Trowbridge’s List of Hocąk Moons (1823)

Manuscript page: | 98 |

The order of these moons suggests that the year began with the vernal equinox (March 23).

Hocąk Moon = Translation Month
Hoá Hórakinuna Moon of Spawning Fish April
Mauk.aá Mąkéwina Planting Moon May
Mau.aá.wee.ra Mąéwira Hoeing Moon June
Wee.haútsh.raa.wee.ra. Wihácrewira Blossom Moon (in allusion to corn). July
Wee.tátsh.oa.ger.ra. Witácogera Roasting (Corn) Moon August
Hoa.wúnk.hee.roak.her.ra. Hową́xiroxera Deer Running Moon September
Wee.zé Wizésakewina Snowbird Moon (This bird then feeds on the ground) October
Tshu.aá Caéwakšona Falling Horn Moon November
Mau.neé.wee.ra. Mąnį́wira Winter Moon December
Hoan.tshe.ník.kee.toamp.hoa.noa.nee.ger.ra. Hocinikitophononigera First Young Bear Moon January
Hoan.tshe.ník.kee.toamp.Ha.taa.ra. Hocinikitopxatera Last Young Bear Moon February
Wau.kǘ.kee.roo.har.ra. Wakíkiruxara Raccoon Running Moon March

"Wihácrewira" — this most closely matches McKern's, Waxócĕrĕwira, which actually refers to tasseling (xóc, "gray").

"Witácogera" — this matches Susman's Witájoxi-wíra, "Popping Month," for Watajóxhí-wirá, "Corn Popping Moon."

"Howukhirokhera" — Deer Running Moon would be Cáikirúxe-wirá, however this moon is most typically referred to as "Elk Whistling Moon" (Hųwą́žuk-wira). Here, however, we actually have, "Elk Running Moon," Hųwą-(hi)kiroxera-wirá.

"Wizésakewina" — wizésake as the name for the snowbird in unique.

"Caéwakšona" — for Ca-héwakšų́-wirá, "Deer Antler Shedding Month."

"Mąnį́wira" — this name for a month is unattested anywhere else.

"Hocnikitophononigera" — this would be for Hųjᵋnįk-(h)it’ųp-xųnųnįgᵋra, "The Early Placing of the Little Bear." The month is more commonly called, Hųjwíconįná, "First Bear Month."

"Hocinikitopxatera" — this would be for Hųjᵋnįk-(h)it’ųp-xatera, "The Late Placing of the Little Bear." . The month is more commonly called, Hųjwíroágnįná, "Second Bear Month." These last two bear moons refer to the birth of cubs during hibernation.

"Wakíkiruxara" — shortened by sandhi from Wake-híkiruxera.

Return to "Moons."


"Manners, Customs, and International Laws of the Win-nee-baa-goa Nation," (1823), Winnebago Manuscripts, in MS/14ME, Trowbridge Papers, Burton Historical Collection.