G a l l e r y

o f   t h e

H o č ą k  N a t i o n


Paintings

People — | Hųwąnįka (Little Elk) | Čižąhaka | Čugiga (Spoon Decorah) | A Hočąk Orator | Four Legs (Hujopka) | The Wife of Four Legs | Keramąnįga, "The Turtle who Walks" | Nąga (Wood), also Known as Keramąnįga | Mązapaka | Redbird and Wiga | Hojinažiga | Wakąjaga | Wakązika | The Spaniard (Spanioraga) | Wonder | Wačihaskaga | Mąnąpega | Black Wolf | Little Duck | Little Otter | Wakąga, "Snake" | Wakągaziga (Wakąhaga), "Yellow Snake" | Wakąhaga (Snake Skin) | White Cloud, the Winnebago Prophet | Old Decorah and His Family | Noxčuxiga (He Who Breaks the Bushes) | He Who Moistens the Wood | Wačxetega (Big Canoe) | Isaac Winneshiek | Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill) | Wakąjahirega (Thunderbirds Passing By) in a Bark Lodge | Wakąjahirega (Thunderbirds Passing By) Outside | A Hočąk Warror with a Club |A Hočąk Warrior with a Speer |

Scenes — | Duck Hunting | Primitive Sailing by the Winnebago | The Winnebago Medicine Dance | “Winnebagoes” | “Winnebagoes Playing Checkers” | “A Winnebago Father Teaching His Boy To Shoot” |

Drawings

| Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill) | Nąga, "Wood," also Known as Keramąnįga | Kakąjuka | Wačihaskaga | Redbird and Wiga | Yellow Thunder | Winneshiek the Elder | Winneshiek the Younger | Wakązika | Henry Roe Cloud | Little Winneshiek | George LaMère (Hotonga) |

Photographs

General — | Hočąk Chiefs | Hųgᵋxų́nųga (Little Priest) | Little Priest and Henry Decorah | Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill, 1860) | Šoǧogᵋnįka | Alice C. Fletcher, Meepe, and Martha | Mary Ann | Angel De Cora | Angel De Cora at Her Easel | Jacob Russell | Blue Wing | Jaspar Blowsnake as a Teenager | Big Hawk | An Unidentified Young Man | An Unidentified Teenager | Yellow Thunder | Wakąjaziga (Yellow Thunder) | A Woman Tanning a Hide | Michel St. Cyr | Unidentified, Michel St. Cyr, Alex Payer, White Breast | John Michael St. Cyr | Hezazačka (Branching Horns) | Čaxšebᵋnįnįka (Young Eagle) | Chief Ahúčogá, "Blue Wing," | A Group Camping by the Baraboo, 1905 | John Harrison | Betsy Thunder | A Hočąk Sewing Circle | A Hočąk Bark Lodge | George Howard "Chief" Johnson | Lillian St. Cyr (Red Wing) | George Miner | Mitchel Red Cloud, jr. | Mitchel Red Cloud, jr. (Standing) | Performers on the Beach by Standing Rock near the Amphitheater | Whirling Thunder | Chief Frank Beaver, Rep. Karl Stefans, and William Davis | Henry Roe Cloud at Yale | Henry Roe Cloud and the Roe Family | Henry Roe Cloud, 1931 | Henry Roe Cloud in Oregon | George LaMère (Hotonga) | Hotonga, 1938 | Hotonga, 1950's | Bob Harrison | Reuben Snake | Joba Chamberlain | Truman Lowe | Bronson Koenig |

The 1898 Transmississippi Exposition, Omaha Nebraska — | William Hansley, Old Black Hawk, Ed Logan | Ed, Peter, William Logan, William Hansley | Black Hawk, Sr. | Black Hawk, Jr. | Black Hawk and Little Ox | William Hansley (Front) | William Hansley (Profile) | Logan and Four Children | Mrs. Joseph Street | Hočąk Women | A Group of Nine |

Stereoscopic Photographs — | Chief Gray Wolf | Standing Buffalo | Standing Buffalo Holding a Rifle | Standing Buffalo Holding a Rifle While Reclining | Hezazačka (Branching Horns) | A Seated Woman | A Seated Woman (2)A Child | One Horn | A Woman with a Child on Her Back | Two Young Women with a Baby | White Nose | Jim Big Winnebago | Three Men Seated | Two Men Seated | A Man with a Beaver Skin Cap | A Man Wearing a Blanket | One That Walks Behind | A Woman with a Blanket in Her Lap | Three Women and a Child on a Hillside | Four Children | A Group Sitting on a Hillside | A Camping Scene | Tonnunga | Men and Women Seated on a Bench Outside a Building | "Winnebago Treaty Table" | A Seated Group with Horses | People Sittng in a Clearing at a Campsite |


Paintings

        
    
Charles Bird King   George Catlin   J. O. Lewis
Three Paintings of Hųwąnįka (Little Elk)

 

      
 
Charles Bird King   Charles Bird King
Čižąhaka   A Hočąk Orator (Spanioraga ?)

 

      
 
Charles Bird King   J. O. Lewis
Two Portraits of Čugiga (Amisquam), "Spoon Decorah"
Amisquam is probably Menominee for "Spoon," cf. Anishinaabeg Emikwaan, "Spoon"

 

    
 
J. O. Lewis   J. O. Lewis
Four Legs (Hujopka)   The Wife of Four Legs

 

         
   
J. O. Lewis   Charles Bird King   George Catlin
Keramąnįga, "The Turtle who Walks"   Nąga, "Wood," also Known as Keramąnįga

 

         
   
Paul Kane   Charles Bird King   J. O. Lewis
Mązapaka   Wiga and Redbird   Hojinažiga

 

           
   
George Catlin   George Catlin   George Catlin
Wakąjaga   Wakązika   The Spaniard (Spanioraga)

 

           
   
George Catlin   George Catlin   George Catlin
Wonder (Wondetówa), Prairie du Chien, 1835   Wačihaskaga   Mąnąpega

 

           
   
J. O. Lewis   J. O. Lewis   J. O. Lewis
Black Wolf   Little Duck   Little Otter, 1827

 

      
 
Charles Bird King   J. O. Lewis
Wakąga, "Snake"

 

      
 
J. O. Lewis   Charles Bird King
Wakąziga (Wakąhaga), "Yellow Snake"   Wakąhaga,"Snake Skin," Often Identified with Wakąga

 

    
 
George Catlin   E. M. Sully
White Cloud, the Winnebago Prophet

 

      
 
George Catlin   George Catlin
Old Decorah and His Family   Noxčuxiga, "He Who Breaks the Bushes," 1828

 

    
 
George Catlin   J. O. Lewis
He Who Moistens the Wood (Nąxąwąiga ?)   Wačxetega, "Big Canoe," 1825

 

     
 
Peter Rindisbacher   Charles Deas
Isaac Winneshiek, Chief of the Lacrosse Village (1829)   Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill)

 

    
 
Charles Deas   Charles Deas
Wakąjahirega (Thunderbirds Passing By), 1842

 

    
 
Charles Deas   Charles Deas
A Hočąk Warrior with a Club, 1840   A Hočąk Warrior with a Spear, 1842

Scenes

 
George Catlin
Duck Hunting

 

 
George Catlin
Primitive Sailing by the Winnebago

 

 
Seth Eastman
The Winnebago Medicine Dance

 

Charles Deas
“Winnebagoes” (1840-1842)

 

Charles Deas
“Winnebagoes Playing Checkers” (1842)

 

Edwin Willard Deming
“A Winnebago Father Teaching His Boy To Shoot”

 


Drawings

            
     
    George Catlin   George Catlin  
Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill)   Nąga, "Wood," also
Known as Keramąnįga
  Kakąjuka  

 

         
   
George Catlin   E. J. Barlow    
Wačihaskaga   Redbird and Wiga   Yellow Thunder

 

           
   
        George Catlin
Winneshiek the Elder   Winneshiek the Younger   Wakązika

 

    
 
Lipp   Charles P. Hexom
Henry Roe Cloud, ca. 1910 (see below)   Little Winneshiek, 1913

 

Hope College
George LaMère, 1926
(Hotonga - see below)



Photographs

Hočąk Chiefs, New York City, 1865
Front Row: Hųgᵋxų́nųga (Young Prophet or Little Priest), Wakąjagiwįxka (Whirling Thunder[bird]),
White Breast, Little Decorah, Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill, below).
Back Row: Major F. J. Dewitt, Trader; Robert Wilkinson Furnas, Winnebago Agent (Future Governor of Nebraska);
Alex Payer (below), Translator; Michel St. Cyr, Translator (below).

 

      
   
R. A. Lewis    
Hųgᵋxų́nųga (Little Priest), 1865   Little Priest and Henry Decorah, before 1866

 

      
   
R. A. Lewis   Joel Emmons Whitney (1822-1886)
Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill), 1860   Šoǧogᵋnįka, before 1886

 

    
 
Alice C. Fletcher, NAA   Alice C. Fletcher, NAA
Alice C. Fletcher, Meepe, and Martha (1887-1889)   Mary Ann (1887)
Alice C. Fletcher served as Special Agent to the Winnebago, 1887-1889. Meepe and Martha used to pitch and keep the tent for the allotting agents in the field. They are standing before the house of the agent to the Winnebagos. The photo to the right is of Mary Ann, a friend of Alice Fletcher.

 

    
 
Angel De Cora, Maxiwi-Kerenąka[wįga] ?   Angel De Cora at Her Easel
Angel De Cora was an accomplished artist who was published in many magazines and books of the time. She was a member of the Thunderbird Clan, and the Decorah family, heriditary chiefs, descended from Sabrevoir de Carrie and Hąboguwįga, the only known female chief of the Hočągara. Her husband, who was half Sioux, was (ironically) the first head coach of the Washington Redskins.

 

    
 
De Lancey W. Gill, NAA    
Henry French, Čaxšepsučka (b. 1849), 1899   Blue Wing, Paris Exposition of 1900

 

   
Jaspar Blowsnake as a Teenager Big Hawk, 1899

 

    
 
Edric L. Eaton   Edric L. Eaton
An Unidentified Young Man
Between 1865 and 1880
  An Unidentified Teenager
Between 1865 and 1880

 

 
Yellow Thunder
Between 1868 and 1873

 

     
 
Henry H. Bennett, NAA   H. H. Bennett
Wakąjaziga (Yellow Thunder), Chief of the Tribe, prior to 1874   A Woman Tanning a Hide, 1880

 

     
    
NAA INV 00182000 OPPS NEG BAE 3759A   NAA INV 00182100 OPPS NEG BAE 3759B
Michel St. Cyr, 1886

 

     
    
NAA Negative 3794   NAA BAE GN 03758 06606500
Unidentified, Michel St. Cyr, Alex Payer,
White Breast, Before 1884
  John Michael St. Cyr

 

      
 
H. H. Bennett   H. H. Bennett
Hezazačka, "Branching Horns," 1905   Čaxšebᵋnįnįka, "Young Eagle"

 

Harry Elsworth Cole
Chief Ahúčogá, "Blue Wing," ca. 1905

 

 
Harry Elsworth Cole
Right to Left: Smoky Smoke, a Menominee; Yellow Thunder, son of the old chief; Bill Decorah (with club),
and his wife and child at a camp near Linen Mill, close to the south bank of the river Baraboo (1905).

 

      
 
De Lancey W. Gill   De Lancey W. Gill

John Harrison, 1909
Wakąjakiriga, Thunderbird Coming (1847-ca. 1916)

In his youth he was a member of Company “A” of the Omaha Scouts, and later rose to the rank of Captain of the police. He was a source for Dorsey, Gatschet, and Radin. For his stories in this collection, see Contributors.

 

 
Charles Van Schalck Collection
Betsy Thunder, Hočąk Medicine Woman,
Bird Clan, February 6, 1913
"When the U.S. government ordered Wisconsin Winnebagoes to migrate to Nebraska, Betsy and others hid out in the hills of Jackson County. She lived in Wiscionsin her entire life because she felt god had wanted it that way." — Victoria Brown

 

 
Rev. James Osbourne Arthur Collection
A Hočąk Sewing Circle, 1913
The woman at the far left is Mrs. Arthur, the wife of the missionary from the Presbyterian Church, holding her child. The Hočąk women are not identified. The picture was take at Winnebago, Nebraska.

 

 
 
A Hočąk Bark Lodge, ca. 1915

 

               
   
George Howard "Chief" Johnson (1886-1922)
Major League Baseball pitcher for the Cinncinati Reds and the Kansas City Packers (1913-1915).

 

             
   
Lillian Margaret St. Cyr, 1914
Ahušužᵋwįga, "Red Wing" (1884-1974)
  Lillian St. Cyr
in "Squaw Man," 1914
  Lillian St. Cyr with Her Husband,
James Young Deer (Johnson)
Lillian St. Cyr performed in more than 35 short Western films from 1908-1921. She became a Hollywood star by appearing in the lead role in Cecil B. DeMille's first film, "The Squaw Man." She and her husband Young Deer were recognized as Hollywood's first "power couple."

 

             
   
Corporal George Miner of Tomah, Wisconsin   Mitchel Red Cloud, jr.   Mitchel Red Cloud, jr.
Pulling Guard at the American Bridgehead (Occupation Zone) at Niederahren, Germany, 2 January 1919.   Won the Medal of Honor in the Korean War. Mitchell Red Cloud Jr., from Wisconsin, was a corporal in Company E., 19th Infantry Regiment, in Korea. "With utter fearlessness he maintained his firing position until severely wounded by enemy fire. Refusing assistance he pulled himself to his feet and wrapping his arm around a tree continued his deadly fire again, until he was fatally wounded. This heroic act stopped the enemy from overrunning his company's position ..."

 

Library of Congress
Performers on the Beach by Stand Rock near the Amphitheater, 1925

 

     
 
Library of Congress   Library of Congress
Whirling Thunder (Wearing a Plains Headdress)   Chief Frank Beaver, Rep. Karl Stefans, and William Davis
"Princess O-Me-Me, a Chippewa; Sun Road, a Pueblo; and Chief Whirling Thunder, a Winnebago, looking over Chicago's skyline from the roof of the Hotel Sherman." 3 October 1929.   "Washington, D.C., July 5, 1939. Congressman Karl Stefans of Nebraska conferred with tribesmen of the Winnebago Reservation over his bill to provide compensation for members of the Winnebago Tribe for lands which the Indians were forced to leave in Wisconsin in 1863, ... and feels that Winnebagos should be compensated for their lands."

 

               
       
Henry Roe Cloud at Yale
  Henry Roe Cloud and the Roe Family   Henry Roe Cloud, 1931 (see above)
  Henry Roe Cloud in Oregon
His clan name was Wonąǧirehųka, "War Chief", a Warrior Clan name. Henry Roe Cloud (1881-1950) was an educator, college administrator, official in the Office of Indian Affairs, Presbyterian minister, and reformer. The first Native American admitted to Yale University.

 

           
   
    Daily Iowan   postcard
George LaMère (Hotonga)
1920's (?)
  Hotonga
1938
  Hotonga
1950's (see above)
George LaMère was born in 1902 at Winnebago, Nebraska. He had an extraordinary voice, having sung on Broadway before winning a scholarship to the University of Miami on the strength of an audition. He graduated with honors, and was on the faculties of Hope College and Carson Indian School. He was Charles Sanford Skilton's chief collaborator in his "Indianist" music. He was the featured singer in the Standing Rock performances throughout his adult life.

 

             
   
Bob (Robert William) Harrison (b. 1927)
Bob Harrison is the grandson of John Harrison (above). He was the first American Indian to have played in the NBA. Bob Harrison had a distinguished career with Minneapolis Lakers (1949–1953), Milwaukee / St. Louis Hawks (1953–1956), Syracuse Nationals (1956–1958), and played in the 1956 All Star game. He late coached at Kenyon College and Harvard University.

 

      
 
Reuben Snake (1937-1993), Snake Clan   Joba Chamberlain (b. 1983), Buffalo Clan
Hočąk tribal chairman, environmentalist, writer, singer and national chairman of the American Indian Movement.   Major League Baseball pitcher for the New York Yankees, Detroit Tigers, Kansas City Royals, and Cleveland Indians.

 

      
 
Truman Lowe (b. 1944)   Bronson Koenig (b. 1994)
Internationally famed artist, and professor; winner of the Wisconsin Visual Art Lifetime Achievement Award.   A University of Wisconsin basketball star, "the most notable Native American men’s basketball player in the nation." He is also a prominent activist.


The 1898 Transmississippi Exposition, Omaha Nebraska

    
 

 

   
  
The older Black Hawk at left is the father of the one on the right.

 

         
   

 

    
 
    This is the wife of Gen. Joseph Street, for whom see the Commentary to Juliette Kinzie's Wau-Bun

 

    
 

 


Stereoscopic Photographs

W. H. Illingworth
Chief Gray Wolf
Between 1868 and 1880
Gray Wolf was the brother of the last Hočąk War Chief, Little Priest

 

W. H. Illingworth
Standing Buffalo, a Celebrated Dancer

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Standing Buffalo Holding a Rifle, 1874

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Standing Buffalo Holding a Rifle While Reclining, 1874

 

 
H. H. Bennett
Hezazačka, "Branching Horns," 1905

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?

A Seated Woman
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
A Seated Woman
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
C. L. Hamilton
A Child

 

 
Unknown Studio
One Horn

 

 
C. L. Hamilton
A Woman with a Child on Her Back
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Two Young Women with a Baby
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
B. H. Gurnsey ?
Paskaga, White Nose
Between 1868 and 1880
The explanation asssociated with the photo says, "Pos-Ka-Ka or White Face, Winnebago celebrated for the size of his nose." The name is actually, pa, "nose"; ska, "white"; and -ga, a suffix indicating a personal name.

 

 
Jim Big Winnebago

 

 
W.H. Illingworth
Three Men Seated (Standing Buffalo is in the Center)
St. Paul, Minnesota, Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
W. H. Illingworth
Two Men Seated
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
C. L. Hamilton
A Man with a Beaver Skin Cap
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
C. L. Hamilton
A Man Wearing a Blanket
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
Unknown Studio
One That Walks Behind
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
Unknown Studio
A Woman with a Blanket on Her Lap
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Three Women and a Child on a Hillside

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Four Children
Between 1865 and 1880

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
A Group Sitting on a Hillside
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
A Camping Scene
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
Tonnunga (Tonąka, "He Sits Large" ? or perhaps Omaha Tenuga, "Buffalo")
Between 1865 and 1880

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Men and Women Seated on a Bench Outside a Building
Between 1868 and 1880

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
"Winnebago Treaty Table"
Between 1868 and 1880
Taylor's Scrapbook describes this scene as, "Winnebago and Omaha Indian Council." This council was held in Nebraska between Winnebago leaders including Standing Bear, and Omaha leaders including Yellow Smoke, with Superintendent of Indian Affairs Samuel McPherson Janney in 1871. The man standing in front of the horseman appears to be addressing the convocation.

 

 
C. L. Hamilton
A Seated Group with Horses
Between 1862 and 1868

 

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
People Sittng in a Clearing at a Campsite