The Markings on the Moon (Version 2)
narrated by Reuben David St. Cyr

Interlinear Hočąk-English Text
by Albert Samuel Gatschet

Reproduced with the kind permission of the
National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution


English Translation


Note: Gatschet's [l] has been changed to the standard [r]. Question marks in parentheses, sic (?), are those of Gatschet, all others mark uncertain readings.


 

p. 16 —
Žégi čiporukéža ną́kškone égi wą́kya (-ya a) hičáwina hakaraíkiči nákškuni.
Once upon a time round tent, lodge grass tent there (it) was and a man (and) his wife living with there they were.

 


 

Nų́piwi hínuk híriškuni, égi hą́pka wą́k čéga wažónina ų́je sážkuni.
Two (were) daughters theirs and daily man that hunted he did all the time, then.

 


 

Hagóreža hínuknik ną́ka xetériškuni, éki hą́pka hątáginač ną́kthaškúniže.
After this, hereupon girls these became older then daily they fasting they were in the habit of.

 




Hakóreša xúnuna weškúniže Wáxoxge -Hišóga hihántaše éškuni. Xetéra híške
At once younger (smaller) said so: "Shell Spit(ter) I dreamt of him," she said. The other one she too

 


 

p. 17 —
hihántaše éškuni; égi hakǫ́reša wakúje ųéškune kíkų hiháneǧa níke
dreamt of him she said, and at once moccasins to be supplied (?) they made for themselves; after this somewhere

 


 

hówa harahitéškune or: haraíreškune. Égi akóreža wą́hirégają nixéteja
they travelled, I have and/or they are gone (they might have gone) and hereupon while they went there a big body of water

 


 

há-uji činak, hitéškuni; égi minak hitánaǧa wóru -xuts nánk škúni;
they came on to the village, he (male) said and they sat down after that, looked around and sitting there (watching)

 


 

té-e té nąjeja hižą́ hówe wájowe ųješkúni. Égi Šią́gega wa-ųješkuni.
this in midst of lake some-
body
going around in a boat (dugout) there he was (Šiąg.) And Šią́gega it was him!

 


 

"Hįgiwankjéta," áwišguni, égi giwaínišguni gíwa hitánųge hínke wánaxkų
"Let us halloo at him," they said, and they hallooed at him they hallooed [untrs.] not he did hear them,

 


 

kíkųni škuni -že. Hagóreža hiskéxči hinke wanaxkų́nigi waíreškúni;
he made out, simulated he did not hear this. Hereupon surely not he did not hear them they said;

 


 

p. 18 —
Waxóxkehíšoga čą́ hingekčéna. Žíge gíwa hitéškuni: "Waxóxke híšora, hįkanek
Spit-Shell instead (of Š.) let us call by names Again call him they did Spit -Shell, to cross us

 


 

wákuruwáwax háreǧa wá-ižuškuni. Égi číškun hijómínank hitéškuni, hungú
broken from his ear after he had took them in his mouth. And he came they got into (the dugout) [they did], pretty soon

 


 

hitárexčí káją́ šóškų́ni, šógają waxóxke híšo škúni, hinúknanka
afterwards he spit, when he spit shells he spit with, the girls

 


 

wákiko-ik hitéškuni. Égi uníneki híkoro-ke-nik-ra hočéja wačókeregíškuni.
tried to seize them away from (the other girl). And they landed his grandmother her house to take them there.

 


 

Mínank nánkškúni hoxčanągają́. hižá ną́nk-hajíškune ho-ithiánaga
They sat down (girls, subj.) in the evening somebody running-came he looked, peeped into

 


 

p. 19 —
wéškųnižé Šiągénigra Waxóxgešoga šo-iko: ikorohóge warawékče ánankšána.
he came and said Šiągénigra Spit-Shell spit going to, gets ready to you come to pound in a mortar they are saying

 


 

Hinke wágixap-níškuni hungų́ žike jiháneǧa žíge eškúni; hinké hínigi
[not] answer, respond (not) somebody, a messenger from the chief's tent again (he) came again and said: when he did not come

 


 

wá-i-reškúni; Waxóxkešora rašókče ánankšana čą́ hikáwide; égi žigé jíškúni
they said; Spit-Shell you to spit they want they say instead (of pounding) they are saying; and again he (messenger) came

 


 

jiáneǧa Waxóxkešora rašókče ánankšana éškuni ho! eškuni, réškuni;
he came Spit-Shell they want you to spit they are saying all right, he says, he went, made a move to go

 


 

hígatsą číra hó-ixčiankškúniže. Égi hirégiži hínunknankre nųxana híjowaréškuni.
when he went to the lodge (it was) full (of people) there, they say. And when he went the girls snuck and went there.

 


 

Ną́xawa háhi hó-ithį hitéškuni, té-e hikána hírera wawéra ų́xčį ną́kskune.
They peeped in go and peeping surrepti-
tiously
(did so) [this] their husbands (of the girls) pounding away sitting.

 


 

p. 20 —
Čí hokiságiča wánk skaxčínža minąknakškúne, Wexoxkéšuga wá-ų nákųne
Of the lodge in the center man white altogether (awful) sitting down, seated Spit-Shell "it must be he," (Shell-Spitter) sitting

 


 

aireškúne; hirarexčįkają́ šoškúne, žékų waxóxkata rókana híšoškúne, waxóxke
they said pretty soon after (they saw him) he spit, and shells many, lots of he spit with, for the shells

 


 

háki -kó-ikra ų́xtsįhitéškune híkana hírera ų́xtsį núnige híža -kítanik hó-eškúni.
they (everybody in the tent) grabbed all were in a hurry their husband (one for both) he was in a hurry one (shell) only (from the whole lot) he obtained.

 


 

Égi hinų́-knąka hákarareškúni. Ną́ rírikra nųpíwi hánią kihitą́ga
Then (both) girls returned to (the tent) whence they came from (Pieces of) wood decomposed, rotten two there were they took back with them (to the tent)

 


 

hómikaki áke wátump híteškuni; žékų hiráneǧa hákča hákarairéškuni.
of the bed on both sides they put them; when, after (?) they did so back, returning they went (dual).

 


 

p. 21 —
Hakóreža Waxoxkéšoga šóra, rúžtągi wą́kšigeda hakararéškuni. Égi
Sometimes Spit-Shell spit, after finishing the people went home (pl.), back. And

 


 

hinųknánka hókawa-hitáneǧa, Waxóxkéžuga nįgé míganke-éja hahí
the girls (dual) entered (the tent, lodge) Spit-Shell where he was lying they went

 


 

mík'hitéškuni. Šią́gega gigíži hókisakgeža mínk-škúni, rírik ną́ka
and lay down. Šią́gega when got back (to the tent) in the middle lay down the logs rotten these (two)

 


 

rakákanaške hóči-wáki—ų-hitégi nágakanaške haráxčak-hitégi wókitekškúni
ants was full of ants bit him he became infuriated

 


 

rúwišnąkže ánega hížą aíšawak hipotáškúni. Hungúžike
pinching him, he said one (of the logs) (one) elbow pushed. Again

 


 

haráxčak-hitéškuni, káčanga wa-ína nike hót'ųránega hatážą híškune
they bit him, now then the blanket somewhere he threw away light, fire he made

 


 

t'é-e ną́xa t'ek wá-ų ną́kškuni wókitekškuni kíkawa-wąnega
[these] two rotten logs they were lying he became furious he arose, got up

 


 

p. 22 —
žéčanga ráganą́ga máhi pákų́ jireškúni. Žéčąga hą́pgugi máhina
at the time he cried, wept knife to sharpen ( = his) he commenced, made a start. at that time (when he had sharpened), At dawn his knife

 


 

=
níkaračkereanega hų́k'hočira hówa wáčawa reškúni. Háhi hókewekája t'é-e
he carried it in his belt ("belt" not expressed) to chief's lodge he went for revenging himself. When he went into (the chief's lodge) there were

 


 

hičáwiwa-hira Waxoxkešóga hókisak hótump-ną́kškune. Hitánįke čášera
his two wives (of Š.) (who had) Spit-Shell in the middle they had between. And all three of them necks

 


 

wámąšiš škúni, wáničkának nąga nų́xąwaškúni hą́pčingi húngra wéškuni
he cut open, forced, put them, took in his belt and he hid himself at daylight the chief said (long ago)

 


 

"Híki ną́iwináne," hínke híxka hiraníškune, wáruxinkíkčege
"Try to wake yourself up (all three of them) not move they did for waking them up (all three)

 


 

p. 23 —
hičégają té-e wa-íra hónįją́-nąkškune. Hórak gíregi wónina
when he went, stood there (they were in a pool of) blood they lay in it (sp. his two wives) When it was told hunted they (I not included)

 


 

haną́č hįbireškúni hakoréžan ų́nakų hi-ereškuni, žégų
all (the people and the chief) everyone went, took a hand in, the hunting sometimes when hunting in this effort they found him (the murderer), and

 


 

rúkąkąš híranų negé wánk rá hówakeréškuni, égi waíréškuni.
grabs without effect while they skyward, above he ascended, went, and they said (all),

 


 

Kéčangéka "Hágiuguwíre." Jigiži ną́wą́ tohireškúni hóke xárare-éškuni,
Mr. Turtle "Go fetch him." When he came to sing he began (archaic)

 


 

Šią́gega wągéja, hági zázek nihéra háruxa čą́tę háreškuni, "Rášipbi
Šią́gega up above, after (this flight?) (on account of distance) very small once (then) he began to appear more "Get him down (miraculously)

 


 

kčinéna," ánankškúni. Harúxa áške kiriškuni, gájanga čírahexčiéja
he will," so they said. He began nearer to come, when he passed above the lodge there

 


 

p. 24 — p. 24 —
kírigi gúč ná-i hiranų́nige, Kéčangega roxiškuni; žéčanga aíkiją ji jeá
he came, arrived shoot all tried (to shoot) him Mr. Turtle he forbid them pretty soon within arm-reach he came

 


 

nągá Kéčangega sí kąja há rukas híkšege rúkągąškáją híščara hóresíri
arrows and K. by the ankle (from the ankle up to calf) tried to get hold he tried to seize in vain in his face defecated

 


 

žékų hiáneǧa wángra howakereškúni. Égi hikórokenigra wákeše aírena,
after (doing it) doing it above, skyward he returned (in moon afterwards). And to his grandmother he said, they say,

 


 

hą́hewi-ną́kre éja, "Hówakere kčįneže," eškúni, éki žékų kúč
moon (wingre, "this" of sun and moon) at (where the moon is) — "He was giving back," he said, and after shoot

 


 

hiránunge, iįxčį́ hiranųnige, žékų wągéča hágixawaníškuni. Éske
they did it in vain they tried to hit him in vain then above he disappeared. That is

 


 

hąhewéja wánkšik hájajáne Šią́ngega wá-ųježe aírena. Žéjana.
why in the moon person we are seeing now Šią́ngega it is he they say. The end of it.

 


 

Gatschet's Notes:

p. 16 —

hičáwina —

hičáwi, wife
hínuk, woman
hínukra rókana, many women
hínuk wačik, young woman not married, and spinsters

hakaraíkiči — hižą́hakíči hajéna, I live with somebody

hą́pka —

hámbukai (ókahi), every day
hámbiže, day
hą́p, háp, day
hám té-e, today
hą́he, night
hą́he ókahi, every night

wažónina —

wažą wániątséna, I am hunting
wažóni, hunter
wažóni xéte ha-ų́wina, we had a big hunt

hínuknik —

hínuk niki, one girl,
niki, pl. nigra, young
hinuknikita róha, many girls

weškúniže —

žéske hihéna, I say so
hihéna, I said

Waxóxge, shell

Hišóga — hašónakšena, I am spitting

hihántaše —

hą́te mákšana, I am dreaming
hą́te, dream
hątéga, dreamer (not used)

p. 17 —

ųéškune, they made

kíkų — kik (?), for oneself

nixéteja —

xéte, big, is better than
xáte, xáte, as in šúnk xate, horse

há-uji — háwuji, to run onto quick without knowing.

tahá-ų, I travel that way.
há-un hahígają́, while I traveled thus.

wóru-xuts nánk — wótuxuxuts nánkšena, I am looking around sitting.

té nąjeja — té, lake; ną́jeja, in middle of.

hižą́ — hižą́náxkųna, I hear somebody.

hį́ke (not) náxkųne (hear) hakikóne, I simulate —- not hear him.

Hįgiwankjéta — wą́, to haloo, hawą́jéna, I halloo.

činak — village; city. of či, house,
činak xatéža, large city.

p. 18 —

hingekčéna — Johnga hinigéna; my name is John, I call you John.

wákuruwáwax —

wažánizá ną́ča warégi túwax, I break from my ear;
túwax, I break a string.
wakúru, oneself?

wá-ižuškuni — wayážu, I take into my mouth.

híšo škúni, — hašó, I spit, I spit on, yášo, I spit with something.

wákiko-ik — I try to take, hi-ųjá, I try.

uníneki — uane nakšana, I am landing.

híkoro — čoká, grandfather; hičúške, grandson, nephew.

hočéja —

wá čiéja, my house, where I live!
hóra čiéja, your house, čí, číra, house.
néxči wačiéja, my own home, whether I live there or not.
hočiéja, his, her house.
wačiwéja, our house.
horačiwéja, your house.
hočiréja, their house.
čwánina, my houses.
čiwašínina, your houses.
čiwánina, his houses.
čihiwaníwina, our houses.
čiwšíniwina, your houses.
čiwanínera, their houses.
ną́ wánina, my tree.
ną hašínina, your tree.
ną hánina, his, her tree.

wačókelegíškuni — wačwákere, "I go first and others follow."

hoxčanągają — hoxčána, evening.

hoxtánanig witíte (< wira wiríre), sunset.
witáxep (< wira háxep), sunrise.
wí, wíta, wíra, sun.
hą́he wíta (wira), moon (hánhe, night).

ną́nk-hajíškune — hának'haji, I come running.

hának háhank wína, we are running (dual & plural).

ho-ithiánaga — waíthi hajéna, I am peeping.

p. 19 —

wéškųnižé — hajiáneǧa hajéna, I came and said.

-že, they said, ferunt.

Šiągénigra Waxóxgešoga šo-iko: ikorohóge warawékče — "Š. come over and pound the mortar, because Spits Shells is going to spit."

Šią́genigra — -nigra, is young, baby, said of baby birds. of -niki, -nik, young, plural. (36) Now called the "Son of God." After going away he promised the people to return and be henceforth man in the moon. (73)

wáwe nakšána, I pound a mortar sitting.
warawékče, you come to grind with that thing (mortar) only

ánankšána. — hihanákšana, I am saying.

hungų́ —

húnk, chief.
húnkra róra, chiefs-many.
húnk čóne, head chief.
wánkšik húnk, Indian chief.

rašókče — našókče ke wáhajéra, I want you to spit, in a standing position.

hatex hajéna, I piss standing.
šo-ikoróhoge, going to spit (getting ready to spit)

hó-ixčiankškúniže — nápana hoíxčina, the basket is full.

nųxana — núxą, I am sneaking.

hánuxą, to keep secret.

háhi — hahí, I go (there).

ráre, you go.
réra, he goes.
tekčináwina, we go.
šerekčinéna, ye go.
haraírikčinéna, they are going.

hó-ithį — wá-ithį hajéna, I peep in standing.

hikána hírera — hikána, her husband; hírera, of two wives.

híjowaréškuni — hijáwatena, I go there.

p. 20 —

hokiságiča — in the middle, center of

šunk-xátoči hokísagiča, in the center of the barn ("horse ouse")

skaxčínža —

ská, white
šúčínža, redder than others compared
póro poro xčin(ža), rounder than other balls

wá-ų — (the person talked about)

aireškúne — they said

éškune, one girl said

hirarexčįkają́ — hirare, is part of, pretty soon; not used by itself .

rókana — has to be there to make wax. — plural!

híšoškúne — hi-, instrumental prefix

kó-ikra — hakiko-ik, to grab (used in plural of subj. only)

—wina, I am grabbing

ų́xtsįhitéškune — yakųe, I am in a hurry

hikúhe wá wąjína, I am in a hurry
-xtsį- is a particle not used by itself
hitéškune. he ran hard, but was beaten; unavailingly (?)

híkana — husband

núnige — nunige or nų́nge!

-kítanik -

wijúk yą́šána hajána
cat only I saw
(there was no cat visible)

 

hó-eškúni — wa-éna, I obtain; hižą, one; hižą kíta, only one. (cf. žekírę)

hákarareškúni — hakarahéna, I return where I came from

decomposed, rotten — the wood is rotting; they cannot say that

nųpíwi —

hinúmike, both
nųpiwi, two were
nųp, two

hánią kihitą́ga — hanią́kere, I take back with me

hómikaki — couch, place of bed for lying down

wátump — hátump, I put to a place

hákča —

hákere, I go back
tuščą, I finish, come to an end

p. 21 —

gigíži —

hagígiži, when I get back
hagígi, I get back

haráxčak — hižą hatáxčak, I bite somebody

hitégi — or hirégi.

wókitekškúni — wóyitek, I get mad

rúwišnąkže — Š. when feeling the ants he thought the two girls were pinching him.

túwišana, I pinch him

aíšawak hipotáškúni — aíšawak hipuáta ną́, I pushed him with the elbow

ną́ (past) is also striking

káčanga — now, this time

hót'ųránega —

wastunt'e, I am throwing (blanket, not string)
íniže ha-unehájena, I throw a stone standing
hátaža hajéna, I make a light

ną́xa t'ek —

nánxa, log
t'ék, rotten
t'é, dead; níup, alive

waką́ t'eža, a dead snake
waką́ t'era róha, many dead snakes

(t'era cannot stand alone)
róha, many

wa t'éhi korohóge, he gets ready to kill
wa t'ehi ga korohóge, I get ready to kill
wai psinč ya korohóge, I get ready to thrash
yakoróge, I get ready

p. 22 —

kíkawa-wąnega — hakíkawa-ų, I rise, get up

pákų́ — pá-ų nákšena, I sharpen (a knife, máhi)

jireškúni —

hawą́jite, I commence
túščaną, I finish
hųgǫ́ hawą́jena, I continue doing (being around, -j-)

hą́pgugi —

haíne, morning
hoxčána, evening
wíta háxep ną́kšana, the sun is rising (sitting)
wíta hira ną́kšana, the sun is setting
hámbra huhéna, daylight is breaking (huhéna, coming)

níkaračkereanega — niánčkere, I carry in my belt

hókewekája —

wákewe, to get in
ho-, where the chief (hunk) lives

wáčawa —

wačáwe, I go for revenge
wirokó-iskina, thanks I give you

hówa —

wáwa, I go
hówa, he went
číža wakéwina, I went into the lodge

hókisak — hokísageja haminkšána, they lie between two (objects)

Hitánįke —

táni, three
hitánike, all three
pónank, whole

čášera — čáše, neck

wámąšiš škúni — wámanše, I cut off

wáničkának — nią́čkanak, I put in my belt

prefix wa-: many things

nų́xąwaškúni — nuą́xawa, I hide myself

ną́iwináne —

yákį mákšena, I get awake
yaxkąxką nákšana, I move about
túxink, I wake (one) up
wáruxink, I wake (more than one) up

wáruxinkíkčege — he was going to, but did not do it, because they were dead

hičégają — gają, then when

p. 23 —

wa-íra honiją = mákšaną, I lay; the in blood (one), ną́kšk- refers to 2, 3, or many

wónina —

hižę´ wánią išéna, I hunt somebody, pl. obj.
hížke wánią išéna, pl subj & obj
hížke wánią jówina, we hunt them

hįbireškúni — hórok himpan, I help, take a hand in

ų́nakų — in their effort

hi-ereškuni —

yá-ena, I found it
yá-a, I find
(some archaic words in it)

rúkąkąš híranų — for all their grabbing

hówakeréškuni — wawákere, I ascend, go up

Kéčangéka —

kéčank, turtle
-ga, -ka appended to proper names: Dorseyga

Hágiuguwíre — hakuténa, I go and fetch

ną́wą́ — ną́wą nákšera, 1 sing. / pl. -ną́k-

zázek — zázek nik čait'ína, I appear very small

háruxa — when not an act, but an appearance is concerned: to begin

háreškuni —

hári, far
huskája hári, far out in the prairie

rášipbi — hakitášip, I get myself down

áške — áške hajína, I come nearer

kírigi — kígi, when he went home, to his place

gúč — hagúč, I shoot; pl obj wáguč

p. 24 —

roxiškuni — róaxi, I forbid

aíkiją ji jeá —

a-, arm
a-ikiją, arm-reach

sí kąja — sí košógera, ankle

hóresíri — reásiri, I shit [sic], ho-, into his face

wákeše aírena —

yáke, I said
híhe, I say

(where the moon is) — because the sun and moon stand still

hágixawaníškuni — híxawane, I disappear

hájajáne — hajánegre, I see now

žéjana — waíką, fable

 



Source:

Albert Samuel Gatschet, Linguistic and Ethnological Material on the Winnebago, Manuscript 1989-a (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, 1889, 1890-1891) 16-24. Informant: Reuben David St. Cyr.