Notes to The Redhorn Panel of Picture Cave: An American Star Map

§1. The Redhorn Panel of Picture Cave.

1 Carol Diaz-Granados, "Marking Stone, Land, Body, and Spirit," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South (New Haven: Yale University Press and The Art Institute of Chicago, 2004) 148, fig. 20.
2 James R. Duncan and Carol Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, 25, #1 (Spring, 2000): 1-7.
3 James Warren Springer and Stanley R. Witkowski, "Siouan Historical Linguistics and Oneota Archaeology," in Guy E. Gibbon, ed., Oneota Studies, University of Minnesota Publications in Anthropology, #1 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982) 69-83.
4 We see the assumption, "Morning Star (known by the Winnebago as Red Horn),"in Carol Diaz-Granados and James R. Duncan, "Reflections of Power, Wealth, and Sex in Missouri Rock-Art Motifs," in Carol Diaz-Granados and James R. Duncan, edd., The Rock-Art of Eastern North America: Capturing Images and Insight (Tuscaloosa & London: University of Alabama Press, 2004) 146, and 148-149 (where, curiously, they say he is also called "Hawk"), 150 (where one of his sons is identified with Morning Star), 203. The identity is maintained elsewhere by Diaz-Granados, Brown (where he is also said to be identical to a falcon-like Birdman), and F. Kent Reilly, who goes so far as to call Sam Blowsnake's Redhorn Cycle, "the Morning Star myth" — see James A. Brown, "The Cahokian Expression: Creating Court and Cult," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand, caption to fig. 1, 115; Carol Diaz-Granados, "Marking Stone, Land, Body, and Spirit: Rock Art and Mississippian Iconography," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand, 148; F. Kent Reilly, "People of Earth, People of Sky: Visualizing the Sacred in Native American Art of the Mississippian Period," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand, 133.
5 However, at one point Duncan says, with respect to the "Red Horn" pictograph, "This 'early' Braden style rendering conforms to the description of He-who-wears-human-heads-as-earrings, or Red Horn, after he wrestled with the 'giants'. Red Horn's head is described as being carried by one of his sons ... this is an unmistakable scene at Picture Cave that is finely and delicately rendered and includes a substantial use of white pigment." Carol Diaz-Granados and James R. Duncan, The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri (Tuscaloosa & London: University of Alabama Press, 2000) 212; much the same is said at Duncan and Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 4.

§2. The Names "Redhorn" and Įčo-horúšika.

1 John Harrison, The Giant or The Morning Star, translated by Oliver LaMère, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a, Story 8: 92-117 [112].
2 Charles Houghton, Untitled, translated by Oliver LaMère, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #11a: 60.
3 "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [456-457]; Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 131-132.
4 Robert L. Hall, "Cohokia Identity and Interaction Models of Cahokia Mississippian," in Thomas E. Emerson and R. Barry Lewis, Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991) 3-33 [30-33]; Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) 147-148; Robert J. Salzer and Grace Rajnovich, The Gottschall Rockshelter: An Archaeological Mystery (St. Paul: Prairie Smoke Press, 2001) 61-65; Duncan and Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 1-7.
5 Stephen Williams and John M. Goggin, "The Long Nosed God Mask in Eastern United States," The Missouri Archaeologist, 18, #3 (1956): 4-72.
6 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 131-132.
7 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago IV, #7a: 11.
8 RS [Rueben StCyr ?], "Snowshoe Strings," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #60: 21.
9 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 123-129.

§3. Įčorúšika as a Star.

1 See the excellent discussion of Radin's views in George E. Lankford, Reachable Stars: Patterns in the Ethnoastronomy of Eastern North America (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2007) 117-119.
2 Harrison, The Giant or The Morning Star, 92-117.
3 "Reason for Milky Way," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3862 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago I, #3: 105, 107b.
4 In speaking of the Morning Star, the Crow Wyola reported,

[My grandfather] said, "Don't point at that star. He is sacred." Baptists told him it is the Devil. We don't know for a fact, but they said that it is the Devil. Bird Far Away [a Baptist lay-minister at Lodge Grass in the 1920s] spoke to him about it. He told my grandfather that the Morning Star may have a lot of different stories about it, but it is the Devil. Maybe Baptists are afraid of this star [laughs].

This suggests that Christian ministers were substituting their own mythology in order to discourage the worship of Morning Star. Timothy P. McCleary, The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Lifeways (Prospect Hills, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1997) 34.
5 Paul Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society)Notebook #14: 1-67.
6 Francis La Flesche, The Osage Tribe: Two Versions of the Child-Naming Rite, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, 43d Annual Report (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1928) 74.
7 Radin, "Intcohorúcika," 66-67. e Ki de t ni A tte K. wi s Ko deKe w o nK deAe. Ai t ni Ke. wi s Ko deKe d. Ao so K n K n ls. A ntt Ae se n Ki. de e e Ae se de. Ao so K n K n ls. rK n K. ttoAo A n K. doAotto tt n K. rini rK n Ki. e se de. i ttoAo Ao so diAi K. e Ki Ai tt ne n K. Ai ni w Ai s. Ai deKe wi s Ko deKe Ai se de. Ai t ni Ke. roto n Ki. e Ae se se de. || Égi že tanihąjega wiragošge wa'ųnąkše. Hitánike wiragošgežą horokanakąnąpra haną́č herenagi, žee e hereže. Horokanakąnąpra skanąga, čo, hánąga šujanąga zinisganąki [h]ereže, Įčo-horúšika. Égi hijanénąka, hiniwahira, hišge wiragošge hireže. Hitánike stonąki e herereže.
8 William Jones, Ethnography of the Fox Indians, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 125 (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1939) 21.
9 James R. Murie, Ceremonies of the Pawnee. Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press for the American Indian Studies Research Institute, Indiana University, 1989) 42.

§4. Deer Lungs and Ears.

1 This is not an act of cruelty by Redhorn's sister-in-law, but behavior expected of her as a joking relative. The joking relation obtained for one's father's sister's children, mother's brother's children, mother's brothers, sisters-in-law, and brothers-in-law. Radin tells us, "In the two cases last named [sisters-in-law and brothers-in-law] not only was a man permitted to joke with those relatives but he was supposed to do so whenever he had an opportunity. Under no circumstances were any of these individuals supposed to take offense. This relationship was of course reciprocal." Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 85.
2 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 115-118.
3 Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) 56, 151.
4 Paul Radin, "The Red Man," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #6: 61-66.
5 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 12-13.
6 Paul Radin, "Coon Skin Fur Coat," Winnebago Notebooks (American Philosophical Society Library) Notebook #59: 1-122; Paul Radin, "White Wolf," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) Notebook #10: 1-64.
7 Paul Radin, "A Man and His Three Dogs," in Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3853 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago IV, #6: 143-147.
8 Jigi Hočųk’ čínoknǫkšgúni. Wągwášoše xetéra hočįčį́nįgią gičoínegi. P’įxjį. Xetéhi nąúje, hahí warújenįk gip’į́giži čaraxúrašana rúčgigis’áže. Sagerékjege wágiúnąkše. James StCyr, "Fleetfoot," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #19, Story II: 18.
9 The material on the Deer Clan and centrality comes from Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 198-201; and "Deer Clan Origin Myth," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3899 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago III, #19a: 1-13. See the Deer Clan Origin Myth.
10 Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990 [1899]) 256a-b, s. v. कणॅ kárṇa.
11 A. A. MacDonell, Vedic Mythology (Delhi: Motilal Barnassidas: 1974 [1898]) 30.
12 Harrison, The Giant or The Morning Star, 112.
13 "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," in Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," 427-506 [457-458].
14 When a head is taken, its ghost may follow after the warparty and shove stragglers so that they stumble. This shows that the ghost is more drawn to the head than to any other part of his body. Paul Radin, "The Two Friends Who Became Reincarnated: The Origin of the Four Nights Wake," The Culture of the Winnebago as Described by Themselves (Baltimore: Special Publications of the Bollingen Foundation, #1, 1949) 12-46. Informant: John Rave (Bear Clan). The original text is in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 43, 1-62. This story is discussed in Claude Lévi-Strauss, "Four Winnebago Myths," Structural Anthropology, vol. 2, trs. Monique Layton (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976) 198-210. Outside Native America, the head is identified with the soul, and the deceased are sometimes called "heads." Richard Broxton Onians, The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time, and Fate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951) 96-97. For a fuller discussion of this topic, see "The Gottschall Head."
15 Bear's Arm, "3. The Sacred Arrow," in Martha Warren Beckwith, Myths and Hunting Stories of the Mandan and Hidatsa Sioux, Publications of the Folk-Lore Foundation (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College) #10 (1930): 22-52 [42].
16 McCleary, The Stars We Know, 49, 57-62; Plenty Hawk, "1. Spring Boy and Thrown Away," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 74-75.
17 Ronald Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology (Rosebud Sioux Reservation: Siñte Gleska University, 1992) 26-27. He mentions a 1986 version by Ollie Napesin which no doubt connects the Hand asterism to the story told in DeMallie. The Sixth Grandfather, Black Elk's Teachings Given to John G. Neihardt, ed. Raymond J. DeMallie (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984) 404-409.
18 Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge, 22.
19 In a variant of this story, the child's name is Haçouusā, which means "Little Star" or "Star Child." Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in George A. Dorsey and Alfred L. Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1903]) 332-338 [335]. In another variant, the child is called "Moon Child" (Hiiciisisā). Caspar Edson, "137. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 339. Hiiciis means both "Sun" and "Moon." "138. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 340-341 [341 nt 1]. Consequently, in one story he is said to be the son of the Sun and called Hiiciisteiā. This same story also calls him Housā, "Porcupine's Son," and even Biaxuyan, "Found in Grass." "138. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 340-341. George A. Dorsey, The Arapaho Sun Dance: The Ceremony of the Offerings Lodge. Field Museum Anthropological Series (Chicago: the Museum: 1903) 5:212-228; George Lankford, The "Path of Souls": Some Death Imagery in the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms: Interpretations of Mississippian Iconography, edd. F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007) 174-212 [198]. There is another version of this story in six variants: Fire Wood, "134. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 321-329; Long Hair, "135. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 330-331; Runs in the Water, "136. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 332-338; Caspar Edson, "137. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 339; the source of this variant is an old woman of the tribe, "138. The Porcupine and the Woman who Climbed to the Sky," in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 340-341. Yet another variant is contained in a footnote: Philip Rapid in Dorsey and Kroeber, Traditions of the Arapaho, 339-340 nt 3.
20 Lillian Brave (One Kernel of Corn Woman), "63. Long Teeth and Drinks Brain Soup," in Douglas R. Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians. Volumne 2, Stories of Other Narrators: Interlinear Linguistic Texts. Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians, 4 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991) 2:693-715. Other versions of this myth: Ella P. Waters (Yellow Bird Woman), "85. The Star Husband and Old Woman's Grandson," in Parks, Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians, 2:889-922. White Bear, "15. The Girl who Married a Star," in George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Arikara (Washington, D. C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1904) 56-60. For a discussion of the Hand asterism, see George E. Lankford, Reachable Stars: Patterns in the Ethnoastronomy of Eastern North America (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2007) 226-239.

§5. Only One Horn and the Rites of the Heroka.

1 John Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library, n.d.) Notebook #37: 55-57.
2 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 16.
3 Paul Radin, "The Chief of the Heroka," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #33, p. 65.
4 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 115-118.
5 Paul Radin, "Chief of the Heroka," Winnebago Notebooks (American Philosophical Society Library) Notebook #33, p. 65.
6 Amelia Susman, "Herók'a," Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Book 10: 79. Informant: Sam Blowsnake.
7 Paul Radin, "The Squirrel," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #22, p. 59.
8 Cf. Osage, áhehe, "I pant." Francis La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 109 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1932) s.v. he-he.
9 John Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library, n.d.) Notebook #37: 55.
10 Paul Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #14: 53-56.
11 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 131-132.
12 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908-1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 1-16 [12].
13 The Caddo, for instance, tell a story of a man who slept overnight in the woods, and during the night heard ungodly sounds. A ghost approaches him and asks for help, as he is stranded on earth and cannot get to Spiritland. He asks for a bow and two arrows. When he shoots the arrow, he goes up with it. Ever since then, a bow and arrows have always been buried with the dead so that they might reach Spiritland. George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Caddo (Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1997 [1905]) Story #35: 63-64, 123.
14 James Brown, "On the Identity of the Birdman within Mississippian Period Art and Iconography," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms, 54-106 [101].
15 "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," in Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," 457-458.
16 Sam Blowsnake, Waretcáwera, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) Winnebago V, #11: 223-251. An English translation is found in "The Twins," in Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 95-97. Informant: Sam Blowsnake of the Thunderbird Clan, ca. 1912.
17 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 295.
18 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 295. Informant: a member of the Bear Clan. Some comparison can probably be made to the Old Horn or One Horn Dance of the Pawnee, where the buffalo is imitated, although the members of the dance do not disguise themselves as buffalo, but merely bring their bows, arrows, and spears (Murie, Ceremonies of the Pawnee, 433).
19 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 295.
20 Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Notebook #14: 67.
21 Duncan and Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 4.
22 Susan Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999) 251-253. Among the Siouan Mandans, the principal soul is thought to travel through the sky as a shooting star. Alfred W. Bowers, Mandan Social and Ceremonial Organization (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004 [1950]) 97. The Pleiades star cluster is said in Peru to be the eyes of Viracacha, the god of thunder and creation. Anthony Aveni, Stairways to the Stars: Skywatching in Three Great Ancient Cultures (New York: J. Wiley, 1997) 153. For the "star eyes" of the Aztecs, see Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), translated by Charles P. Bowditch & Frank E. Comparato; J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) 2:186a-b, 2:188b, 2:217b, 2:225b, 3:108a, 3:112b, 3:136b-3:137a, 3:217b, 4:111a, 4:133b, 4:226a, 5:5b, 5:45a, 5: 319a-b. The star-denoting eyes were also called "night eyes" by the Aztecs — see Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 182a. Among the Mixtec, stars (tinoo dzinin) are eyes (tenuu). Jill Leslie Furst, Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus I: A Commentary. Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, State University of New York at Albany, Publication #4 (Albany: the Author, 1978) 13-14. This symbolism is widely distributed over Mesoamerica. Herbert H. Spinden, "A Study of Maya Art: Its Subject Matter and Historical Development," Memoirs of the Pebody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 6 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913) 209, Fig. 239; 214. Hermann Beyer, "Symbolic Ciphers in the Eyes of Maya Deities," Anthropos 23 (1928): 32-37; "El ojo en la simbología del México antiguo," El México Antiguo (Mexico City) 10 (1965): 488-493. Franz Termer, "Observaciones etnológicas acerca de los ojos entre los antiguos Mexicanos y los Mayos," El México Antiguo 9 (1961): 245-273 [250]. Jean-Jacques Rivard, "Cascabeles y ojos del dios Maya Ah Puch," Estudios de Cultura Maya (Mexico City), 5 (1965): 75-91. Horst Hartung, "Astronomical Signs in the Codices Bodley and Selden," in Native American Astronomy, ed. Anthony F. Aveni (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977) 37-41 [38]. Pettazzoni records the following:

As for the stars as eyes of the sky itself, this is a quite wide-spread notion. Among the ancient Mexicans it even found expression in art, in the so-called Codices of their picture-writing, which include some representations of the heavens as dotted with eyes. It still survives among the present-day inhabitants of Mexico, as the Cora and Huichol. Among the Wiyot or Wishosk of central California the stars are called "eyes of the sky." Among the Alacaluf of Tierra del Fuego they are the eyes of Xolas, their Supreme Being. Likewise among the Cashinawa (Western Amazon basin), the stars are the eyes of the sky-Being. Sometimes it is certain particular stars which are his eyes. Thus, among the eastern Pomo in California the stars in general are supposed to be eyes, but the polestar is the eye of Marumda, the Supreme Being. In ancient Peru the seven Pleiades were the eyes of Viracocha. In the central district of the island of Flores the stars are the eyes of Dua Nggae the Supreme Being, who is thought of as being the pair Heaven and Earth. Among the Masai, who are Nilotic Hamites, the stars are the eyes of Ngai, the chief sky-god, and a falling star is one of his eyes which is coming nearer the earth in order to see better.

Raffaele Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," Numen, 2, ##1-2 (Jan.-May, 1950): 1-27 [8]. "Among the Cora of ... Mexico, Tetewan, goddess of he night sky and the lower world, has many "sights," presumably eyes, looking every way, and the same is said of Hatsikan, the Morning Star." Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," 19. A raconteur of a Shoshone story says that after the Cottontail brothers made the Moon out of the Sun's gall bladder, "They made stars out of some other part of the body — maybe the eyes." Annie Bealer, "Cottontail Shoots the Sun," in Anne M. Smith, Shoshone Tales (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993 [1939]) 100. The Greek Άργός Πἄνόπτης | Argós Panóptēs, "Bright All-Eyes," seems to have represented the night sky, with his hundred eyes being the stars, as when Ovid describes him as stellatus ... Argus, "starry Argos" (Metamorphoses 1.644).

Argos Panoptes had "many" or "a hundred" or "ten thousand" eyes, or, according to the Aigimios, four, presumably distributed between two faces, for we actually find him two-faced on some vases. In one he has in addition eyes all over his body, and that was how Kratinos conceived of his panoptai, that is the followers of a philosophic school of which he was making fun in the comedy with that title.

Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," 18-19.
23 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 295.

§6. The Inverted Deer.

1 Paul Radin, "The Red Man," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #6: 70-71.
2 Paul Radin, "The Chief of the Heroka," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #33: 65.
3 Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923) 397, s.v. "Xa-shuch-ra," from an old list by Lyman Draper, checked by John Blackhawk; Kenneth L. Miner, Winnebago Field Lexicon (Kansas City: University of Kansas, June 1984) s.v. Xešúč.
4 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 245-246.
5 Tomkins, Universal Indian Sign Language, 36; George Fronval and Daniel Dubois, translated by E. W. Egan, Indian Signs and Signals (London: Oak Tree Press, 1978) 75.
6 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 295.
7 Alice C. Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, The Omaha Tribe (Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press, 1992 [1904-1905]) 513-514.
8 Fletcher and La Flesche, The Omaha Tribe, 177, cf. 187.
9 Murie, Ceremonies of the Pawnee, 197. The Pawnee hold as well, "... the [wild-]cat skin, because of its spots, was, in its extended form, taken as representing all the stars" (p. 45).
10 La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, s.v. Ṭa-pá.
11 Goodman, Lakota Star Knowledge, 8.
12 Stephen R. Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1890]) s.v. ta; Eugene Buechel and Paul Manhart, Lakota Dictionary (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002) s.v. ta. Goodman translates ta-yamni as "the first born of the three relations" (Lakota Star Knowledge, 8), which is probably an attempt to make sense of Buechel's belief that ta- in this compound means "his" (Lakota Dictionary, s.v. tayamni).
13 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 76-77.
14 Scratches Face, "2. Old-Woman's-Grandchild (Kúricbapìtuac)," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 57-69 [68-69]. Plenty Hawk, "1. Old-Woman's-Grandchild (Kúricbapìtuac)," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 1: 52-57 [57]. Grandmother's Knife, "3. Old-Woman's-Grandchild (Kúricbapìtuac)," in Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," 1: 69-74 [74]. McCleary, The Stars We Know, 31-36.
15 Salzer and Rajnovich, The Gottschall Rockshelter, 3.
16 Salzer and Rajnovich, The Gottschall Rockshelter, 20.
17 Salzer, p.c. (probably 2006), pointed out to me that there was a cave that contained a picture that would "prove" his analysis of Gottschall to be correct. Several attempts to get him to divulge the identity of this cave failed. I assume that the cave in question is Picture Cave, in which case Salzer should be credited with noticing the similarities in styles. See his allusion to Picture Cave in his newsletter.

§7. The Riddle of the Two Morning Stars.

1 The Kalapalo say that the Belt of Orion is a "rufous-sided Heron." Ellen B. Basso, In Favor of Deceit. A Study of Tricksters in an Amazonian Society (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1987) 359-360. Yuri E.Berezkin, AMERINDIAN MYTHOLOGY with parallels in the Old World. Classification and Areal Distribution of Motifs. The Analytical Catalogue, 62. Milky Way is a River.
2 "7. White Plume," in Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [458-461].
3 Jimm Goodtracks, personal communication, April 9, 2006. He notes, "I have searched and not found any term similar to it. That doesn't mean to say that there may not have been one. ... The last part Kagre may be Hga'gredhe (white, spotted/ stripped); wagre may be -xra gredhe (spotted eagle)."
4 La Flesche, Dictionary of Osage, 189, s.v.
5 La Fleshe, Dictionary of Osage, 31, s.v.
6 La Flesche, Dictionary of Osage, 54, s.v.
7 Robert L. Hall, "The Cultural Background of Mississippian Symbolism," in The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex: Artifacts and Analysis. The Cottonlandia Conference. Edited by Patricia Galloway (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989) 251-252. David K. Lynch, "Atmospheric Halos," Scientific American, 238, #4 (April, 1978): 144-151 [146 et passim].
8 Francis La Fleshe, The Osage Tribe: Rite of the Chiefs; Sayings of the Ancient Men. Thirty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1914-15 (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1921) 126-127, lines 57-80; La Flesche, Dictionary of Osage, 365.
9 La Flesche, Dictionary of Osage, 31.
10 The Pawnee say, for instance, "... the eagle is chief of the day; the owl is chief of the night ..." Alice C. Fletcher, assisted by James R. Murie; music transcribed by Edwin S. Tracy, The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony. Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology, Twenty-Second Annual Report, 1900-01 (Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904) 40.
11 La Flesche, The Osage Tribe, 134-135, lines 9-13.
12 Paul Radin, "Old Man and His Grandfather," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #53, 1-107. See also, Paul Radin, "Wears White Feather on His Head," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #4: 1-50.
13 "Tau-Wau-Chee-Hezkaw, or The White Feather," in Henry R. Schoolcraft, Schoolcraft's Indian Legends, ed. Mentor L. Williams (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1991 [1956]) 34-38; Lewis Spence, Myths of the North American Indians (London: George G. Harrap & Company, 1916) 296-301.
14 Marie L. McLaughlin, Myths and Legends of the Sioux (Bismarck, North Dakota: Bismarck Tribune Company, 1916).
15 The Pawnee say that the owl is the chief of the night just as the eagle is of the day. Fletcher, The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony, 40. The priests of the Yellow, White, Red, and Black Meteoritic Stars all wear the feathered skins of owls. Murie, Ceremonies of the Pawnee, 122.
16 Iliad 22.29. ὅν τε κύν’ Ὠρίωνοs ἐpίκλησιν κaλέουσι, "that which they call by name 'dog of Orion'." The same in Eratosthenes, Catasterismi 33 (κύνα Ὠρίωνοs); Hyginus, Astronomica 2.35 (canem Orionis).
17 Æscylus, Agamemnon 967, Sophocles, fr. 941. Sir George Cornewall Lewis, An Historical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients (London: Parker and Bourn, 1862) 61 nt 230.
18 An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, Founded upon the Seventh Edition of Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975 [1889]) s.v. ΚΥ´ΩΝ, 459a.
19 Eleanor R. Long, "How the Dog Got Its Days: A Skeptical Inquiry Into Traditonal Star and Weather Lore," Western Folklore, 43 (1984): 256-264 [257-258].
20 Long, "How the Dog Got Its Days," 259, where it is given its typical misspelling as Lubhdaka. It does come from √ लुभ ् lubh-, "to be perplexed or disturnbed, to become disordered, to go astray, to long for," cognate to Latin libido, and English "love." However, in the star name it is transformed into lubdhaka, "avaricious." Lubdhaka was the name of a hunter, a guise of Śiva, in a story of a celestial hunt. Brahma's daughter fled in the form of a doe, so Brahma himself changed into a stag and chased after her. Śiva-Lubdhaka, himself in pursuit of Brahma, aimed an arrow (the Belt Stars of Orion) at him. Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1990 [1899]) sub लुभ ् lubh- (904c), s.v. लुब्धक lubdhaka (905a). The story derives from the Gaṇitādhyāya and the Kathāsaritsāgara. This tale is of some interest, since we have Sirius, Orion-as-arrow, and a stag and doe/fawn in both this story and the Redhorn Panel in Picture Cave. Sirius as a hunter, and Orion as his arrow is also known from the Western Hemisphere.
21 Kenneth Brecher, "Sirius Enigmas," in Astronomy of the Ancients, edd. Kenneth Brecher and Michael Feirtag (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1979) 91-116 [91, 93].
22 Alfred Louis Kroeber, The Seri. Southwestern Museum Papers, 6 (Los Angeles: Southwest Museum, 1931) 12.
23 J. L'Heureux, "Ethnological Notes on the Blackfeet Indians," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 15 (1885): 301-305 [302]; David Vogt, "Medicine Wheel Astronomy," in Clive N. Ruggles and Nicholas J. Saunders (edd.), Astronomies and Cultures (Niwot: University of Colorado Press, 1993) 163-201 [174].
24 James M. Volo, and Dorothy Denneen Volo, Family life in Native America (Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007) 362.
25 Edward William Nelson, The Eskimo About Bering Strait, Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1896-1897 (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution,1899) 449, 458; John MacDonald, The Arctic Sky: Inuit Astronomy, Star Lore, and Legend (Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, Nanavut Research Institute, 1998) 73, 76.
26 "In parts of the Western Arctic, the rapid, animated colour changes of Sirius earn it the name 'fox star,' Kajuqtuq Tiriganniarlu ('red fox and white fox'). It is said that the 'red fox' and the 'white fox' are fighting together, each trying to gain access to a single foxhole." MacDonald, The Arctic Sky, 75. C. L. N. Ruggles, Ancient Astronomy: an Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth (Santa Barabara: ABC-CLIO, 2005) 194. However, some say that this is the Morning Star, showing some confusion between the two celestial objects. Birgitte Sonne, Agayut: Eskimo Masks from the Fifth Thule Expedition (Copenhagen: Gyldendal, 1988) 101-102; MacDonald, The Arctic Sky, 76.
27 Murie, Ceremonies of the Pawnee, 42.
28 Francis La Flesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 109 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1932) s.v. Shóⁿ-ge a-ga-k'e-goⁿ; Louis F. Burns, Osage Indian Customs and Myths (Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 2005 [1984]) 204.
29 Stansbury Hagar, Cherokee Star-lore, in Berthold Laufer (ed.), Boas Anniversary Volume: Anthropological Papers Written in Honor of Franz Boas (New York: G. E. Stechert & Co, 1906) pp. 354-366. [354-356]. George Lankford, "The 'Path of Souls': Some Death Imagery in the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms, 174-212 [190].
30 Lankford, "The 'Path of Souls'," 209.
31 Bruce Lincoln, “The Hellhound,” Journal of Indo-European Studies 7 (1979): 273-285 [275]. Bernfried Schlerath, "Der Hund bei den Indo-germanen," Paideuma 6 (1954): 25-40. Lincoln argues that the Hellhound was named *Ger, in imitation of a growl, inasmuch as he stands between life and death as the growl stands between silence and speech. To this we might add, using the Hočąk symbolism of sound for light, the Milky Way itself, so often the path of souls, because it is so pale, stands between light and darkness, both metaphors for life and death respectively. Certainly part of the funerary associations of dogs comes from the fact that they will eat human corpses. Lincoln, “The Hellhound,” 284; see also Albrecht Dieterich, Nekyia, 3d ed. (Stuttgart: B. G. Teubner, 1969) 49. Canines generally stand on the boundary between nature and culture, and are thought of as creatures of the boundary. Schlerath, "Der Hund bei den Indo-germanen," 36; see also Manfred Lurker, "Hund und Wolf in ihrer Beziehung zum Tode," Antaios 10 (1969): 199-216.
32 The matter of Sirius' polychrome nature is explored in detail in P. A. L. Chapman-Rietschi, "The Colour of Sirius in Ancient Times," The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 36, #4 (Dec., 1995): 337-350: white: §2.3, black: §2.4, yellow: §2.5, gold: §2.6, green: §2.7, purplish-red: §2.8, copperish: §2.9, red: §2.10. On the issue of the status of Sirius as a red star in ancient times, see Brecher, "Sirius Enigmas," 91-116.
33 Murie, Ceremonies of the Pawnee, 41, who has Ckiri Ti'u-hac, "Wolf Got Fooled" for Sirius (see also, p. 45). Gene Weltfish, The Lost Universe: Pawnee Life and Culture (New York: Basic Books, 1965) 329. In fact canines may just happen to howl at dawn and are doing so to vocalize at other canines in an expression of territorial behavior. However, the Pawnee notion that they are howling at celestial bodies could be a concept held worldwide and may account for the very odd coincidence that Sirius is known as a "dog" star in places that have had no contact with one another. As against this, however, is the fact that wolves howl at most anytime of the day or night.
34 Harrison, The Giant or The Morning Star, 92-117.

§8. The Redhorn Panel as a Star Map.

1 Chantal Jègues-Wolkiewiez, "Chronologie de l'orientation des grottes et abris ornés paléolithiques français," Val Camonica. Symposium 2007 d'Art Rupestre (2007) 225 - 239; "Lascaux, Vision du ciel des Magdalénien," in Arte preistorica e tribale. Conservazione e salvaguardia dei messaggi. Val Camonica. Symposium 2000 d'Art Rupestre (2000). See also the video, "Ancient Astronomers," Naked Science (National Geographic Society, 2009).
This video can be viewed here.

An edited version of "Ancient Astronomers"

2 See the archived version from April 17, 2006. The file was in a state of being composed and was not listed in the index until just recently.
3 "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," in Skinner, 457.
4 Charles C. Willoughby, "Antler-Pointed Arrows of the South-Eastern Indians," American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1901) 431-437.
5 Diaz-Granados and Duncan, "Reflections of Power, Wealth, and Sex in Missouri Rock-Art Motifs," in The Rock-Art of Eastern North America, 149.
6 Murie, Ceremonies of the Pawnee, 197. The Caddo have a very simplified version of this story. To bring an end to the perpetual darkness, Coyote consulted a prophet. He informed Coyote that there were five kinds of deer: the yellow, black, spotted, half-spotted, and white. To kill one of these deer is to turn the whole world into its color pattern. Therefore, they must kill both the black and the white deer, that way they will have both day and night. Once they did this, day came into existence and alternated with the darkness. Dorsey, Traditions of the Caddo, Story #2: 13-14. Cf. the creation story of the Wichita, the relatives of the Pawnee: "Once upon a time it came into the mind of Having-Power-to-Carry-Light [Morning Star] that he should go toward the east. He went farther and farther, not knownng where or why, but still wanting to find out what he was after. He kept on until he came to a grass-lodge. He found somebody existing on the earth besides himself. As he entered the grass-lodge there was light. He saw the man of the grass lodge. This man of the grass-lodge said to him: "Well, I have brought you here. I put it in your mind to come this way and visit me. Therefore, you are Jiere, and I am told to tell you of some things that are to come to pass. You have always thought you were the only person living, but I am here too. I have been created the same as you. The man that creates things is about to improve our condition. Villages shall spring up and more people will exist, and you will have power to teach the people how to do things before unknown to them." While they were talking they heard a voice from the east, saying: "Hurry, you men in the grass-lodge! Come out with your arrows and shoot the deer that are now starting out to your shore!" The man of the grass-lodge replied to the voice : "All right, I will be ready to meet the deer, but I have not yet made my arrows, nor have I got my bow. I must cut and make these first." The man of the grass-lodge went and cut the bow and arrows. Again the voice came, saying: "Hurry, the deer are about to land on the shore that you are on. You are not to shoot the white deer or the black deer, but shoot the last one, that is half black and half white." The man replied : "All right, I will have my bows and arrows ready for him." The man peeled the bark off from his arrows and dried them. The voice came again, telling him to make haste and finish the arrows. The man of the grass-lodge again answered, telling how much he had done on the arrows, and that he was feathering them. After a time the voice came again, saying : "Hurry!" The man of the grass-lodge said : "I have my arrows ready, but I have yet to put on the string." After he had put on the string the voice came again, and said : "The deer are about to land." The two men went out and saw the deer coming out of the water toward them. When they got to the bank the white and black deer jumped out, and as it was jumping out the man of the grass-lodge shot it. After shooting it he heard a voice from above, saying he had done well. This meant that everything would move, that the sun would rise, the stars would move, and the darkness and the light would move on. After shooting the deer he followed all of the deer. Now the voice was heard from above, saying: "You have done the right thing." The white deer went ahead, then the black one, then the one that was wounded. The man of the grass-lodge followed them. This man now became Star-that-is-always-moving (Kinnihequidikidahis) [Sirius ?]. Having-Power-to-carry-Light stayed there after the other man had left to follow the deer. By shooting the deer that was half black and half white it was signified that there should be days and nights. Having-Power-to-carry-Light, as he stood there, looked toward the east, where he heard the voice telling what to do, and there he saw a man standing across the water on the other shore, who said that thereafter he should be called Reflecting-Man (Sakidawaitsa), the sun. The man on the other shore thought that as he should be known as the sun, he would give light, that he would be seen at all times by the people and give them light, and by his powers he would aid them in having great powers. After looking, Having-Power-to-carry-Light looked back at the man who had been speaking to him and he was gone; but he saw the sun coming up. He then turned back to his home. As he went along he began to find out the object of his visit to the grass-lodge. This he liked very much. He had light to travel in and could see a long way. He found that light was better than darkness. On his way back home he found he could travel faster than he could travel in darkness. In a very short time he reached his home. When he got home the sun went down and darkness followed, and he saw up in the sky three stars coming up [Belt stars of Orion ?], followed by a single star [Sirius ?]. Having-Power-to-carry-Light made up his mind that the three stars were the three deer and that the other star coming behind was the man that had wounded the deer. The three stars represented the three deer as they had come out of the water, while the fourth star, which came later, represented the man who had wounded the deer." Towakoni Jim in George A. Dorsey, The Mythology of the Wichita (Washington: Carnegie Institution, 1904) 25-26.

§9. The Making of the Star Map.

1 Robert H. Merrill, "The Calendar Stick of Tshi-zun-hau-kau," Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bulletin 24 (Oct., 1945): 1-11. Alexander Marshack, "A Lunar-Solar Year Calendar Stick from North America," American Antiquity, Vol. 50, #1 (Jan., 1985): 27-5. "The most significant of the North American Indian calendar sticks is a rare, early nineteenth century wooden year-stick that notated the days and phases of the lunar month. [It is] exceedingly close to Upper Paleolithic lunar notations in appearance and concept ..." Alexander Marshak, The Roots of Civilization: The Cognitive Beginnings of Man's First Art, Symbol and Notation (Mount Kisco, N.Y: Moyer Bell, 1991) 140 nt 14. The Lakota used sticks to record years. See The Sixth Grandfather, Black Elk's Teachings Given to John G. Neihardt, ed. Raymond J. DeMallie (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984) 303, 308 nt 4; Col. Garrick Mallery, Picture-writing of the American Indians, 2 vols. (New York: Courier Dover Publications, 1972 [1884]) 291. Kiowa — James Mooney, "Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians," Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1895-1896, Part I (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1898) 142-143. Pima — Marshak, The Roots of Civilization, 139-140. Sticks are also used calendrically by the Australian Aboriginies — Marshak, The Roots of Civilization, 136-139.
2 measurments conducted by the author at 2345 hrs., Feb. 9, 2010. Moving the measuring stick farther from the eyes can more than double the distance of the measurement, so the figures arrived at fit very comfortably into the range of variation obtained by sighting over a stick.

§10. Who Made the Star Map?

1 Robert L. Hall, personal communication (February 26, 2010): "All the archaeological evidence coming out indicates that the Illinois were late arrivals in the 'Illinois Country,' appearing not more than a generation before Marquette and Jolliet met them in 1673. About the same time that they appear in Illinois a closely related culture disappears in the Lake Erie basin. I would say about 1649-1650 when the Iroquois were on the rampage."
2 Timothy R. Pauketat, Chiefdoms and Other Archaeological Delusions. Issues in Eastern Woodlands Archaeology (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman Altamira, 2007) 161.
3 The original text (it was told in English) is found in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3862 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago I, #3: 79.
4 Nancy Oestreich Lurie and Patrick J. Jung, The Nicolet Corrigenda. New France Revisited. (Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press, 2009) 110-111.
5 Richard Dieterle, "The Thirty Brothers," Journal of Indo-European Studies, 15, #1-2 (Spring/Summer 1987): 169-214 [213-214 nt 105]. A. J. van Windekens, "Note sur l'étymologie de Ārçi," Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire, 18 (1939): 955-962; Lexique étymologique des dialectes tokhariens," in Bibliothèque du Muséon [Université de Louvain Institut Orientaliste] vol. 11 (Louvain: Bureaux du Muséon, 1941) ss. vv. ārki, ārkiçosi, ārkwi, ārki, and Ārçi (pp. 13-14); Pavel Poucha, Institutiones linguæ Tocharicæ, parts 1-2: "Thesaurus linguæ Tocharicæ dialecti A," in Monografie Archivu Orientálního, vol. 15, ed. J. Rypka (Prague: Státni Pedagogické Nakladatelství, 1955-1956) ss. vv. ārki, ārkiśóṣi, Ārjuṃ, Ārśi, and ārśi- (pp. 24-25). Julius Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (Bern and Munich: Francke Verlag, 1959) 1:64-65; Johann Tischler (with Günter Neumann), Hethitisches etymologisches Glossar (Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, 1983) 1:177.
6 Lurie and Jung, The Nicolet Corrigenda, 112.
7 Lurie and Jung, The Nicolet Corrigenda, 106.
8 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 136.

§11. Conclusions.

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