The Encyclopedia of Hōcąk (Winnebago) Mythology
© 2005
by Richard L. Dieterle
e-mail: diete003@umn.edu


Searchable Archives (Use "Advance Search")
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Founded by Richard Lewis Dieterle (b. 1945). To be succeeded by Shiela Shigley.


Note: This website is a work in progress, so files are being constantly added, revised, and updated.

Some stories may contain subject matter not suitable for children.


"ɴᴇᴡ" refers to items added after March 2, 2024.

"R" denotes items substantially revised after March 2, 2024.


| Guides | Subject Entries | Stories (Waiką & Worak) | Place Name Stories | History and Biography | Personal Histories | Ethnography | Rites | Sayings | Poetry | Narrative Structure | Foreign Stories Told by the Hōcągara | Mention of the Hōcągara in the Mythology of Other Nations | Big Knife Fiction of Hōcąk Inspiration | Miscellaneous Material | Spiritual Genealogies | Spuria | Essays | General Works | Language Studies | Census Rolls | Hōcąk Genealogy on WikiTree | Archaeology | Astronomy Allegories | Archaeoastronomy | Maps | Gallery of the Hōcąk Nation | Gallery of Hōcąk Artifacts | Resources and External Links | Other Sites by Richard Dieterle |


Acknowledgement


Guides

The Format

Contributors

Introduction

Core Myths

Catalogue of Story Types

Catalogue of Themes

Songs

Musical Scores

Sunrise Song (score only)

Glossary

Glossary of Indian Nations

Glossary of Non-Indian Nations

Hōcąk Bibliography

Radin's Winnebago Notebooks at the American Philosophical Society

Original Texts

| Winnebago II, #5: 31-34 (Keramąnįš’aka's Blessing) | Winnebago II, #6: 16v-21 (Keramąnįš’aka's Blessing) | Winnebago II, #1: 35-40 (The Blessing of Kerexųsaka) | Winnebago II, #5: 36-39 (The Blessing of Kerexųsaka) | Winnebago II, #6: 22-28 (The Blessing of Kerexųsaka) | Winnebago II, #5: 258-268 (Hare Secures the Creation Lodge of the Medicine Rite) | Winnebago II, #6: 69-81 (Hare Secures the Creation Lodge of the Medicine Rite) | Winnebago II, #6: 169-177 (The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4)) | Winnebago III, #6: 362-372 (The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4)) | Winnebago III, #7: 7-10 (The Bear Feast) | Winnebago III, #12: 21-23 (The Blessing of Kerexųsaka) | Winnebago III, #19b: 14-16 (Burial Customs) | Winnebago III, #19b: 17-20 (The Omahas who Turned into Snakes) | Winnebago IV, #8o, Version 1: 1-12, Version 2: 1-11 (The Thunderbird) | Winnebago V, #14 (Ocean Duck) | Winnebago V, #15 (The Shaggy Man) | Winnebago V, #16 (The Nannyberry Picker) | Winnebago V, #20 (Thunderbird Warbundle Feast, v. 3) | Winnebago V, #21 (The Buffalo Dance) | Notebook 13 (Ocean Duck) | Notebook 14 (Įcohorúšika and His Brothers) | Notebook #16 (The Thunderbird) | Notebook 20 (Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle) | Notebook 23 (Sore Eyes Rite) | Notebook 24: 11-19 (The Bear Feast) | Notebook 39 (Aracgéga's Blessing) | Notebook 40 (The Buffalo Dance) | Notebook 48 (Crane and His Brothers) | Notebook 60 (Snowshoe Strings) | Notebook 66, Story 4: 1-7 (The Two Children) | Notebook 69 (Sore Eyes Rite) | Notebook 74.1 (Victory Dance) | Notebook 78 (Hokixere Dance) | YouTube (A Deer Story) |

Untranslated Transcriptions of Audio Tapes at APS

The Drunkard's Self-Reflections | A Peak-Headed Member of Reborn Triplets |

Susman's Winnebago Notebooks at the American Philosophical Society

Original Texts

| Book 11: 39 - 49 (The Bow and Arrow) |

McKern's Winnebago Notebook at the Milwaukee Public Museum • Includes all the original MSS

The McKern Papers on Hōcąk Ethnography, Printed Version

Hōcąk Syllabary, Transliteration, and Pronunciation

Myths Analysed in Lévi-Strauss, "Four Winnebago Myths"


Subject Entries (Personages, Lands, Sacred Objects, Concepts)

Ants

Aurora Borealis

Bear

Bear Spirits

Bears

Beavers

Bees

Bird Spirits

Black Bear

Black Hawk

Black Hawks

Bladder

Blue (or Gray) Bear

Blue Jay

Bluehorn (Evening Star)

Buffalo Spirits

Butterflies

Calendar — see Moon

The Cardinal Points

Celestial Spirits

Chipmunks

Cosmography

Cougars (Mountain Lions, Pumas, Panthers)

Coyote

Crane

The Creation Council

Crows, see Kaǧi

Day

Deer Spirits

Devil's Lake

Disease Giver

Ducks

Eagle

Earth (Grandmother)

Earthmaker (Mą’ųna)

Elk

Fire

Fish Spirits

Fishers

Flint

The Forked Man

Genealogy

Foxes

Frogs

Ghosts

Hōcąk Text — Beliefs Concerning Ghosts

Giants

Gourd Rattles

Grandmother — see Earth

Grasshoppers

Great Black Hawk

Great Spirit — see Earthmaker (Mą’ųna)

Hare (Wašjįgéga, Rabbit)

See also The Hare Cycle

Hawks

Herešgúnina (the Devil)

Heroka

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — Heroka Songs

see also, The Redhorn Panel at Picture Cave: An American Star Map

[He Who has] Human Heads as Earlobes — see Redhorn

Horses

Hummingbirds

Iron Spirits

Island Weights

Kaǧi (Crows, Ravens)

Kecągéga — see Turtle

Lake Winnebago

Leeches

Lice

Lightning

Little Children Spirits

Little Fox

Loons

Maize

Martens

Mą’ųna — see Earthmaker

The Meteor Spirit

Mice

Minks

Moon

Helmbrecht and Lehmann's List of Hōcąk Moons

Jipson's List of Hōcąk Moons

McKern's List of Hōcąk Moons

Osage Moons

Sioux Moons

Susman's List of Hōcąk Moons

Trowbridge's List of Hōcąk Moons (1823)

Morning Star

see also, The Rise of Morning Star

Mountain Lions — see Cougars

Nightspirits

The North Wind

One Legged One

Otters

Owls

Partridge

Pigeon

Pigeon Hawk

Polaris

Pretty Woman

Rabbit (Wašjįgéga) — see Hare

Raccoons

Ravens, see Kaǧi

Red Bear

Red Star — see Bluehorn

Redhorn

See also The Redhorn Cycle, The Redhorn Panel at Picture Cave: An American Star Map

Redman

Rock Spirits

Rušewe

Skunks

Sleets as He Walks

Snakes

Snowbirds • revised: 6.19.2024

The Sons of Earthmaker

The Sons of Redhorn

See also The Redhorn Cycle

South Wind

Spiders

Spirit Woman (Hinųkxop’ini)

Spirits (Waxop’ini)

Squirrels

Storms as He Walks

Sun

Supernatural and Spiritual Power

Swallows

Swans

The Thunderbird Warclub

Thunderbirds

Tobacco

Traveler

Tree Spirits

Trickster (Wakjąkága)

See also The Trickster Cycle

Turkeys

Turtle (Kecąkega)

Turtle Spirits

The Twins

Wašjįgéga — see Hare

Wakjąkaga — see Trickster

The Wąkpanįgera

Wanąǧi — see Ghosts

Wanąǧi Mónąc

The Waterspirit of Green Lake

Waterspirits

The Wazija

Weasels

Wears Sparrows for a Coat

White Bear

Wildcats (Bobcats)

Witches

Wolf & Dog Spirits

Wonáǧire Wąkšik

Wood Spirits

Yųgiwi


Stories

Adventures of Redhorn's Sons

Ancient Blessing

The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite

Hōcąk Text —The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite

The Animal who would Eat Men

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Animal that would Eat Men

The Annihilation of the Hōcągara I

Annihilation of the Hōcągara II

Arácgega's Blessings

Hōcąk Text — Arácgega's Blessings

The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men

Hōcąk Text — The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 1)

Hōcąk Text — The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2)

Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth

The Baldness of the Buzzard

Battle of the Night Blessed Men and the Medicine Rite Men

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Battle of the Night Blessed Men and the Medicine Rite Men

The Bear Clan Origin Myth

Hōcąk Text — Bear Clan Origin Myth, Version 7

Hōcąk Text — Bear Clan Origin Myth, Version 8

Bear Offers Himself as Food

Hōcąk Text — Bear Offers Himself as Food, Version 2

The Beginning of the Winnebago

Hōcąk Text — The Beginning of the Winnebago

Berdache Origin Myth

The Big Eater

Hōcąk Text — Big Eater

Big Eagle Cave Mystery

The Big Stone

Big Thunder Teaches Cap’ósgaga the Warpath

Bird Clan Origin Myth

Hōcąk Text — Bird Clan Origin Myth

Quapah Convergences with the Common Winnebago-Chiwere Clan System (Table)

Osage and Hōcąk Clans Compared (Table)

Omaha and Hōcąk Clans Compared (Table)

Bird Origin Myth

Black and White Moons

Black Otter's Warpath

See Frank Weinhold's article on this story: Black Otter's Narrative: Wisconsin Native Recollections Relating to Pre-History of the Lewis-Clark Expedition

Bladder and His Brothers

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Bladder and His Brothers, Version 1

Hōcąk Text — Bladder and His Brothers, Version 2

Hōcąk Text — Bladder and His Brothers, Version 5

Hōcąk Text — Bladder and His Brothers, Version 6

The Blessing of a Bear Clansman

The Blessing of the Bow

Hōcąk Text — The Blessing of the Bow

The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits

The Blessing of Šokeboka

The Blessing of Kerexųsaka

Hōcąk Text — The Blessing of Kerexųsaka

Bluehorn's Nephews

Bluehorn Rescues His Sister

Hōcąk Text — Bluehorn Rescues His Sister

The Boulders of Devil's Lake

The Boy Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds

The Boy who became a Robin

The Boy who Flew

Hōcąk Text — The Boy Who Flew

The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion

The Boy who would be Immortal

Hōcąk Text — The Boy who would be Immortal - 1

Hōcąk Text — The Boy who would be Immortal - 2

Brass and Red Bear Boy

Brave Man

Hōcąk Text — Waterspirit Bluehorn

Brave Man Gambles

Hōcąk Text — Brave Man Gambles

The Brown Squirrel

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Brown Squirrel

Buffalo Clan Origin Myth

Version 3

Buffalo Dance Origin Myth

The Buffalo's Walk

Hōcąk Text — The Buffalo's Walk

The Canine Warrior

Hōcąk Text — The Canine Warrior

The Captive Boys

Hōcąk Text — The Captive Boys

The Chief of the Heroka

The Children of the Sun

The Choke Cherry Wild Cat

The Claw Shooter

Hōcąk Text — The Claw Shooter

The Commandments of Earthmaker

Completion Song Origin

Hōcąk Text — The Completion Song Origin

The Cosmic Ages of the Hōcągara

Coughing Up Black Hawks

Hōcąk Text — Coughing Up Black Hawks

Narrative Structure — Coughing Up Black Hawks

Coyote and the Ghost, see Little Fox and the Ghost

Coyote Goes on the Warpath, see Little Fox Goes on the Warpath

Crane and His Brothers • new translation and commentary added 4.8.2024

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Crane and His Brothers • added 4.8.2024

Radin's Translation • added 4.8.2024

The Creation of Evil

The Creation of Man

Hōcąk Text — Creation of Man, Version 8

The Creation of the World

Hōcąk Text — Creation of the World, Version 11

The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy

Death Enters the World

Hōcąk Text — Death Enters the World

The Death of Red Cloud

Sunrise Song

Deer Clan Origin Myth

Hōcąk Text — Deer Clan Origin Myth, Version 1

A Deer Story

Hōcąk Text — A Deer Story

The Descent of the Drum

Hōcąk Text — Descent of the Drum, Version 1

Hōcąk Text — Descent of the Drum, Version 2

Devil's Lake — How It Got Its Name

The Dipper

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Dipper

Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka

Hōcąk Text — Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka

The Diving Contest

Hōcąk Text — The Diving Contest

The Dog that became a Panther

The Dog Who Saved His Master

The Dogs of the Chief's Son

Eagle Clan Origin Myth

Earthmaker Blesses Wešgíšega

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Earthmaker Blesses Wešgíšega, v. 1

Hōcąk Text — Earthmaker Blesses Wešgíšega, v. 2

East Enters the Medicine Lodge

Hōcąk Text — East Enters the Medicine Lodge (v. 1)

Hōcąk Text — East Enters the Medicine Lodge (v. 2)

East Shakes the Messenger

Hōcąk Text — East Shakes the Messenger

Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle

The Elk Clan Origin Myth

Esau was an Indian

Fable of the Mouse

The Fall of the Stars

The Fatal House

Hōcąk Text — The Fatal House

Fighting Retreat

Hōcąk Text — Fighting Retreat

First Contact

Hōcąk Text — First Contact

The First Fox and Sauk War

The First Snakes

Fish Clan Origins

The Fleetfooted Man

Hōcąk Text — The Fleetfooted Man

The Foolish Hunter

The Four Slumbers Origin Myth

Hōcąk Text — The Four Slumbers Origin Myth

The Four Steps of the Cougar

Hōcąk Text — The Four Steps of the Cougar

Four Steps of the Cougar, Narrative Structure

Fourth Universe

The Fox-Hōcąk War

Hōcąk Text — The Fox-Hōcąk War

The Marin Letter

The Friendship Drum Origin Myth, Variant 1

Hōcąk Text — The Friendship Drum Origin Myth, Variant 1

The Friendship Drum Origin Myth, Variant 2

The Ghost Dance Origin Myth I

Hōcąk Text — Ghost Dance Origin Myth I

The Ghost Dance Origin Myth II

Hōcąk Text — Ghost Dance Origin Myth II

A Giant Visits His Daughter

Hōcąk Text — A Giant Visits His Daughter

The Gift of Shooting

Hōcąk Text — The Gift of Shooting

The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits

The Glory of the Morning

Grandfather's Two Families

Grandmother's Gifts

Hōcąk Text — Grandmother's Gifts

The Gray Wolf Origin Myth

The Great Fish

The Great Lodge

Great Walker and the Ojibwe Witches

Great Walker's Medicine

Great Walker's Warpath

The Greedy Woman

The Green Man

The Green Waterspirit of the Wisconsin Dells

The Hare Cycle

§1. Hare Acquires His Arrows

§2. Hare and the Grasshoppers

§3. Hare Kills Flint

§4. Hare Kills Sharp Elbow

§5. Hare Visits His Grandfather Bear

§6. Grandmother Packs the Bear Meat

§7. Hare Visits the Bodiless Heads

§8. Hare Kills a Man with a Cane

Hōcąk Text — Hare Kills a Man with a Cane

§9. Hare Burns His Buttocks

Hōcąk Text — Hare Burns His Buttocks [incomplete]

Hōcąk Text — The Song of Sun Caught in a Net

§10. Hare Gets Swallowed

Hōcąk Text — Hare Gets Swallowed, Version 2

Hōcąk Text — The Song to the Elephant

§11. Hare Kills Wildcat

§12. Hare and the Dangerous Frog

§13. Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp

Paradise Lost

§14. Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, v. 2

§15. The Necessity for Death

Hōcąk Text — The Necessity for Death, Version 2

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Necessity for Death, Version 3

Hare Establishes Bear Hunting

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Hare Establishes Bear Hunting

Hare Secures the Creation Lodge of the Medicine Rite

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Hare Secures the Creation Lodge of the Medicine Rite

Hare Steals the Fish

Hōcąk Text — Hare Steals the Fish

Hare Visits the Blind Men

Hawk Clan Origin Myth

Hōcąk Text — Hawk Clan Origin Myth

The Healing Blessing

Heną́ga and Star Girl

The Hill that Devoured Men and Animals

Historical Origins of the Medicine Rite

Hōcąk Text — Historical Origins of the Medicine Rite

The Hōcągara Contest the Giants

The Hōcągara Migrate South

The Hōcąk Arrival Myth

Hōcąk Clans Origin Myth

The Hōcąk Migration Myth

Hog's Adventures

Hōcąk Text — Hog's Adventures

Holy One and His Brother, V. 1

Holy One and His Brother, V. 2: "Why a Tattletale is Called a 'Woodpecker',"

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Holy One and His Brother, V. 1

Holy Song

Holy Song II

The Horse Spirit of Eagle Heights

How the Hills and Valleys were Formed

How the Thunders Met the Nights, or, The Live Iron (Mąznį’ąbᵉra)

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Mąznį’ąbᵉra

Įcorúšika and His Brothers

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Įcorúšika

Original Text: Notebook 14

see also, The Redhorn Panel at Picture Cave: An American Star Map

Ioway & Missouria Origins

Iron Staff and His Companions

Hōcąk Text — Iron Staff and His Companions

The Island Weight Songs

Hōcąk Text — The Island Weight Songs

The Journey to Spiritland

Hōcąk Text — Journey to Spiritland, Version 1a

Hōcąk Text — Journey to Spiritland, Version 1b

Hōcąk Text — Journey to Spiritland, Version 4

Hōcąk Text — Journey to Spiritland, Version 5

Hōcąk Text — Journey to Spiritland, Version 6

Hōcąk Text — Journey to Spiritland, Version 8

Kaǧiga and Lone Man

Hōcąk Text — Kaǧiga

Keramąnįš’aka's Blessing

Hōcąk Text — Keramąnįš’aka's Blessing

The King Bird

Lakes of the Wazija Origin Myth

The Lame Friend

Hōcąk Text — The Lame Friend

Lifting Up the Bear Heads

Hōcąk Text — Lifting Up the Bear Heads

Little Fox and the Ghost

Hōcąk Text — Little Fox is Invited to a Feast

Little Fox Goes on the Warpath

Hōcąk Text — Little Fox Goes on the Warpath

Little Human Head

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Little Human Head

The Lost Blanket

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Lost Blanket

The Lost Child

The Love Blessing (with two love songs)

The Magical Powers of Lincoln's Grandfather

Maize Comes to the Hōcągara

Maize Origin Myth

A Man and His Three Dogs

The Man who Defied Disease Giver

The Man who Fell from the Sky

The Man who Lost His Children to a Wood Spirit

The Man who went to the Upper and Lower Worlds

Hōcąk Text — The Man who went to the Upper & Lower Worlds

The Man Who Would Dream of Mą’ųna

The Man Whose Wife was Captured

Hōcąk Text — The Man Whose Wife was Captured

The Man with Two Heads

Hōcąk Text — The Man with Two Heads

A Man's Revenge

Hōcąk Text — A Man's Revenge

The Markings on the Moon

Hōcąk Text — The Markings on the Moon, Version 2 (with notes by Gatschet)

The Masaxe War

The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, v. 2

Hōcąk Text —Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (v. 4)

Menominee Origins (= Bear Clan Origin Myth, v. 2b)

A Menominee Visit to a Chief’s Resort, He being the Only Man Who had not Fled the Place

Hōcąk Text — A Menominee Visit to a Chief’s Resort, He being the Only Man Who had not Fled the Place

The Message the Fireballs Brought

The Messengers of Hare

Hōcąk Text — The Messengers of Hare, Version 1

Hōcąk Text —The Messengers of Hare, Version 2a (First Telling)

Hōcąk Text —The Messengers of Hare, Version 2b (Second Telling)

The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum

Mijistéga and the Sauks

Mijistéga’s Powwow Magic and How He Won the Trader's Store

Migistéga’s Magic

Hōcąk Text — Migistéga’s Magic

Migistéga's Death

The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker

Hōcąk Text — The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, V. 2

The Moiety Origin Myth

Morning Star and His Friend

Hōcąk Text — Morning Star and His Friend

The Nannyberry Picker

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Nannyberry Picker

The Nightspirits Bless Ciwoit’éhiga

Hōcąk Text — The Nightspirits Bless Ciwoit’éhiga

The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka

Hōcąk Text — The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka

North Shakes His Gourd

Hōcąk Text — North Shakes His Gourd

The Oak Tree and the Man Who was Blessed by the Heroka

Ocean Duck

An important astronomical allegory about the Hyades and the Moon.

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Ocean Duck

The Old Man and His Four Dogs

The Old Man and the Giants

Hōcąk Text — The Old Man and the Giants

Old Man and Wears White Feather

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Old Man and Wears White Feather

Old Woman and the Maple Tree Spirit

The Omahas who turned into Snakes

Hōcąk Text — the Omahas who Turned into Snakes

The Origin of the Cliff Swallow

Origin of the Decorah Family

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Origin of the Decorah Family

The Origin of the Hōcąk Chief

The Origin of the Milky Way

The Origins of the Nightspirit Starting Songs

The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse

The Osage Massacre

Hōcąk Text — The Osage Massacre

Oto Origins

Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite

Hōcąk Text — Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite

Owl Goes Hunting

Paint Medicine Origin Myth

Hōcąk Text — Paint Medicine Origin Myth

Partridge's Older Brother

Peace of Mind Regained

Hōcąk Text — Peace of Mind Regained

Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts

The Petition to Earthmaker

Peyote as an Evil Spirit

The Phantom Woman

Pigeon Clan Origins

The Plant Blessing of Earth

Porcupine and His Brothers

A Prophecy

Hōcąk Text — A Prophecy

A Prophecy About the End Time

Hōcąk Text — A Prophecy About the End Time

A Prophecy About the First School

Hōcąk Text — A Prophecy About the First School

The Quail Hunter

Quapah Origins

Quapah-Winnebago-Chiwere Clans

Raccoon and the Blind Men

The Raccoon Coat

A Raccoon Tricks Four Blind Me

The Red Feather

The Red Man

The Redhorn Cycle

§1. The Race for the Chief's Daughter

§2. Kunu's Warpath

§3. Redhorn and His Brothers Marry

§4. Redhorn Contests the Giants

§5. The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father

§6. The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons

§7. The Seduction of Redhorn's Son

Redhorn's Father

Redhorn's Sons

The Reincarnated Grizzly Bear

The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter

Hōcąk Text — Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter

Rich Man, Boy, and Horse

Hōcąk Text — Rich Man, Boy, and Horse

River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake

The Roaster

The Rounded Wood Origin Myth

The Seer

Hōcąk Text — The Seer

The Serpents of Trempealeau

The Seven Maidens

The Shaggy Man

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Shaggy Man

Shakes the Earth

Hōcąk Text — Shakes the Earth

The Shawnee Prophet and His Ascension

The Shawnee Prophet Predicts a Solar Eclipse

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Shawnee Prophet Predicts a Solar Eclipse

The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hōcągara

The Shell Anklets Origin Myth

Hōcąk Text — The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, Version 1a

Hōcąk Text — The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, Version 1b

Hōcąk Text — The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, Version 2

The Sioux Warparty and the Waterspirit of Green Lake

Skunk Origin Myth

The Sky Man

Snake Clan Origins (fragmentary)

A Snake Song Origin Myth

Hōcąk Text — Snake Song Origin Myth

Snowshoe Strings

This unique myth was deciphered as an astronomy allegory tracing the interrelationship between Jupiter and the Evening Star of Venus as they passed through the region of the Milky Way for a period of 91 years (1639-1730).

Hōcąk Text — Snowshoe Strings

Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married

Song to Earthmaker

The Sore Eye Dance Origins

South Enters the Medicine Lodge

Hōcąk Text — South Enters the Medicine Lodge, Version 1

Hōcąk Text — South Enters the Medicine Lodge, Version 2 

South Seizes the Messenger

Hōcąk Text — South Seizes the Messenger

The Spanish Fight

Spear Shaft and Lacrosse

The Spider's Eyes

The Spirit of Gambling

The Spirit of Maple Bluff

The Spiritual Descent of John Rave's Mother

Hōcąk Text — The Spiritual Descent of John Rave's Mother

The Spotted Grizzly Man

The Star Husband

The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth

The Stone Heart

The Stone that Became a Frog

Hōcąk Text — The Stone that Turned into a Frog

The Story of the Medicine Rite

The Story of the Thunder Names

Hōcąk Text — The Story of the Thunder Names

Šųgepaga

Hōcąk Text — Šųgepaga

Sun and the Big Eater

Sunset Point

An important astronomy myth from the Bear Clan.

The Sweetened Drink Song

Hōcąk Text — The Sweetened Drink Song

The Tap on the Head Medicine

Tecumseh's Bulletproof Skin

Testing the Slave

Hōcąk Text —Testing the Slave, Version 1

Hōcąk Text —Testing the Slave, Version 2

The Thunder Charm

The Thunderbird

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Thunderbird

Thunder Cloud is Blessed

Hōcąk Text — Thunder Cloud is Blessed

Thunder Cloud Marries Again

Hōcąk Text — Thunder Cloud Marries Again

Thunderbird and White Horse

Hōcąk Text — Thunderbird and White Horse

Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth

Hōcąk Text — Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Version 3

Hōcąk Text — Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Version 7

Tobacco Origin Myth

Hōcąk Text — Tobacco Origin Myth, Version 1

Hōcąk Text — Tobacco Origin Myth, Version 3

Hōcąk Text — Tobacco Origin Myth, Version 4

Hōcąk Text — Tobacco Origin Myth, Version 5

Traveler and the Thunderbird War

Hōcąk Text — Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 1)

Trickster and the Dancers

Hōcąk Text — Trickster and the Dancers, Version 2

Trickster and the Eagle

Trickster and the Geese

Trickster and the Honey

The Trickster Cycle

§1. Trickster's Warpath

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster's Warpath

§2. Trickster's Buffalo Hunt

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster's Buffalo Hunt

§3. Trickster and the Children

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster and the Children

§4. Trickster's Adventures in the Ocean

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster's Adventures in the Ocean

§5. The Pointing Man

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Pointing Man, v. 1

Hōcąk Text — The Pointing Man (v. 2)

§6. Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (v. 1)

Hōcąk Text — Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (v. 2)

§7. Trickster's Penis

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster's Penis

§8. The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster

§9. Trickster Gets Pregnant

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster Gets Pregnant

Essay: Trickster's Pregnancy and the Seasons of Corn

§10. Trickster Visits His Family

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster Visits His Family

§11. Trickster Eats the Laxative Bulb

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster Eats the Laxative Bulb, Version 2

§12. Trickster and the Plums

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster and the Plums, Version 1

§13. Trickster and the Mothers

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster and the Mothers

§14. Trickster Loses His Meal

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster Loses His Meal, Version 1

§15. The Elk's Skull

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Elk's Skull

§16. Trickster's Tail

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster's Tail

§17. A Mink Tricks Trickster

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — A Mink Tricks Trickster

§18. Trickster Loses Most of His Penis

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster Loses Most of His Penis

§19. The Scenting Contest

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Scenting Contest

§20. The Bungling Host

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Bungling Host

§21. Mink Soils the Princess

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Mink Soils the Princess

§22. Trickster Takes Little Fox for a Ride

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster Takes Little Fox for a Ride

§23. Trickster Concludes His Mission

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Trickster Concludes His Mission

Trickster Soils the Princess

Trickster, Wolf, Lark, and Turtle

Turtle and the Giant

Hōcąk Text — Turtle and the Giant

Turtle and the Merchant

Hōcąk Text — Turtle and the Merchant

Turtle and the Witches

Turtle's Warparty

Hōcąk Text — Turtle's Warparty (v. 2)

Hōcąk Text — Turtle's Warparty (v. 3)

The Twins Cycle of Sam Blowsnake (Version 1)

§1. The Birth of the Twins

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Birth of the Twins

§2. The Twins Disobey Their Father

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Twins Disobey Their Father

§3. The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee

§4. The Twins Get into Hot Water

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Twins Get into Hot Water

§5. The Twins Visit Their Father's Village

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Twins Visit Their Father's Village

§6. The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty

§7. Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — Earthmaker Sends Rušewe

The Twins Cycle of Jasper Blowsnake (Version 2)

§1. The Birth of the Twins

Hōcąk Text — The Birth of the Twins

§2. The Twins Disobey Their Father

Hōcąk Text — The Twins Disobey Their Father

§3. The Twins Get into Hot Water

Hōcąk Text — The Twins Get into Hot Water

§4. The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee

Hōcąk Text — The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee

§5. The Twins Visit Their Father's Village

Hōcąk Text — The Twins Visit Their Father's Village

§6. The Lost Blanket

Hōcąk Text — The Lost Blanket

§7. Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins

Hōcąk Text — Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins

The Twins Cycle (Version 3 of Amelia Susman)

§1. The Birth of the Twins

Hōcąk Text — The Birth of the Twins

§2. he Twins Disobey Their Father

Hōcąk Text — The Twins Disobey Their Father

§3. The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee

Hōcąk Text — The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee

§4. The Twins Get into Hot Water

Hōcąk Text — The Twins Get into Hot Water

§5. The Twins Kill a Waterspirit (= Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, V. 3)

Hōcąk Text — The Twins Kill a Waterspirit

§6. The Twins Visit Their Father's Village

Hōcąk Text — The Twins Visit Their Father's Village

The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Twins Retrieve Redstar's Head

The Two Boys

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Two Boys 

The Two Brothers

Hōcąk Text — The Two Brothers

The Two Children

Hōcąk Text — The Two Children

Two Roads to Spiritland

Visit of the Woodspirit

Wanihéga Becomes a Sak’į

Hōcąk Text — Wanihéga Becomes a Sak’į

The War among the Animals

The Warbundle Maker

The Warbundle of the Eight Generations

Waruǧábᵉra, or The Thunderbird Warbundle

Waruǧábᵉra, Variant 2

Waruką́ną

A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga

Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth

The Waterspirit Guardian of the Intaglio Mound

Intaglio Mounds in Wisconsin

The Waterspirit of Lake Koshkonong

The Waterspirit of Rock River

The Waterspirit of Sugar Loaf

Waterspirits Keep the Corn Fields Wet

Wazųka

Wears White Feather on His Head

A Weed's Blessing

The Were-Fish

Hōcąk Text — The Were-fish

The Were-Grizzly

Hōcąk Text — the Were-Grizzly

White Fisher

White Flower

White Thunder's Warpath

White Wolf

Why Dogs Sniff One Another

A Wife for Knowledge

Hōcąk Text — A Wife for Knowledge

The Wild Rose

The Witch Men's Desert

Wojijé

Wolf Clan Origin Myth

Wolves and Humans

Hōcąk Interlinear Text — Wolves and Humans

A Woman Turns into a Rock

The Woman Who Became an Ant

The Woman Who Became a Walnut Tree

Hōcąk Text — The Woman who Became a Walnut Tree

The Woman Who Fought the Bear

The Woman Who Loved Her Half-Brother

The Woman Who Married a Snake

The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle

Wonáǧire Wą́kšik Origin Myth — see Hawk Clan Origin Myth

Worúxega

Hōcąk Text — Worúxega

Young Man Gambles Often

Hōcąk Text — Young Man Gambles Often


Place Name Stories

Big Spring and White Clay Spring

Blue Mounds

Blue Mounds Cave

Devil's Lake — How it Got its Name

Dogira Spring — see Trail Spring

The Hills of La Crosse

Lake Wąkšikhomįgra (Mendota): the Origin of Its Name

Lake Winnebago Origin Myth

Lost Lake

Manawa Village Origin Myth

Merrill Springs

Neenah

Origin of the Hōcąk Name for Chicago

Origin of the Name "Milwaukee"

Rainbow and the Stone Arch

Rattlesnake Ledge

The Sacred Lake (Devil's Lake)

Sand Pillow

Silver Mound Cave

Trail Spring

The Twin Sisters

Vita Spring

The Winnebago Fort

Winneconnee Origin Myth


History and Biography

(1748/1923) Peter Chaurette, The Smoky Mountain Massacre

(1793/2020) Frank Weinhold, "Black Otter's Narrative: Wisconsin Native Recollections Relating to Pre-History of the Lewis-Clark Expedition"

See Black Otter's Warpath

(1832) Oliver LaMère, "Cracked Mouth"

Hocak-English Interlinear Text — Cracked Mouth

(1832/1878) N. Matson & Rachel Hall, The Rescue of the Hall Sisters by the Hōcągara

(bef. 1837) Rasdall's Fight

(1838) Thomas Loraine McKenney (1785-1859) and James Hall (1793-1868), History of the Indian Tribes of North America: with Biographical Sketches and Anecdotes of the Principal Chiefs

(1839) The Horse Raid

(ca. 1840) Visit from a Hungry Man

(1840s) Visitors

(1850) Baraboo in the 1840s

(1855-1876) Nachusa

(1869) The Heart River Fight as Recorded in a Pictograph by One of the Hōcąk Scouts

(1878) The Winnebagoes Steal Horses from the Omaha

(1887) Moses Pauquette, The Wisconsin Winnebagoes

(1887) Spoon Decorah, The Narrative of Spoon Decorah

(1887) Walking Cloud, The Narrative of Walking Cloud

(1895) The Last Camp on Lake Koshkonong

(1906) Publius V. Lawson, “The Habitat of the Winnebago”

(1913) Charles Philip Hexom, Indian History of Winneshiek County

(1920) Ten Descendants of a Famous Chief Camp at Lake Koshkonong

(1923) Norton Jipson, Winnebago Villages and Chieftains of the Lower Rock River Region

(1927) Lt. Col. Glenn W. Garlock, An Afternoon of Grim Fighting: The Fate of Foster and Robert Decorah

(1959) The War of the Indian Tribes against the White Soldiers • added 6.17.2024, but undergoing significant revision

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — The War of the Indian Tribes against the White Soldiers • added 6.16.2024, but undergoing significant revision

The Sky at Sunrise on 7 November 1811 • added 6.17.2024

(1959) The Woman Who Is Going to Stop the War • added 4.20.2024

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — The Woman Who Is Going to Stop the War • added 4.20.2024

See also, Publius V. Lawson, The Winnebago Tribe (1907)


Personal Histories and Anecdotes

The Arapaho Girl

How Big Fox Saved Godin

Black as Sin

Black Otter's Sacrifice to a Thunder • added 4.24.2024

Hōcąk Text — Black Otter’s Sacrifice to a Thunder • added 4.24.2024

The Boy and the Jack Rabbit

The Boy Who Wants to Go to War • added 4.29.2024

Hōcąk Text — The Boy Who Wants to Go to War • added 4.29.2024

Brawl in Omro

Chief Wave and the Big Drunk

Chief Wave Bars Explorers

Chief Wave Tries to Take the Whiskey

The Chief Who Shot His Own Daughter

The Death of Henry Harris’ Daughter

The Difficult Blessing

A Dream

The Duel

Fireman's Brother (with Hōcąk Text)

Four Legs

The Gratiots and the Hōcągara

Hotonga

How a White Man was Sniffed Out

How Jarrot Got His Name

The Ice Hole

Hōcąk Text — The Ice Hole, V. 1

James’ Horse

Jarrot's Aborted Raid

Jarrot and His Friends Saved from Starvation

Jerrot's Temperance Pledge — A Poem

John Rave's Account of the Peyote Cult and of His Conversion • added 3.2.2024

Hōcąk Text — John Rave's Account of the Peyote Cult and of His Conversion • added 3.2.2024

Little Priest, How He went out as a Soldier

Hōcąk Text — The Story of How Little Priest went out as a Soldier

Little Priest's Game

Little Thunder

Hōcąk Text — Little Thunder

The Man who was Blessed by the Sun

The Man who was a Reincarnated Thunderbird

The Man who Fought against Forty

The Mesquaki Magician

Mighty Thunder

Mitchell Red Cloud, jr. Wins the Medal of Honor

The Origin of Big Canoe's Name

A Peyote Story

A Peyote Vision

Potato Magic

Hōcąk Text — Potato Magic

Run for Your Life

The Scalping Knife of Wakąšucka

The Shrewd Winnebagoes of Dixon’s Crossing

Sodom and Gomorrah

Soldiers Catch Two Boys, a Black One and a White One • added 3.27.2024

Hōcąk Text — Soldiers Catch Two Boys, a Black One and a White One • added 3.27.2024

The Tavern Visit

They Owe a Bullet (with three warrior songs)

Tobacco Man and Married Man

Visit of the Medicine Man

Wailing Song

White Shirt

Xųnųnį́ka

Yellow Crow Sacrifices to Disease Giver

Yellow Thunder and the Lore of Lost Canyon

Young Rogue


Ethnography and Travel Accounts

(1639 - 1723) The Jesuit Relations

(1766) Captain Jonathan Carver, “Travels through the Interior Parts of North-America, in the Years 1766, 1767, and 1768”

(1806) General Zebulon Pike, Exploratory Travels

(1814) Alfred Edward Bulger, Events at Prairie du Chien Previous to American Occupation, 1814

(1820) Rev. Jedidiah Morse, “A Report to the Secretary of War of the United States, on Indian Affairs”

(1821) General Albert G. Ellis, Fifty-Four Years’ Recollections of Men and Events in Wisconsin

(1823) C. C. Trowbridge, “Manners, Customs, and International Laws of the Win-nee-baa-goa Nation” [missing its "Language" subsection]

(1828/1872) John W. Spencer, “Reminiscences of Pioneer Life in the Mississippi Valley”

(1828) Meeting with the President

(1828) Allgemeine Geschichte • The meeting with President Adams

(1829) Caleb Atwater, “Remarks Made on a Tour to Prairie du Chien thence to Washington City in 1829”

(early 1830s) James Watson Webb, Altowan, Or, Incidents of Life and Adventure in the Rocky Mountains

(1831-1833) Juliette Augusta Magill Kinzie, Wau-Bun, The "Early Day" in the North-west

(1832-1835) Samuel Mazzuchelli, Memoirs: Historical and Edifying of a Missionary Apostolic of the Order of Saint Dominic among Various Indian Tribes and among the Catholics and Protestants in the United States of America

(1835) George Featherstonhaugh, “A Canoe Voyage Up the Minnay Sotor”

(1838) Caleb Atwater, “A History of the State of Ohio, Natural and Civil”

(1838) Hulbert and Smith, “Notes of the Four Lakes Indians”

(1842) Hunting at Green Lake

(1845) Paul Kane, Wanderings of an Artist Among the Indians of North America

(1846) Pickett and Lawson, Burial Practices in 1846

(1851-1855) Henry R. Schoolcraft, Information Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States

(1853) Mary Eastman, The American Aboriginal Portfolio

(1854) Mary Eastman, Chicóra and Other Regions of the Conquerors and the Conquered

(1872) George Pfauts Belden, “Belden, the White Chief; Or, Twelve Years Among the Wild Indians of the Plains”

(1877) Peter Menaige, Medicine-Bag "Shooting"

(1877) Peter Menaige and Thomas Foster, Dream Sacrifices

(1907) Publius V. Lawson, The Winnebago Tribe

(1908-1913) The Precepts of Charles Blowsnake

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Precepts of Charles Blowsnake, Part I

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — The Precepts of Charles Blowsnake, Part II

(1908-1913) Tom Big Bear, Burial Customs of the Warrior Clan

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — Burial Customs of the Warrior Clan

(1909) Eduard Seler, Joseph Lamère's Warbundles

(1910) Paul Radin, “The Clan Structure of the Winnebago. A Preliminary Report”

(1910) Robert H. Lowie, “New Collections: Wisconsin Winnebago Collection”

(1911) Paul Radin, “The Ritual and Significance of the Winnebago Medicine Dance”

(1913) Paul Radin, ”The Victory Dance”

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — The Victory Dance

(1913) Charles Philip Hexom, Indian History of Winneshiek County

(1914) Paul Radin, “Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian”

(1915) Henry Roe Cloud, “From Wigwam to Pulpit: A Red Man's Own Story of His Progress from Darkness to Light”

(1922) Theodore P. Bolliger, The Wisconsin Winnebago Indians and the Mission of the Reformed Church

(1923) Alphonse Gerend, "Warbundle Sacrifice"

(1927) The McKern Papers on Hōcąk Ethnography, Printed Version

Index to McKern Papers

(1938) The Bow and Arrow • added: 3.11.2024

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — The Bow and Arrow • added: 3.11.2024

(1959) What Women Do When Men Go to War

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — What Women Do When Men Go to War

(1959) The Hōcąk and Menominee Farm Side-by-Side as Friends

☞ Replaces "Earth Oven"

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — The Hōcąk and Menominee Farm Side-by-Side as Friends


Rites

The Bear Feast

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — The Bear Feast

The Buffalo Dance

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — The Buffalo Dance

Hokixérē Dance

Hōcąk-English Interlinear Text — Hokixérē Dance

The Sore Eyes Dance

Jaspar Blowsnake's Version

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — the Sore Eyes Dance

W. C. McKern's Version

Peter Menaige's Version

The Thunderbird Clan Warbundle Feast, Version 3

Hōcąk Syllabic Text — The Thunderbird Clan Warbundle Feast, Version 3

A Rite to Appease Wood Spirits


Sayings

Hōcąk Sayings


Poetry

Nąąwąnįkra • added 4.11.2024


Narrative Structure

| Coughing Up Black Hawks | Four Steps of the Cougar |


Foreign Stories Told by the Hōcągara

The Incarnate Thunderbird

A Sioux Story

Hōcąk Text — A Sioux Story

Why the Tonkawa are Called "Cannibals"


Mention of the Hōcągara in the Mythology of Other Nations

Annihilation of the Hōcągara II (Menominee Version)

Origin of the Name "Winnebago" (Menominee)


Big Knife Fiction of Hōcąk Inspiration

The Hunt

Wakdjunkaga's River Race


Miscellaneous Material

Messiah Letter of Wovoka


Spiritual Genealogies

| The Chief of the Heroka (+ Forked Men) | Chief of the White Cranes (+ Forked Man, Hįca Owl Spirit, the Carucge) | "Old Man" (+ Sun, Moon, Big Eater) | The Red Man | Thunderbirds | Waterspirits (Wakcexi, Traveler +Turtle) | The Wolf Boy and His Wife |


Spuria

Little Brother Snares the Sun (actually Ojibwe)


Essays

Black Otter's Narrative: Wisconsin Native Recollections Relating to Pre-History of the Lewis-Clark Expedition, by Frank Weinhold

See Black Otter's Warpath

Paradise Lost

The Five Apparitions of Morning Star

Table: 1-Flower Days in Mʰ I (Rabbit Years)

Table: Vulture Days in Mʰ I (Rabbit Years)

The Rise of Morning Star

The Rise of Morning Star Notes

Trickster's Pregnancy and the Seasons of Corn


General Works

Publius V. Lawson, The Winnebago Tribe (1907)


Language Studies

Word and Phrase Lists

Hōcąk Lexicon (in process) 84,625 Entries • vocabulary added from: The Hōcąk and Menominee Farm Side-by-Side as Friends (pts. 2 & 3), John Rave's Account of the Peyote Cult and of His Conversion, 3.2.2024; Bow and Arrow, 3.11.2024; Nąąwąnįkra, Soldiers Catch Two Boys, a Black One and a White One, Crane and His Brothers, 4.11.2024; The Boy Who Wants to Go to War, Black Otter’s Sacrifice to a Thunder, The Woman Who Is Going to Stop the War, 5.1.2024.

Foster's Word List

English-Hōcąk

Hōcąk-English

Gatschet & StCyr, "Hotchank hit’é: The Winnebago Language"

Hōcąk Vocabulary (unknown compiler), ISIL 1880 Format

Comparative Frequency of Select Words in Certain Stories

Letter Frequency Inventory

The Lord's Prayer in Hōcąk

Hōcąk Texts

The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster | The Animal that would Eat Men | Aracgéga's Blessing | The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 1) | The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2) | Battle of the Night Blessed Men and the Medicine Rite Men | Bear Clan Origin Myth (v. 7) | Bear Clan Origin Myth (v. 8) | The Bear Feast | Bear Offers Himself as Food (v. 2) | The Beginning of the Winnebago | Beliefs Concerning Ghosts | Big Eater | Bird Clan Origin Myth | The Birth of the Twins (v. 1) | The Birth of the Twins (v. 2) | The Birth of the Twins (v. 3) | Black Otter’s Sacrifice to a Thunder | Bladder and His Brothers (v. 1) | Bladder and His Brothers (v. 2) | Bladder and His Brothers (v. 5) | Bladder and His Brothers (v. 6) | The Blessing of the Bow | Bluehorn Rescues His Sister | The Bow and Arrow | The Boy Who Flew |  The Boy Who Wants to Go to War | The Boy who would be Immortal - 1 | The Boy who would be Immortal - 2 | Brave Man Gambles | The Brown Squirrel | The Buffalo's Walk | The Bungling Host | Burial Customs of the Warrior Clan | The Canine Warrior | The Captive Boys | The Claw Shooter | The Completion Song Origin | Coughing Up Black Hawks | Crane and His Brothers | Creation of Man (v. 8) | Creation of the World (v. 11) | A Deer Story | Deer Clan Origin Myth (v. 1) | Descent of the Drum, Version 1 | Descent of the Drum (v. 2) | The Diving Contest | The Dipper | Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka | Dying in War | Earthmaker Blesses Wešgíšega (v. 1) | Earthmaker Blesses Wešgíšega (v. 2) | Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins (v. 1) | Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins (v. 2) | East Enters the Medicine Lodge (v. 1) | East Enters the Medicine Lodge (v. 2) | East Shakes the Messenger | Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle | The Elk's Skull | Farewell Songs | The Fatal House | The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee (v. 1) | The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee (v. 2) | The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee (v. 3) | Fighting Retreat | Fireman's Brother | First Contact | The Fleetfooted Man | The Four Services Songs | The Four Slumbers Origin Myth | The Four Steps of the Cougar | The Fox-Hōcąk War | Ghost Dance Origin Myth I | Ghost Dance Origin Myth II | A Giant Visits His Daughter | The Gift of Shooting | Grandmother's Gifts | Hare Burns His Buttocks | Hare Establishes Bear Hunting | Hare Gets Swallowed | Hare Kills a Man with a Cane | Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans (v. 2) | Hare Steals the Fish | Hawk Clan Origin Myth | Heroka Songs | Historical Origins of the Medicine Rite | The Hōcąk and Menominee Farm Side-by-Side as Friends | Hog's Adventures | Holy One and His Brother | How Little Priest went out as a Soldier | The Ice Hole | Iron Staff and His Companions | The Island Weight Songs | Įcorúšika and His Brothers | Journey to Spiritland (v. 1a) | Journey to Spiritland (v. 1b) | Journey to Spiritland (v. 4) | Journey to Spiritland, (v. 5) | Journey to Spiritland (v. 6) | Journey to Spiritland (v. 8) | Kaǧiga | Keramąnįš’aka's Blessing | The Lame Friend | Little Fox is Invited to a Feast | Little Fox Goes on the Warpath | Little Human Head | Little Thunder | The Lord's Prayer | The Lost Blanket (v. 1) | The Lost Blanket (v. 2) | A Man's Revenge | The Man with Two Heads | The Man who went to the Upper & Lower Worlds | The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 1) | The Markings on the Moon (v. 2) (with notes by Gatschet) | Mąznį’ąbera | Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (v. 2) | Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (v. 4) | The Messengers of Hare (v. 1) | The Messengers of Hare (v. 2a) (First Telling) | The Messengers of Hare (v. 2b) (Second Telling) | Migistéga | Mink Soils the Princess | A Mink Tricks Trickster | The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker (v. 2) | Morning Star and His Friend | Nąąwąnįkra | The Nannyberry Picker | The Necessity for Death (v. 2) | The Necessity for Death (v. 3) | The Nightspirits Bless Ciwoit’éhiga | The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka | North Shakes His Gourd | Ocean Duck | The Old Man and the Giants | Old Man and Wears White Feather | The Omahas who Turned into Snakes | Origin of the Decorah Family | The Osage Massacre | Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite | Paint Medicine Origin Myth | Peace of Mind Regained | The Pointing Man (v. 1) | The Pointing Man (v. 2) | Potato Magic | The Precepts of Charles Blowsnake, Part I | The Precepts of Charles Blowsnake, Part II | A Prophecy | A Prophecy About the End Time | Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter | Rich Man, Boy, and Horse | The Scenting Contest | The Seer | The Shaggy Man | Shakes the Earth | The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (v. 1a) | The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (v. 1b) | The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (v. 2) | A Sioux Story | Snake Song Origin Myth | Snowshoe Strings | Soldier Dance Songs | Soldiers Catch Two Boys, a Black One and a White One | The Song to the Elephant | Song of the Mouse | South Enters the Medicine Lodge (v. 1) | South Enters the Medicine Lodge (v. 2) | South Seizes the Messenger | The Stone that Turned into a Frog | The Story of the Thunder Names | Šųgepaga | The Sweetened Drink Song | Testing the Slave, Version 1 | Testing the Slave (v. 2) | The Thunderbird | Thunderbird and White Horse | Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (v. 3) | Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (v. 7) | Thunderbird Clan Warbundle Feast (v. 3) | Thunder Cloud is Blessed | Thunder Cloud Marries Again | Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 3) | Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 4) | Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 5) | Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 1) | Trickster and the Children | Trickster and the Dancers (v. 2) | Trickster and the Mothers | Trickster and the Plums (v. 1) | Trickster Concludes His Mission | Trickster Eats the Laxative Bulb (v. 2) | Trickster Gets Pregnant | Trickster Loses His Meal, Version 1 | Trickster Loses Most of His Penis | Trickster Takes Little Fox for a Ride | Trickster Visits His Family | Trickster's Adventures in the Ocean | Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (v. 1) | Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (v. 2) | Trickster's Buffalo Hunt | Trickster's Penis | Trickster's Tail | Trickster's Warpath | Turtle and the Giant | Turtle and the Merchant | Turtle's Warparty (v. 2) | Turtle's Warparty (v. 3) | The Twins Disobey Their Father (v. 1) | The Twins Disobey Their Father (v. 2) | The Twins Disobey Their Father (v. 3) | The Twins Get into Hot Water (v. 1) | The Twins Get into Hot Water (v. 2) | The Twins Get into Hot Water (v. 3) | The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty | The Twins Kill a Waterspirit (Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins (v. 3) | The Twins Retrieve Redstar's Head: 1-59 | The Twins Visit Their Father's Village (v. 1) | The Twins Visit Their Father's Village (v. 2) | The Twins Visit Their Father's Village (v. 3) | The Two Boys | The Two Brothers | The Two Children | The Victory Dance | Wanihéga Becomes a Sak’į | War of the Indian Tribes against the White Soldiers | Waterspirit Bluehorn (Brave Man) | The Were-fish (v. 2) | The Were-Grizzly | A Wife for Knowledge | Wolves and Humans | The Woman who Became a Walnut Tree | The Woman Who Is Going to Stop the War | Worúxega | Young Man Gambles Often |


Census Rolls

(1829-1832) Winnebago Village List, by John H. Kinzie

| 1829 Village List | 1. Scalp Lake | 2. Grand Bourbier | 3. Elk Village | 4. Grand Rapids (Watertown) | 5. Muddy Lake Village | 6. Fox Lake | 7. Little Rapids of the Rock River = Forks of the Rock River Where They Peel Bark | 8. Nąhų́ra Ruhara (Sturgeon Spawn) | 9. Koshkonong Village | 10. Village of Little Lake | 11. Four Lakes, No. 1 (Lake Mendota) | 12. Four Lakes, No. 2 (Lake Monona) | 13. Four Lakes, No. 3 (Waubesa) | 14. Four Lakes, No. 4 (Lake Kegonsa | 15. Catfish Village | 16. Round Rock Village | 17. Standing Post Village | 18. Turtle Creek Village | 19. Village at the Mouth of Sugar Creek | [20.] Nąpasą Village = ? Sycamore Village | 21. Sugar Camp Village (Prophetstown) | 22. Lower Barribault [Baraboo] Village, No. 1 | 23. Middle Barribault [Baraboo] Village, No. 2 | 24. Upper Barribault [Baraboo] Village, No. 3 | 25. Pine River Village | 26. Little Calf Village | 27. Wakąhaga's Village | 28. Lake Puckaway | 29. Little Green Lake | 30. Big Green Lake | 31. Little Rush Lake | 32. Butte des Morts and Village | 33. Black Wolf's Village | 34. Garlic Island | 35. Winnebago Rapids Village [Doty Island] | 36. Fond du Lac | Villages Above Prairie du Chien | Grand Total | Heads of Families and Individuals (Miscellaneous) | Heads of Families and Individuals (Miscellaneous Claims) | Names in Pencil on Margins and Back of the Document | Births and Deaths | Further Names on the Back of the Document | Gallery of People Mentioned in the Rolls | Location of Villages Mentioned in the Rolls |


Hōcąk Genealogy on WikiTree

| Armel | Baker | Baptiste | Big Fire | Big Hawk | Blackdeer | Black Wolf | Blackhawk | Blowsnake | Brown | Buffalohead | Cassiman | Cloud | Davis | Decora | Earth | Frenchman | Funmaker | Goodvillage | Green | Green Cloud | Greendeer | Greengrass | Greensnake | Grignon | Herman | Hunker | Hunter | Keramąnį | LaMere | L’Ecuyer | Lincoln | (Little) Priest | Little Sam | Logan | Londrosh | Lonetree | Lyon/Lowe | Mąjanąka | Manaigre | Mike | Miner | Paquette | Payer | Rave | Red Cloud | Redbird | Redhorn | Renfer | Rice Hill (Little Hill) | Russell | Sampson | Sine | Smoke | Spanioraga – St. Cyr | Stacy | Sun(n) | Tebo | Thomas | Thunder(cloud) | Walking Day | Waukon | Whirling Thunder | White | Whitebear | White Breast | White Eagle | White Elk | Whitepine | Whiterabbit | Whitesnake | Whitewater | Whitewood (Seymour) | Wild Goose - Vunk - Pelkey | Winneshiek | Xųnųnįka-Mack | Yellow Thunder – White Crow |


Archaeology

Archaeology of the Wazija

This work is incomplete, containing only 8 regions, but I expect to make additions over time.

Gottschall: A New Interpretation

Gottschall: Debate and Discussion

The Gottschall Head

Grizzlyman as a Preform of Blue Bear

Notes to "Grizzlyman as a Preform of Blue Bear"

The Redhorn Panel at Picture Cave: An American Star Map

Table: The Correspondence of the Moon at Various Dates with the Winged Oval Figure

Denoting Marks of the Redhorn Panel and Their Astronomical Values

A Modern Analogue to the Redhorn Panel Map

The Thruston Tablet: Deciphering the Iconography of an Ancient Twins Cycle

Notes to "The Thruston Tablet"

see also, The Rise of Morning Star


Astronomy Allegories

| Bluehorn's Nephews | The Children of the Sun | The Dipper | Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle | Grandfather's Two Families | Heną́ga and Star Girl | Įcorúšika and His Brothers | Little Human Head (?) | The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum | Morning Star and His Friend | Ocean Duck | The Raccoon Coat | The Red Feather | The Seven Maidens | Snowshoe Strings | Sun and the Big Eater | Sunset Point | Turtle and the Witches | The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head | Wojijé | The Woman Who Became an Ant |


Archaeoastronomy

Is the Chaco Canyon Rock Art a Star Map Showing SN 1054?

The Redhorn Panel at Picture Cave: An American Star Map

Table: The Correspondence of the Moon at Various Dates with the Winged Oval Figure

Denoting Marks of the Redhorn Panel and Their Astronomical Values

A Modern Analogue to the Redhorn Panel Map


Maps

| Boisseau's Map of NE N. America, 1643 | Carte du Pays des Sauvages Renards, 1730 (Lake Winnebago and Vicinity) | Carver’s Travels | Champlain's Map of NE N. America, 1632 | Cold Water Canyon | De Mun and White Breast on Sugar Creek | Devil's Lake | Devil’s Lake Contour Map | De Soto, McGregor, Paint Rock, La Crosse, Prairie du Chien | Fox Point and Louie's Bluff | Fox Point to Castle Rock | Garlic Island | Green Lake & Lake Puckaway | Huasteca and Tula | Lake Mendota & Lost Lake | Lake Mendota, Tenney Park | Lake Wingra | Lake Winnebago & Green Lake | Lake Winnebago South | Lone Rock, Sugar Bowl, Grotto Rock, and the Old River Bed | Long Prairie Reservation, 1843 | Lost Canyon | Manawa in Relation to Green Bay | Marquette's Map of the Mississippi, 1681 | Miwok Tribe, Distribution in California | Necedah | Neenah Village Site | Nepeuskun County | The Neutral Ground | Northern Illinois, 1834 | Old Manawa | Rock River in Illinois | Rock River in Wisconsin | Silver Mound | Wazija (Wisconsin) | Winneconnee | Wisconsin | Wisconsin Dells | Wisconsin Section of Champlain's Map | Wisconsin Section of Champlain's 1689 Map | Wisconsin Section of Joliet's Map of 1674 |


A Gallery of the Hōcąk Nation


A Gallery of Hōcąk Artifacts


Resources and External Links


| Top of the Page |

| Guides | Subject Entries | Stories (Waiką & Worak) | Place Name Stories | History and Biography | Personal Histories | Ethnography | Rites | Sayings | Poetry | Narrative Structure | Foreign Stories Told by the Hōcągara | Mention of the Hōcągara in the Mythology of Other Nations | Big Knife Fiction of Hōcąk Inspiration | Miscellaneous Material | Spiritual Genealogies | Spuria | Essays | General Works | Language Studies | Census Rolls | Hōcąk Genealogy on WikiTree | Archaeology | Astronomy Allegories | Archaeoastronomy | Maps | Gallery of the Hōcąk Nation | Gallery of Hōcąk Artifacts | Resources and External Links | Other Sites by Richard Dieterle |


| Other Sites by Richard Lewis Dieterle |

Vietnam War Stories