The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Version 1

by Jim Pine

Jim Pine

Hocąk-English Interlinear Text

(250) A man went hunting and left his wife at the lodge. And when he returned, as he came to the lodge, it was empty and one of the lodge poles had been pulled out. The man said, "Hohó, my wife must have been captured." Man that he was, there the man got angry, and then he ate in a hurry. After this he chased after them, (251) and where they stopped, he looked around, but he could not discern any place where they had killed someone. And again the man chased after them all day, chasing them fast, and then he trailed them right up to the lodge where they lived. As he went, he then saw their lodges and he sat down by their well. "And if one comes, I shall kill him," thus he thought.

And a woman came along. When he looked, he thought that she was similar to his wife. And so she dipped into the water and then he caught her, and it was his wife who was doing it. (252) "Hoho my dear wife, I was chasing you and had seen you. Let's go home right away." His wife said, "Waną́," she said, "I could go home right now were it not for the fact that I didn't bring my moccasins with me. I will go and get the moccasins." Then the woman went back. She went back to the lodge. In this case, when she got back, she told them about it. "A man, the one I'm married to, has come. I was drawing water and he was sitting there," she told them. (253) "Go talk to him. While you are talking to him by the wood pile (?) here, we will capture him."

Therefore, the woman went there. And then he spoke to the woman, "Let's go on immediately. It is very brushy over here so that if we go through there it will be good." And then they came. The men came. Then they captured him, and they bound him, binding his arms. (254) They drove a stake in the ground behind him. His hands were tied down. They drove it in back there. And again sitting with his legs stretched straight out before him, again they drove a stick in at his ankles, and all night he sat worrying. When he finished eating, then they went to kill him. And there on a little plain they killed him. His body was all cut to pieces. They cut his head off. (255) And then his arms and ribs were broken. And all the pieces they placed separately. Then they came back.

And again the person who was killed went away from that place. Thus, he had been very far off. Finally he returned, and when he returned, all of his body was scattered in this way. He didn't know where he would stop. Therefore, finally, a wolf had blessed him as a man who had been killed. He said, "I wonder if he knew," he thought. (256) When he thought, this one came very near him. "How could it be that I would not know of you? I have been wondering when you would think of me." And the wolf came and fixed him. And he gathered together all of his body, then Wolf (Šuñkjoñkega) howled. Once he voiced it, his body became whole. And when he voiced it again the second time, then he almost moved. Then again when he voiced it a third time, then he moved. He almost got up and rushed about. (257) Then when he voiced it the fourth time, he got up and rushed about, and he said, "Ho ho ho ho!" and, "I am alive. You have caused me to rise." And then it was that Wolf said it and then stood up and talked to him, "Hąhą my younger brother, you had blessed me when you were to leave. Hąhá, it is I. I wondered when you would come to think of me. But I always knew of you. And so I came here. Therefore, I was the cause of it, of fixing you. (258) And so you live." "Hąhą my older brother, thus here in this village, here right away if you wish to kill, you may do so; but this man who brought you back here, you can also get revenge on him. Then you can also do it to him. And you can come and fight this village. Then he will be captured for you. And the man that did this to you will then be captured, then you will also do it to him." "Then too, he is not my equal. My dear older brother, White Wolf am I who speaks." (259) "And I bless you. And the man who did this to you was blessed by Gray Wolf, but he is not equal to me, and I myself am in charge. The white wolf also is not my equal. And then when you start home and get back to your lodge, then you will come and try him over. And now they themselves will capture him for you and together you will take him home. And then you also will do it to him. And he is blessed by a wolf, (260) but you will have young men, and furthermore, you will have wives, and you will always give them food. I have said it. And when you kill a deer, then cut it up for them to eat, and you call them and the wolves come there to eat it, and thus always, every day, then it is good enough. Therefore, everyone will think highly of you. (261) You always fed them and these stood steadfast by you, and for that reason they thought much of you. Everyone knows of your actions. And then if anything bad somewhere were to befall you, then they know your actions. And so then, you will not have gone through anything bad. Now then, everyone is always watching over you. This is because you did well for them. Therefore, now this that I am saying to you, I that am speaking to you, everyone is hearing."

The end.1

Version 2

from the collection of W. C. McKern

Original manuscript pages: | 187 | 188 | 189 | 190 | 191 | 192 | 193 | 194 | 195 | 196 |

(187) A man would always go out hunting. He had a wife, and she had ten brothers. He hunted and would always kill a deer or bear. On one hunting trip, he took his wife with him. One day the enemy came upon the lodge. There they found his wife alone and captured her. He had said to her, "If you are ever captured, I shall be there, don't fear." When he returned from (188) the hunt, he found his lodge burned and his wife gone. He said, "Well, I told my wife I would be there. I must get ready and go after them." So he cooked food to eat and to take on a journey. He also took extra moccasins. He went following their tracks. He came to that place, at the village of the enemy. It was daytime when he arrived, so he waited until it should be night. Then he went towards the village. He came to the watering place. There he hid by the spring. Then one woman came with a pail to get water. He recognized her, "This must be my wife." Then he spoke, "Is that you my wife?" "Yes." "I told you I would come, that's why I am here. We are going home now." Then she said, "Let me get my blanket and moccasins." "No, we will go now before it is found out that I am here." But she went back. She had married the chief's son. As soon as she got home, she told her new husband that her former husband waited by the spring. His men surrounded the man. They captured him. He was placed in the middle of the lodge. His arms and feet were tied to stakes in the ground. Then he was shown his wife playing with her new husband. They made fun of him.

(189) So people gathered together at the village. They talked the matter over as to whether they should kill him or not. They gathered together in the chief's house. They decided not to kill him because he had gone first into the chief's home. Something might happen to them if they killed him after that. So said the old men. The chief's son, however, wanted to kill him. "This is our enemy. How shall we save him?" So they finally decided to kill him. So they decided to take him outside the village, stake him to the ground, and run over him while riding on horseback. After four days they got ready to do this. They pounded corn and boiled it. When it was very hot, they made him eat it with his hands. It burned his hands and mouth, but he had to eat it. Then when the time came on the fourth day, they took him out of the village and staked him to the ground. Then they ran over him with horses, but the horses jumped over him. "Let us go altogether," they said. This they did, and the man was killed by the horses. Then they said, "Our brothers the wolves, if you are hungry, here is food for you." Now this man had dreamed of the (190) Wolf Spirit. At that time, the Wolf Spirit told him, "When you have hard times, remember me. I shall answer your prayers and come to your assistance." One wolf heard his enemies cry. When he got there, he recognized the man as the one protected by the Wolf Spirit. Then he was sorry. Then he thought how he would bring him to life again. So he went around the dead body clockwise. When he had finished the circle, he sat up facing east. Then he called, "Wu-hu-hú-u-u-u-u." Then he made a second circle and repeated the call. Again he circled and called. At each circle the flesh of the dead man healed up more and more. The old wise men of the village said, "We have never heard a wolf speak like this. Something is about to happen to us." Younger people said, "We told the wolves to eat that man. They are there now. That is why they say that." Then the wolf circle the man a fourth time, and repeated the call. Then the man sat up. He was alive again. Then he saw the wolf sitting by him. "Well, you forgot me," he said to the man, "I told you to let me know when you were in trouble. If you had (191) notified me, this would have never happened. If you wanted to, we could take home scalps, but it is best to wait until you return home. Then we can return and fight them. We will come together." This the wolf said. So they went home to his own village. Then, arising, Wolf said, "I shall wait here in the woods for you. When people go to war, they give a four nights feast (the Warbundle Feast)."

So when he came to his village, people asked, "Where is your wife, that you come home alone?" Then he told her brothers all about it. Everything that happened, he told them. Then the oldest brother said, "I am sorry. My sister should not have done that." So he had a young daughter that had never been married. "I am sorry for you," said the older brother, "but it can not be helped. So I give you my daughter to be your wife. I hope she doesn't treat you like her aunt did." Thus he received a new wife. The wolf man had said, "Wait until we get back, then she shall be my wife." Then they began hunting for the feast. The wolf had said, "If you want to see me at any time, come to me here where I am." This he then did. The wolf said, "As many as you want, deer (192) and bear, you shall kill." So he built a long lodge for the War Feast, outside the village. Then they feasted for four nights. Every evening the wolf came down to the feast. The man always gave him raw meat when he came. The people all saw this. After the feast was finished, they prepared to go to war. Nearly all the young men went with him. A crowd of them went. The whole village was going after them. When they came there, he said, "We will capture this girl and her new husband. No one is to kill them, but take them alive." At nighttime they came there and waited for morning. They surrounded the entire village. Wolf said, "In the morning, we will be west of the village. Before we start, let one from the north, one from the east, one from the south, and one from the west, give a warning. 'Ų-ų-ų-ų-ų-ų-ų-ų‘,' say that," he said. "That will be the signal to begin. Do not say this until you hear me cry."

Then they did this. There they began to fight. Then they followed the wolf's instructions. (193) There the man went out to capture the woman and her husband. So the fighting began. Many were slain, but the chief's son and his wife hid. So they searched for them. Finally, they found them and captured them. They tied them up. Then the man gave the signal to quit war. "Kú-u-u-u-u-u-u!" he said. Then both sides stopped fighting. Then this man said to the enemy (Osage), "If I wanted to, I could kill you all. You are in the wrong here. What you did was wrong. You took me into the chief's home, that is why this has happened to you. If I wanted to, I could kill you all. Hereafter, you have a bad chief, since there was murder in his home. So that we be friendly to one another, come down and visit us. We are going to kill your chief because he is bad. We are going to start it again." Then they went home.

Many scalps they took with them. Then his oldest brother-in-law received four scalps from him. The chief's son and wife were taken down to the lodging of the Warrior Band chief. The oldest brother (194) said to him, "Do not go down to see our sister. She is wicked. She has acted badly." So he did not go down to see his wife. She asked to see her former husband, but he did not go to her. Her elder brother said, "You do not need to go there, since she has one with her whom she loves more than she loves you." This he said with sarcasm. The warrior chief he told to treat the prisoners as badly as he wished. So they did. When the time came to kill them, the Warrior Band built fire outside. Then they set in hardwood posts near the fire. To these the prisoners were tied. Then they took a stick of fire, with live coals at its end, and burned their skins in this way. When a coward complains of such treatment, they make him suffer longer. If they show fortitude, they are killed quickly. The Warrior leader, when about to execute prisoners, painted his body all red. No one talked to him, for his answers were always mean answers. This was according to the old custom. This was the Warrior Band's duty. All the people gathered around. Then came her oldest brother. All her relations and her former husband saw this. She said, "Brother, I thought that you would save me." "No, we couldn't do that, because you are a bad woman. You stand with our enemies. Our brother-in-law loved you and went after you, but you betrayed him. In this you did wrong. So you have brought this fate upon yourself. (195) You have no right to complain. That is why we cannot help you." Then the wolf man said to the chief's son, who cried out whenever fire touched him, "Say, young man, when I was your prisoner and you killed me, I did not cry out as you are doing. You were mistaken. You were a chief, but you murdered me after I was taken to your home. That is why this has come to you. Our Great Spirit knew that and so you are now suffering. So you suffer a mean death." When they killed him, they heated a stone red hot. Into this fire with the hot stone they threw the prisoners. They killed all who had done it.

Then the wolf man was given his new wife. Her brothers all gathered goods and gave them to the wolf man. He divided their goods among his female relations. They then gathered the goods and gave (196) them to the bride's father.

That is all.2

Commentary. Version 1. "if we go through there it will be good" — since the area is brushy, they will be hard to track. The old growth forests used to have vast stands of trees with no undergrowth beneath them, making it possible to track someone through a forest.

"he returned" — it was the belief of the Hocągara that those who were killed in action had the special privilege of going before Earthmaker himself and choosing to be reborn according to their own inclinations. At this point in the story, he is returning from Spiritland and discovering his own remains.

"a wolf had blessed him as a man who had been killed" — the word wañkšik t'ehirera may not mean "as a man who had been killed," but simply "the man who was killed." The former implies that it was because he was killed that he was blessed by a wolf.

"you would think of me" — some spirits in giving their blessings stipulate that all their benefactor needs do is think of them and they will appear to aid them. It seems that the man who was killed had not thought of his spirit protector until this very moment.

"you had blessed me when you were to leave" — this means that when the human who had been dismembered was living with his brother in the spirit world (as wolves), he had blessed his older brother Wolf before he departed to live among the humans. Spirits often depart for life among the humans either because they have accepted an offering from them, or because they have some important mission to perform for the sake of humanity. Being reborn as a human clouds memories of a past life, although those with great spiritual power are usually capable of recovering many of these memories. This fact may explain why he took so long to think of this brother.

"he is not equal to me" — because Wolf outranks Gray Wolf, the fact that the latter has blessed the enemy warrior will avail him nothing, since Wolf's blessing is preeminent.

"the wolves come there to eat it" — in other words, in exchange for the revenge and immense prosperity that Wolf is giving his brother as a blessing, his brother must kill a deer for the wolves to eat every day without fail.

Version 2. "spring" — after this follows this parenthetical remark: "Women folks came to the spring to get the water."

"chief's house" — McKern adds that gathering in the chief's house was called wąką́te (wʌ̃kʌ́te). This is probably just wąk-xáte, "big men."

"very hot" — McKern adds, "this hot corn = wadútc." Marino gives the meaning of watuc (in our orthography) as, "ground corn, corn meal"; and Jipson gives "corn meal" as the meaning for watujera.

"the old wise men" — McKern says that these men are called wąxą́tegira (wʌ̃ƙʌ́tĕŋgira). This would seem to be wąk-xategi-ra, "the oldest men."

"Ų-ų-ų-ų-ų-ų-ų-ų‘" — McKern says that this cry is called a wagᵋcéwą (wakᵋtcéwã).

"the signal to quit war" — McKern says, "This cry is called haicéhi (haitcĕ́hi). Haicéhi means "to overdo."

"enemy" — McKern says parenthetically at the end of the man's speech: "The speaker was a Winnebago. The enemy were Osage."

Links: Wolf & Dog Spirits, Ghosts.

Stories: relating to dogs or wolves: The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, A Man and His Three Dogs, White Wolf, Wolves and Humans, The Wolf Clan Origin Myth, The Old Man and His Four Dogs, Worúxega, The Dogs of the Chief's Son, The Dog that became a Panther, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Wild Rose, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Canine Warrior, The Dog Who Saved His Master, The Raccoon Coat, Wojijé, The Big Eater, Why Dogs Sniff One Another, The Healing Blessing, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Trickster Loses His Meal, Sun and the Big Eater, Redhorn's Sons, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Hog's Adventures, Holy One and His Brother, The Messengers of Hare, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Grandmother's Gifts, The Hocąk Migration Myth, Bladder and His Brothers, The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth, The Old Man and the Giants, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Kunu's Warpath, Morning Star and His Friend, Black Otter's Warpath, Chief Wave and the Big Drunk; Peace of Mind Regained (?); having Wolf as a character: Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, A Man and His Three Dogs, Redhorn's Sons, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Redhorn Contests the Giants, The Dogs of the Chief's Son, Kunu's Warpath, Morning Star and His Friend, The Healing Blessing, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning white wolves or dogs: White Wolf, The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, The Old Man and His Four Dogs, Worúxega, The Messengers of Hare, Wolf Clan Origin Myth (vv. 1, 2), Wolves and Humans, A Man and His Three Dogs, Grandmother's Gifts, Peace of Mind Regained (?); mentioning Gray Wolf: The Gray Wolf Origin Myth, The Old Man and His Four Dogs, Wolf Clan Origin Myth (vv. 1-2)); mentioning horses: The Big Eater, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, Sun and the Big Eater, Rich Man, Boy, and Horse, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, The Horse Spirit of Eagle Heights, Trickster Takes Little Fox for a Ride, James’ Horse, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Boy who Flew, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, They Owe a Bullet; about journeys to and from Spiritland: The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, The Journey to Spiritland, Sunset Point, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Lame Friend, Two Roads to Spiritland, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, Holy One and His Brother, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Foolish Hunter, Waruǧábᵉra, The Thunderbird, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, White Wolf, The Twins Get into Hot Water, The Two Brothers, The Lost Blanket, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Man who went to the Upper and Lower Worlds, The Petition to Earthmaker, Wears White Feather on His Head, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Thunder Cloud Marries Again, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hocągara, The Friendship Drum Origin Myth, Aracgéga's Blessings, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman; about the Hawk (Warrior) Clan: Hawk Clan Origin Myth, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, Berdache Origin Myth, Pigeon Clan Origins, The Creation Council; mentioning the Osage: The Osage Massacre, Big Thunder Teaches Cap’ósgaga the Warpath, First Contact (v. 2), Black Otter's Warpath, Introduction; in which the cardinal points are significant: The Deer Clan Origin Myth, Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter; in which fire plays a role: The Creation Council, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Message the Fireballs Brought, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, The Four Steps of the Cougar, East Shakes the Messenger, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, North Shakes His Gourd, The Descent of the Drum (v. 2), Red Cloud's Death, see Young Man Gambles Often (Commentary); mentioning feasts: Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (Chief Feast), The Creation Council (Eagle Feast), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (Eagle Feast), Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth (Waterspirit Feast), A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga (Mąką́wohą, Waną́cĕrehí), Bear Clan Origin Myth (Bear Feast), The Woman Who Fought the Bear (Bear Feast), Grandfather's Two Families (Bear Feast), Wolf Clan Origin Myth (Wolf Feast), Buffalo Clan Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Feast), Buffalo Dance Origin Myth (Buffalo Feast), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (Buffalo Feast), The Blessing of Šokeboka (Feast to the Buffalo Tail), Snake Clan Origins (Snake Feast), Blessing of the Yellow Snake Chief (Snake Feast), Rattlesnake Ledge (Snake Feast), The Thunderbird (for the granting of a war weapon), Turtle's Warparty (War Weapons Feast, Warpath Feast), Porcupine and His Brothers (War Weapons Feast), Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega) (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Big Thunder Teaches Cap’ósgaga the Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), White Thunder's Warpath (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), The Fox-Hocąk War (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Šųgepaga (Winter Feast = Warbundle Feast), Black Otter's Warpath (Warpath Feast), Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (Warpath Feast), Kunu's Warpath (Warpath Feast), Trickster's Warpath (Warpath Feast), The Masaxe War (Warpath Feast), Redhorn's Sons (Warpath Feast, Fast-Breaking Feast), The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits (Fast-Breaking Feast), The Chief of the Heroka (Sick Offering Feast), The Dipper (Sick Offering Feast, Warclub Feast), The Four Slumbers Origin Myth (Four Slumbers Feast), The Journey to Spiritland (Four Slumbers Feast), The First Snakes (Snake Feast), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (unspecified), Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts (unnamed).

Themes: a girl grows up with numerous (nine or ten) brothers as her only siblings: The Chief of the Heroka, Little Human Head, The Shaggy Man, Waruǧábᵉra, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy; someone is abducted and led off into captivity: The Captive Boys, A Man's Revenge, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Lost Child, Wears White Feather on His Head, Įcorúšika and His Brothers, Bird Clan Origin Myth, Bladder and His Brothers, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister, Black Otter's Warpath, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Green Man, Brave Man, The Chief of the Heroka, Šųgepaga, Hare Gets Swallowed, Hare Acquires His Arrows, The Raccoon Coat, Wojijé, Wolves and Humans, The Woman Who Became an Ant, Thunderbird and White Horse, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Brass and Red Bear Boy, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 5), The Boy who Flew, Testing the Slave, Soldiers Catch Two Boys, a Black One and a White One; someone goes out searching for a missing person who was dear to them: The Woman who Married a Snake, Waruǧábᵉra, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, A Man's Revenge, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, Old Man and Wears White Feather, Snowshoe Strings, Brass and Red Bear Boy; men fight one another over women: Iron Staff and His Companions, The Green Man, A Man's Revenge, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister; the howling of a spirit wolf four times brings someone back to life: White Wolf, cf. The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter; someone returns from the dead: Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter, Sunset Point, Pete Dupeé and the Ghosts, White Fisher, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Shaggy Man, The Two Brothers, The Two Boys, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, A Miraculously Cured Man Finds the Prophet, The Red Man, The Chief of the Heroka, Waruǧábᵉra, The Lost Blanket, The Old Man and the Giants; a man who has been killed sees his own dead body: The Lame Friend, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth (full version); a spirit is quoted as he gives someone a blessing: Earthmaker Blesses Wagíšega (Wešgíšega), Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, Disease Giver Blesses Jobenągiwįxka, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, The Blessing of a Bear Clansman, Aracgéga's Blessings, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, The Friendship Drum Origin Myth, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, Great Walker's Medicine, Buffalo Dance Origin Myth, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Plant Blessing of Earth, The Completion Song Origin, The Man who was Blessed by the Sun, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, The Difficult Blessing, The Blessing of Šokeboka, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Bow Meets Disease Giver, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Sunset Point, The Rounded Wood Origin Myth, A Peyote Vision, The Healing Blessing; some part of what a man kills must be left for an Animal Spirit according to an agreement made between them: The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (the headless bodies of humans), White Wolf (deer livers); a leader orders his men to capture their enemy so that they can torture him with fire: Turtle's Warparty, The Markings on the Moon; descriptions of human warfare: Black Otter's Warpath, Annihilation of the Hocągara II, The Warbundle Maker, The First Fox and Sauk War, Great Walker's Medicine, The Annihilation of the Hocągara I, How Little Priest went out as a Soldier, Little Priest's Game, Wazųka, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Shawnee Prophet and His Ascension, The Four Slumbers Origin Myth, Big Thunder Teaches Cap’ósgaga the Warpath, The Fox-Hocąk War, Great Walker's Warpath, White Fisher, The Lame Friend, White Thunder's Warpath, The Osage Massacre, A Man's Revenge, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, They Owe a Bullet, The Spanish Fight, Origin of the Name "Milwaukee", Tobacco Man and Married Man, The Scalping Knife of Wakąšucka; being unable to hide, despite a great effort: The Children of the Sun, The Birth of the Twins, The Two Boys, Holy One and His Brother, Tobacco Man and Married Man; uttering the sacred syllable gu brings a battle to an end: The Annihilation of the Hocągara I, Wazųka, White Fisher, Thunderbird and White Horse; red as a symbolic color: The Journey to Spiritland (hill, willows, reeds, smoke, stones, haze), The Gottschall Head (mouth), The Chief of the Heroka (clouds, side of Forked Man), The Red Man (face, sky, body, hill), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse (neck, nose, painted stone), Redhorn's Father (leggings, stone sphere, hair), The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father (hair, body paint, arrows), Wears White Feather on His Head (man), The Birth of the Twins (turkey bladder headdresses), The Two Boys (elk bladder headdresses), Trickster and the Mothers (sky), Rich Man, Boy, and Horse (sky), The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (Buffalo Spirit), Bluehorn Rescues His Sister (buffalo head), Wazųka (buffalo head headdress), The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth (horn), The Brown Squirrel (protruding horn), Bear Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Hawk Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Deer Clan Origin Myth (funerary paint), Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (stick at grave), Pigeon Clan Origins (Thunderbird lightning), Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks (eyes), Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (scalp, woman's hair), The Race for the Chief's Daughter (hair), The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy (hair), Redhorn Contests the Giants (hair), Redhorn's Sons (hair), The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle (hair), A Wife for Knowledge (hair), Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle (hair), The Hocągara Contest the Giants (hair of Giantess), A Man and His Three Dogs (wolf hair), The Red Feather (plumage), The Man who was Blessed by the Sun (body of Sun), Red Bear, Eagle Clan Origin Myth (eagle), The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (Waterspirit armpits), The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty (Waterspirits), The Roaster (body paint), The Man who Defied Disease Giver (red spot on forehead), The Wild Rose (rose), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (warclub), Įcorúšika and His Brothers (ax & packing strap), Hare Kills Flint (flint), The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head (edges of flint knives), The Nannyberry Picker (leggings), The Seduction of Redhorn's Son (cloth), Yųgiwi (blanket); someone kills his own kinsman: The Chief of the Heroka (wife), The Red Man (wife), Worúxega (wife), Bluehorn's Nephews (mother), The Green Man (mother), Waruǧábᵉra (mother), Partridge's Older Brother (sister), The Woman who Loved Her Half-Brother (sister), The Were-Grizzly (sister), Crane and His Brothers (brothers), White Wolf (brother), The Diving Contest (brother), The Twins Get into Hot Water (grandfather), The Chief Who Shot His Own Daughter (daughter), The Birth of the Twins (daughter-in-law), The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle (daughter-in-law), Snowshoe Strings (father-in-law); someone kills a close female relative for her betrayal of him or his uncle: Bluehorn's Nephews (mother); Waruǧábᵉra (sister), The Red Man (wife), The Chief of the Heroka (wife), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (wife); a young warrior gives the head/scalp of a man he has killed in battle to someone else: The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits (warleader), White Fisher, (chief), The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion (warleader), Fighting Retreat (wife); making the enemy "play with fire": The Fox-Hocąk War, Redhorn's Sons, The Adventures of Redhorn's Sons, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Bird Clan Origin Myth.


1 Jim Pine, [untitled,] in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 26, 250-260.

2 W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1927) 187-196.