The Narrative of Spoon Decorah1
In an Interview with Reuben Gold Thwaites2
|Spoon Decorah, 1829||Spoon Decorah, 1887|
(448) I was born at my father's village near the Caffrey schoolhouse at the mouth of the Baraboo River, a few years before the Tecumseh war. My father's name, among the French, was Alumina [Fire-water], which I am told is from a French word having something to do with wine. His Winnebago name was Warrahwikoogah, or Bird Spirit. (449) The Americans called him Gray-headed Decorah.3 He was a brother of One-eyed Decorah, or Big Canoe.4
I remember hearing of the British attack on the American fort at Prairie du Chien [in 1814]. Some of our relatives joined in it. Their names I do not now remember; I am getting very old; my memory is not as good as it was. My father's party were at Little Green Lake at the time of (450) the attack. My father was a peaceable man. He did not like to be at war with the whites. So our people did not go. I was only a boy, then. I think the first time I ever went to Green Bay, was when I was eight years old. I went to visit my aunts, who were living there. I went twice to see them.
During what the whites call the Winnebago War, at Prairie du Chien [in 1827], I was living with my people on Little Green Lake. There was among us no general hatred of the whites. Red Bird had some private revenge to satisfy, and murdered the white family at the prairie of his own accord. We were all very sorry. We had no sympathy with him. We felt that he was a bad Indian. He tried to get the rest of his tribe into trouble. I have heard of some white people who enjoy getting their neighbors into any trouble they have themselves got into. There was no feeling among the rest of the tribe, over Red Bird's conduct, except that of anger. We willingly gave him up to the whites.5
During the Black Hawk War , I lived at the Portage. When we heard of the trouble, I wanted very much to go and join the Americans. I knew the officers at Fort Winnebago, and was friendly to them. But my friends got around me and said that the Sacs were friends of the Winnebagoes. So I was persuaded not to go. In July, ten families of us started out on our summer's hunt, on the Roche-a-Cri River. We had got as far as Friendship, when Ochpiyoka (The Spaniard),6 one of our friends, came into camp much excited and told us what had happened down in the Illinois country, saying that the Sacs were headed our way. We had gone out on our hunt in strong numbers. Knowing that the war was going on, (451) we feared that the Sacs might come into our territory. For there was some fear of the Sacs, all the while, although we had been told of their friendliness. They knew that some of our people were with the Americans. We felt that if the Sacs were driven into our hunting-grounds they might be revengeful, and then it would go hard with our hunting parties unless we were prepared for attack. So when The Spaniard came and told us that the Sacs were really headed our way, we were much afraid. He told us that the center of attack would be Portage. We had left many of our old people and women here. So we at once returned to Portage. The other hunting parties, to which runners had also. been sent out, did so too. This was a few days before the battle on the Sauk bluffs [Wisconsin Heights].
Our party camped on the rise of ground just back of what is now the city end of the Wisconsin River bridge, in Portage. Nearly the whole tribe was camped about Portage. There were three large camps, on both sides of the river, about where the bridge now is. The principal chiefs in these camps were: Black Wolf,7 his son Dandy,8 Tahneekseeickseega (Fond of Tobacco), White Eagle, White Crow,9 and Ahsheeshka (Broken Arm). Black Wolf was (452) the uncle of Gray Eagle's Eye, my present squaw. Dandy was her cousin; White Crow was a one-eyed chief, who had a village at the Four lakes, — he died a few years after the Black Hawk war; Broken Arm fought under Tecumseh, and also died a few years after the Black hawk War.10
Pierre Paquette was the trader at the Portage, in those days. He was a large, powerful man. His squaw was a daughter of Joseph Crelie. Our tribe had great respect for him. His mother was a Winnebago woman and he was a good man in every way, — very friendly to our people. I was his friend, and he once gave me a pony. The white captains [Dodge and Henry] were in Portage when we got there; they had brought the news from White Beaver's [General Atkinson's] camp, that caused our return. Paquette was engaged by the white captains to take them (453) across the country to Black Hawk's camp, on the headwaters of the Rock River. Paquette wanted a party of Winnebagoes to go with him as guides. He sent Nahheesanchonka (Man Who Thinks Himself of Importance) into the camp to get volunteers. Nahheesanchonka told us that if we would go into the war we would make a name for ourselves, and get presents; also win the good opinion of White Beaver, and the Big Father at Washington. But there was still among us a strong feeling of friendliness toward the Sacs. This feeling was of friendly pity, not a desire to help them fight. So only six young men, none of them chiefs, went with Paquette as guides. Of these were Pawnee (Pania Blanc), Nahheesanchonka, Notsookega (Bear that Breaks up the Brush), Ahmegunka, and Tahnichseeka (The Smoker). As I think again, perhaps White Crow went with Paquette on this expedition, but of this I am not sure.11 Anyway, White Crow fought on the American side, at the Sauk bluffs [July 21, 1832].
The return of Paquette's party, a week or so later, told us of the defeat at the Sauk bluffs. We heard that those Sacs who had escaped the white bullets had crossed the Wisconsin River in a body. There was now great excitement in our camp. We feared that Black Hawk, thinking us now to be his enemies, would turn up the river and attack us at Portage. Our sympathies were strongly with the whites. Our trading interests were with them, and we were bound to them by treaties. Yet we did not like to be fighting old neighbors like the Sacs. Some of our people wanted to move out of the way, but others wanted to stand ground against Black Hawk. And thus we argued the matter between ourselves, till the danger was passed. Black Hawk fled before White Beaver, on his way to the Bad Ax. Two men from our camp went as guides to White Beaver, on this chase. They were Nahreechsecochkeshica (Lame Ankle) and Mahheenibahka (Double Knife), These were the only guides that, White Beaver had.
(454) It was only a day's trip with fast ponies between Portage and Prairie la Crosse. There was much traveling between the two places during all this great excitement. So we soon got news of the battle at the Bad Ax [Aug. 2, 1832].
We soon afterwards learned how Black Hawk came to be made a prisoner. You have explained to me what the white men have set down in their books about Black Hawk's capture. It is not as they say. He was not captured at the Dells of the Wisconsin River. He never was at the Dells, in his life. There was no reason for his going there. Now I shall tell you the story I have always heard from those who know; it is the way all our people tell it; it is the true story. During the battle of the Bad Ax, Black Hawk saw a steamer coming up the river, with white warriors on board. Being afraid he would be taken, he turned back into the woods. He ran away towards the north, intending, I have heard, to go to the Chippewa country. I do not know whom or how many he took with him. I never heard Big Canoe say, as to that. After the Bad Ax battle, Big Canoe went off on a hunting expedition, up to the head waters of the La Crosse River, — which we call Enookwasaneenah; or, the River of the Woman's Breasts, because of the pair of sloping bluffs near the mouth. A few of Big Canoe's hunters were out one day, when they saw some Sacs in hiding. The Winnebagoes were afraid, and hurried back to Big Canoe's camp. The camp was on the river, near where is now the white village of Bangor, below Sparta. The party reported that they thought the Sacs were Black Hawk and his companions. Nobody in the camp knew the Sac speech except Big Canoe, who said, "I will go and see him." After he got to the place told of by his young men, Big Canoe saw Black Hawk, and said to him: "I am a great friend to the whites, and if you will surrender to me peaceably I will deliver you to the captain at Prairie du Chien, and you shall not be harmed." Black Hawk consented, and went peaceably along. I never heard of the man named Chaetar, who the white men say was with Big Canoe. Very likely (455) there may have been some one with him as a companion, but I never heard any name given. Big Canoe got Black Hawk's promise to go along. So he went with his prisoner to General Street, and delivered him up. And that is how it was. Any other story is nonsense.12
I never saw White Beaver, but have always heard he was a big warrior among the whites. My father knew General Dodge very well, and he always claimed him as his brother, in talking with him, — which was a great honor; but General Dodge was a good friend to our people, and deserved to be well treated by them. I met the general twice, and spoke a few words with him each time. The first time was at Blue Mounds, during the Black Hawk War. He had come to the Mounds for supplies. After the war I met him there again. I remember Karrymaunee, who was among those who signed the treaty of 1832.13 He was then the head of the tribe. I saw him often, for one of his daughters was my first squaw. She was named Flight of Geese, and died on the Nebraska reservation two years ago. We had parted many years before. Karrymaunee was large and powerful, — fully six feet high, and very broad. He was a fine man, every way. We never selected any but fine men for our chiefs.
In 1840, we were all moved to Turkey River;14 but in the spring our party went to Iowa River, where Little Decorah had a village. We went down, soon afterwards, to Turkey River, to get our ammunition; but for some reason, — perhaps because we had moved to Iowa River without consent of the agent, — we could not get any. So my father and I came back to Wisconsin and met General Dodge at Blue Mounds. He spoke to us, and said that we were all certainly entitled to the annuities, even to the youngest child. But when (456) we went back to the agency, we again failed to get the payment; we had neglected to have General Dodge put his words in writing.
We stayed out on the Iowa River for ten years. In 1848, the Big Father arranged for moving all the Winnebagoes to Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, in the Long Prairie agency. We had gone as far north as Winona on our way to Long Prairie, when our party became afraid, from the reports that reached us of the number of Sioux who were in the neighborhood of the new reservation. We wanted to stop. At Winona there were some white soldiers, whose captain told us we must go along peaceably with the rest of the tribe, or there would be trouble. We didn't pay much attention to this. We were enjoying ourselves in dancing, when the soldiers turned a cannon on us. It seems that the white captain thought our dance was a war dance. But we were peace Indians, and were merely determined not to go any farther towards the new home they had made for us; for the Sioux were not good neighbors. A soldier stood at the cannon, with a torch in his hand, and was going to touch it to the powder, when Big Wave, of White Eagle's band, went up and knocked the torch out of his hand. The soldiers were much excited, though they soon saw we meant no harm, but would not be fired on if we could help it.15
I went up to the officer and told him that I did not like this treatment. I said I wanted to get back to Wisconsin. There was a good deal of talk, but finally H. M. Rice and H. L. Dousman, who were traders, following us up from Prairie du Chien, spoke for me. They gave me a paper, saying that I was a good Indian, and that my father lived on the Wisconsin River at Portage. So I crossed the Mississippi River in a borrowed canoe, swimming my pony behind. I left the canoe on the Wisconsin side, and went down to La Crosse on my pony. Stopping the way to hunt elk on the Black River. There I found a good many of my friends who had hid themselves so as (457) not to be removed from their hunting grounds. Black Hawk16 was the leader of this band. From La Crosse I went across the country to Portage, and have never since been troubled by the Big Father or his soldiers, about removing to west of the Mississippi River.
I have camped with my family on my hunting and fishing journeys, all along the Wisconsin River. I was at Elroy for several seasons, and have been near Friendship for a good many years. In 1873, I took up a homestead of 40 acres near Pike Lake, but was never there.17 The forty-acre piece I now live on, I bought in 1883. It is in the northeast quarter of section 1, town 18, range 5, about ten miles north of Friendship. I have broken 20 acres, and the rest is scrub-oak woods. The soil is poor, and I make but little money, having many orphan children and grandchildren and one great-grandchild to support, I am getting old and feeble, and I cannot see to hunt any longer, although I do some trapping on the Roche-a-Cri River.18
You ask me to tell you of the traditions of my tribe, and some of the old chiefs I have known. My memory is getting very poor; but I will do the best I can. It has been told me, by my father and my uncles, that the Winnebagoes first lived below the Red Banks, on the east shore of Green Bay.19 There was a high bluff there, which enclosed a lake. They lived there a very long time. From there they moved to the Red Banks, and met at that place the first Frenchmen whom they ever saw. The Winnebagoes were in a very bad condition; they had nothing but bows and arrows with which to kill game. The Frenchmen (458) gave them guns, powder, blankets, kettles, and other goods. After that, my ancestors lived in better condition, and could kill all the game they needed. The Frenchmen were very good to our people, and bought all the furs they could get from them, at a good price. The Winnebagoes lived a long time at the Red Banks, and then moved to Lake Winnebago. They afterwards spread along the Upper Fox and the Wisconsin Rivers, and down to the Rock River, in the Illinois country.
Our people were always friendly with the French. They assisted them at the Fox River rapids, in getting their canoes over. I never heard that there was any trouble between the French and the Winnebagoes. My father told me the two nations were always at peace. When my tribe was at Lake Winnebago, in early days, they fought a good deal with other nations of Indians, — with the Sioux, the Pawnees, and the Osages; but they were always friendly with the Chippewas, Menomonees, and Pottawattomies.
I have heard my father say that his father often told him about certain white medicine-men in black gowns20 being among our people; but I never heard the names of any of them. In my day, we have not been much troubled by white medicine-men, but have been allowed to keep to the religion of our fathers. Very few of my friends are Christians. Our spirits are the same spirits our fathers believed in.
Our people once owned the lead mines in Southwestern Wisconsin. I have seen Winnebagoes working in them, long before the Black Hawk War. There were a good many at work in this way, nearly all the time in summer. Some dug lead for their own use, but most of them got it out to trade off to other Indians for supplies of all sorts. They made lead-mining their regular work. Every fall and spring hunters would go down to the mines and get a stock of lead for bullets, sometimes giving goods for it and sometimes furs.21 When the whites began to come (459) among the mines, the Big Father22 said to his Winnebago children: "I want this land and will have my own people to work it, and whenever you go out hunting come by this way, and you will be supplied with lead." But this agreement was never carried out by the Big Father or his agents. Never was a bar of lead or a bag of shot presented to us. This was a very great sorrow to our people. For many years there was much sorrowful talk among the Winnebagoes, at the manner in which the Big Father had treated them, with regard to the mines. No, we never saw any of our lead again, except what we paid dearly for; and we never will have any given to us, unless it be fired at us out of white men's guns, to kill us off.
Our old people talk much about Tecumseh. Some Winnebagoes once fought under him, but none of my relations ever did. Tecumseh's skin was bullet-proof. When he went into battle, he always wore a white deer-skin hunting shirt, around which was girt a strap. The bullets shot at him would go through his shirt, and fall harmless inside. When the weight of the bullets inside the shirt became too great, he would unstrap his belt and let them fall through to the ground. He was a brave man, as a man whom bullets could not wound would of course be; he never used a gun in battle, only a hatchet. Tecumseh had but one son. One day, when the great warrior had grown old and feeble, he called his son to him and said: "I am getting old. I want to leave you what has made me proof against bullets." Thereupon Tecumseh commenced to retch, and try to vomit. He repeated this several times and finally threw up a smooth, black stone, about three inches long. That stone was Tecumseh's soul.23 Handing it to his son. he said: "I could not be killed by a bullet, but will die only of old age. This is to be your charm against bullets, also." And (460) so his son swallowed it, that he, likewise, might never be killed by a bullet. And he never was.24
Hootschope (Four Legs)25 was one of the big chiefs of our tribe, when it was at Lake Winnebago. I have often heard of him as a great man and a mighty warrior. There are only two descendants of his, now living. One of these is a woman, named Good Cloud, who lives near Tomah; she has a son named Good Bear. The other descendant of Hootschope is a boy, Will Dandy, who goes to school at the Wittenberg mission on the Lake Shore railroad. Will Dandy has two cousins, also living at Wittenberg.
Black Wolf had a village on Lake Winnebago, near Fond du Lac, when I was a boy. He was a large man, much respected, and the war-chief of the tribe. He died at the Portage, many years ago.
Karrymaunee, of whom I have spoken before, has but one descendant now living; and he lives at Stevens Point. Little Elk, the uncle of Karrymaunee, was a big man. a wise man, an orator. Little Elk was a good Indian. I knew him well.
Waukoncauhaga (Snake Skin), whom the whites called Washington Decorah,26 had a village in early times, at the head waters of De Soto Creek, below La Crosse. He died at the Blue Earth agency many years ago, — perhaps 25 years ago, when the white men were fighting each other.27
Grizzly Bear was another chief whom I knew. He had a village in the neighborhood of Fox Lake. But that is so long ago, that I scarcely remember him.
(461) Joseph Crelie and I were great friends. I knew him at Portage for many years, and used to visit him. With those whom he liked, he was very friendly; but he was a rough man with others. Crelie died when he was a very old man. I am a very old man, — 93 years,28 — but Crelie was an older man than I.
I never saw the Winnebago prophet, who was the friend of the Sacs, but I have heard my people tell about him. His father was a Sac, and his mother a Winnebago woman. He had a village on the Rock River. During the Black Hawk War, he came over to the Winnebagoes and remained until the war was over, when he returned to the Sacs. I have never heard when or where he died.
The Spoon Decorah who signed the treaty of 1825, at Prairie du Chien, was not I. That one was my cousin, and a son of Big Canoe. I am the nephew of Big Canoe; and Doc Decorah the medicine man, who lives near me, is my nephew. Doc's father, who was named Bad-Spirit Killer, was my brother-in-law. Bad-Spirit Killer died of smallpox, when [in 1832-33] so many of our people were taken away by that disease. We were at Mauston, then, picking blueberries. Several of our party died.
I remember the different officers at Fort Winnebago; but only the names of one or two of them. They were all of them simply white captains to me. I do, however, remember the name of Captain Low. He was a good friend of the Indians; and a great friend of my father. He gave my father plenty of provisions, and whenever we had any fresh venison we always gave the captain some. I remember Major Twiggs, who was also a good man. He very often furnished us shot and powder to shoot geese with.
I am getting very old. My memory is poor. But what I have told you I know to be true. I wish you had come when I was younger. I could have told you much about my tribe. I could have told you more about the old chiefs and our traditions. When I was a boy we were proud of (462) them. My father gave me good talk about our tribe. He liked to speak of those things. Now the Winnebagoes are poor. They have not so much pride. Very few of them care about the old times. Most of them care only for fire-water. We get a very poor living, now. Our farms have not good soil. The game is not as plenty as it was. The white traders cheat and rob us. They make our young men drunk. It would be better if we had an agent.29 We think the Big Father does not care for us any longer, now that he has all our best land. Perhaps it will not be long before he will want the poor land we now live on. Then we must go to the reservation.30 Life on the reservation is hard. The Winnebagoes in Wisconsin do not want to go there. They want to die on their own land. They like best the streams and woods where their fathers and uncles have always hunted and trapped. If we had an agent given us, we would do better. My people are like children, and need to be looked after. They want to be encouraged. I am too old to travel much; but some day I will go and see the captain at the Four Lakes.31 I will ask him to see the Big Father, and procure for us an agent who shall be a good man.32 We had better have no agent, than such as I hear they sometimes have on the reservation.
Notes to the Text
1 Spelled also: Day Korah, Dacorah, DeKaury, DeKauray, Day Kauray, and De Corrah; I have retained the orthography of the neighborhood.
2 At the home of Spoon, in the town of Big Flats, Adams county, some ten miles north of Friendship, March 29, 1887. Moses Paquette, of Black River Falls, acted as interpreter. Spoon, who died in a cranberry marsh northwest of Necedah, Oct. 13, 1889, was a tall, well-formed, manly-looking fellow, with a well-shaped head, pleasant, open features, and dignified demeanor — quite superior in appearance to the majority of Wisconsin Winnebagoes. He was living with his aged squaw in a reasonably neat small frame cottage, while his progeny, reaching to the fourth generation, were clustered about the patriarchal lodge in family wigwams. The old man told his story in a straightforward, dignified manner, his memory being occasionally jogged by Doctor Decorah, his nephew. The Doctor is a medicine-man, held in high esteem by the Decorah. or mixed-blood element of the Wisconsin Winnebagoes, who live chiefly upon homesteads in Adams, Marquette, and Jackson counties. Spoon took pride in exhibiting a well-thumbed and much-battered copy of vol. vi. of these Collections, presented to him by Dr. Draper in 1879. He regarded it as "big medicine," and it was his constant companion upon the hunt as well as at home.
To those familiar with the Indian character, it is not necessary to explain that much of the material in this Interview, as well as that with Walking Cloud, post, was obtained by means of elaborate cross questioning. Paquette is a faithful and Intelligent interpreter, and in each case (449) of carefully rendered both questions and answers. The result I have formulated into two continuous narratives, following as closely as possible the Indian manner of speech; as here printed, they meet with Paquette's approval. It is not because of any fresh data herein contained, that these simple "talks" are awarded a place in the Collections: but they present the Indian view of several important historical events, thus giving us an insight into what Wisconsin savages themselves are thinking and talking about, in their camp-fire reminiscences of early experiences with the white man. The scraps of folk-lore which I was enabled to gather from these two Winnebago head-men are neither numerous nor important; but, such as they are, seem worth preserving. The Winnebagoes have been confronted with white men since Nicolet's visit, in 1631; two and a half centuries of such contact have almost entirely eliminated from their minds the prehistoric traditions of the tribe; their lodge tales of to-day have little to do with the myths of their forbears, and even when revived by the old men are hopelessly although unconsciously encrusted with a later growth, the result of missionary teaching. The bulk of the Winnebagoes have borrowed little else from the Christian instruction which has so long been lavished on them; of all Wisconsin Indians, they have been the least influenced in their religious belief.
See article, "Wisconsin Winnebagoes," in Wis. Hist. Colls., xii., pp. 399 et seq.
3 Called also Schachipkaka (White War Eagle), and Old Decorah. He was the son of The Ladle, repeatedly mentioned in previous volumes of the Collections. He died at Peterwell, on the Wisconsin River, April 20, 1836, said to be 90 years of age. He had fought in the battle of the Thames, and against Sandusky; and had been held as a hostage at Prairie du Chien for the delivery of Red Bird, in 1827. For sketches of the Decorah family and this exemplary individual member of it, see Wis. Hist. Colls., ii., p. 178; iv., pp. 286-289; v., pp. 153, 155; vi., p. 224; vii., pp. 346, 347; also Mrs. Kinzie's Wau Bun (1856), pp. 89 , 486 ; and Gale's Upper Mississippi (1857), pp. 81, 82, 189.
4 Cousin, in fact. The Winnebagoes make no distinction, in common speech, between brother and cousin.
5 See account of this uprising, in Wis. Hist. Colls., [viii.,] pp. 258 et seq.
6 L'Espagnol, or the Spaniard, was a Menominee chief, having his village almost opposite where Mauston is now situated — Wis. Hist. Colls., vii., p. 351. He fought under the British in 1812-15, at the attack on Mackinaw, he contested with Yellow Dog the credit of killing Major Holmes. — Id., iii., p. 270.
7 Wau Bun, p. 89 . Black Wolf's village was on the west shore of Lake Winnebago, south of the site of Oshkosh. He served under the British in the War of 1812-15, being at the captures of Mackinaw and Prairie du Chien. He died at Portage, previous to 1848.
8 Wau Bun, p. 91 .
9 Kaukishkaka (White Crow), a Winnebago chief, who had but one eye, and something of a reputation as an orator. His village, which comprised about 1,200 persons, housed in tepees covered with red-cedar bark, appears to have been situated about where is now the little village of Pheasant Branch, at the west end of Lake Mendota, Dane county; the paper City of the Four Lakes was to have occupied about the same ground, a few years after the Black Hawk War. Major Henry Dodge held a council with White Crow at the latter's village, May 25, 1832, and secured his promise to be friendly to the whites, or at least neutral. June 3, White Crow brought in the Hall girls to Blue Mounds, and restored them to Indian Agent Henry Gratiot, having been actuated by a reward offered for their recovery. But he had purchased their release (452) from the Sacs. That night, he attempted to stir the Indians at the Mound into a conspiracy against Dodge's militiamen, who were present at the transfer of the prisoners. But the Crow talked too freely, and the plot came to the ears of Dodge, who at once imprisoned the conspirator and five of his fellow chiefs, and marched them, June 4, across country to Morrison's Grove. White Crow was released, but two of the others were retained as hostages. June 30, he joined Dodge's squadron, with thirty of his braves, at First (Kegonsa) Lake, and essayed to guide them to Black Hawk's camp. It proved, however, that White Crow was endeavoring to lead the whites into a well-prepared snare at the Hustisford ford, on Rock River, where Black Hawk was prepared to demolish all comers. But this plot failed. White Crow was one of Pierre Paquette's party, to guide Majors Henry and Dodge from Ft. Winnebago to Black Hawk's camp. When it was found that Black Hawk had flown and was retreating to the Wisconsin, White Crow accompanied the whites on the chase. The fortunes of Black Hawk being now in the descendant, White Crow became a good friend of the victorious Americans, and won much credit by brave conduct in the battle of Wisconsin Heights, where it is recorded that he "fought like a white man, without cover." The Winnebagoes, who played fast and loose during the war, so long as the result seemed doubtful to them, were unanimously converted into enemies of the Sacs, when the defeat of the latter seemed well assured. White Crow's conduct was a fair sample of that of his fellow tribesmen. See also, Wau Bun, p. 91 ; Wis. Hist. Colls., x., p. 253; and "Story of the Black Hawk War," in Id., xii [Reuben Gold Thwaites, "Story of the Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII (1892): 224.].
10 Wis. Hist. Colls., x., pp. 185, 190.
11 All white narrators agree that he was with Paquette's party.
12 Cf. Wis. Hist. Colls., viii., p. 316; the narrative of Walking Cloud, post, p. 465, note ; article, "Wisconsin Winnebagoes," in vol, xi; and Mag. West. Hist., v., p. 194.
13 Wis. Hist. Colls., v., p. 18l.
14 Wis. Hist. Colls., xii., pp. 405, 406.
15 Neill, Hist. of Minn. (4th ed., 1882) pp. 483-487.
16 Probably the Winnebago chief who signed the treaty of 1832, and whose descendants claim for him the honor, such as it is, of discovering the fugitive Sac leader of the same name. See Spoon's own account of this affair, ante, pp. 453-455; narrative of Walking Cloud, post; and Wis. Hist. Colls., xii., pp. 261, note, 430, 431.
17 See Paquette's comment on Winnebago homesteading, in Wis. Hist. Colls., xii., pp. 418, 419.
18 Spoon Decorah was declared by his friends to have been, in his prime, one of the crack hunters of the tribe.
19 Wis. Hist. Colls., ii, p. 491; iii. p. 203.
20 Jesuit missionaries.
21 Cf. "Notes on Early Lead-Mining in the Fever-river Region," in this volume.
22 Meaning the president of the United States.
23 Spoon's language was, literally: "That part of Tecumseh which was to live after the rest of his body was dead."
24 The reader will not fail to notice this practical example of the curiosities of myth-making. Tecumseh was killed by a bullet at the Battle of the Thames (Oct. 5, 1813), and did not die of old age; many Winnebagoes from Wisconsin, friends of Spoon, saw him die, and yet here is a Winnebago tale-teller who remembers only a mythical Tecumseh, who resembles a Greek god. This Tecumseh myth is equaled by the Black Hawk myths referred to post, p. 465, note .
25 Wis. Hist. Colls., x, p. 114, note.
26 Wis. Hist. Colls., ii., pp. 260, 282; v.. pp. 156, 297, 307. In 1832 he was reported to be 81 years of age.
27 During the War of Secession.
28 Spoon stoutly contended that this was his age, but a careful computation made him but 81.
29 In 1886, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs recommended to Congress the appointment of an agent for the Wisconsin Winnebagoes, but no action was taken. See remarks on this subject, in article, "Wisconsin Winnebagoes," in Wis. Hist. Colls., xii.
30 In Dakota county, Nebr., where about half of the Winnebago tribe are now living.
31 Meaning the governor of Wisconsin, at Madison. "Taychoperah" (literally, four lakes) is the old Winnebago name for the country round about Madison.
32 In June, 1887, Spoon Decorah, Four Deer, and Doctor Decorah, with a half-breed interpreter, John la Ronde, of Portage, came to Madison upon this errand, but Governor Rusk was not in the city at the time, and they failed to see him. The party spent the day in the State Historical Society's rooms in the capitol, and then left for home. This was Spoon's last visit to Madison, for in the succeeding autumn he died.
Commentary. "Warrahwikoogah" — this appears to be the name Warawaiguga, "Comes Back with Something in His Mouth," recorded by Foster and Dorsey as a Wolf Clan name, but could obviously apply to birds and therefore to members of the Bird Clan. From wa-, "something, them"; rawa, rawé, rawax, "to carry in the mouth (or beak)"; i, "mouth"; gu, "to come back"; and -ga, a personal name suffix. This was one of the names by which Old Gray-headed Decorah was known, for whom see below.
|J. O. Lewis|
|Wajᵋxetega, "Big Canoe," 1825|
"Big Canoe" — the third son of "Old Decorah." Wajᵋxetega (d. 1864) is also known by the name "One-Eyed Decora." He distinguished himself in action against the British, for which see, "The Origin of Big Canoe's Name."
|Prairie du Chien in 1830 by Henry Lewis|
"Prairie du Chien" — its French name means, "Prairie of the Dog," and denotes a plain about 9 miles north of the confluence of the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers. On an elevation near the Turkey River, the Fox tribe had a large village at the base of which the Dog Band resided. It is from this Dog Band that the whole prairie took its name. The site of the present town was "the principal trading post on the Mississippi; the depot of the fur traders; the ancient meeting-place of the Indians tribes."1 The area was gradually settled by French farmers, and once it fell under the sovereignty of the British Crown, many new British settlers as well. During the War of 1812,
The peculiar position which Prairie du Chien occupied in the Indian country at once pointed it out as a most important place — of the value of which both the hostile Powers were fully cognizant — from the fact that whichever army took possession of it could command that immense territory inhabited by the warlike tribes of the West ... which lay along the west frontier of the United States ...2
The expedition of Zebulon Pike passed through the area and he noted the strategic character of this site and recommended to the War Department that they build a fort there, which was done in 1816 with the erection of Ft. Crawford. It was the frequent site of Indian gatherings for treaties with the United States government, and by 1823, Prairie du Chien was a major steamboat port, although in just a couple of decades, it was eclipsed by Minneapolis.3
|Red Bird and Wiga||Red Bird Monument, Portage, Wisconsin|
"Red Bird" — Wanįgᵋsučka, in Hočąk. The government had adopted the practice of granting settlers permits to encroach on land reserved by treaty to the Hočąk Nation, and this coupled with the depredations of the lead miners, had caused the gradual intensification of resentment within the tribe. A false rumor spread that two Hočągara warriors had been executed by the government. This set into motion retaliation by Red Bird's band, who took revenge on June 28, 1827, by attacking a settler's family. Two days later, a firefight erupted with a keel-boat in which two of its crew were killed. When the Army was mobilized, it became obvious that great destruction would be unleashed against the tribe, so Red Bird, and a companion named Weka (for Wiga, "Sun"), decided to surrender themselves to the capital punishment that was sure to be meted out by the white authorities in order to save the nation. McKenney, who was an eye-witness, tells what happened next:
All eyes were fixed upon the Red bird; and well they might be; for, of all Indians I ever saw, he is decidedly the most perfect in form, and face, and motion. In height he is about six feet, straight, but without restraint; in proportion, exact and perfect from his feet to his head, and then to the very ends of his fingers; whiles his face is full of expression, and of every sort to interest the feelings, and without a single, even accidental glance, that would justify the suspicion that a purpose of murder could by any possible means, conceal itself there. There is in it a happy blending of dignity and grace; great firmness and decision, mixed with mildness and mercy. ... He sat down, with a grace not less captivating than he walked and stood. At this moment, the band on our right struck up and played Pleyel's Hymn. ... [After speeches by both sides,] the Red Bird stood up; the commanding officer, Major Whistler, a few paces in advance of the centre of his line, facing him. After a pause of a minute, and a rapid survey of the troops, and a firm, composed observation of his people, the Red Bird said — looking at Major Whistler — "I am ready." Then advancing a step or two, he paused, and added — "I do not wish to be put in irons. Let me be free. I have given my life ‚ it is gone, (stooping down and taking some dust between his finger and thumb, and blowing it away,) like this — (eyeing the dust as it fell and vanished out of his sight.) I would not have it back. It is gone." He then threw his hands behind him, to indicate that he was leaving all things behind him, and marched up to Major Whistler, breast to breast. A platoon was wheeled backwards from the center of the line, when, Major Whistler stepping aside, the Red Bird and We-kaw marched through the line,in charge of a file of men, to a tent that had been provided in the rear, over which a guard was set.4
Captivity proved too much for Red Bird, who committed suicide on Feb. 16, 1828, a couple of months before President Adams issued a pardon to all those involved in the affair.
"the Black Hawk War" — in 1804 the United States government made a treaty with the Sauk Nation in which the latter would cede all their land east of the Mississippi. The terms of this treaty were not perfectly clear to most of the tribe. The War of 1812 saw many of the Sauks fighting on the British side. After the war, a new treaty was made in 1816 confirming the stipulations of the initial treaty. The Sauks later claimed that the government said one thing to them verbally and enacted another in print. Saukenuk, the chief village of the Sauks on Rock Island (41.518661, -90.541708), was the birthplace of Black Hawk, and now that he was chief, it was his stated intention to hold onto it. When in 1829, the Sauks returned from their winter hunt, they found the area occupied by white settlers. After a year of cold war with the settlers around Saukenuk, Black Hawk's band returned from the winter hunt, only this time they brought with them over 200 Kickapoo allies. Things came to a head in 1831 when the government enlisted troops to force Black Hawk and his allies to lands west of the Mississippi. Black Hawk retreated and after an armistice, began looking for allies. He was misinformed by another chief that the British would back him along with many of the tribes presently in Illinois. Black Hawk's hopes were buoyed when he was joined by the Winnebago Prophet, the head man of the mixed village of Prophetstown in Illinois. However, he brought very little with him. The Winnebago Prophet had argued that Prophetstown was not covered by any agreement, and that his band could legally cross over and join the Indians living in his town. Over-confident, Black Hawk's band reentered the lands east of the Mississippi in April, 1832. Government troops and Illinois militia mobilized. The Potawatomies and Hočągara largely held back, and the bands of the latter nation under Wakąga were actually enthused to fight against him on account of past hostilities. It also soon became clear that the British had no intention of supporting his campaign. The government sent forward the Illinois militia to reconnoiter, but they were surprised and routed by a force of only 40 warriors at the Battle of Stillman's Run. Black Hawk moved his civilians up to Lake Koshkonong, where the local Hočągara and Potawatomies became raiding white settlements. By June 15, Colonel Henry Dodge's command had caught up with a band of raiders and defeated them at Horseshoe Bend on the Pecatonica. On June 26, Black Hawk repelled a militia command under Major John Dement. By July, Black Hawk had lost his Hočąk and Potawatomi support, and being pressed by troops from Ft. Winnebago, retreated from Lake Koshkonong. The militia forces caught up with Black Hawk at Sauk City, Wisconsin. He attempted a successful rear guard action, saving his civilian population, but was severely defeated in the action, suffering heavy losses. Black Hawk's band, now suffering from starvation, were now in full retreat. When they reached the Mississippi, Black Hawk and the Prophet decided to flee north to seek protection from the Ojibwe, but only 50 of his band followed him north. The rest were at Bad Axe on the Mississippi, where the civilians attempted to cross while the warriors fought against the main force. The result was a massacre in which 260 of the band were killed out of the 500 that had survived to that point. In a pursuit in the days that followed, a Dakota force allied with the government killed 68 of the fleeing band and took 22 prisoners. The Hočągara county 50-60 scalps. Nearly half the band had been rubbed out before escaping west of the Mississippi and rejoining the tribe. On August 27, 1832, Black Hawk and the Prophet were persuaded by Hočąk emissaries to surrender to Joseph Street at Prairie du Chien. Although prisoners of the United States, they soon became celebrities and toured widely in the east.5
"the Portage" — now the city of Portage, Wisconsin. To the Hočągara it was Wawá’ą, essentially of the same meaning. (Kinzie, Jipson, Miner) With respect to Europeans, the place was first used as a portage by the explorers Marquette and Joliet on June 14, 1673. To the French, it became known simply as le portage. A trading post was set up in 1792, after which a thriving business was conducted porting boats of any size over the mud flats using teams of oxen. In 1824, the American Fur Company hired the Hočąk translator, Pierre Pauquette, who was fluent in Hočąk, French, and English, to run its operations there. On the Fox River side of the portage, the government built Fort Winnebago in 1828.6
"rise of ground" — located here: 43.538155, -89.475067.
"the bridge now is" — the present (2018) bridge, 43.536709, -89.473950, is at the same location as the bridge seen on the 1878 map (Fourth Ward).
|J. O. Lewis|
"Black Wolf" — Šųkjągesépka in Hočąk. His village was located seven miles south of Oshkosh on the shore of Lake Winnebago,7 still remembered in "Black Wolf Point" (43°55'39.0"N 88°28'17.0"W) and the town of Black Wolf. The village had only about 40 lodges. Hočąk campfires were seen there as late as 1846. Black Wolf was a large man and rose to the rank of War Chief. He fought on the side of the British and was at Mackinac and Prairie du Chien in the War of 1812.8 He was one of four chiefs, accompanied by 40 warriors who appeared in the peace negotiations between the British and Americans at Mackinac on June 3, 1815.9 He is believed to have died at Portage in 1847.
|R. A. Lewis|
|Dandy (Little Soldier)|
"Dandy" — known by his tribal name "Little Soldier," he was called "Dandy" on account of his ostentatious dress and his constant attention to the same. He is discussed at some length in Lawson, The Winnebago Tribe, 147-148.
"Tahneekseeickseega" — for Tanį́ksiksiga, from tanį́, "tobacco"; ksi, "to have a habit, develop a habit; to overdo," with emphatic reduplication; and -ga, a personal name suffix. Often said to be the same as Sarrochau (Čéračų́ga, "Many Buffalo"), but Grignon says that Smoker is Sarrochau's son.10 This problem arose because the senior man was also called "Smoker," and the son was, as is often the case, also known by his father's name Čéračų́ga. Reuben Thwaites said of the younger Smoker:
The Smoker (Charatchou, Tshayrotshoankaw) was son of Serachou (or Sarrochau), who had a village at Taycheedah, at the southern end of Lake Winnebago. The father took part in the War of 1812-15, dying soon after its close. ... The son was present at the treaty of Prairie du Chien in 1825; at that of Butte des Morts in 1827, and again in 1828. He signed neither the treaty of 1829, nor that of 1832. His village in the former year, according to John Kinzie's report, consisted of eight lodges and 145 inhabitants. He was with the whites in pursuit of Black Hawk.11
Old Gray-headed Decorah, 1830
"White Eagle" — a much beloved chief whose clan name was White War Eagle (Hičawaxšepskaga, or Čaxšépskaga). His village was near the mouth of the Baraboo River where it meets the Wisconsin (see Kinzie's Receipt Rolls). De la Ronde says this about the death of White Eagle, more popularly known as "Old Gray-headed Decorah":
(355) In 1836, the Indians had the misfortune of losing the best of (356) their chiefs, Scha-chip-ka-ka [Čaxšépsgaga], or De-kau-ry. His death occurred April 20, at the age of ninety, at his village ... Before he died, De-kau-ry called the Catholic priest, Mr. Vanderbrook, who was at the Portage at the time, by whom he was baptised, according to Catholic rites, the day of his death, and was buried in their cemetery near the present Court House in Portage City; and since the abandonment of that burial ground, the old chief's resting place cannot be identified. He was succeeded by his son, called by the whites Little De-kau-ry, whose Indian name was Cha-ge-ka-ka; and he did not long survive, dying six months after his father. He was succeeded by his brother, Ho-pe-ne-scha-ka [Xopíniskága], or White French.12
"Ahsheeshka" — for Ašiška, from a, "arm"; šiš, "to break, be damaged, broken"; and -ka, a personal name suffix. The name is found on the Treaty of 1829 rendered as, "Ah-sheesh-kaw, broken arm."13 He was the chief of the village at the Second Lake (Monona).14 Atwater says this of him, "Broken Arm, who had been severely wounded in the attack on fort Meigs, in the late war , was particularly conspicuous. The wound was so painted, and the blood which run from it was so well represented by the painter, as to look like the reality itself. At a short distance from him, on a first view, I thought he had recently been badly wounded."15 E. B. Washburne says, "There was Broken Shoulder, an Indian of stalwart frame, great intelligence, courage, and sobriety. He had previously been an enemy of the whites, and he was shot in the shoulder while scalping a white-man at Fort Edwards, near Warsaw, Ill. Hence his name, Broken Shoulder."16
"Pierre Paquette" — his name is variously rendered as "Pauquette, Poquette, Boquette." Satterlee Clark in his memoir of this period, has an interesting account of Pierre Pauquette (1796-1836):
(2) I now come to that part of my recollections in which the people of Portage and the Fort Winnebago region, feel the greatest interest, and have the most curiosity. I allude to my acquaintance with Peter Pauquette. His strength was so immeasurable, and his exploits so astonishing, that while relating what I have seen I shall tell only the exact truth, I will promise not to be offended if some of my readers should be a little skeptical. Peter Pauquette was born in the year 1800 of a French father and a Winnebago mother; the latter was buried nearly in front of the old agency house opposite the fort. He was thirty years old when I first knew him, and was the very best specimen of a man I ever saw. He was six feet two inches in height, and weighed two hundred and forty pounds — hardly ever varying a single pound. He was a very handsome man, hospitable, generous and kind, and I think I never saw a better natured man. I had heard much of his strength before I left Green Bay, and of course, was anxious to see him perform some of the wonderful feats of strength of which I had heard. From my first acquaintance with him to the day of his death, I was his most intimate friend, and consequently had a better opportunity to know him than any other person. I will now endeavor to give an idea of his strength and activity, which to me seemed almost superhuman. He often told me that all persons seemed alike to him. When I was nineteen or twenty years old, my business kept me constantly in training, and though I weighed less than one hundred and fifty pounds, my muscles were like iron; notwithstanding he often said it was no more trouble to take me across his lap than a child one year old, and so it seemed to me. I was told that on one occasion when he was making the portage with a heavy boat, one of his oxen gave out, and he took the yoke off, and carried the end against an ox all the way over. I did not see this, but I asked him if it was so, and he replied it was. I once saw him take hold of the staple to a pile driver weighing 2,650 lbs., and lift it apparently without any exertion, and swing it back and forth a minute of time. I have several times seen him get under a common sized horse, put his arms round the hind legs, his back under the horse's stomach and lift the horse clean off the ground. A great many other things I have seen him do which would tire the reader's patience were I to relate them. It can readily be imagined, however, that scarcely anything could be impossible to such a man. He was employed by the American Fur Company up to the day of his death. For the last four years of his life he had a bookkeeper, but previous to that time (not being able to read or write), he gave credit to hundreds of Indians, relying entirely on his memory, and their honesty. ...
(3) [On the 18ᵀᴴ day of October, 1836,] Pauquette came to my store to rejoice over our victory [in frustrating Gov. Cass in buying the lands of the Winnebago]. On this occasion he drank too much wine, and became just enough intoxicated to be impatient of contradiction. In this condition he started home on foot, and when within about one quarter of a mile of the ferry, opposite his house, he found an Indian and his wife sitting by a little fire in the bushes. The Indian was Mahzahmahneekah [Mą́zamąnį́ga], or Iron Walker, who was also drunk. What there occurred, is only known as related by the squaw that night. She said Pauquette kicked the fire apart, the Indian arose up and said something that offended Pauquette, who slapped the Indian's face, knocking him down. The Indian (319) got up, saying, "You knocked me down; but I got up. I will knock you down, and you will never get up. I will go for my gun." Pauquette only laughed, and sat down. The Indian returned, when Pauquette stood up, pulled open his coat, placed his hand on his breast and said, "Strike and see a brave man dies." The Indian fired, killing him instantly, the ball severing one of the main arteries leading from the heart. No man in Wisconsin could have died who was so much regretted. His death can safely be attributed to intoxication, though it was the first time I ever knew or heard of his being in that condition.17
For other references to Pauquette, see 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
|Samuel D. Coates|
"Joseph Crelie" — Joseph Crelie was the father-in-law of Pierre Paquette. He had been a voyageur and small fur-trader at Prairie du Chien as early as 1791, and in the early coming of the whites (about 1836) obtained much notoriety from claiming to be of phenomenal age. He died at Caledonia, Wis., in 1865, at a time when he asserted himself to be one hundred and thirty years old; but a careful inquiry has resulted in establishing his years at one hundred.18
|General Henry Atkinson|
"White Beaver" — the translated Indian name for General Henry Atkinson. Born in North Carolina in 1782, he entered the Infantry as a Captain in 1808. After service on the frontier, he was transferred to New York, where he was promoted to Colonel. He saw considerable action in the War of 1812, and in 1815 was given the command of the 6ᵀᴴ Infantry, a position which he held until his death. In 1819 and 1825, he led two expeditions to the Yellowstone country. In 1819, he established Ft. Atkinson, the first real U. S. settlement in Nebraska. During the expedition, he made treaties with the Arikara, the Cheyenne, the Crow, the Mandan, the Ponca, and some the Sioux. On his return to Ft. Atkinson, he also negotiated treaties with the Otoe, the Pawnee and the Omaha. He took overall command during the Black Hawk War of 1832, and although successful at the massacre at Bad Axe, he was criticized for his handling of the war generally. Ft. Leavenworth and Jefferson Barracks were constructed under his command, and he was stationed at the latter until his death on June 14, 1842.19
"Nahheesanchonka" — probably, Naxi-sąčá-ga, where Naxi means, "fourth born male"; sąčá, "the greatest one" (Susman); and -ga, a personal name suffix.
"Notsookega" — this is Noxčuxiga, "Breaks up a Tree into Small Pieces," a Bear Clan personal name (Dorsey). This is from ną, "tree, wood"; hoxčuxi, "small pieces, crumbs"; and -ga, a personal name suffix.
"Ahmegunka" — probably a corrupted form of Amįkąka, "He Reclines His Arm," from a, "arm"; mįk, "to lie," -ąk, a horizontal positional indicator; and -ka, a personal name suffix.
"Tahnichseeka" — for Tanį́ksiga , the same name as above, but without the reduplication of ksi.
|The Life Cast of Black Hawk|
"Black Hawk" — Mahkatēwi-meši-kēhkēhkwa ("Big Black Hawk") was a Sauk Warleader and chief of the British Band, who gave his name to the Black Hawk War of 1832. He was born in 1767 on Rock Island in the village of Sakenuk, the son of a prominent medicine man, Pyesa. His father took him on a raid against the Osage when he was 15 years old. There he won his first war honor, killing and scalping an enemy. At age 19, he led a large, successful raid of 200 warriors against the Osage. He inherited his father's Medicine Bundle when Pyesa was KIA in a war against the Cherokee. His difficulties with the white Americans began when he opposed the cession of land made in the 1804 treaty of St. Louis. When war with the American state broke out in 1812, Black Hawk allied himself with the Crown. The British gave him the rank of Brigadier General and command over the Indian allies headquartered at Green Bay. Black Hawk's warriors fought in numerous engagements, but in 1816 were obliged to sign a peace treaty with the U. S. recognizing the stipulations of the Treaty of 1804. In 1828, Sauk representatives consented to remove their tribe west of the Mississippi, but Black Hawk with many followers, refused to recognize this treaty's legitimacy. In 1830 and 1831, he made non-military incursions east of the Mississippi without reoccupying the land. In April, 1832, he moved his British Band of 1500 people back into Illinois, but hoped for allies did not materialize, and he began a withdrawal. His retreat was intercepted by the Illinois Militia at Old Man's Creek, and the Battle of Stillman's Run ensued, in which Black Hawk's forces routed the militia. The Sauk then moved north into what is now Wisconsin, headed for the village of White Cloud, the Winnebago Prophet. Only a few of the Hočągara had joined his force, which was made up of Sauk, Fox, Kickapoo, and later some Potawatomies. In a series of battles in Wisconsin, Black Hawk's force suffered serious attrition, culminating in the massacre at Bad Axe. At Prairie du Chien on August 27, 1832, Black Hawk surrendered to Gen. Joseph Street. Black Hawk, along with less than a dozen other leaders, were imprisoned for eight months at Jefferson Barracks. President Jackson, wishing to impress upon these leaders the true strength of white America, sent them on a tour through the east to Washington, where he met them in person. They proved to be quite an attraction in all the cities through which they passed. From Washington they were sent to prison at Fortress Monroe in Norfolk, Virginia, for six months. After their imprisonment, they were sent on a tour back to the west, where they received a positive reception in the eastern cities, but often a negative response in those places closer to the action of the war. In 1833, Black Hawk's autobiography was published. Black Hawk returned to live with his people in Iowa where he died on October 3, 1838.20
"Nahreechsecochkeshica" — at least part of this name can be analyzed in a way consistent with its translation as "Lame Ankle": sikóš’ógᵋšika, from sikóš’ók, "anklebone"; šik, "bad"; and -ka, a personal name suffix. Perhaps the first two syllables are from nąx’éč, "to loosen by walking."
"Mahheenibahka" — from Mąhį́-nųbą́hą-ga: mąhį, "knife"; nųbą́hą, "twice, the second"; and -ga, a personal name suffix.
"Prairie la Crosse" — the origin of the name of this area is revealed by Moses Pauquette:
The vigorous game of la crosse now-a-days familiar to patrons of state and county fairs of this section ... was in earlier days much played by the Winnebagoes. It was usually played at La Crosse, — Prairie la Crosse deriving its name from this fact,— during the general rendezvous after the winter's hunt. The Winnebagoes having always clung to the water-courses and heavy timber, during their winter's trapping and hunting, would float down the rivers to La Crosse, and there have their feasts and la crosse games, meet the traders and indulge in a big spree.21
|The Battle of Bad Axe|
"Bad Ax" — this is the Battle of Bad Axe, a massacre that ended the Black Hawk War. After their defeat at Wisconsin Heights, July 22, 1832, the Sauks retreated west intending to cross back over the Mississippi. At this point, their Potawatomi and Hočąk allies had slipped away, and starvation had taken a heavy toll among the remainder. On August 1, they reached the Mississippi River with the Army in hot pursuit. During the day, an action of a couple of hours ensued, with significant casualties among the Sauk. Black Hawk decided that rather than crossing the Mississippi under the guns of the U. S. Army, that it was more prudent to flee north. However, a great many of the band refused to follow him further. Most of the force and the civilians trying to escape, were trapped against the river. The gunboat Warrior entered the fray as most of the Sauks attempted to cross the Mississippi. The result was a massacre. Those who did not drown were shot. The fate of those who succeeded in crossing the river was not much better, as the pursuing Dakota allies of the government brought back 68 scalps and 22 prisoners. Black Hawk himself, accompanied by a small band of survivors, escaped north, but on 27 August 1832, under the urging of the Hočągara, he surrendered at Prairie du Chien. The 120 prisoners held by Gen. Scott were released before the end of August.22
"Enookwasaneenah" — Hinųkwasa Nįná, from hinųk, "woman"; wasa, "breasts"; nį, "waters"; -na, "the."
"Bangor, below Sparta" — located at ca. 43.899928, -90.976672.
|Gen. Joseph Street|
"General Street" — General Joseph Montfort Street (October 18, 1782 – May 5, 1840), was a frontiersman in the old Northwest Territory, and a friend of Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, and Zachary Taylor. After a stormy career as a newspaper owner in Kentucky, he established himself in Shawneetown, Illinois, in 1812. He was made general of the local militia. In 1827 he became the Indian agent to the Hočągara. He attempted to keep white settlers out of the lands reserved for the tribe, but it proved a hopeless task, so he came to believe that Indian removal was the only answer. In 1832, he was able to keep most of the Hočągara neutral in the Black Hawk War. In 1834, the Fox and Sauk were added as his charges. This diffusion of his labors caused the abortion of his school for the Hočągara at Prairie du Chien, which closed the year that he died.23
|George Catlin||William Cogswell|
|General Henry Dodge, 1833||Senator Henry Dodge in 1857|
"General Dodge" — Henry Dodge was born October 12, 1782 to Israel Dodge, a veteran of the Revolutionary War, and Nancy Hunter. He was the first American child born in the present state of Indiana. Israel Dodge divorced his wife and moved to Missouri, where Henry joined him at age 14. He served under his father as Deputy Sheriff in 1805, and in the following year got involved in the Burr Conspiracy, but upon learning that President Jefferson had declared the conspiracy an act of treason, he immediately renounced his participation. In 1806 he was given a commission in the Missouri Militia, and in 1813, he was appointed U. S. Marshall. With the outbreak of the War of 1812, he fielded a company of mounted Missouri Militia, and during the course of the war, rose to the rank of Major General. In an incident of that war, as recalled by his son Senator Augustus Caesar Dodge,
... the lives of five hundred men, women and children of the Miami tribe, [were] not only spared by [Henry Dodge] after they had become his prisoners, but protected from almost instant death by Colonel Dodge, who threw himself between the Miamis and the muzzles of a hundred and ten cocked rifles in the hands of Capt. Marshall Cooper's company, aimed at the Indians by brave but enraged Missourians, who had given way to the ignoble passion of revenge - the Indians having a short time before murdered a number of their kindred and friends.24
In 1827, he moved to Wisconsin, where he commanded militia during the Winnebago War. In October of that year he established himself at what is now Dodgeville. When the Black Hawk War broke out in 1832, he organized and commanded the Michigan Mounted Volunteers (Wisconsin being then part of Michigan Territory). He distinguished himself at the battles of Horseshoe Bend, Wisconsin Heights, and Bad Axe. He was then commissioned a Major and given command of the U. S. Regiment of Dragoons in 1834. He was made Governor of Wisconsin Territory from 1836 to 1841, and again from 1845 to 1848. At that time, the Territory encompassed the present states of Wisconsin, Minnesota and Iowa. He turned down attempts to nominate him for president on the Whig ticket on account of his loyalty to Martin Van Buren. When Wisconsin became a state, he served two terms as its first U. S. Senator from June 8, 1848, to March 3, 1857. He died in Burlington, Iowa, June 19, 1867.25
"Blue Mounds" — the site of the old for was 43°01′03″N 89°49′56″W.
|Charles Bird King|
|Nąga, "Wood," (Keramąnįga)|
"Karrymaunee" — for Keramąnįga, from ke, "turtle"; -ra, "the"; mąnį, "to walk"; and -ga, a personal name suffix — "The Turtle Who Walks." This name is rendered in a bewildering variety of ways: Karimine, Karrymaunee, Carrymaunee, Cari-maunee, Carimimie, Caramaunee, Calimine, Carramana, Kay-rah-mau-nee, Kerry-man-nee, and Kariminee.26 He was also known as Nąga, "Wood" or "Tree." The name Nąga is his clan name (Thunderbird Clan), and refers to the Thunders' habit of striking trees with their lightning weapon. Powell has this to say about him,
There lived for many years a very aged Winnebago chief, called Caramaunee, at a little village composed of only three or four bark lodges belonging to himself and his sons-in-law, located about two miles east of what is since called Waukau.27 East of Fox River, about two miles above Omro, is Delhi. Some two miles back [south] east of Delhi was Waukau, on the old Fort Winnebago trail from Green Bay to the Fox-Wisconsin portage. About two miles east [south] of Waukau, on the west bank of [the outlet of] Rush or Mud Lake, near the centre of the stream, was Caramaunee's village. He was a. large, square-shouldered, stout man, not very tall, but with a powerful frame and long face. While his people were generally regarded as unreliable and thievish, Caramaunee bore a most excellent character, was liked by all traders, and was friendly to the whites. "When I saw him last, about 1830, he seemed nearly a hundred years of age. He said he was out with Colonel Dickson in the War of 1812, went with the Menominee to Sandusky, and was at Mackinac when Major Holmes was shot by L'Espagnol."28
Grignon referred to him as "a very worthy man."29 He fought with Tecumseh and was at his side when he was killed in 1813.30 Keramąnįga was the father-in-law of Spoon Decorah, the first cousin once removed of Wakąhaga. In 1828, Keramąnįga moved his people to a site on the Baraboo River, where became known as "the Counselor of the Baraboo."31 He died in Dexterville, Iowa.32 See also, McKenney-Hall.
|R. A. Lewis|
|Little Decorah, 1866|
"Little Decorah" — Lawson says of him, "Little Decorah died near Tomah, at Blue Wing's village about April 1, 1887, a very old man, about 100 years old. He was the oldest son of Old Gray-headed Decorah. His place was near Millston, Jackson county, when he died."33
"Long Prairie" — this is the territory assigned to them briefly in Minnesota. Publius Lawson give an account of this short episode in the wanderings of the nation:
In 1853, a new treaty was made, by which they were allowed to remove to the Crow river. This treaty was not ratified because of the remonstrance of the people of Minnesota (U. M., 188). On February 27, 1855, they ceded their Long Prairie reservation and were granted a tract of land eighteen miles square on the Blue Earth river, just south of Mankato, in southern Minnesota (19 [?], B. E., 804). They settled here in the spring of that year and immediately began the erection of dwellings and improvement of the land. The teacher of the reservation school reported in 1860 the enrollment of 118 pupils. In the midst of their prosperity, in June, 1862, came the "Sioux massacre," which completely wrecked their future prospects. Although they took no part in that affair, and even though they offered to the government their services in punishing the Sioux, the frightened inhabitants of Minnesota demanded their removal (U. M., 138).34
"Big Wave" — Čaščąga, the name is simply "Wave." This is ordinarily a clan name given not long after birth in the Waterspirit Clan, as one might expect. Wave, as it happens, was appointed chief by the government (q.v.), which ignored the usual requirement that the chief be drawn from the Thunderbird Clan.
|Henry Mower Rice (1816-1894) in 1859|
"H. M. Rice" — Henry Mower Rice (November 29, 1816 – January 15, 1894) was born in Vermont, and went west to Michigan in 1834 to do survey work. In 1839, after securing employment at Ft. Snelling in Minnesota, he became a fur trader to the Ojibwe and Hočąk nations. In the 40's and early 50's he facilitated the establishment of treaties and removals involving the Ojibwe, Dakota, and Hočąk nations. In 1849 he helped establish Minnesota as an independent territory, and as a territorial representative, contributed to the establishment of Minnesota as a state in the Union. He was prominent in the Democratic party in the late 50's and was elected U. S. Senator, a seat he held from May 11, 1858 to March 3, 1863. His attempt to become the Governor of Minnesota in 1865 fell short.35
|Hercules L. Dousman|
"H. L. Dousman" — Hercules Dousman (1800-1868) was born in Mackinac, Michigan, to a prosperous fur trader. He was educated in New Jersey, did some work as a clerk in New York City, then 1826 moved west to work for Joseph Rolette in his fur trading business. He eventually bought a share of the western branch of the American Fur Company in partnership with Shibley and Rolette, but in 1842, the company went out of business. A new partnership lasted but two years as Rolette died in debt in1842, and Dousman collected much of Rolette's estate, then married his widow, Jane Fisher. Dousman had made good investments in Wisconsin lumber mills and future urban real estate. As the fur trade business declined, Dousman shifted to investments in transportation including the Madison & Prairie du Chien Railroad. These astute business moves made him Wisconsin's first millionaire.36
|Winnebago Blackhawk, 1897|
"Black Hawk" — in Hočąk, Kerejųsepka, listed by Radin as a name in the Bird Clan. Lurie, more specifically, lists him as a member of the Hawk Clan (Warrior Clan).37 Jipson recognizes him as one of the important chiefs of the Hočągara.38 We learn from his son Walking Cloud (Mąxíwimą̀nįga):
During the Black Hawk War, my father had his lodge near La Crosse. I did not go to the war; I was too young. But my brother did. His name was Seeoroouspinka [Sikuruspįga]. General Dodge sent a messenger down to Prairie du Chien, and said he wanted the Winnebagoes to go into the war and help the Great Father punish the Sacs. Our people, who were named in this call, did not want to go to war. But the messenger, after we had all arrived in Prairie du Chien, picked out Winnebago Black Hawk (my father), and my brother, and they went up the Wisconsin River with a party of white soldiers and officers from Fort Crawford. They met a number of Sacs coming down on a raft made of canoes tied together. The Winnebagoes and the white killed most of the Sacs in this party. Winnebago Black Hawk was the guide of this epedition.39
His obituary reads, "Black Hawk, the most noted chief of the Wisconsin Winnebago Indians, age 90, died in the town of Brockway, a few miles from Black River Falls. The chief has been well known in the western part of Wisconsin. For the last 50 years, he was always a friend of the whites and on several occasions prevented the Winnebagos from taking the warpath to settle differences with the whites."40 It transpires that he was a Warbundle owner:
An Indian Chief's war bundle — one of the few owned by museums in the country — was recently given to the Wisconsin State Historical museum, by John Blackhawk, of Greenwood, Wisconsin, great grandson of "Winnebago Blackhawk," an Indian chief of the Mississippi River Valley tribes. Most of these bundles are kept in the possession of the family and are handed down from generation to generation. The entire bundle is wrapped first in matting and then in skin and is worth about $200. It contains several ermine, the sacred animal of that tribe, medicine, herbs of various kinds, charcoal tied in a skin bag, three war clubs, several flutes, fire-hearths and dagger sheath. The only other bundle of this kind that is in the Wisconsin Museum at the present time belongs to the same tribe but to a different clan.41
"Elroy" — located at 43.742082, -90.271795.
"Pike Lake" — located at coördinates 43.313270, -88.341870.
"the forty-acre piece" — the NE ¼ of Section 1, Township 18N, Range 5E, is about 1,000 yards north of Big Cri Lake. The 1900 plat map shows that by this date the old Decorah property was owned by Nels Hanson. This property, seen on contemporary plat maps (34-369, 38.34 acres), is at 44.066507, -89.839444.
"told me" — this story is included in this collection at First Contact, Version 2.
"Tecumseh" — this story is included in this collection at Tecumseh's Bullet Proof Skin.
|J. O. Lewis|
|Four Legs (Hujopka)|
"Hootschope" — Hujōpka, "Four Legs" (Neokautah in Menominee), had a village located on Doty Island in Lake Winnebago, probably the largest village of the Hočąk nation.42 This was described by Morgan L. Martin in 1828 as being, "On Doty's island, very near the mouth, on the west channel was the village of Hootschope or Four Legs, the well known Winnebago chieftain. There were from 150 to 200 lodges there, covered with bark or mats. We found Four Legs a very ordinary looking Indian."43 In 1830, a Mr. McCall added, "There was in all 55, male and female. The chief's name is Four Legs. Took our dinner and returned to meet the chief at his lodge. Here we found them collected in all about 10 in number the head chief seated on his mat cross-legged in all the majesty of an Asiatic prince. After a profound silence, he arose from his seat and shook hands with each of us and addressed us in the Winnebago."44 This same year, Juliette Kinzie described the village as, "a cluster of neat bark wigwams ... at the entrance to Winnebago Lake, a picturesque cluster of huts, spread around on a pretty green glade, and shaded by fine lofty trees."45 He is believed to have fought on the British side in the War of 1812, after which he set himself up as overlord in the Fox River valley where he exacted tribute for anyone wishing to pass through. He died in 1830 at about the age of 40 years.
His body, according to custom, having been wrapped in a blanket, and placed in a rude coffin along with his guns, tomahawk, pipes, and a quantity of tobacco, had been carried to the most elevated point of the hill opposite the fort, followed by an immense procession of his people whooping, beating their drums, howling. After the interment of the body a stake was planted at its head on which was painted in vermillion a series of hieroglyphics descriptive of the great deeds and events of his life. The whole was then surrounded with pickets of the trunks of tamarack trees, and hither the friends would come for many successive days to renew the expression of their grief, and to throw over the grave tobacco and other offerings to the Great Spirit."46
He was survived by his Fox wife (portrait) who could speak fluent Ojibwe and generally acted as interpreter.47 See the remarks made by Thomas Gage on Four Legs. He is sometimes confused with the Dandy known as "Little Soldier," the son of Black Wolf, who died in June, 1870 at age 77 at his encampment at Peten Well (near Neenah).48
|Wakąhaga (Snakeskin), 1825||The Mississippi River at De Soto|
"Snake Skin" — Wakąhaga, "Snake Skin," was one of the Decorahs, and therefore a member of the Thunderbird Clan. Lurie records him as being a signatory of the Treaties of 1825, 1828, 1829, 1832, and 1837.49 His identity as a Decorah is indicated in the 1832 treaty where his name is recorded as Wakaunhaka Daykanray. Wakąhaga was a nickname later acquired by its bearer on account of his habitually wearing a snake's skin band on his head, as may be seen in his painting. Because he was called "Wakan Decorah," he is sometimes confused with Wakąga, "Snake." Both Charles Bird King and J. O. Lewis had separate paintings of Snake and Snakes Skin, all of which were done in 1829. Snake Skin was a tall man, a member of the Thunderbird Clan, who died in 1868; whereas Snake was a short man of the Snake Clan who died in 1838. Charles H. Saunders, who lived with the Wakąhaga family for years, says, "At times of feasts or medicine dances Wa-Kun-ha-ga wore on his head a cap made of yellow rattlesnake skins."50 By virtue of having gone to Washington a number of times to sign treaties, he was also called "Washington Decorah." Col. B. W. Brisbois said of him, "... the old Winnebago chief, Wakon-Hawkaw, or Snake-Skin, sometimes called Waukon De Carrie ... was a large, handsome man, who evidently had French blood in him and when young was very strong."51 He was also a noted orator. He died at the Blue Earth Agency in 1868, and according to Oliver LaMère, he was around 90 years old.52 Once the tribe had moved to Minnesota, Saunders notes, "Wakun-ha-ga, and his band, also had a village at or near Waukon, Ia., where they went in the summer, and raised corn and squash, and picked berries for winter use." LaMère also stated, "Waukon and Waukon Junction [Iowa] have their names from Waukon Decorah."53
"De Soto Creek" — the creek (unnamed) is traced in its three branches on the Wisconsin DNR Map. The longest branch is in the north, terminating at the center of T11N R07W Section 14 at the coördinates 43.426632, -91.177394. In later times, he had a village about 30 miles north of Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi, although Burnett places it about 60 miles above the Prairie.54 The site on De Soto Creek just is 30 miles north of Prairie du Chien. La Crosse itself is about 60 miles north of the Prairie.
"village" — for Grizzly Bear's village, see #19 on the map with Kinzie's Receipt Rolls.
|George Catlin||Theresa Jansen|
|The Winnebago Prophet||The Monument to the Winnebago Prophet
Near the Site of Prophetstown
"Winnebago prophet" — named "White Cloud" (Mąxisgaga) in Hočąk.
White Cloud, the prophet, was Black Hawk's evil genius. He was a shrewd, crafty Indian, half Winnebago and half Sac, possessing much influence over both nations from his assumption of sacred talents, and was at the head of a Winnebago village some thirty-five miles above the mouth of the Rock. He had many traits of character similar to those possessed by Tecumseh's brother, but in a less degree.55
In conjunction with Black Hawk, the chief of the Sauk, he preached in favor of war against the Long Knives, gaining the support of the Fox, Kickapoo, Potawatomi, and Hočągara. The result was the near annihilation of the Sauks, from which he and Black Hawk barely escaped alive. See also, "A Prophecy."
"Doc Decorah" — Thwaites says of him in the footnote above, "The Doctor is a medicine-man, held in high esteem by the Decorah. or mixed-blood element of the Wisconsin Winnebagoes, who live chiefly upon homesteads in Adams, Marquette, and Jackson counties." Thwaites says further, elsewhere, "Doctor Decorah is the head medicine man, has a comical physiognomy, and is much of a wit."
"Mauston" — located at 43.799357, -90.081346.
|Captain Gideon Lowe|
"Captain Low[e]" — a Captain in the 5th Infantry Regiment whose Company D garrisoned Ft. Winnebago beginning in 1838.56 "Capt. Gideon Lowe left the army in 1839, and settled on the Portage, where he kept a public house a number of years."57
|Major Gen. David E. Twiggs
1 January 1859
"Major Twiggs" — David Emanuel Twiggs (1790 – 1862), at the end of his career holding the rank of Major General, was born in Georgia to a wealthy and prominent family. Beginning his career in the War of 1812 as a Captain, by 1828 he had been placed in charge of a detachment of the First Infantry Regiment to build and garrison Ft. Winnebago. After being promoted to Colonel and placed in command of the 2ⁿᵈ U.S. Dragoons, in 1836 he was engaged in the Seminole War with inconclusive results. There he earned the nickname "Bengal Tiger" for his hot temper, no doubt stimulated by his frustrations with the Seminoles. With the rank of Brigadier General, he commanded a brigade at the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. In the Battle of Monterrey he commanded a division. Shortly thereafter, he was transferred to Winfield Scott's command to take charge of the 2ⁿᵈ Division of Regulars. He fought in all the major battles of Scott's command, and was wounded at Chapultepec. After the war he was promoted to brevet Major General and given the command of the U.S. Army's Department of Texas. He was still in that position when Texas seceded from the Union in 1861. In what the government considered a supreme act of treachery, Gen. Twiggs surrendered almost his entire command and materiel to the Confederacy, a transfer worth about $1.6 million. Not long afterwards, he was given the rank of Major General in the Confederate Army and a command in Louisiana. However, about a year later he died of pneumonia, and was buried on his family plantation in Georgia.58
Notes to the Commentary
1 Alfred Edward Bulger, "Events at Prairie du Chien Previous to American Occupation, 1814," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 13 (1895): 1-9 [1-2].
2 Bulger, "Events at Prairie du Chien Previous to American Occupation, 1814," 2.
3 Mary Elise Antoine, Prairie Du Chien (Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2011) 7.
4 Col. Thomas L. McKenney, History of the Indian tribes of North America [microform] : with biographical sketches and anecdotes of the principal chiefs : embellished with eighty portraits from the Indian gallery in the War Department at Washington, Vol. 2 - Text (Philadelphia: D. Rice, n.d.) 284-292. Reuben Gold Thwaites, Notes to Wau-Bun, Caxton Club Edition (1901), 417-418 nt. 120.
5 John W. Hall, Uncommon Defense: Indian Allies in the Black Hawk War (Harvard University Press, 2009). Patrick J. Jung, The Black Hawk War of 1832 (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007). Kerry A. Trask, Black Hawk: The Battle for the Heart of America (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2006).
6 from the official City of Portage website (> History), viewed 1/2/18.
7 Augustin Grignon, "Seventy-Two Years’ Recollections of Wisconsin," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, III (1857): 295 [208, 288].
8 Lawson, "Summary of the Archaeology of Winnebago County, Wisconsin", 66.
9 "Papers of Capt. T. G. Anderson, British Indian Agent," X (1888): 142.
10 Grignon's Recollections, Wisconsin Historical Collections, III (1857 ): 288).
11 "Fur-Trade on the Upper Lakes 1778-1815," ed. Reuben G. Thwaites, Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIX (1910): 234-374 [141 note].
12 John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [355-356].
13 Charles J. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. 2, Treaties (Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904) 2:302. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Treaty of 1829, 61, #49).
14 John H. Kinzie, Winnebago Village List (Indian Office Files, Michigan Territory, 1829-1832) Schedule of Number and Names of Villages, Lodges, and Persons, #12.
15 Caleb Atwater, Writings of Caleb Atwater (Carlisle, MA: Applewood Books, 2007) 308.
16 E. B. Washburne, "Col. Henry Gratiot — a Pioneer of Wisconsin," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, X (1888): 235-260 .
17 Satterlee Clark, "The Early History of Fort Winnebago as Narrated by Hon. Sat. Clark at the Court House in Portage, on Friday Eve., Mar. 21, ’79," The Portage Democrat, March 28, 1879 = Satterlee Clark, "Early Times at Fort Winnebago, and Black Hawk War Reminiscences," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VIII (1879): 316-320. Reuben Gold Thwaites, Notes to Wau-Bun, Caxton Club Edition (1901), 403 nt. 41.
18 Juliette Augusta McGill Kinzie, Wau-Bun, The "Early Day" in the North-west (Chicago & New York: Rand, McNally & Company, 1873 ) Reuben Gold Thwaites, Note 99.
19 Roger L. Nichols, General Henry Atkinson — A Western Military Career (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964).
20 Black Hawk, Autobiography of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, or Black Hawk, ed. John Barton Patterson (St. Louis: Continental Printing Co., 1882). William R. Smith, The History of Wisconsin, In Three Parts, Historical, Documentary and Descriptive, Part I, Vol. I (Madison: Beriah Brown, 1854) 221-406.
21 Moses Paquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebagoes," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII (1892): 399-433 .
22 James Lewis, The Black Hawk War of 1832 (Illinois Humanities Council, 2000).
23 Reuben Gold Thwaites, Notes to Wau-Bun, Caxton Club Edition (1901), 404 nt. 49.
24 Theron Royal Woodward, Dodge Genealogy: Descendants of Tristram Dodge (Chicago: Lanward Publishing Co., 1904) 60.
25 Louis Pelzer, Henry Dodge (Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1911). Reuben Gold Thwaites, Notes to Wau-Bun, Caxton Club Edition (1901), 416 nt. 112.
26 Publius V. Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," Wisconsin Archeologist, 6, #3 (July, 1907) 78-162 .
27 a note (by Draper ?), states, "Captain Powell suggests that this may be a slight change or corruption for Nahkaw." William Powell, "William Powell's Recollections, In an Interview with Lyman C. Draper," Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin for 1912, 3-178 [151-152].
28 Powell, "William Powell's Recollections," 151-152.
29 Augustin Grignon, "Seventy-two Years' Recollections of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, 3 (1857): 197-295 .
30 Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," 151.
31 John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, 7 (1876) 345-365 .
32 Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," 152.
33 Moses Paquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebagoes," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII (1892): 399-433 .
34 Publius V. Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," Wisconsin Archeologist, 6, #3 (July, 1907) 78-162 .
35 AOC (Architecture of the Capital) website, "Henry Mower Rice." Viewed: 2.28.2018.
36 Dictionary of Wisconsin Biography, ed. P. L. Scanlan (Prairie du Chien and Menasha, Wis., 1937) 107-108.
37 Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Kerεjúŋsεpgǝ, 61, #44).
38 Norton William Jipson, The Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society [unpublished], 1924) 263.
39 "Narrative of Walking Cloud," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 463-467 [463-464].
40 Clark County Press, September 1899.
41 Owen Enterprise, January 6, 1921. For a Hawk Clan Warbundle, see "Artifacts."
42 For Four Legs and his village, see See 3, Wisconsin Historical Collections, 286; 5, W. H. C., 96; 10, W. H. C., 74; 11, W. H. C., 395; 2, The Wisconsin Archeologist, 52; and Publius V. Lawson, “Habitat of the Winnebago, 1632-1832,” Proceedings ofthe State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1906: 147-148.
43 11, Wisconsin Historical Collections, 395.
44 12, Wisconsin Historical Collections, 187-188.
45 Juliette Augusta McGill Kinzie, Wau-Bun, The "Early Day" in the North-west (Chicago & New York: Rand, McNally & Company, 1873 ) 62 .
46 Kinzie, Wau-Bun, 86 .
47 2, Wisconsin Historical Collections, 176; 5, W. H. C., 96; 14, W. H. C., 87; Publius V. Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," Wisconsin Archeologist, 6, #3 (July, 1907) 78-162 [142-144].
48 John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [346, 365].
49 Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (wakaŋhagǝ #12).
50 Charles Philip Hexom, Indian History of Winneshiek County (Decorah, Iowa: A. K. Bailey & Son, Inc.) 39.
51 "Additions," Wisconsin Historical Collections, X (1888): 491-509 [502.]
52 Lyman C. Draper, Note to David McBride, "Capture of Black Hawk," Wisconsin Historical Collections, V (1907): 293-297 . Hexom, Indian History of Winneshiek County, 45.
53 Hexom, Indian History of Winneshiek County, 37-44.
54 Lyman C Draper, note to Lewis Cass, "The Winnebago Outbreak," Wisconsin Historical Collections, V (1907): 156. Thomas P. Burnett, "Memoir of Thomas Pendleton Burnett," Wisconsin Historical Collections, II (1903): 233-325 .
55 Reuben Gold Thwaites, "Story of the Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII (1892): 224.
56 George Croghan, Army Life on the Western Frontier: Selections from the Official Reports Made Between 1826 and 1845 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, Apr 14, 2014) 25.
57 Satterlee Clark, "Early Times at Fort Winnebago," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, VIII (1879): 309-321 .
58 Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders (Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1959) 330-331.
Spoon Decorah, "The Narrative of Spoon Decorah," in an Interview with Reuben Gold Thwaites, Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 448-462.