Hare Secures the Creation Lodge of the Medicine Rite

by Jasper Blowsnake


Jasper Blowsnake

Hocąk-English Interlinear Text


Original Texts: | 69 | 70v | 70 | 71v | 71 | 72v | 72 | 73v | 73 | 74v | 74 | 75v | 75 | 76v | 76 | 77v | 77 | 78v | 78 | 79v | 79 | 80v | 80 | 81v | 81 |


(69) And he whom they call "Nephew" had obtained the Creation Lodge. As many of the Good Spirits as existed above, all of them came to one side of the lodge. On the side of the lodge were also all the best Spirits of the earth. And all who dwell under our Grandmother, all of them, were also sent to one side of the lodge. Then after they were seated, and they were all reclining, they concentrated their thoughts upon the center of the lodge. It sat in the center of the lodge, its Life and Light flickering.

(70) And creation had come from above, where it is that all things come and are sent, for it is originated there in the work of Earthmaker himself. Earthmaker cast his gaze downward. His creation pleased him. His creation was at rest, that's why it pleased him. He thought to himself, "Now, always, humans will continue to exist. However, if they had a companion, it would be good," he thought. There he did it. He took a piece of his flesh, from the right side of the body, and fashioned it with his own hands. Our Grandfather, the Sacred Woman, that is the one whom he made. He made his body good, he made his voice good. He painted him, and then his face he painted blue, and his body he made yellow, and having done thus, he dispatched him towards earth. Towards earth he dispatched him once he was finished with sending him from the Above. (71) Then having finished him, he dispatched him. When he dispatched him to earth, he directed him to the east side where a bluff protruded. And there he lived. Then knowledge came to him. "Hąhą́, old woman," he told his wife, "With Earthmaker's rite Hare will be coming with Life for his uncles and aunts. What Earthmaker had told Hare to show where his uncles and aunts will go (after death), that is what it will be. Earthmaker had planned it. He gave me a receptacle of feathers and the technique for painting," he said. Then he made himself up. The top of his head he made blue, then he attached two eagle feathers, and then to each of his limbs he tied four things of beauty. (72) Then however much of our Grandmother he used up on his body, then he tied our Grandmother's hair to his four limbs, and costumed his body, omitting nothing for himself, and then proceeded to the Creation Lodge. After pacing out four steps, there he gave a yell. As he gave a yell, he uttered, "Ehoho-o-o-o wehã́ wehã́!" he said. Then he inhaled, "Hhū!" he said. Then again, for the second time, he started walking, and he took four steps. And there again he inhaled. Having breathed, he said, "Ehoho-o-o wehã́ wehã́!" he said. Then he said, "Hhū!" Once again he started out, and began walking for a third time. He took four steps. Then he breathed deeply there, emitting a yell, saying, (73) "Ehoho-o-o-o wehã́ wehã́!" he said. Then, he breathed. He breathed and he uttered, "Hhū!" he said. Then again he began walking, taking four steps. There he yelled. Again he said, "Ehoho-o-o-o wehã́ wehã́!" and then he breathed, "!" he said, and then he started walking, and as he walked, the whole earth shook. The ground was going about sort of rebounding, and as many trees as were standing erect, he pulled down as he walked.

Then all of those who were sitting in the Creation Lodge, that many, were frightened. They were sitting there talking in their minds. They were frightened. "We can't do anything good. Earthmaker himself created him. Terrible is the shaking of the earth, and here even our Grandmother upon whom we are seated, even she does not know (what to do). (74) Well, just in case, just make room to seat him among us," they said.

Then he came along walking. The fourth time he took four steps. There he gave a yell. He said, when he yelled, "Eho-o-o-o wehá wehá!" he said. Then he breathed. Having breathed, for the fourth time he emitted yells near the entrance of the lodge so that when he yelled his breath was sent through the entrance of the lodge. As many as there were inside the lodge all felt hot.

Then he went in. He had full dress on with nothing omitted, that's the way he was. Then so he went around in the way that they do. Then they spoke to him, "Over here! Sit here, they left a space for you." "I cannot be forgotten. (75) You did forget me. If you would have me sit there, then you should have come after me," he said. "What I myself am going to do is just this: to go where I intended to go, that's what I'll do. No one else can do this, the reason I do this is because Earthmaker gave this to me. In that way shall I go there." Then he came to that center and there sat himself down, in the center of the lodge where stands our Grandfather against whom it is not good to stand opposed. Not for long did He Who Stands in the Center keep his body unchanged. And he was completely attired in a man's regalia, lacking nothing that they liked. When the Mother of Light (sunrise) came to the headdress atop his head, it flashed blue in Light and Life from where he was sitting.

Then, shortly afterwards, there was motion, (76) and four young boys came in. Then they passed by, and went and stood in front of the first one who was sitting in the center of the lodge (East). Then the second young boy proceeded on, and stopped straight in front of He Who Impersonates the North. The third one proceeded on, and came up to stand straight in front of He Who Impersonates the West. Then the last one stood there right in front of He Who Impersonates the South who was sitting. Thus the four young boys each stood straight in front of the four directions.

Then, shortly afterwards, there was motion, and then entered in the usual way a dark chief, an awe inspiring one almost as large as the lodge itself. He circled to the right and came back around, and the first of the four young boys, the very first, (77) he did this to his first limb. He pulled on, he jerked, the front one, and the limb, the second one of the second boy, he pulled on and jerked. Then he did it to the third boy's third limb. He pulled and jerked it. Then the last one, he pulled and jerked his limb towards himself. Thus he did. Then, shortly thereafter, four young boys again ventured forth, and how they went is just the way we also go, and then they came and stood in front of him whom they call "Nephew." And these there were: they had stones on staffs, and they were placed by the pole next to the fireplace, that is what is meant. (78) When the last boys came, these were they themselves.

Here Hare was with Trickster, Turtle, and their Grandmother. Precisely the four of them as a group were gathered together. Then Turtle did this: there at the sitting place, he made himself invisible. It did not take long after he came back. The Sacred Woman is not good to oppose, nevertheless, he captured her. He threw himself upon her breast.

Earthmaker had placed in the middle of the earth a stationary chief of the Waterspirit Island Anchors. He made Turtle go there. Here he asked for the Holy Water. That one handed it to him to bring back, and that he did. He brought it with him and placed it on the stone's breast. (79) And there where it stands in the navel, the Holy Water which he had brought, there the whitest Light and Life flashed forth. When this stopped, the mark of Light and Life appeared as a cross impressed upon Turtle's breast.1 Then four rainbows appeared. When the Chief had been made into the lodge covering, nothing was right. (It was dark.) He turned into that very white Light and Life. Then Hare said, "Ja, Grandmother, don't you know something?" he said. She said, "Nephew, you speak truly," she said, and she did this: she took some of her hair, and she doubled it up in four very blue/green (co) parts, and tied it tightly. That way she did, and said, "Grandson, your uncle, your aunts, (80) this is the way that you will let them call on me. If they present a pouch of tobacco, when thus they use my hair that I had tied up, it will be as if they had tied up Life itself. Thus it will come to them often.

(Then the One Sitting in the East he himself told them this: they were to attempt life-giving prayers, thus they were to proceed, and) then Turtle was sprinkled upon the stones as he touched Turtle's navel there, and he breathed, crying, "Eho-o-o-o eho-o-o-o wehá wehá!" he said. He placed the stone on it. As he placed it, he said, "Eho-o-o-o eho-o-o-o!" (81) Then, again for a second time, again he breathed deeply, "Eho-o-o-o eho-o-o-o wehá wehá!" he said. Then all of them, as many as there were, as they came towards him, breathed forth the same things that he had uttered. Now for the third time, again he placed the stone on it, breathing deeply, he uttered, Eho-o-o-o eho-o-o-o wehá wehá!Again for the fourth time, he placed the stone on it, saying, "Eho-o-o-o eho-o-o-o wehá wehá, eho-eho-ho!".2


Commentary. "our Grandmother" — this is the Earth, who is conceived as being both the source of all life and of great age.

"Life and Light" — this is Radin's translation of Hą́bᵋra, "light, day," here used metaphorically to symbolize life as well.

"at rest" — fuller accounts of creation state that the earth originally spun in a swirling or rocking motion. This motion was stabilized by four Island Anchors, said to be either Waterspirits or Bear Spirits.

"our Grandfather, the Sacred Woman" — this is the stone of the steam bath. The stone itself is given the ritualistic name "Sacred Woman," but the heat of the stone is considered masculine.3 Stones generally are a manifestation of a being called "the Female Spirit," who came into existence when Earthmaker scattered stones over the earth to bring it to rest. (See 1)

"me" — this being who has been blessed by Earthmaker is the Spirit of the Sweat bath Stone. This identity is confirmed by his subsequent actions and attributes.

"our Grandfather" — this refers to the fire. Even though he is sitting right in the fire, his person is unaffected.

"four young boys" — the personifications of the lodge poles.

"a dark chief" — the bear personifying the bear skins used to cover the sweat lodge. This accounts for his great size. Radin notes, "The imagery [of the bear] is also supposed to indicate how the vapor-bath lodge is really enclosed within the body of a spirit, a spirit of fierce demeanor and threatening claws and teeth. Into this animal spirit those who are to take the vapor-bath must enter. They must be terrified and yet strong enough in purpose to overcome it."4

"Nephew" — this is Hare. Since he was born by immaculate conception, and his human mother died, all human beings are considered his maternal aunts and uncles. The relation of nephews to his uncles and aunts is the strongest bond of affection, and an exemplar of the joking relationship, in which the parties tease each other and no one is ever expected to take offense.

"he pulled and jerked his limb towards himself" — these boys represent the poles that form the frame of the lodge.5

"stones on staffs" — these are the stones and railings around the fireplace.6

"the Sacred Woman" — Kingswan identifies the Hinųk Xopįnį (Ai nonK HAo lAin ni) as the Spirit of the Hot Stone. See above.

"whitest Light and Life" — this symbolizes not only life, but most particularly the life force embodied in the white steam that rises from the stone. The color white, the color without blemish, is taken as an expression of sacredness and supernatural power.

"hair" — this refers to the grass which makes up the sprinkler used to cast water on the heated stone to make steam.7

"Turtle was sprinkled upon the stones" — here Turtle has become water.

"he breathed" — the sounds are meant to echo those made by water as it strikes a hot stone.


Links: Earthmaker, Rock Spirits, Hare, Bear Spirits, Earth, Turtle, Island Weights, Waterspirits, Fire, Trickster.


Stories: pertaining to the Medicine Rite: The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Journey to Spiritland, Holy Song, Holy Song II, Maize Origin Myth, The Necessity for Death, Hog's Adventures, Great Walker's Warpath; featuring Hare as a character: The Hare Cycle, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Necessity for Death, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Hare Acquires His Arrows, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, Hare Kills Wildcat, The Messengers of Hare, Hare Kills Flint, Hare Kills Sharp Elbow, Hare Visits His Grandfather Bear, Grandmother Packs the Bear Meat, Hare Visits the Bodiless Heads, Hare Visits the Blind Men, Hare Kills a Man with a Cane, Hare Burns His Buttocks, Hare Gets Swallowed, Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, Grandmother's Gifts, Hare and the Grasshoppers, The Spirit of Gambling, The Red Man, Maize Origin Myth, Hare Steals the Fish, The Animal who would Eat Men, The Gift of Shooting, Hare and the Dangerous Frog, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, The Petition to Earthmaker; mentioning Creation Lodges (Wogųzocíra): The Creation Council, The Descent of the Drum, The Four Steps of the Cougar, The Nightspirits Bless Jobenągiwįxka, The Boy who would be Immortal, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, East Shakes the Messenger, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 1), Peace of Mind Regained, South Enters the Medicine Lodge; mentioning Rock Spirits: The Big Stone, The Green Man, The Creation of the World, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Seer, The Roaster, Wojijé, The Raccoon Coat, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Hare Kills Flint, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, A Woman Turns into a Rock, Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle; featuring Turtle as a character: The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Turtle's Warparty, Turtle and the Giant, Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, Turtle and the Merchant, Redhorn's Father, Redhorn's Sons, Turtle and the Witches, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Trickster Soils the Princess, Morning Star and His Friend, Grandfather's Two Families, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Kunu's Warpath, Redhorn Contests the Giants, Redhorn and His Brothers Marry, The Skunk Origin Myth, The Hocąk Migration Myth, Porcupine and His Brothers, The Creation of Man, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, The Father of the Twins Attempts to Flee, The Chief of the Heroka, The Spirit of Gambling, The Nannyberry Picker, The Markings on the Moon (v. 2), The Green Man, The Hocągara Contest the Giants, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Origins of the Milky Way; mentioning (spirit) bears (other than were-bears): White Bear, Blue Bear, Black Bear, Red Bear, Bear Clan Origin Myth, The Shaggy Man, Bear Offers Himself as Food, Hare Visits His Grandfather Bear, Grandmother Packs the Bear Meat, The Spotted Grizzly Man, Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, The Woman Who Fought the Bear, Brass and Red Bear Boy, Redhorn's Sons, The Meteor Spirit and the Origin of Wampum, The Wolf Clan Origin Myth, Hocąk Clans Origin Myth, The Messengers of Hare, Bird Clan Origin Myth, The Hocąk Migration Myth, Red Man, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, Lifting Up the Bear Heads, The Two Boys, Creation of the World (v. 5), Spear Shaft and Lacrosse, The Brown Squirrel, Snowshoe Strings, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, The Spider's Eyes, Little Priest's Game, Little Priest, How He went out as a Soldier, Morning Star and His Friend (v. 2), How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Race for the Chief's Daughter, Trickster's Tail, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Warbundle Maker, cf. Fourth Universe; featuring Grandmother Earth as a character: Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Maize Origin Myth, Grandmother Packs the Bear Meat, Grandmother's Gifts, Owl Goes Hunting, Hare and the Grasshoppers, Hare Acquires His Arrows, The Plant Blessing of Earth, Hare Visits His Grandfather Bear, Hare Visits the Bodiless Heads, Hare Burns His Buttocks, Hare Gets Swallowed, Hare Kills Wildcat, Hare and the Dangerous Frog, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, The Necessity for Death, Hare Steals the Fish, Hare Kills Sharp Elbow, Hare Kills Flint, The Gift of Shooting, The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man (vv 4, 6), Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, Redhorn's Father (?); mentioning Island Weights: The Creation of the World, The Island Weight Songs, South Enters the Medicine Lodge, East Shakes the Messenger, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, North Shakes His Gourd, Wolves and Humans, Šųgepaga, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 2), The Lost Blanket, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth (v. 1), The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, South Seizes the Messenger, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, The Messengers of Hare, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, Four Steps of the Cougar, The Petition to Earthmaker; in which Waterspirits occur as characters: Waterspirit Clan Origin Myth, Traveler and the Thunderbird War, The Green Waterspirit of Wisconsin Dells, The Lost Child, River Child and the Waterspirit of Devil's Lake, A Waterspirit Blesses Mąnį́xete’ų́ga, Bluehorn's Nephews, Holy One and His Brother, The Seer, The Nannyberry Picker, The Creation of the World (vv. 1, 4), Šųgepaga, The Sioux Warparty and the Waterspirit of Green Lake, The Waterspirit of Lake Koshkonong, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Boulders of Devil's Lake, Devil's Lake — How it Got its Name, Old Man and Wears White Feather, The Waterspirit of Sugar Loaf Mounds, Lakes of the Wazija Origin Myth, Waterspirits Keep the Corn Fields Wet, The Waterspirit Guardian of the Intaglio Mound, The Diving Contest, The Lost Blanket, Redhorn's Sons, The Phantom Woman, Įcorúšika and His Brothers, Great Walker's Warpath, White Thunder's Warpath, The Descent of the Drum, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, Snowshoe Strings, The Thunderbird, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp (v. 2), The Two Children, The Twins Join Redhorn's Warparty, Earthmaker Sends Rušewe to the Twins, Paint Medicine Origin Myth, Waruǧábᵉra, Ocean Duck, The Twin Sisters, Trickster Concludes His Mission, The King Bird, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Great Walker's Medicine (v. 2), Heną́ga and Star Girl, Peace of Mind Regained, The Story of the Medicine Rite, How the Thunders Met the Nights, The Spiritual Descent of John Rave's Grandmother, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, The Shaggy Man, The Woman who Married a Snake (?), Ghost Dance Origin Myth I, The Sacred Lake, Lost Lake; in which fire plays a role: The Creation Council, Thunderbird Clan Origin Myth, The Warbundle of the Eight Generations, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Message the Fireballs Brought, The Four Steps of the Cougar, East Shakes the Messenger, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, North Shakes His Gourd, The Descent of the Drum (v. 2), The Man Whose Wife was Captured (v. 2), Red Cloud's Death, see Young Man Gambles Often (Commentary); featuring Trickster as a character: The Trickster Cycle, Trickster Gets Pregnant, Trickster's Warpath, Trickster's Anus Guards the Ducks, Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, Trickster Soils the Princess, Trickster, the Wolf, the Turtle, and the Meadow Lark, Soft Shelled Turtle Gets Married, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Trickster Concludes His Mission, The Abduction and Rescue of Trickster, The Elk's Skull, Trickster and the Plums, Trickster and the Mothers, The Markings on the Moon, The Spirit of Gambling, The Woman who Became an Ant, The Green Man, The Red Man, Trickster Takes Little Fox for a Ride, Trickster Loses His Meal, Trickster's Tail, A Mink Tricks Trickster, Trickster's Penis, Trickster Loses Most of His Penis, The Scenting Contest, The Bungling Host, Mink Soils the Princess, Trickster and the Children, Trickster and the Eagle, Trickster and the Geese, Trickster and the Dancers, Trickster and the Honey, Trickster's Adventures in the Ocean, The Pointing Man, Trickster's Buffalo Hunt, Trickster Eats the Laxative Bulb, Trickster Visits His Family, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Petition to Earthmaker, Waruǧábᵉra; mentioning Our Grandfather the Sacred Woman: Lifting Up the Bear Heads, cf. The Creation of the World (v. 12); mentioning teeth: The Animal who would Eat Men, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, Hare and the Dangerous Frog, The Girl who Refused a Blessing from the Wood Spirits, The Two Boys, The Birth of the Twins, The Twins Disobey Their Father, Wears White Feather on His Head, The Dipper, Wolves and Humans, The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Children of the Sun, The Green Man, Holy One and His Brother, Partridge's Older Brother, The Brown Squirrel, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, East Shakes the Messenger, Lifting Up the Bear Heads, White Wolf, Buffalo Clan Origin Myth.

Stories from Jasper Blowsnake's account of the Medicine Rite (The Road of Life and Death) in notebook order: The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (v. 1), Keramaniš’aka's Blessing, The Woman's Scalp Medicine Bundle, The Blessing of Kerexųsaka, Historical Origins of the Medicine Rite, Lifting Up the Bear Heads, East Enters the Medicine Lodge (v. 1), The Creation of the World (v. 12), The Creation of Man (v. 8), Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4), East Enters the Medicine Lodge (v. 2), Testing the Slave, South Enters the Medicine Lodge (v. 2), The Descent of the Drum (v. 1), The Commandments of Earthmaker, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men (v. 2), East Shakes the Messenger, The Medicine Rite Foundation Myth (v. 4), The Messengers of Hare (v. 2), North Shakes His Gourd, Grandmother's Gifts, South Seizes the Messenger, Four Steps of the Cougar, The Messengers of Hare (v. 1), The Island Weight Songs, The Petition to Earthmaker, A Snake Song Origin Myth, The Completion Song Origin, Great Walker's Medicine (v. 2), Great Walker and the Ojibwe Witches, The Diving Contest, The Sweetened Drink Song, The Plant Blessing of Earth, Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 3), The Tap the Head Medicine, The Claw Shooter, Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 4), Peace of Mind Regained, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 5), A Wife for Knowledge, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth (v. 2), The Descent of the Drum (v. 2), South Enters the Medicine Lodge (v. 1), Death Enters the World.


Themes: spirits meet in a council: The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, Black and White Moons, Holy One and His Brother, The Creation Council, The Children of the Sun, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 5), The Gift of Shooting, East Shakes the Messenger, The Descent of the Drum, East Enters the Medicine Lodge, South Enters the Medicine Lodge, The Blessings of the Buffalo Spirits, The Petition to Earthmaker, The Boy who would be Immortal; an old man is, or becomes, a rock: The Raccoon Coat, The Seer, The Big Stone, Red Cloud's Death; someone is, or can become, invisible: Sunset Point, Partridge's Older Brother; a person (or spirit) aids someone in a task by concentrating his mind upon it: Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp, The Petition to Earthmaker, Ghost Dance Origin Myth II, The Resurrection of the Chief's Daughter; something is of a (symbolic) pure white color: White Bear, Deer Spirits, The Journey to Spiritland (v. 4), White Flower, Big Eagle Cave Mystery, The Fleetfooted Man, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Orphan who was Blessed with a Horse, Worúxega, The Two Boys, The Lost Blanket (white spirits), Skunk Origin Myth, He Who Eats the Stinking Part of the Deer Ankle, White Wolf, A Man and His Three Dogs, The Messengers of Hare, The Brown Squirrel, The Man Who Fell from the Sky, Bladder and His Brothers, White Thunder's Warpath, The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, The Dipper, Great Walker's Medicine (v. 2), Creation of the World (v. 12), The Descent of the Drum, Tobacco Origin Myth (v. 5), The Diving Contest, Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite, The Arrows of the Medicine Rite Men, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, Grandmother's Gifts, Four Steps of the Cougar, The Completion Song Origin, North Shakes His Gourd, Lifting Up the Bear Heads, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, Peace of Mind Regained, The War of Indian Tribes against White Soldiers (wolf, bird).


Notes

1 Winnebago II, #6: 79 verso has a long note by Radin: "All thought it would be impossible for ordinary person to do it. When the Turtle made himself invisible he went below the earth to get some holy water from the waktcêxi (one of the spirits persons) through the earth) — then the lodge might be strengthened through the addition of the power. The Turtle changed himself into the water & fell upon the breast of the stone, and when day (steam began to ___. & the Turtle had _____ navel of day upon its breast."

2 Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 198-202.

3 Radin, The Road of Life and Death, 339 ntt 4, 11.

4 Radin, The Road of Life and Death, 339-340 nt 21.

5 Radin, The Road of Life and Death, 339 nt 19.

6 Radin, The Road of Life and Death, 340 nt 23.

7 Radin, The Road of Life and Death, 340 ntt 27-28.


Sources

Paul Radin, "Hare Secures the Creation Lodge of the Medicine Rite," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago II, #5: 258-268 (handwritten text with partial interlinear translation). Paul Radin, "Hare Secures the Creation Lodge of the Medicine Rite," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago II, #6: 69-81 (typewritten Hocąk text without translation, with some handwritten corrections). Paul Radin, Winnebago Culture as Described by Themselves: the Origin Myth of the Medicine Rite; Three Versions; the Historical Origins of the Medicine Rite (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 29-32. Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 198-202.