G a l l e r y

o f   t h e

H o č ą k  N a t i o n


Paintings

People — | Hųwąnįka (Little Elk) | Čižąhaka | Čugiga (Spoon Decorah) | A Hočąk Orator | Four Legs (Hujopka) | The Wife of Four Legs | Keramąnįga, "The Turtle who Walks" | Nąga (Wood), also Known as Keramąnįga | Mązapaka | Redbird and Wiga | Hojinažiga (Spotted Arm) | Wakąjaga | Wakązika | The Spaniard (Spanioraga) | Wonder | Wačihaska | Kąkąnįcų́ga | Mąnąpega | Black Wolf | Little Duck | Little Otter | Wakąga, "Snake" | Wakągaziga (Wakąhaga), "Yellow Snake" | Wakąhaga (Snake Skin) | White Cloud, the Winnebago Prophet | Old Decorah and His Family | Noxčuxiga (He Who Breaks the Bushes) | He Who Moistens the Wood | Wačxetega (Big Canoe) | Isaac Winneshiek | Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill) | Wakąjahirega (Thunderbirds Passing By) in a Bark Lodge | Wakąjahirega (Thunderbirds Passing By) Outside | A Hočąk Warror with a Club | A Hočąk Warrior with a Spear | High Knocker |

Scenes — | Duck Hunting | Primitive Sailing by the Winnebago | The Winnebago Medicine Dance | “Winnebagoes” | “Winnebagoes Playing Checkers” | “A Winnebago Encampment” | “A Winnebago Father Teaching His Boy To Shoot” |

Drawings

| Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill) | Nąga, "Wood," also Known as Keramąnįga | Kakąjuka | Wačihaskaga | Redbird and Wiga | Yellow Thunder | Two Winnebago Lithographs | Winneshiek the Elder | Winneshiek the Younger | Wakązika | Henry Roe Cloud | Little Winneshiek | George LaMère (Hotonga) |

Photographs

General — | Gray Wolf | Hočąk Chiefs | Hųgᵋxų́nųga (Little Priest) | Little Priest and Henry Decorah | Whirling Thunder | White Breast | Dandy | Rolling Thunder | Little Squirrel | Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill, 1860) | Šoǧogᵋnįka | Peją́ga (Crane) | A Group with Winneshiek the Elder | A Hočąk Encampment, ca. 1865 | The Hočąk Delegation to Governor Fairchild, 1866 | Boy with a Bow and a Bird Arrow | Alice C. Fletcher, Meepe, and Martha | Mary Ann | An Unidentified Young Man | An Unidentified Teenager | Yellow Thunder | Wakąjaziga (Yellow Thunder) | Wakąjáwįga (Thunderbird Woman) and Her Daughter | Hočąk Chiefs | Two Men, ca. 1874 | Wakąjaziga (Yellow Thunder) | A Woman Tanning a Hide | Hampton Institute Class Picture, 1881 | A Hočąk Medicine Rite Encampment | The Interior of a Hočąk Medicine Rite Tent | Michel St. Cyr | Unidentified, Michel St. Cyr, Alex Payer, White Breast | John Michael St. Cyr | Alex Payer | A Group at a Campsite | Grass Dancers with a Drum, 1887 | A Group in Front of a Building | Spoon Decorah | Chief White Horse Holding a Pipe-Tomahawk | Chief Blackhawk with Peace Pipe and Ulysses Grant Medal (2) | Philip Long[tail] | Levi St. Cyr | Čaxšebᵋnįnįka (Young Eagle) | Henry French, Čaxšepsučka | Blue Wing | Jasper Blowsnake as a Teenager | Big Hawk | Suzie Decorah with Her Son Henry T., Her Sister and Cousin | Picking Cranberries, 1900 | Hezazačka (Branching Horns) | Little Winneshiek and His Wife | Little Cloud | Chief Ahúčogá, "Blue Wing," | A Girl Standing in Front of a Small Lodge | A Group Camping by the Baraboo, 1905 | Pelagie Nash | Women Gambling with Dice, 1907 (2) | Jim Swallow, William Massey, Tom Thunder, George Eagle, Ben Thundercloud | John Harrison | John Mike's Spirit Stone | Census Taker Enumerating the Hočągara near Waupaca | John Baptiste | Jim Pine | Oliver LaMère (1) | Oliver LaMère (2) | The Oldest Member of the Hočąk Nation | John Rave and Family | Betsy Thunder | A Hočąk Sewing Circle | A Hočąk Bark Lodge | A Prayer Service of the Native American Church | John Stacy and Family | The First Converts to the Reformed Church | Hočąk Matrons | Angel De Cora | Angel De Cora at Her Easel | George Howard "Chief" Johnson | Lillian St. Cyr (Red Wing) | Foster Decorah and Two of His Sons | Albert Hensley, His Two Daughters and Two Nieces | William Miner, Sr. and His Wife Clara Brown | Robert Decorah | George Miner in Semi-Pro Baseball | Cpl. George Miner | Performers on the Beach by Standing Rock near the Amphitheater | Moses Decorah and His Wife Kate | Whirling Thunder, ca. 1936 | Whirling Thunder | Rev. Jacob Stucki with Hočąk Children | King of Thunder | John Stacy | Chief Frank Beaver, Rep. Karl Stefans, and William Davis | Henry Roe Cloud at Yale | Henry Roe Cloud and the Roe Family | Henry Roe Cloud, 1931 | Henry Roe Cloud in Oregon | Mitchel Red Cloud, jr. | Mitchel Red Cloud, jr. (Standing) | George LaMère (Hotonga) | Hotonga, 1938 | Hotonga, 1950's | Bob Harrison | Reuben Snake | Ken Funmaker (2) | Joba Chamberlain | Truman Lowe | Bronson Koenig |

The 1898 Transmississippi Exposition, Omaha, Nebraska — | William Hansley, Old Black Hawk, Ed Logan | Ed, Peter, William Logan, William Hansley | Black Hawk, Sr. | Black Hawk, Jr. | Black Hawk and Little Ox | William Hansley (Front) | William Hansley (Profile) | Logan and Four Children | Mrs. Joseph Street | Hočąk Women | A Group of Nine |

The 1907 Powwow, Winnebago, Nebraska — | The Announcer and a Dancer by the Row of Lodges | The Announcer and Seated Spectators | A Dancer Passing by Spectators | Participants Standing Outside the Exhibit Area | People Assembling for the Dance | People Assembling for the Next Dance | Assembled Dancers | A Dance Circle Including Girls | Singers | Singers and Dancers | Singers (2) | Dancers | Dancing at the 1907 Powwow |

Stereoscopic Photographs — | Winneshiek the Elder | Chief Gray Wolf | Standing Buffalo | Standing Buffalo Holding a Rifle | Standing Buffalo Holding a Rifle While Reclining | Hezazačka (Branching Horns) | A Seated Woman | A Seated Woman (2) | A Child | One Horn | A Woman with a Child on Her Back | Two Young Women with a Baby | White Nose | Jim Big Winnebago | Three Men Seated | Henry Rice Hill and Benjamin Bearskin | Blue Sky | A Group of Men in Traditional Clothing | A Man with a Beaver Skin Cap | A Man Wearing a Blanket | Keračowįga ("Blue Sky"), a Girl, and a Dog | One That Walks Behind | A Woman with a Blanket in Her Lap | Three Women and a Child on a Hillside | Four Children | A Group Sitting on a Hillside | A Camping Scene | Tonnunga | Men and Women Seated on a Bench Outside a Building | Men in Full Warrior Costume | "Winnebago Treaty Table" | Winnebago Treaty Table Enlarged | A Seated Group with Horses | People Sittng in a Clearing at a Campsite | Nąjuziwįga ("Brown Hair") | Big Bear with Bow and Arrows | Big Bear in the Diamond Grotto, Wisconsin Dells |

 


Paintings

        
    
Charles Bird King   George Catlin   J. O. Lewis
Three Paintings of Hųwąnįka (Little Elk)

      
 
Charles Bird King   Charles Bird King
Čižąhaka   A Hočąk Orator (Spanioraga ?)

      
 
Charles Bird King   J. O. Lewis
Two Portraits of Čugiga (Amisquam), "Spoon Decorah"
Amisquam is probably Menominee for "Spoon," cf. Ojibwe Emikwaan, "Spoon"

    
 
J. O. Lewis   J. O. Lewis
Four Legs (Hujopka)   The Wife of Four Legs

         
   
J. O. Lewis   Charles Bird King   George Catlin
Keramąnįga, "The Turtle who Walks"   Nąga, "Wood," also Known as Keramąnįga

         
   
Paul Kane   Charles Bird King   J. O. Lewis
Mązapaka   Wiga and Redbird   Hojinažiga, Better Known as "Spotted Arm"

           
   
George Catlin   George Catlin   George Catlin
Wakąjaga   Wakązika   The Spaniard (Spanioraga)

      
 
George Catlin   George Catlin
Wonder (Wontetówa), Prairie du Chien, 1835   Mąnąpega, "Soldier"

      
 
George Catlin   George Catlin
Wačihaska
"Drives Them Out of the Lodge"
  Káw-kaw-ne-chóo-a
(Kąkąnįčų́ga ?, "Takes into Possession Ponka")

           
   
J. O. Lewis   J. O. Lewis   J. O. Lewis
Black Wolf   Little Duck, a.k.a., Teal, Sarcel, and Dog Head   Little Otter, 1827

      
 
Charles Bird King   J. O. Lewis
Wakąga, "Snake"

      
 
J. O. Lewis   Charles Bird King
Wakąziga (Wakąhaga), "Yellow Snake"   Wakąhaga, "Snake Skin"

    
 
George Catlin   E. M. Sully
White Cloud, the Winnebago Prophet

      
 
George Catlin   George Catlin
Old Decorah and His Family, 1830   Noxčuxiga, "He Who Breaks the Bushes," 1828

    
 
George Catlin   J. O. Lewis
He Who Moistens the Wood (Nąxąwąiga ?)   Wajᵋxetega, "Big Canoe," 1825

     
 
Peter Rindisbacher   Charles Deas
Isaac Winneshiek, Chief of the Lacrosse Village (1829)   Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill)

    
 
Charles Deas   Charles Deas
Wakąjahirega (Thunderbirds Passing By), 1842

    
 
Charles Deas   Charles Deas
A Hočąk Warrior with a Club, 1840   A Hočąk Warrior with a Spear, 1842

 

 
High Knocker, 1820-1911
Chief of the Green Lake bands, called "High Knocker" on account of his habit of wearing a stove pipe style top hat. He drown while attempting to swim the Fox River at age 91.


Scenes

 
George Catlin
Duck Hunting

 
George Catlin
Primitive Sailing by the Winnebago

 
Seth Eastman
The Winnebago Medicine Dance

Charles Deas
“Winnebagoes” (1840-1842)

Charles Deas
“Winnebagoes Playing Checkers” (1842)

 
Seth Eastman
“A Winnebago Encampment” (ca. 1847)

Edwin Willard Deming
“A Winnebago Father Teaching His Boy To Shoot”


Drawings

            
     
    George Catlin   George Catlin  
Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill)
d. Feb., 1881
  Nąga, "Wood," also
Known as Keramąnįga
  Kakąjuka  

         
   
George Catlin   E. J. Barlow    
Wačihaskaga   Redbird and Wiga   Yellow Thunder

      
 
Ferdinand Pettrich   Ferdinand Pettrich
Two Winnebago Lithographs, 1847

           
   
    Peter Rindisbacher   George Catlin
Winneshiek the Elder   Young Winneshiek (Ahušipka, Short Wings),
the Brother of Winneshiek
  Wakązika

    
 
Lipp   Charles P. Hexom
Henry Roe Cloud
ca. 1910 (see below)
  Little Winneshiek (Nójįga, Hits the Tree)
1913

Hope College
George LaMère, 1926
(Hotonga - see below)



Photographs

 
Gray Wolf at Blue Earth, Minnesota, between 1855 and 1863
See the matching photo below.

R. A. Lewis
Hočąk Chiefs, New York City, 1865
Front Row: Hųgᵋxų́nųga (Young Prophet or Little Priest), Wakąjagiwįxka (Whirling Thunder[bird]),
White Breast (below), Little Decorah, Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill, below).
Back Row: Major F. J. Dewitt, Trader; Robert Wilkinson Furnas, Winnebago Agent (Future Governor of Nebraska);
Alex Payer (1, 2), Translator; Michel St. Cyr, Translator (below).

      
   
R. A. Lewis    
Hųgᵋxų́nųga (Little Priest),
New York, 1865
  Little Priest and Henry Decorah, of Co. A of the Omaha Scouts,
Nebraska, ca. 1865
The name Hųgᵋxų́nųga is from Hųk-xų́nų-ga, where hųk can be translated as "chief, priest, prophet"; and xų́nų as "young, little." These may be recombined to give many different permutations of his name, the two most common being "Little Priest" and "Young Prophet." He was a member of the Bear Clan, and was believed to have been blessed with Grizzly Bear Powers. In the 1840s he succeeded his father (of the same name) to become the last War Chief of the Hočąk nation. He was accused of participating in the Sioux Uprising of 1862, but by 1864 he was with Stufft's Independent Company, Indian Scouts, US Volunteers fighting the Sioux in Sully's Expedition. In 1866, with the Winnebago contingent of the Omaha Scouts, he single-handedly engaged 32 Lakota, taking five scalps, but receiving a wound in the leg that later proved fatal. In Nebraska the tribal college and the annual powwow are named in his honor. Two stories (1, 2) in this collection are about his exploits.

      
   
R. A. Lewis   R. A. Lewis
Whirling Thunder (Wakąjagiwįxka)
New York, 1865
  White Breast (Stone Man)
New York, 1865

           
       
James F. Bodtker   James F. Bodtker   M. J. Powers
Dandy (Little Soldier)
Madison, 1866
  Rolling Thunder (a.k.a. Spoon ?),
Madison, 1866
  Little Squirrel
New York, 1865

           
       
R. A. Lewis   Joel Emmons Whitney (1822-1886)    
Šoǧogᵋnįka (Little Hill), 1860   Šoǧogᵋnįka, before 1881   Peją́ga (Crane)

 
Benjamin Franklin Upton
A Group with Winneshiek the Elder (Center)
Ft. Snelling, 1865

 
Whitney
A Hočąk Encampment, ca. 1865

 
James F. Bodtker
The Hočąk Delegation to Governor Fairchild, 1866
Left to Right: Front Row (Kneeling): Nįskaga (White Water); Rolling Thunder, a.k.a. Čugiga (Spoon – see above); His Father, Čugiga (Spoon Decorah – see below); Second Row (Seated): Wasuhimąnįga (Walking Hail); His Brother, Wakąjaziga (Yellow Thunder[bird] – see 1, 2, 3); Back Row (Standing): Mąną́pĕnįka (Little Soldier – see above), a.k.a. "Dandy," the Son of Four Legs, above).

 
Boy with a Bow and a Bird Arrow
1866

    
 
Alice C. Fletcher, NAA   Alice C. Fletcher, NAA
Alice C. Fletcher, Meepe, and Martha (1887-1889)   Mary Ann (1887)
Alice C. Fletcher served as Special Agent to the Winnebago, 1887-1889. Meepe and Martha used to pitch and keep the tent for the allotting agents in the field. They are standing before the house of the agent to the Winnebagos. The photo to the right is of Mary Ann, a friend of Alice Fletcher.

    
 
Edric L. Eaton   Edric L. Eaton
An Unidentified Young Man
1865
  An Unidentified Teenager
Between 1865 and 1880

       
 
Wakąjaziga (Yellow Thunder)   Wakąjáwįga (Thunderbird Woman) and Her Daughter
Between 1868 and 1873   1868

 
Jones, Madison, Wisconsin
Hočąk Chiefs. Left to Right: Back Row (Standing): Little Creek, Winneshiek, Jarotga (?); Front Row (Seated and Kneeling): Blue Wing, Decorah, Geo. Goodvillage, [Writing Cut Off], Yellow Thunder.
Since Yellow Thunder died in 1874, the photo must predate that year.

 

 
Two Men, ca. 1874

     
 
Henry H. Bennett, NAA   H. H. Bennett
Wakąjaziga (Yellow Thunder), Chief of the Tribe, prior to 1874   A Woman Tanning a Hide, 1880

 
NAA Negative 54793
Hampton Institute Class Picture, 1881
Group includes Felicia Rivers; Grace and Angel Decora (see below); Edna Traversie (Dakota, from Cheyenne River); Fanny Earth; Mamie Snow; and others. Angel Decorah appears to be the second from the left in the seated row.

 
NAA 03799
A Hočąk Medicine Rite Encampment

 
NAA 03799
The Interior of a Hočąk Medicine Rite Tent

     
    
NAA INV 00182000 OPPS NEG BAE 3759A   NAA INV 00182100 OPPS NEG BAE 3759B
Michel St. Cyr, 1886

     
    
NAA Negative 3794   NAA BAE GN 03758 06606500
Unidentified, Michel St. Cyr, Alex Payer,
White Breast, Before 1884
  John Michael St. Cyr

      
 
Negative 3763 B, NAA   Negative 3763 A, NAA
Alex Payer, Government Translator, Before 1884 (See Above, 1, 2)

A Group at a Campsite

 
Alice C. Fletcher
Grass Dancers with a Drum, 1887
The two men standing at the left appear to be Jim Swallow and George Eagle (see below).

 
A Group in Front of a Building

        
 
Curtiss   Charles Milton Bell
Spoon Decorah (Čugiga)
1887
  Chief White Horse Holding
a Pipe-Tomahawk. Before 1890

       
 
Chief Blackhawk with Peace Pipe and Ulysses Grant Medal, 1897
Known as the "Winnebago Blackhawk" (1809-1899) (See Below and Commentary)

         
       
Wells Sawyer   Wells Sawyer   Wells Sawyer
Philip Long[tail] in Three Poses, 1897
The son of Solomon Longtail and the grandson of Good Thunder after whom Good Thunder, Minnesota is named. Philip Long has several stories in this collection: see Contributors.

 
Dickenson.edu
Levi St. Cyr, ca. 1892
The caption reads: "Levi St. Cyr. Entered Carlisle 1887, aged 16. Graduated 1891; learned the Printer's trade, and is now Assistant Printer in the Carlisle School Office - Is also a member of the band."

      
 
H. H. Bennett   H. H. Bennett
Čaxšebᵋnįnįka, "Young Eagle," ca. 1890

    
 
De Lancey W. Gill, NAA    
Henry French, Čaxšepsučka (b. 1849), 1899   Blue Wing, Paris Exposition of 1900

   
Jasper Blowsnake as a Teenager Big Hawk, 1899

 

 
Suzie Decorah (Far Right) with Her Son Henry T., Her Sister and Cousin, 1900
Valerie Guimaraes says, "This is a picture of my grandfather Henry T. Decorah (little boy on the right without the cradle board) with his mother, Susie (woman on the right). My great-aunt Adelia found this picture in the archives at the Wisconsin Historical Society years ago. My grandfather was born in 1899 and so this picture was taken around 1900. Susie is with her sister and cousin."

 
Picking Cranberries, 1900

      
 
H. H. Bennett    
Hezazačka, "Branching Horns," 1905   Little Winneshiek and His Wife (see above 1, 2)

       
 
    Harry Elsworth Cole
Little Cloud, 1900   Chief Ahúčogá, "Blue Wing," ca. 1905

 
BAE GN 4389
A Girl Standing in Front of a Small Lodge, 1900-1907

 
Harry Elsworth Cole
Right to Left: Smoky Smoke, a Menominee; Yellow Thunder, son of the old chief; Bill Decorah (with club),
and his wife and child at a camp near Linen Mill, close to the south bank of the river Baraboo (1905).

 
Dickenson.edu
Pelagie Nash, Carlisle School, ca. 1907

      
 
Dr. R. C. Gebhardt, NAA    
Women Gambling with Dice, 1907

 
Jim Swallow, William Massey, Tom Thunder, George Eagle, Ben Thundercloud
1908

      
 
De Lancey W. Gill   De Lancey W. Gill

John Harrison, 1909
Wakąjakiriga, Thunderbird Coming (1847-ca. 1916)

In his youth he was a member of Company “A” of the Omaha Scouts, and later rose to the rank of Captain of the police. He was a source for Dorsey, Gatschet, and Radin. For his stories in this collection, see Contributors.

 
Dr. Alphonse Gerend
John Mike's Spirit Stone
"My stone animal was kept by my great grandfathers. My grandfather kept it, beginning in 1809, until his death. I have the possession of the animal since my father died, in 1908, he being then 99 years old. This animal is helpful to the members of our families. We ask it for strength and power and for wild game. He replies by giving us these and power. He gives us these through his spirit."

 
Hacking Bros.
U.S. Census Taker Enumerating the Hočągara near Waupaca, Wisconsin
1910

     
 
BAE 37, Pl. 9a   BAE 37, Pl. 5a
John Baptiste     Jim Pine
John Baptiste, Wąkšikčónįga ("Foremost Man"), was Paul Radin's original translator, superseded by Oliver LaMère. See Contributors.   Jim Pine was the author of a number of stories contained in this collection. See Contributors.

 

     
   
Charles Miner Collection   BAE 37: Pl. 55a
Oliver LaMère, b. 1879
Oliver LaMère, Čonąkehų-ka, was Paul Radin's principal translator and author of books and articles in his own right. See Contributors.

 

 
G.E.E. Lindquist, Columbia
The Oldest Member of the Hočąk Nation
Winnebago, Nebraska, After 1912

     
 
BAE 37: Pl. 55b     BAE 37, Pl. 5b
John Rave (Bear Clan) and Family, Prior to 1913
John Rave was an important informant for Paul Radin. See Contributors.

      
 
Charles Van Schalck Collection   Baitt and Parsons
Betsy Thunder, Hočąk Medicine Woman,
Bird Clan, February 6, 1913
  A Young Man and His Dog
1913
"When the U.S. government ordered Wisconsin Winnebagoes to migrate to Nebraska, Betsy and others hid out in the hills of Jackson County. She lived in Wiscionsin her entire life because she felt god had wanted it that way." — Victoria Brown   Dogs played a very important part in Hočąk life, not only as companions of the hunt, but as members of the family. They were considered equivalent to human beings, and were thus, from time to time, offered as a human sacrifice to the Spirits and then eaten.

 
Rev. James Osbourne Arthur Collection
A Hočąk Sewing Circle, 1913
The woman at the far left is Mrs. Arthur, the wife of the missionary from the Presbyterian Church, holding her child. The Hočąk women are not identified. The picture was take at Winnebago, Nebraska.

 
Henry Roe Cloud
A Hočąk Bark Lodge, ca. 1915

 
G.E.E. Lindquist, Columbia
A Prayer Service of the Native American Church
Winnebago, Nebraska

      
 
Geschichte der Deutschen Synode des Nordwestens der Reformierten Kirche in den Vereinigten Staaten, 1867 bis 1917   The Wisconsin Winnebago Indians
and the Mission of the Reformed Church
John Stacy and Family
Before 1917
  The First Converts to the Reformed Church: Left to Right:
Mrs. John Stacy, John Stacy, David Decorah, King of Thunder, Before 1921

 

 
Reformed Church
Hočąk Matrons, Prior to 1922

    
 
Angel De Cora, Maxiwi-Kerenąka[wįga] ?   Angel De Cora at Her Easel
Angel De Cora was an accomplished artist who was published in many magazines and books of the time. She was a member of the Thunderbird Clan, and the Decorah family, heriditary chiefs, descended from Sabrevoir de Carrie and Hąboguwįga, the only known female chief of the Hočągara. Her husband, who was half Sioux, was (ironically) the first head coach of the Washington Redskins. For a photo of Angel Decorah at age 10, see above.

               
   
George Howard "Chief" Johnson (1886-1922)
Major League Baseball pitcher for the Cinncinati Reds and the Kansas City Packers (1913-1915).

             
   
Lillian Margaret St. Cyr, 1914
Ahušujᵋwįga, "Red Wing" (1884-1974)
  Lillian St. Cyr
in "Squaw Man," 1914
  Lillian St. Cyr with Her Husband,
James Young Deer (Johnson)
Lillian St. Cyr performed in more than 35 short Western films from 1908-1921. She became a Hollywood star by appearing in the lead role in Cecil B. DeMille's first film, "The Squaw Man." She and her husband Young Deer were recognized as Hollywood's first "power couple."

 

       
 
    Dickenson.edu
Foster Decorah
and Two of His Sons
  Albert Hensley, His Two Daughters
and Two Nieces, ca. 1915
Corporal Foster Decorah was a member of the 128ᵀᴴ Infantry Regiment. He and Robert Decorah were KIA during the assault on Hill 230 near Cierges, France on 1 Aug. 1918.   The handwritten note on the reverse side reads: "A Winnebago on his way to the Springfield, South Dakota School, with his 2 daughters and 2 nieces."

 

       
 
Charles Miner Collection   Charles Miner Collection
William Miner, Sr. and His Wife Clara Brown   Robert Decorah
1917-1918. Like a great many other Hočąks, William Miner was a member of the 128ᵀᴴ Infantry Regiment (Les Terribles), of the 32ᴺᴰ Division (the Red Arrow Division).   1917-1918. Robert Decorah was also a member of the 128ᵀᴴ Infantry Regiment. He and Foster Decorah were KIA in an assault of Hill 230 near Cierges, France on 1 Aug. 1918.

       
 
Charles Miner Collection    
George Miner in Semi-Pro Baseball   Corporal George Miner of Tomah, Wisconsin
This is a postcard picture.   Pulling Guard at the American Bridgehead (Occupation Zone) at Niederahren, Germany, 2 January 1919.

Library of Congress
Performers on the Beach by Stand Rock near the Amphitheater, 1925

Charles Miner

Moses Decorah and His Wife Kate, Prior to 1929

"Mose" Decorah (1854-1929) was the son of Four Deer, a prominent chief in the Portage area.

     
 
Indians of Today   Library of Congress
Whirling Thunder (Wakąjágiwįxka), ca. 1936   Whirling Thunder (Wearing a Plains Headdress)
He was born in Tomah, Wisconsin. Whirling Thunder pursued a career with the Boy Scouts. He was a member of the Order of the Arrow and Vice-President of the Indian Council Fire. He was received by King Christian X when he visited Denmark for an Indian presentation.   "Princess O-Me-Me, a Chippewa; Sun Road, a Pueblo; and Chief Whirling Thunder, a Winnebago, looking over Chicago's skyline from the roof of the Hotel Sherman." 3 October 1929.

 
The Winnebago Finds a Friend
Reverend Jacob Stucki with Hočąk Children, ca. 1931

       
 
The Winnebago Finds a Friend   The Winnebago Finds a Friend
King of Thunder (Thunderbird Clan), ca. 1931   John Stacy, ca. 1931

 
Library of Congress
Chief Frank Beaver, Rep. Karl Stefans, and William Davis
"Washington, D.C., July 5, 1939. Congressman Karl Stefans of Nebraska conferred with tribesmen of the Winnebago Reservation over his bill to provide compensation for members of the Winnebago Tribe for lands which the Indians were forced to leave in Wisconsin in 1863, ... and feels that Winnebagos should be compensated for their lands."

               
       
Henry Roe Cloud at Yale
  Henry Roe Cloud and the Roe Family   Henry Roe Cloud, 1931 (see above)
  Henry Roe Cloud in Oregon
His clan name was Wonąǧirehųka, "War Chief", a Warrior Clan name. Henry Roe Cloud (1881-1950) was an educator, college administrator, official in the Office of Indian Affairs, Presbyterian minister, and reformer. The first Native American admitted to Yale University.

      
 
Mitchel Red Cloud, jr.   Mitchel Red Cloud, jr.
Won the Medal of Honor in the Korean War. Mitchell Red Cloud Jr., from Wisconsin, was a corporal in Company E., 19th Infantry Regiment, in Korea. "With utter fearlessness he maintained his firing position until severely wounded by enemy fire. Refusing assistance he pulled himself to his feet and wrapping his arm around a tree continued his deadly fire again, until he was fatally wounded. This heroic act stopped the enemy from overrunning his company's position ..."

           
   
    Daily Iowan   postcard
George LaMère (Hotonga)
1920's (?)
  Hotonga
1938
  Hotonga
1950's (see above)
George LaMère was born in 1900 at Winnebago, Nebraska. He had an extraordinary voice, having sung on Broadway before winning a scholarship to the University of Miami on the strength of an audition. He graduated with honors, and was on the faculties of Hope College and Carson Indian School. He was Charles Sanford Skilton's chief collaborator in his "Indianist" music. He was the featured singer in the Standing Rock performances throughout his adult life. He died in 1956.

             
   
Bob (Robert William) Harrison (b. 1927)
Bob Harrison is the grandson of John Harrison (above). He was the first American Indian to have played in the NBA. Bob Harrison had a distinguished career with Minneapolis Lakers (1949–1953), Milwaukee / St. Louis Hawks (1953–1956), Syracuse Nationals (1956–1958), and played in the 1956 All Star game. He later coached at Kenyon College and Harvard University.

      
 
Reuben Snake (1937-1993), Snake Clan   Joba Chamberlain (b. 1983), Buffalo Clan
Hočąk tribal chairman, environmentalist, writer, singer and national chairman of the American Indian Movement.   Major League Baseball pitcher for the New York Yankees, Detroit Tigers, Kansas City Royals, and Cleveland Indians.

       
 
Arcadia Publishing   Roseberry
Ken Funmaker, Wamą́nįga, "Snow Walker" (1932-2008), Bear Clan
Traditional Bear Clan Leader, Medicine Lodge and Feast Lodge Elder, Stand Rock Indian Ceremonial Performer, Wisconsin Winnebago Tribal Chairman, founder of the first Hočąk Language Program.

      
 
Truman Lowe (b. 1944)   Bronson Koenig (b. 1994)
Internationally famed artist, and professor; winner of the Wisconsin Visual Art Lifetime Achievement Award.   A University of Wisconsin basketball star, "the most notable Native American men’s basketball player in the nation." He is also a prominent activist.


The 1898 Transmississippi Exposition, Omaha, Nebraska

    
 
F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #02049   F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #02047
The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library   The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library
"Old Black Hawk, Wm Hansley, Ed Logan"   "Ed, Peter, & Wm Logan, Wm Hansley"

   
  
F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #02497   F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #02055
The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library   The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library
Black Hawk   Chief Black Hawk
The older Black Hawk at left is the father of his namesake on the right.

         
   
F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #02046   F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #02052   F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #02053
The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library   The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library   The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library
"Black Hawk, Little Ox"   "Wm Hansley"   "Wm Hansley (Profile)"

    
 
F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #02048   F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #00655
The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library   The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library
"Ed Logan, Four Children"   "Mrs. Joseph Street"
    This is the wife of Gen. Joseph Street, for whom see the Commentary to Juliette Kinzie's Wau-Bun

    
 
F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #02488   F. A. Rinehart, 1898. TMI #02487
The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library   The American Indians 1898 Photo Album. ©Omaha Public Library, 1998. Reproduced by Permission from the collections of the Omaha Public Library
"Winnebago Women, Group of Seven"   "Winnebago Group of Nine"


The 1907 Powwow, Winnebago, Nebraska

 
BAE GN 4410
The Announcer and a Dancer by the Row of Lodges

 
BAE GN 4409
The Announcer and Seated Spectators

 
BAE GN 4408
A Dancer Passing by Spectators

 
BAE GN 4419
Participants Standing Outside the Exhibit Area

 
NAA GN 4411
People Assembling for the Dance

 
NAA GN 4413
People Assembling for the Next Dance

 
BAE GN 4414
Assembled Dancers

 
NAA GN 4415
A Dance Circle Including Girls

 
NAA GN 4416
Singers

 
NAA GN 4417
Singers and Dancers

 
NAA GN 4418
Singers

 
NAA GN 4412
Dancing at the 1907 Powwow


Stereoscopic Photographs

 
Gray Wolf at Blue Earth, Minnesota, between 1855 and 1863
See the matching photo above.

 

 
J. E. Whitney

Winneshiek the Elder (Wakąjaguga), Head Chief of the Hočągara
1862-1875

W. H. Illingworth
Chief Gray Wolf
Between 1868 and 1880
Gray Wolf was the brother of the last Hočąk War Chief, Little Priest.

 
W. H. Illingworth
Čenąžį́ga = Standing Buffalo (David McCluskey), ca. 1870
Che-nah-zi-gah was arrested for assisting the Dakota during the outbreak of 1862, but later released. David McCluskey is listed as a private in Stufft's Independent Company, Indian Scouts, US Volunteers. He saw action during the Sully Campaign against the Lakota in 1864, and is the author of a large pictograph depicting the fighting that took place during the Battle of the Badlands. The caption of this picture describes him as "a celebrated dancer."

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Standing Buffalo Holding a Rifle, 1874

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Standing Buffalo Holding a Rifle While Reclining, 1874

 
H. H. Bennett
Hezazačka, "Branching Horns," 1905

 
C. L. Hamilton ?

A Seated Woman
Between 1868 and 1880

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
A Seated Woman
Between 1868 and 1880

 
C. L. Hamilton
A Child

 
Unknown Studio
One Horn

 
C. L. Hamilton
A Woman with a Child on Her Back
Between 1868 and 1880

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Two Young Women with a Baby
Between 1868 and 1880

 
B. H. Gurnsey ?
Paskaga, White Nose
Between 1868 and 1880
The explanation asssociated with the photo says, "Pos-Ka-Ka or White Face, Winnebago celebrated for the size of his nose." The name is actually, pa, "nose"; ska, "white"; and -ga, a suffix indicating a personal name.

 
Jim Big Winnebago
Big Winnebago had married a Dakota woman, and was charged with participating in the Sioux Uprising of 1862, but later acquitted. "Big Winnebago" is a translation of Hočągᵋxetega, which the Dakota rendered as Otonkatonka.

 
W.H. Illingworth
Three Men Seated (Standing Buffalo is in the Center)
St. Paul, Minnesota, 1870

 
W. H. Illingworth
San-Jan-Mon-E-Kah = Sąjamąnįga, "Grizzled Walking Person" (Henry Rice Hill, Son of Chief Little Hill) and Benjamin Bearskin, 1870

 
James H. Hamilton & Charles Franklin Hoyt
Blue Sky, 1875-1876
This photograph is labeled "Green Cloud," which would be either Keročoga or Mąxíčoga. Both kero and mąxí are ambiguous between "cloud" and "sky," and the word čo covers the spectrum from blue through green. Therefore, the most sensible translation is "Blue Sky." The photograph was taken in Sioux City, Iowa. In the Sioux City directories the Hamilton-Hoyt Studio is listed only once in 1875-1876.

 
A Group of Men in Traditional Clothing
Blackhawk (q.v.) is seen seated at the far right. The photo appears to have been before 1875.

 
C. L. Hamilton
A Man with a Beaver Skin Cap
Between 1868 and 1880

 
C. L. Hamilton
A Man Wearing a Blanket
Between 1868 and 1880

 
William Henry Jackson
Keračowįga, "Blue Sky" (Wolf Clan), a Girl, and a Dog
1877

 
Unknown Studio (Gurnsey ?)
Mah-dee-hay-wingah (Mąnįhewiga ?), One That Walks Behind
Between 1868 and 1880

 
Unknown Studio
A Woman with a Blanket on Her Lap
Between 1868 and 1880

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Three Women and a Child on a Hillside

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Four Children
Between 1865 and 1880

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
A Group Sitting on a Hillside
Between 1868 and 1880

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
A Camping Scene
Between 1868 and 1880

 
Tonnunga (Tonąka, "He Sits Large" ? or perhaps Omaha Tenuga, "Buffalo")
Between 1865 and 1880

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Men and Women Seated on a Bench Outside a Building
Between 1868 and 1880

 
NAA INV 09860700 – Stanley J. Morrow
Men in Full Warrior Costume
Between 1868-1881

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
"Winnebago Treaty Table"
1871
Taylor's Scrapbook describes this scene as, "Winnebago and Omaha Indian Council." This council was held in Nebraska between Winnebago leaders including Standing Bear, and Omaha leaders including Yellow Smoke, with Superintendent of Indian Affairs Samuel McPherson Janney in 1871. Another photograph in this set is entitled, "Council between Winnebago and Omaha tribes with Superintendent Janney in Nebraska in 1871." The man standing in front of the horseman (Yellow Smoke ?) appears to be addressing the convocation. The man with the upright feathers standing behind the table is Standing Buffalo (q.v., 1, 2, 3, 4).

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
Winnebago Treaty Table, 1871, Enlarged

 
C. L. Hamilton
A Seated Group with Horses
Between 1862 and 1868

 
C. L. Hamilton ?
People Sittng in a Clearing at a Campsite

 
H. H. Bennett
Nąjuziwįga, "Brown Hair," Prior to 1890

 
H. H. Bennett
Big Bear (1810-1890) with Bow and Arrows

 
H. H. Bennett
Big Bear in the Diamond Grotto, Wisconsin Dells