations differentes, on mesme davantage: les Puans, au fond de la Baye; . . . qui y ont toujours demeusé comme en leur propre païs; d'un peuple très florrissant qu'ils étaient ils sont presque rétuit à rien, ayant été exterminé par les Ilinois leurs ennemis. Les Pouteouatamies, les Ousak; et ceux de la Fourche y dimeurent aussi. Les Folles Avoines, Outagami et les Nantoué sont proches? les Maskoutench et les Oumami.

 

The Mission of St. Francis Xavier reaches out to eight different nations, the Puans, at the farther end of the bay; ... who have always resided there as in their proper country; of a people very prosperous which they having been, they are nearly reduced to nothing, having been exterminated by the Illinois, their enemies. The Potawatomies, the Ousak [Sauk?]; and those of the Fork reside there also. The Folles Avoines [Menominee], Outagami [Fox] and the Nantoué are nearby the Mascouten and the Oumami [Miami?].

1672, pg. 37. 38

Description de la mission de St. Navier.

 

The description of the mission of St. Navier.



St. Peet in his Am. Antiquities, 1895, p. 26 seq.

In 1634 at Nicolet's first visit the Winnebago dwelt at Red Banks near Green Bay. Allouez says that in 1640 they had almost been destroyed by the Illinois, but he found the Ojibways discussing whether they should take up arms against them or not. [They] were on good terms with the Mascoutens, Menominees, Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawat-s.

Green Bay was held by Menom. & Sauks & the ajacent Lake Winneb. by the Winnebagos & it was a great centre of populaton. Allouez & Dablon paddled up to Lake Winnebago & the mouth of the Upper Fox, which they ascended to visit the town of the Mascoutens. Carver in 1766 found a village of them at Red Banks, and had come there from Wisconsin River.

(Morse 1820:) W. had 5 villages on the lake and 14 on Rock River. The Menomines had villages at Butte des Morts, at Winneconne and Poygan. Winnebagoes gave? a tribute to them = produce for staying on their territory. Oshkosh, a Men. village under Pushan, whose hunting grounds were at (—-)oms. Black Wolf, another Men. village.

Winneb. = 1831 pr(—-) Black Hawk & had then to cede all lands south of Fox River & Winn. removed to Eastern Iowa. They never gave up their original domain & still make their home in US forest betw. Wisc. & Fox Rivers.

The Wianwat s(.... unreadable ....) with the habitat of the [e]ff[i]gy (....).


Notice on the Winnebago Tribe
by John G. Shea, in Wisconsin State Historical Collections, vol. III, p. 137-138
(1836). Extract.

This name "fetid" was given them by the Algonkins; Ouinibegouc; Ouinipegouec (Rel. Je's. 1650-'60); Ouenibegoutz (Rel. 1669-'70). The French translated it by "Puants", giving it as a name to the tribe and to Green Bay (Sagard). The early missionaries (Relat. of 1639-40, '47-48 (pg 64), 53-54 (pg. 43), '55-58, '59-60, Bressani & Marquette) state that they were so called by the Alg. as coming from the Ocean, or salt water ("fetid water" in Indian). Nicolet: "Gens de mer," lying in "Eaux de mer". The Hurons called them Aweatsi-waenr-rhonons (Rel. 1636) the Sioux: Otonkah (Schoolcr.), but they call themselves, Otcanras (Charlevoix), Hochungara or Ochungarand: "Trout Nation" Schoolcr. III, 277. IV, 227. or Horoji "fish-eaters". The Algonkin tradition makes them, as seen, emigrants from the Pacific shore & the Illinois especially seem to have opposed their approach to the Lakes. This war lasted till about 1639 (Allouez, in Relat. 1669-70) when the W. succumbed. Charlevoix V, 431 states that they were driven from the shores of Green Bay to Fox river by a party of 600 setting out on the lake to attack the Illinois, perished in a storm. The victors took compassion (Allouez) & creat'g the survivor chief of the nation, gave up to him all the captive Winnebagoes. If this strange event ever took place, it did so before 1639, for Nic. visited them in that year & found them prosperous. They were the original inhabitants of Wisc., often troublesome & hostile; allies of Pontiac in 1763, defeated by Wayne in 1794, adhered to England in 1812 (O'Callaghen, Co. Doc. III, 283). 2531 souls in 1848. Cf. Shea's Discov. of the Mississ. p. XXI and note 10. 11.

[Gatschet, MS pp. 70-71]

Legend of the Winnebagoes

Comm. by R. W. Haskins of Buffalo, N. Y., one of the proper arditors [sic] of the Buffalo Journal in Sept. 1829. From oral reports of Pliny Warriner, then coming from the Winn. country. In Wis. Histor. Soš'y Collections, vol. I. 86-93. [This is reprinted in full under The First Fox and Sauk War ]


Hočąk Origins

Winnebagos are said to have emigrated from Red Bank, north or northeast of Green Bay, east side of Lake Michigan, they call it Moka šúč-eja from móka bank, šúč red. There is a tradition that some of the Winnebagos are lost, and that they are somewhere south.

Sioux call them Hótanka, which is probably the Hóčank, as they call themselves. The Ojibwe call them Winnipeg. At one time they were the fiercest warriors in the country.


Historic Note

In 1831 the Winnebagoes occupied the country in the Wisconsin River; whole number about 1500, under White Loon as head-chief. He with some of his braves had fought both Wayne & Harrison & had ever been loyal to British interests dur'g the war of 1812.

Blanchard, Ruf., Hist'y NW p. 373.


Gatschet's Prospective Informants

Indians to obtain information from:

John Harrison, middle aged, heavy set.

Mrs. John Johnson, lives towards the Bluffs, speaks English & can tell a good deal.

Alek. Pare, her father, a policeman, speaks English.

James Alexander, government interpreter, difficult to get hold of him.

Carles Profit, described as a "smart boy".

David StCyr, born 1864, almost white.

Alek StCyr, born ?

There were in 1889 forty Winnebago pupils in Carlisle (Hampton included?), Pa. —

Rev. William T. Findly, Winnebago Reservation,
Winnebago P.O., Nebraska.

Howard Logan, 18 years, at Carlisle in May '90

Levy StCyr, 21 ys., at Carlisle, May '90

Cecile La——ess, graduate at Millersville, 52 miles from Carlisle, in May, '90

[Material in pp. 65 seq. is] from John Michel StCyr, interpreter of Wisconsin Winnebagos, P.O. Wittenberg, Wis.
Shawn Co.: Febr. 22, 1890, in Washington,
Pennsylvania Avenue 207.

[inserted later:] was here again in April 1891 — Beveridge House.

His Indian name is hágaga: "third son of a family". He states that David StCyr's Indian name is Waxópini Skága: "White Frenchman", waxópini being spirit and French, aj.; skaga white.

waxópinixsi is Frenchman.

Houng=a=Chaw=Kee=Kee=Kah, "one who comes from the chiefs", signed the treaty made with the Winnegbagoes in 1825. Said to be 120 years old. Oldest man in the tribe and excellent to relate stories, legendary and mythological. Lives in Wittenberg, Wis. hunk=hačákirika, "he returned & saw the chief." (pl. húnkara)


Word Lists


Mammals

šúnk, pl. šúngra dog
    šúnk Jimga nihida      Jim's dog
     šúnk úči      dog house
     šúnk wánap'i      dog collar
šúnk čánk wolf, fox
     wašérekesi      fox (see coyote)
     šúnk tsánk hinúgia      she-fox, vixen
šúnk tsánk xóč (or šúnkšank xóč) gray wolf
šúnk xáte (also šúnk áte) horse
     šúnk xáte hinúgia      mare
     šúnk xáte skaská-iją      a white spotted horse
     šúnk [xáte] wánkia      stallion
ha skin, hide; untanned hide
     čéxčí ha      buffalo robe
hi, hina fur, hair of animals
     hičúk, híjuk      cat fur
hijúk wómenuke mouse
     womenuke      stealing
kųšké, pl. kųškéra beaver
síksinik squirrel
čá, čára deer
     čára worohára      many deer
čáši, pl. čašiínigra chipmunk
čé=xči buffalo, "original beef"
     čé      ox, cow
     čéha      buffalo robe, skin
     čéxčí ha      buffalo robe
wašiereké=zi coyote, fox (zí, yellow) (see fox )
     čášeža wašierekézi      coyote's neck
wašiíšik wild (animal) (see below )
wašičink rabbit
wakąką wild (see above )
wáke, waké raccoon
     wakére      excrements
wapį́ tame, domesticated
     pį́      good
waxąhí porcupine
     waxąhí hú      bristle of porcupine
wijúk cat
     hičúk      cat fur (see "mouse" above)
     wijúk hinúgir      tabby cat
     wijúk wánkia      tomcat
wičáwa panther
wičúk wamanuke mouse
wičúk xáte rat
xguxguše hog [pig]
     xguxguše hínuk      female hog [pig]
     xguxguše nígenik      little pigs
xók badger
zík squirrel


Birds

šororópke plover?
tútske, túčke dove
tútske wáwąke pigeon
     wáwąke      "cooing all the time"
          hm, hm           cooing sound of a pigeon
hék baldheaded eagle
héx swan
íčke, pl. íčkera      egg
kšó prairie chicken
mášu feather
páho hajára, [D:] pó hajaré bill of bird
     pára      nose
papáxkera chickens
sínč tail
     sínčra séreč      long tail
rúčke, David StCyr: tútske pigeon
sísike, pl. sisikera turkey
čáxšep eagle
čóxča blackbird, (—-) on horses, cows
čúek snipe
uíx, ųíx, wíx duck
wáhisa feathers
     áhu wáhis' ožužúgera      wing=feathers=fine
     hiza ozuzúgera      find down of birds
wánik bird
     wánik t'ą      "the bird flies"
     wánik ya-á t'ánkšana      "that bird flies"
     wánik gája nánka
     t'ánąkšana
     "those birds are flying"
wanik óma, (h)úma nest
wánik zózotske quail
wíja, pl. wíjana goose
wíčaska white goose
wux, pl. wúxra duck
xeté nišarak wren


Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles

hó, pl. hóra fish
     hoígisigikšera      let's go fishing
hówaka eel ("snake fish")
wakánaške frog
waką́, wák'ha, pl. wakána snake (cf. Sioux, wákan)
     kšéke      rattlesnake
          waką́zi, waką́si           rattlesnake
          kšéke neka žóx
          (= nákšena)
          "that rattlesnake is rattling"
          waką́péxra, péǧra           rattle of a snake
          péxra           rattle, rattle of a snake,
          something inside to rattle with
     nújake      water snake
     waką́ júsek, waką́ húnk
     ("king snake")
     garter snake
     waką́ sep      black snake
     waką́ sereč      bullsnake
     waką́ wóraxičke      blowsnake


Insects

louse
kírišuč bedbug
mímike butterfly
náwank mosquito
tátačke grasshopper
čákiriske flea
wakiri fly, insect, bug
wakíri híšek caterpillar ("hairy bug")
wóra titičke cricket


Plants

šé kísak half of an apple
šíxop, šį́xop onion
tó (see ) potato
haštek strawberry
hapunupúnuxke gooseberry
     hapunupúnuxke hú      gooseberry bush
has berry
hásep raspberry [prob. blackberry]
héxu cottonwood tree
hí warakana sweet corn
     hí      tooth
     warakana      dirty, filthy
hį́ške basswood
hónik bean
hónik póroporo pea
bush, plant
húju, pl. hújura oak, black oak, red oak
húč, húj, húnjra acorn
hųj, húnč bear
hunč=sínčra bear's tail
kánč híšik hu peach tree
kánč hú plum tree
kšé hu apple tree
     kšéra      an apple
mą́ka hú medicine plant
na, ną́, pl. nánąre tree, wood, piece of wood
     ną́ šíjop      cord of wood
     ną jéga wąkré      this tree is falling
          wąkré           it is falling
     ną jéga wąkré hikorohojéna      this tree is going to fall
     ną́na taxuną́kšana      the wood is burning (in field)
     ną́na tá-enąkšana      the wood burns (in a stove or
     in the lodge)
          péčra tá-ejena           the fire burns
          péčra ta-e nánkšana           many fires burn
     na níske      tree-like
     no kšákšap      split wood
ná akáratske limb of tree
ná áp, pl. ná apera leaf of tree
náha, ná=ha, na há bark of tree
náhoške box elder
na húij; ná-huj, na=žujra (last two from Michel StCyr) trunk of tree
ná isáwa top of tree
náži elderberry, elderberry bush
ná néju(na), ná réju root of tree
ną́xa log
ná xewetsésa one shrub or bush standing
názank hard maple
pąjá hickory nut
     pą́ja gú      hickory tree
páč woods, forest
páč ažúka heavy and dense timber
     ažúka      thick
rúxi, rúǧi willow
ráxge, raxk'é, pl. raxkera weeds (as sunflower, big weeds)
rúxi šútske (trúxi, David StCyr) kinnikinnick (cf. 'red')
seed
táne, táni tobacco
     tánina      tobacco (plural)
tánižu sugar
     skú      sweet
čáške gu white oak
čák walnut
     čágu      walnut tree
čáčani iron wood
tó sku (see and skú ) sweet potato
wáške poplar
wahú maize, corn, cornstalk
     óhabra háxi      the corn is ripe (archaic)
          óhabra           ear of corn
          háxi           ripe
     wahúra sérečinema      the corn is tall
     wóhap      ear of corn
          wóhap háč nákšana           I am eating corn while sitting
wakirikírik elm
wázi hu, wási(ta) pine tree
     was íkanak      pine cone
     wáziča      pine forest; also the name of
     Wisconsin.
wáxu pine tree
     wáx      pine board, pine wood
wesábu soft maple
wáskap, waiskap (wá-iskop) wheat, bread
     waiskap póroporo      wheat, lit. "round bread"
          póroporo           round (as grains, seeds)
     wáskap psópšoč      flour
wičás, wičáwas (see wahú ) corn
     wánkšik wičáwas      Indian corn
     wičás pókšakšap      hominy
     wičáwas, wičáwas-yą́      grain of corn
     wičáwas ho-iníge      maize, squaw corn, common
     corn. Not the best kind
     like American corn.
wičáwa pumpkin
wičáwa sáke watermelon ("raw pumpkin")
xátap bushes
xáwe wáxča flower ("pretty grass")
     xáwi wáxča né-e šúč šána      this flower is red
xáwi, xą́wi grass, growth
     xą́wi níske      grass-like
zízike turnip


Minerals, Metals and Coinage

hižúk ma lead
išúkmo lead
žúra money, dollar; metal?
žúra šúč copper
žúraska silver ("white money")
žúra zí gold, yellow money
mąs, más iron
mąsáke lead, metal ("raw earth")
más zí copper ("brown iron"); brass ("yellow iron")
nísku salt
     ní      water
     sku(ra)      sweet
pų́zake sand
ráxšuč, réx=šúč copper, lit. "pail=red"
wágax čó paper money ("green paper")


Astronomy

asákiluje total darkness ("cannot see")
hą́he night
hą́he wi(da) moon (lit., "night sun")
hą́he wíra čekokiti new moon (died before another moon came)
hámp wíta sun (lit., "day sun")
máxi(ra) sky, heaven
ukáwas darkness, "becoming dusk"
weček new moon
wi sun, moon, month
wí, wíta, wíra sun
wita gis full moon
wíra gitá akerána waning moon ("moon near its death")
wirágoške, pl. wirágockera star (cf. wíta )
wirágoške ho-ikáta shooting star
wíra itána sunset ("goes past")
wíra wirire sunset
wíra xep'huhána (wíra haxep, David StCyr) sunrise (lit., "sun is coming")


Meteorology, Weather

it freezes
     t'ára jaíjena      the lake is frozen
hą́p, hap day, light of day
hóhomp light, shine (cf. hámp)
kanagú icicle, icetag
ma-ita wind, to blow
     ną́ka ma-ita jéhigiwank šána      the tree fell, blown down by the wind
     čínaka maitajéhi gíwank šána      the wind put down that house
maitajéhi xéte hurricane
maxíwi cloud, clouded sky
maxíwi níge "piece of cloud" (lit., "cloud forming")
níju rain
     nijujána      it rains
núx ice, anything frozen
núxšibre large hail
     nuxšíbrajána      it hails
síni cold, as water
takáč, pl. takačiténa hot
snow
wakanjá thunder
     wakánasara k'onankšana      it is thundering
wakančajump lightning
     janjúmp nánkšena      it lightens (lit., "lightning travels")
wára snow in a body
     wa uhijána      it snows
wipámekere rainbow


Earth and Ground

hó-išuj muddy (šuj, red? cf. name of Missouri River)
ho-isáwą valley, cañon
hópase point of land
hosk, hoská prairie
má, mą́ earth ground
     Mą́hánina hosúčšana      My land is level.
     Mą́nina xé kiruškiškína.      My land is rolling.
     Mą́nina xé čuna.      My land is rocky, full of stones.
lands, country
máha mud
mąkáx earth, mud; dirt, dust
     cf. Mankato, nom. loc. of
     Dakota language
     "Blue Earth"
má toke wet land
má wus dry land
níš cliff, rock on a mountain
rókši deep (hole)
wawa-ája portage
     háwa-e, hawa-ą́      to carry on the shoulder
     -ája      prob. refers to something
     distant; cf. -eja, long past.
          ká-ija           there at a distance, there,
          out there (in the distance)
hill
hill
     xé hánkši hagéja      on a high hill
xá, xáte mountain


Waters

šáwe deep water
dá, tá lake, sheet of water, also bay
tá ja(na) ocean
tá xónonik pond (lit., "little lake")
hátuje to go across
kšenéna I am going to
má toke wet land
máxi sky
maxíwi clouded sky, cloud
     maxíwi ká-a      that cloud
     maxíwi níge      "piece of cloud"
     maxíwixiwi      cloudy
ní, nína, níra water, water in a body
     ní šánakra jákšena      the creek is frozen
     ni té-e sinína      this water is cold
     niéja      in the water
          niéja ną́jiwina           we stood in the water
     nína sininéna      waters are cold
     ní načkąjéna      I drink water
          načkąjéna           to drink (it)
     ní nó-e hátuje kčenéna      I am going to ford the river
     ní sine      cold water
     ní tatskána      I drink water
     ni té-e máščą sénina      this water is very cold
     ni té-e sini kajeréna      this water was cold
ní-šának(ra) river (not of the largest); creek
ní=skura salt water
ní xáte river (lit., "large creek or water")
ní xčí pure water
núx ice
čáx, pl. čáxra čúna swamp, morass (water there always)
wíč island
     wíčera kerepanó-ijan      ten islands


Geographical Names

Ho-ükšégeja name more frequently used for Green Bay, from:
     hó-ükšek      point, promontory; cf. hopáse
Hų́wahe nišánakra Elkhorn River, Nebraska
Išúkmo ó-įja Dubuque, Iowa. Lit. "lead place"; išúkmo lead, ó-įja, ho-ú-eja "where manufactured," néa úna I make, manufacture (Mo-ingenas? from this?)
Kunškonákeja, abbr. Kunškónak Chicago, from kųšké skunk; nąk to run, hónak, húnak he passes by there, along there, past, on opposite side. According to the etymological legend grown out of the name, somebody held the skunk and it ran off along the (Chicago) river — eja "long past."
Negáči ní=šanak Chippeway River, eastern affluent of Mississ. R., Wis.
Negáči xáwane Chippeway falls; "where the Ojibwe people are lost"
Ní šep Black River, Wis.
Ní šój, Ní šoč Missouri River; "muddy, roiled water," cf. hó-icuj.
     Nišoč naxámanina      Missouri River bridge
Ní kusa Mississippi River
Ní kusa xónonik Little Mississippi; also name for other rivers — Wisconsin River, Pikatonik River.
Ní máha, mehá Logan Creek, lit. "mud-river" (also name of a creek near Omaha), Cumi?ns and Thurston County, Nebraska.
Nióxawane, abbr. Nióxane Black River Falls, Jackson Co., Wis. runs into Missouri R. at Lacrosse; nióxane is the common term for waterfall, from xáwane it falls; niuxáne and niúšibre "fall of water."
Ní parásra Platte River. Cf., Omaha, Ní beçáthka, "Flat River."
Niutit'é local name for Omaha Creek.
Nuguás-eja "woman's breast"; Lacrosse, Wis. an image of that shape being found there once, -eja dual and plural suffix.
Ómaha činegra Omaha City
Táni hukéja "pipe where they dig it"; same locality as next entry
Táni huóruseča Pipe stone (county) Minn "where they go after the pipe; táni meaning tobacco.
Té čopija, abbr. Té čóp is the name of the site of Madison, Wis; "four lakes"
Té čúja, abbr. Té čú Green Bay; lit. "green lake"
Uxanigatsa "small rapid"; Marston, Wis.
Wasčínk čínak Rabbit village; falsely understood for Grand Rapids, Wis. Indian name.
Waziča "pine-forest," name for Wisconsin State
Zízike Ní=janak Turkey River, Iowa; sisike turkey.


Apparel

ha skin, hide, robe, blanket
     čáxčí ha      buffalo robe
híyakup pin ("toothpick")
wa-í, wá-ina blanket (Indian and [white] American)
     wa-í šušujią́      red spotted blanket
waíni clothing
     waíni hawąšána      I got clothes on
waípere cloth
wakúje, wákuče moccasin (from waxú ?)
     wakúje si=kerečkera      heel of boot or moccasin
     wákuč oínigera      pair of moccasins
     wakúje si rokóra      sole of a moccasin
wákuč hajá shoe
     wákuč ója      he has a shoe on
wí ruxuk needle
     pápox hánaga égi túxuk      I stick something in and pull it out
          pápox           string through
          hánaga           after
          túxuk           I pull out
     watúčak nákšana      I am sewing
wórutskus, wóručkus pocket
wónaže calico; shirt, thing worn
     wónažina      my shirt
wónaži=xáte coat, big shirt


Artifacts and Artisans

áxošok piece set on the top of a hatchet
šúnk úči doghouse
šúnk wánap'i dog collar
šunk-xáte (cunkáte) stall, stable, lit. "horse living in it"
hiraručkis scissors
     wátu čkis      I cut with scissors
homa=čí permanent house, winter-lodge
hóru cradle
kok'hóariš hoop
ini ukának stone-sling ("stone put inside")
máhi knife
máhi čaš'á pocket knife (t. from the noise made in shutting it)
     ná čaš' áhana      I made that noise of shutting a knife
mána arrow
mą́ns-ángre iron (for cloths)
     mą́ns-ángre tášut šána      the iron is red-hot
mas' áxocok hatchet
más'=hítoje a hammer
más nágu railroad, "iron road"
mas' xónonik hatchet
másra ax, iron
     másra čučux      a dull ax
más=ų́n blacksmith ("maker of iron")
mątskú(ra) bow
mą́tskuiká bowstring
ną=kišéri builder, carpenter (wood worker)
     kišéri      working
na=wáčank, na=wáčak, pl. na=wačagara fence, fort
     nawáčak čírup      fence-dow or -gate
     más nawáčak      wire fence
naxamóne bridge (lit., "walking on what is across")
nayáčkís saw (na, "tree, wood")
     napatskísahajána      I am sawing, while standing
     náyačkís xéte      big saw
     náyačkís xunúnik      hand saw ("little saw")
     nówakšap      saw mill
     nówaxčuk      saw dust
naxámani bridge
níwaja soap
páx 1) rattle
2) bottle
     páx sóxsox      rattling rattle, or "sounding rattle"
ráx pail
ráx=uča kettle, lit. "pail with legs"
čakan sinew
čeksų rope
čí, číra house
     očíra      his house
     očirána      their houses
wájra canoe, boat (plural?)
     wájera rohą́xawanína      many canoes were lost (as in a storm)
wakína string
wakína ščą́ strong rope
     ščą́      tough
warę´rę ball
wáruč table (see "food" )
wawagáx book
     Ma-una wawagáx hárina      Bible (God, book, belonging to)
waxú leather; from , skin; ha being untanned hide


Games

wakína kíruske the game of cat's cradle
     kíruske      take away
     wakína      string


Food and Drink

ší fat, aj. (men)
túč cooked
hikini grease, oil
íwus thirsty
kep fat (meat)
sáǧánac ní-šuj English red-water
sáke raw
čáwasni milk
čáwasni hikini butter
tó táwehi hungry
waískabra, waískap(ra) bread
waískap skopšuč flour
wakíni grease, fat
wáni meat
warújera food, victuals
wáruč to eat
warúč (1)food, eatables (see "table" )
(2) to nourish


People

arátske left-handed
šák old (persons, animals)
ši, šį́ fat (man), adj. said of butter, tallow, &c.
šišik, pl. šišikiréna bad
ščų́wa sleepy
šúnk=hamínagią́ a horse rider
hitánik lean
hitáje rich
íwus thirsty
mą́ščá wánk wowangierána very bad man
másčą strong (man)
o-irátsk ara left-armed
o-išóro, o-išúr right-armed
pášara bald
pin, pí, pl. pínena good (materially and morally)
sep dark complexioned
stúj warm, comfortable
čánik drunk
tó táwehi hungry
wášoce brave
wairíšuč coward
wažá čų owns much (rich)
wažínperes smart, wise
wamanukéža a thief
wanajoją́ske poor
wánk pį́že good man
wánk sáreč tall man
     sáreč, sárej      long
wánk wášoše a brave man
     wašošéna      his is brave
wánk wówangia bad man, harmful
wáresak active
wárut'e lazy (see below )
wáček young
wáxča pretty
wi pamą́kere newborn
wogížawa happy
wórušak lazy (see above )
wówank foolish
x'į́ wrinkle, wrinkled
zágre fast, fleet


Body Parts and Attributes

ai šáwagra elbow
ára arm
     arátskera      left arm
     o-išór ara      right arm
šágo xátera thumb ("large nail")
šak fingernail
šíbra guts (of men and animals)
toxíra,tóxira, tóxira throat (outside part of it)
hiščasúra the eyes
hítižą kíta, hidižan kíte one tooth
híksigra hip
hinážra, hínečra, hinéčera shoulder
híneč hušérekra shoulder blades
híra teeth
hóra, hórora flesh
howéxǫ to blow (mouth)
hušárek, (David StCyr:) hušárk bone
hupórora, hu porura knee
húporo hušógra knee-pan
húra leg
     ha-kiúš      I bend my knee
     hura hínubeke, hura hinúmike      both legs
húxara, úxara back
íhina, ihíra beard
     ihíra sáreč      boy beard
     wahokųjéta íhina      the beard of the preacher
mą́šča, maščá strong
ira mouth
mangrá, mánkra thorax, chest (both sexes)
náke hušáregra spine
nąkera upper part of the back
nątskára heart
     nątskára kičíčip      the heart is beating
nap, ną́pra hand
nap waísara finger
níap alive
níhara breathing tube
     niahána      the breath
          niáhanąkšą           I breathe,
          nią nakšána hahá           I breathe (David StCyr)
níxara stomach
nixára belly
     nixára hixetána      my belly is big
nuxújera temple
oišóra right, on the right side
óniha breath, the breathing
oračkátja left
pára forehead
píkana waist
píra liver
porora pan of knee
pų́sče upóxra nostril
     ópoxra      hole
ráxora, raxóra lungs
rúhira rib
     rúhira hánanč      all the ribs
si=kerétskera, si=kerečkera heel of foot
síra foot
     síra hinúbeke      both feet
si rokóra sole of foot
si waikizáta toes ("limbs of foot")
čašára, tsášera, čašéra, čášeža neck
t'é, pl. t'aiténa dead
wahúrukop marrow
wa-íra blood
     wa-í xúna      I am bleeding
     wá-i áxu      blood running off
     wa-íta šuč, wa-í šuj      red blood
     wa-ida šučína      the blood is red
     wa-íta šáp      dark blood
     wá-ita šáp čin      the blood is very black
waísara limb, extremity
wamą́šča stout, powerful
wankšigo-ina life
wásra mama udder
     wásne      milk
wináhara oesophogus, inside of the throat
xúra skin
     xúra (h)išókana      my skin is thick
          hi-           my


Disabilities

hišta'hník blind
húšiš lame
inik mute
núknik deaf
wanaxiówank crazy, rattlebrained
wárakana dirty (of people, things)
xónonek small


Nations, Tribes, and Ethnic Groups

Šáha Sioux
huská-ija, huskáči people living on the prairie, plains (hoská, prairie)
Kąką, pl. Kánkana the Ponkas.
Kaxida (for Káx=kida) one Menomonee
     Kax-ónihe      Menomonee tribe
          ónihe           "relation"
máhi xetá white man, "Big-Knife"
Mankato "blue earth"; Mankato City — name taken from the Sioux language
Ómaha the Omahas.
Pani Pawnee
Páčuka Comanches (from Pentéthka?)
Négači Ojibwe; N. je, one Ojibwe man.
Ní šuj ačí The Nebraska Winnebagos; lit. "residing along Missouri River"
Niut'ači, Niut'atí (Dorsey) Missouri Indians, name founded on a legend, "dying in the water," Niudit'é "being drowned in the water" nom loc of Omaha Creek.
     Nutöča      the Missouri Inds call themselves (Mooney)
Sági the Sac tribe, also Foxes, on account of their long association with them.
wank ská white man
Wačúkšaja, pl. Wačúkšažara an Osage
waxopíni white man, person [ nt ]
     Waxopíniskága      Hočąk name of David StCyr, Gatschet's informant
     waxopíniskága      white, Yankee, German, etc.
          pí           good
          xopíni           man?
     waxopíni wí      white woman
Woraxíža one Potawatomi
     Wóraxe      Potawatomi tribe; probably stands for "Miami" also.
xopíni sep negro [see Foster ]


The Hočągara (Winnebago)

Hóčank íwa, or (h)ínuk Winnebago woman
Hóčank wánk Winnebago man
Hóčank wa-únank, or wángara (many) Winnebago men

Of Winnebago Indians there are about 1400 in Nebraska, 1100 in Wisconsin, mainly pure-bloods.


Clans & Moieties

The gentes of the Winnebagos are divided into two great classes:

a. those on earth, low; fish belong to this also

    mą́ku úmigra, (anything) under the earth. waxópini waráčiti mąku hą́ja, lit. "spirit, miraculous naming earth underneath."

b. those of animals in the air

híkikarač clan
     (bear phratry)      bear (grizzly, white bear)
     (dog phratry)      wolf, dog, coyote
     waką́ híkikarač      snake phratry
     wánik hikíkarač      bird phratry; contains eagle, bird, thunder, lightning, sky, and more.

They follow the mother in their succession, and inherit of her.

The following material comes from John Michel StCyr, the previous informant's father.

hų́č hikíkarač bear clan
wánik hikíkarač bird clan; "chiefs" of royal blood.
hų́wa hikíkarač elk clan
hų́wesa hikíkarač moose clan
šúnk hikíkarač dog clan
thunder hikíkarač also of "royal" blood; belonging to the object above the earth, "upper division".

Totem-clans named after animals and things upon or below the earth's surface are of the 'lower' division, ... they belong to the military division (Michel). The Winnebagoes have some more clans than the above.


Kinship and Family

šágeraga your parents
šák parent
hínigra his son
híni hara (híni háxtsi) my brother; my brother, older than I am (man speaking)
hinik húra my son (used by m. & fem.)
hínu hara my sister, older than I (man or woman speaking)
hínuk nik (nek) a female birth, baby-girl
     niki, ník, pl. nígra      young
hínukra rókana many women
hí suk'hara (or sų́k'hara) (hísunk háxtsi) my brother younger than I am; all brothers younger than I am (man or woman speaking)
hičíto hara my brother, older than I am (woman speaking)
hičúnk hara (hičank haxtsi) my sister (woman speaking)
hiuníhata my mother
hočinčí nik boy; baby-boy, male birth
náni mother
     nánige, nániga      my mother
ník čąk hóru nik baby in the cradle
     hóru      cradle
nik čánknik, čą́knik child
nik čą́knikra rókana, róhą many children
waičké hara (waičxé haxtsi) my sister, younger than I (man speaking)


Naming Conventions

Children are named after the order in which they were born, and for the subjective case -aga or -ga is appended to the name:

First born son: kúno; subj. case kúnoga
2d born son: hána; subj. case hánaga
3d born son: hága; subj. case hágaga
4th born son: nági; subj. case nágiga
5th born son: náǧi kúnuga;

From here the 3d, 4th, 5th are repeated.

First born girl: hínu; subj. case hínuga
2d born girl: wíha; subj. case wíhąga
3d born girl: áksiga subj. case aksiága
4th born girl: hinaká; subj. case hinakága
5th born girl: aksigáxunu; subj. case aksigáxunuga

Then repeated from the third onward!


Personal Names

Cúnkčanka Male Wolf, a personal name
Cúnkčankiwingá Female Wolf, a personal name


Medicine

mąkáni medicine-man, doctoring
wánk tóšewe medicine-man. Also female doctors who give medicine; the men diagnostrate, tell dreams, blow water over you, sing, rattle, make rain by getting power from the thunders.
wą́čowe Indian doctor
     wą́čowe ženána      he is an Indian doctor
     tóšewe      an archaic word


Religion

Má una God, "maker of earth"
maxí wange'ja heaven, sky ("sky above")
náǧidak 1) dead man's spirit
2) soul
3) shadow
4) man's reflection in the water
narírak, naxírak (1) soul of men; spirit of the deceased.
Soul departs 4 days after death
(2) shadow
wahokųžéta the preacher's
wakanjá thunders
     hą́ke hojámp      sheet lightning
     hojámp      lightning
wákąčúnk mysterious (as thaumaturgs); holy? cf. Dakota tánka
wakánčank those doing mysteries cf. Dakota wákan-tánka
Wakšą́kaga the culture hero of the Winnebagos — comical character, like Gluskap, Nanabozho.
wakšexí water-monster, a spirit (?) gives power to people after they have been fasting.
wapawinákšena I am thinking
(wa)xopíni žižík [šišik] devil, spirit-bad, evil
waxopíni žižíkája Hell ("at the devil's")
wíwewina mind, intelligence, thought


Time

š'ak old
     wánšik žágra      old people
haíni morning
haínige, haínigi tomorrow
hámp kísak midday, noon ("half of day")
hámpte-e (hám-te-e) today
hikwánka sometime
hikwánka čówerege in the future
hokisak middle of the month
     kísak kíra      half
hoxtánanig evening
hozána, hozéna last of the month
ískeča everlasting
mąn year
máni winter
máni hinži húwire the last year
mánine last winter
sí teja long ago
skeča everlasting
čáni fall
čáne tá-e this fall
čánina last fall
čák, čék first of the month
ček new
čówerege ahead of time
tók, tóg, tók summer
tók táe this summer
tókre last summer
wána spring
wána tá-e this spring
wánina last spring
wačék young
month, moon, sun
xčánane yesterday


Directions

áškenik near
hári far
ho-išóro right, right-handed
ho-irátske left
wasírigi húhira north
we howáškuneja south
we hoirára west
     wi hoirája hurijána      the wind blows from the west
weaxep' húra east


Shapes, Patterns, Textures, Surfaces

ščą́ hard
hašák hard
hosúčšana level
jípnik short
jóga thick
kšák crooked
ksis hard (rope tied hard)
páras wide
peránik thin
róča straight
sárej long
súpnik narrow
činak appearing, visible (?)
xárek coarse, rough
xé kiruškiškína rolling (terrain)
x'į́ wrinkle, wrinkled


Colors

šúč, pl. šučiténa red
     šúča hánakšena      I paint, make red
     šúšuč      red in spots
     šúč raták      dark red
tákinš painted, branded
hókawas dark
žáp not quite black, pinto?
     žážep      not quite black in spots
ží not quite red, pink
     žíži      pink in spots
kárekáreč spotted in color (3 or 4 colors); having lines, striped, as shirts. [StCyr] says (1) and (2) are not different in reality.
sep, pl. sépra black
     hiščára séba      I blacken my face
     sésep      black in places
ská, pl. skára white
     skáska      white spotted
čó green
     čóčo      green in spots
čóxoč, pl. čoxočiténa blue (xoč, gray)
wakákax written over
xí, rí yellow, the color of plums going into brown, of somebody's eyes
xóč gray
     xóč nánka      gray these (pl. of "gray")
zí, pl. ziréna yellow or brown
     zízi      yellow in spots


Numerals

že-é, že, žekére one
núp two
táni three
čóp four
sáča five
hakéwe six
žakoi seven
háruwank eight
hižakúčuškone nine
kerepanaíša ten
kerepana nup twenty
kerepana šákowe seventy
okihíža one hundred
hokí-ihi, okíhi xatéža one thousand


Quantity

hánąč, hánanč, haną́č all
hinké wažá nothing
hírera everybody's, of all
híske some
mána empty
nánka others
nášana only myself
nóhan, róhan many
pónank every, each
rokáni without
čų́ much
     čų xčín      too much
wažá something
wažą́ anánč everything
watágnik scarce, few
xáte, pl. xatéra (also, xéte?) great, big
xununik small, little
zánega enough


Miscellaneous

jújux dull (knife)
hą́ha-ą, hą-a-ą yes!
hajá to see
hį́ke no, not
hį́ke wážą nothing, none
hičá to laugh
Hičóke Hírera Our Great Father, the President
hit'été to speak
ka, hánka, hínka-a no!
kísra war, fight, battle
     wakisaha-ajána      I am fighting
mą́žčą loud
nákwą to sing
nų́nak to run; to dodge
pínkuna he fixed it himself
ráxirik old (things)
ská clean (house, table, &c.; not water)
t'éhi to kill
wáte the work
wáre to work
xak to weep

Grammar


Objective Conjugation

Subj Object: 1 sg Object: 1 pl
1 sg
2 sg t'á hinarajána you are killing me t'á narajána you are killing us
3 sg t'á winjána he, she is killing me t'á wankya jáwina he, she is killing us

Subj Object: 2 sg Object: 2 pl
1 sg t'á nihajána I am killing you t'á ją́wina I am killing you
2 sg
3 sg t'á ninjána he, she is killing you t'á nyą jąwina he, she is killing you
1 pl ne t'eni hająwina we are killing you

Subj Object: 3 sg Object: 3 pl
1 sg t'á hajána I am killing him, her t'á wahájena I am killing them
2 sg t'á rarajána you are killing him, her t'á wararajána you are killing them
3 sg t'á hijána he, she is killing him, her t'á wahijána he, she is killing them


Present Tense

1 sg wat'e hajéna I kill
2 sg wat'érarajena thou kill
3 sg wat'ehíjena he kills
1 pl hiwat'eyajéna we kill
2 pl wat'erárajéna you kill
3 pl wat'éhinankšana they kill

to kill many things:

1 sg t'éwahajéna I kill many things
2 sg t'ewararjéna thou kill many things
3 sg t'ewahíjena he kills many things
1 pl t'ewahačą́wina we kill many things
2 pl t'ewararają́wina you kill many things
3 pl t'ewahiną́kšana they kill many things


Past Tense

1 sg t'ehana I killed one
2 sg t'éhina thou killed one
3 sg t'éhickune he killed one
1 pl t'eháwina we killed one
2 pl t'érawina you killed one
3 pl t'eráwina they killed one

1 sg ha-wažare I made ha-uncununa I do make (customary action)

1 sg hatáxčak žáre I did bite 1 pl hį́naxčak wížare we did bite
2 sg hašáraxčak járe you did bite 2 pl hašáraxčak wížare you did bite
3 sg háraxčak žáre he, she, it did bite 3 pl háraxčak wížare they did bite


Pluperfect

1 sg hatáxčak kinína I had bitten 1 pl hį́naxčak wínkinina we had bitten
2 sg hašáraxčak kinína you had bitten 2 pl hašáraxčak wínkinina you had bitten
3 sg háraxčak kinína he, she, it had bitten 3 pl háraxčak wínkinina they had bitten
háraxčak hirakinína they had bitten him


Subjunctive

1 sg hatáxčak škúnina I may bite 1 pl hį́naxčak wiškunína we may bite
2 sg hašáraxčak škúnina you may bite 2 pl hašáraxčak wiškunína you may bite
3 sg háraxčak škúnina he, she, it may bite 3 pl háraxčak hireškúnina they may bite
hihéškunína I may say
hihanána I can say
hihékšégi hihánan I would say
hų́kų čašgégi hátaxčak gikšinéna I must bite him

1 sg wapagaxnána I can bite wapagaxškúnina I could bite (if I wanted to)
2 sg wašawagaxnána you can bite, etc.


Future Tense

1 sg t'ehákčinena I shall kill one thing
1 sg t'ewahakčinena I shall kill many things


Present Participle

hátaxčak nákšena biting
minaknákšena sitting


The Verb "to be"

ną́guta cíšikšena the road is bad
ną́gura cíšika teréna the road was bad
ną́gura cíšikgi kčinéna the road will be bad


The Verb "to have"

1 sg hanína I have 1 pl haniwíra we have
2 sg hašinína you have 2 pl hašiníwina you have
3 sg hanína he, she has 3 pl haninéna they have
     ho činčíngeda sáčą hanína      I have five boys
hanigajeréna I had
hanikjinéna I shall have



Verbs and Forms Derived from Verbs

1 hižą́ t'ehána I kill somebody
2 t'e wínena I am killed
3 t'eakína I kill myself
4 t'eakiwína we kill each other
5 wat'ehiháną I cause to kill
6 wat'éhijera a killer
7 wą́k t'ehirera a killed man
8 wat'éhige because he killed
9 ho t'éhira, -hita the killing of

1 hijá hátaxčak I bite somebody
2 hinaxčak hiténa I am bitten by somebody
3 hakitáxčak I bite myself
4 hakitaxčak wína we bite each other
4.5 ne hakitaxčakwína we bite ourselves
5 háraxčak haigíra I cause to bite
6 wátaxčak kajéra a biting man

1 ha-ipsínč hajéna I thrash, whip
2 hingi psinč hiténa I am whipped
3 hakipsínč šána I whip myself
4 hakípsínč wíra we whip each other
5 gipsínč hána I make him whip
6 wá-ipsinč kajéra a whipper
7 gipsinč hirajera a man whipped

4 hinkíkisa we fight each other
5 wakisa haną I cause to fight
6 wakísake a fighter


Verbs with Qualifiers of Situation

ná žią jéra I am standing
     naži nárkšaną      plural: they are standing
wánk nažijéga a standing man
miánek ną́kšena I am sitting
     mínak ną́kšeną      plural form
wánk minágneka a sitting man
hámik mánkšena I am lying down
     mínk nánkšeną      plural form
wánk mingánka a man lying down
hánekmúkšena I am running
     nánk nánkšena      dual and plural form

rušíš to break
haišíšéna I break something by hitting, striking, pounding, with hand or something else
nášišena I break with the foot, standing
pášišena I break by sitting (leaning?) or by bending
haigasána I burst something by pushing through with arm or hand
turíčana I bend something
wakújena he bends over (himself) standing
     wakú      act of bending over

wámąšip nákšena he cuts with a knife sitting down
wačkís to cut with a saw
ną́ watskís jéna to saw wood standing
ną́ patskísa hajéna I saw wood standing with both hands, in one hand by pulling

wakisajéna I fight standing
hižą́ hakisájin I fight somebody standing


"Prepositions" & Related Words

hašána over, added to
íni neka hikísųč near the stone
íni nanka hórugex around the stone
íni hihágeja upon, on the top of, the stone
íni kų́ha under the stone (neka not needed)
íni negá wángeja over, above that stone
íni čó-eja in front of, before, the stone
íni neká hágeja behind that (not the) stone
íni áke'ake on both sides of the stone
íni rókeja inside the stone
íni hihágeja outside the stone
ínio keságeja in the center of the stone
íni uinánga by means of a stone
íni rokáni without a stone
ínija wa-ųkájini on account of a stone
íni naka hánąč the whole stone
íni naka ponąk´ the whole stone
ínina haną́či all the stones
     hánąš, haną́č      all
ínina pónank every, each stone
ínina čų́škune no stone
ínina čųškúnina there is no stone
ínina čún many stones
     nóhan, róhan      many
ínina watágnik few stones
ínina híske some stones
ínina hijane nágeda the other stone
íni skingráža a heavy stone
íni skingrára heavy stones
íni hahángią́ a light stone
íni hahánigra light stones
íni hasánase a smooth stone
íni hasánasra smooth stones
íni xáregią́ a rough stone
íni xáregra rough stones
íni gísyą a round stone
íni gísra round stones
íni párazyą a flat stone
íni párasra flat stones
íni parapárajią a square stone
íni parapárajra square stones
wángregi above


Imperatives

aho! imperat., let us (do, go! etc.)

Niéja hoigisigikčera! Let us fish in the river!


Indexicals

-ba these
-ga these
gá-a, pl. kója, kája that
-ka that
     ną́ka      that tree
     číka      that house
ka makes naka, ną́ka in the plural
     xą́wi=wáxča huskaíja nánka      these flowers on the prairie
     ník čágenik nángere      these children
ka over there
-ra these
-ri these
te right here
té-e, tä-ä, pl. etétena this
     ník čágenik té-e      this child
wánik má-e this bird
wánik tá-e this bird
wánik tiną́kre these birds
wánigeka ahúta the wing of that bird
wánigenaka ahúta the wings of those birds


Indirect Objects

Wažéža honitį́na. I give something to you.
Wažéža wa kų́na. I give something to him.
Wažána hiža wogáre. You give something to them.


Pronouns:

I; thou (you)
e he, she; they
néwa we
niénine you (sg. or pl.?)
woníno háwina many of you


Possessive Pronouns:

hupórora hintekšána my knee is sore
hupórora tékšana his, her knee is sore
hupórora nitékšana your knee is sore
hupórora hintekwína our knees are sore
hupórora nitekwín(a) your knees are sore
hupórora tek'hiténa, tek'hiréna their knees are sore

(1) belonging to the subject (alienable property), animals owned.

Singular
šúnk níhara my dog
šúnk nínaga your dog
šúnk níhira his, her dog
Plural
šúnk nihíwida our dog
šúnk nínawiga your dog
šúnk nihítera, nihírera their dog

Singular
šúnk ká-a ne nihána that dog is mine
šúnk ká ne ninána that dog is thine
šúnk ka-a e nihína that dog is his, hers
Plural
šúnk ka ne niháwina that dog is ours
šúnk ka-a ne nináwina that dog is yours
šúnk ká-a e nihiténa that dog is theirs

The plural of subject-noun of No 1 is inflected as follows:

Singular
šúnk níwahara my dogs
šúnk níwaraga your dogs
šúnk níwahira his, her dogs
Plural
šúnk niwahíwira our dogs
šúnk niwaráwiga your dogs
šúnk niwahítera their dogs

Singular
šúnk ká-a ne níwahana these dogs are mine
šúnk ká-a ne níwarana these dogs are yours
šúnk ká-a e niwahína these dogs are his, hers
Plural
šúnk ká-a ne niwaháwina these dogs are ours
šúnk ká-a ne niwarawina these dogs are yours
šúnk ká-a e niwahirina these dogs are theirs

(2) referring to inanimate objects, to parts of the human or animal body, one's children, etc.

Singular
ną́pą hánina my basket
ną́pą hacínina your basket
ną́pą e-anína his, her basket
Plural
ną́pą haníwina our basket (not baskets)
ną́pą haciníwina your basket
ną́pą hanínera their basket

Singular
ną́pą te (te-é) niánina this basket is mine
ną́pą té-e nia cinína this basket is thine
ną́pą té-e e hanína this basket is his, hers
Plural
ną́pą té-e ne haníwira this basket is ours
ną́pą té-e ne haciniwina this basket is yours
ną́pą té-e e hanínena this basket is theirs

Singular
ną́pą wánina my baskets
ną́pą wašínina your baskets
ną́pą wanína his, her baskets
Plural
ną́pą wániwina our baskets
ną́pą wašiníwina your baskets
ną́pą wanínera their baskets

Singular
ną́pą té-e ne wánina these baskets are mine
ną́pą té-e ne wašinira these baskets are yours
ną́pą té-e e wanína these baskets are his, hers
Plural
ną́pą té-e ne hiwániwina these baskets are ours
ną́pą té-e ne wašiniwina these baskets are yours
ną́pą té-e e waninéna these baskets are theirs

(3) Relationships:

Singular/Singular
tékaka my uncle
hitékraga your uncle
hitégra his uncle
Plural/Singular
hiték hihíwita our uncle
hiték ráwiga your uncle
hiték hirera their uncle
Singular/Plural
hiték wáhara my uncles
hiték wáraga your uncles
hiték wáhira his uncles
Plural/Plural
hiték hįwahiwira our uncles
hiték waráwiga your uncles
hiték wahírera their uncles

Singular
ká-a ne ték'han that is my uncle
ká-a ne tégran that is your uncle
ká-a e tek'hína that is his, her uncle
Plural
ká-a nei tek háwina that is our uncle
ká-a nei tek ráwina that is your uncle
ká-a ei tek hirena that is their uncle

Singular
ká-a nei tek wahára those are my uncles
ká-a ne (nei) tek warána those are your uncles
ká-a ei tek wahína those are his, her uncles
Plural
ká-a nei tek hiwahíwina those are our uncles
ká-a nei tek warawína those are your uncles
ká-a ei tek wáhirena those are their uncles


Comparatives

rajéna than
nisérečána you are tall
ne niseréč rajéna you are taller than he
nišána niséreč šána you are the tallest


Interjections and Exclamations

kóra! say! (used by men; calling somebody's attention)
nikate! say! (used by women)


Interrogative Sentences

Hačínža šánakše? Where are you (sitting)?
Hačínža hówa šéreže? Where are you going?
Péže? Who?
Péže éja haščaže? Whom did you see over there?
Péže héteže? Who is he?
Péže heréreže? Who are they?
Péže horakíteze? To whom did you speak?
Péže níneže? Who are you? (sg)
Péže ninewize? Who are you? (pl)
Péže warakeže? Of whom did you speak?
Péže wíneže? Who am I?
Péže winéwiže? Who are we?
Šúnk=xate hačínža čéga hamižánakše? Which (of the many) horses did you ride?
Šúnk=xate čagúža hamižánakše? What horse (not seen) did you ride?
Čáku hižéže? What did you say?
     Hí´ke wažą́ hihánina.      I said nothing.
Čakúže warakéže? Of what things did you speak?
Čáku ní-uže? What is the matter with you?
     Hita hinték mákšena.      I have a toothache (lying).
Čáku-ų hišą́waxše? Why do you ask?
Wokónegra hačínža hingigínakše? Where is my hat (sitting, hanging)?
Wónaži=xáte té-e péže hániže? Whose coat is this?

Čáska kíske?
How much alike?
What is the price?

Žúrara čánega wicurų́že?
Money how much did you spend?
How much money did you spend?

Mą́ čánaha rániže?
Years how many are you?
How old are you?

Mą́ kérepaną jóp hánega tani ášena.
Years ten four and three over.
(I am) 43 years old.

Wókonak horakánek rajéga péže hániže?
Hat you have on is that who owns it?
Whose hat have you on?

Čájiga hanína.
[It is] my father's.

Šúnk čéra ną́wačagera hat'ámpšana.
Dog the the fence jumped over (or through).
The dog jumped over the fence.

Papáxkera čánega šuruwiže?
Chickens how many did you buy?
How many chickens did you buy?

hagéja nąžiwína.
We stand on a hill.


Sample Sentences

See the Hočąk-English Interlinear Text, The Markings on the Moon, Version 2

Wánk gá-a wámąnökéža hedeže airéna.
Man that thief he is they say.
They say that that man is a thief.

Hopáža hajanúnge tánana
I am sick although I can go
Although I am sick, I can go.

Nížu čanúnge hínke wánga toke niktehi wina na
It rains although not we wet not get
Although it rains, we do not get wet.

Watuyą išéna.
I buy something.

Kereponé-iža xáwani hána.
Ten lost I
I lost ten (dollars).

Hóčinčénik nánka naíža hotínankšana.
Boys these a tree climb.
These boys are climbing a tree.

Hóčinčénik nánka t'ámb=nánkšena.
Boys these are coming down.
These boys are coming down.

Wónažina niéja wákanakšena égi níwaža hituzána.
My shirt in the water I put into and soap washed with.
I put my shirt into water and washed it with soap.

Hį́ke máhi wážą wóručkus wát'ump niąjéna.
No knife something pocket I have not got.
I have no knife in my pocket.

Hížą šúnk=xátera má-ikinųgi wamanukéža wa=ų́na.
Someone horse took, stole from me thief he was.
The one who stole my horse is a thief.

Hi-ų́nč hihíwita wángregi náxgre.
Father our above the one who is.
Our Father who art in heaven.

Comparative Material


Comparative Material

/t/ of Dakota changes into /č/ in Winnebago. tánka great, large: čank, čunk in šúnkšank wolf; Hóčank tribal name of a Winnegago; nawáčank, -čank, a fort, fortification; wakán-čank: performers of mysteries.

ti, pl. & sg. típi house, Osage, Winn. čí. činegra, city (cí nánkara, reportedly from čínegra, refers to the shape of the buildings. Dorsey); šúnkúči, doghouse.

ho: voice & speech, language, Dak. ho, voice; iⁿ-ape tokáheiya, old, archaic speech or language. Hočánk is those of the archaic speech. (contr. tokáya). hó-a of the spoken wá, /w/ Winnebago (/h/ is weakly pronounced there). Dorsey. Compare the connection between huá, Aztec great, large, and huehue, wáwe, old.

Rev. Wm. Hamilton in his Iowa Grammar, 1848, says: "The Winnebagoes are called Hó-taŋka, "big voices", in Dakota; Hú=tañga in Ponka.

In many languages thousand is the great or old hundred. Atsúli, old, aged, ancestor, in Creek; adsulaíji, old, elderly. Lg. 10, 38, 'most ancient' stands here for "bravest", "most respected" (náknosi hičiti) — an analogous association of ideas; virtue from vir, male. Lg. II, 163. One hundred in Tuskaróra is kayasti (ka- it, yast, stem meaning person, the body (both sexes), -i full, complete); one thousand is there: (eñči, numeral one, u- gender sign, neuter, yaste stem for person): eñči uháste in Tuskarora. In 100 & 1000, Tusk. differs from all other N. York Iroq. dialects.


Notes


Notes by Richard L. Dieterle

"waxopíni" — literally, "spirit," as could be appreciated from Gatschet's earlier mention of (wa)xop'íni žižík, "bad spirits." Xop denotes a certain frenetic supernatural power. The first element wa- probably comes from waką, "holy." Originally, the spirits were "those who possessed the holiest xop power. The that was added means "good," showing that the word once designated good spirits. However, it soon came to be broadened to include certain spirits that were generally deemed bad, or at least morally ambiguous, so the term for spirits generally became waxop'íni. A similar process can be seen in Indo-European by comparing the Old Icelandic Æsir, "the supreme gods," with its Sanskrit cognate Asura, "demons, gods of evil."

The Hočągara first encountered the French in 1634, when Nicollet landed near Red Banks. Nicollet thought he might in fact find some Chinese in these regions, and so dressed appropriately by donning Chinese robes. When he landed he fired his two flint-lock pistols, creating panic among the women and children, who fled into the forest. The warriors held their ground, one even walking up to him and putting tobacco on his forehead as a sign of worship. The discharge of his guns and his bizarre dress created the impression with this warrior and no doubt generally, they he was a Thunderbird come to earth. It is apparently for this reason that the French were called waxop'íni-ga, "Spirit People."


Source

Albert Samuel Gatschet, Linguistic and Ethnological Material on the Winnebago, Manuscript 1989-a (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, 1889, 1890-1891) 1 - 104.

Informants: Reuben David St. Cyr (b. 1864), and his father, John Michael St. Cyr.

Reproduced with the permission of the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. However, the contents are in the public domain and may be freely copied, distributed, and published.