Hare Gets Swallowed (§10 of the Hare Cycle)

Version 1

retold by Richard L. Dieterle

One day while Hare was on one of his excursions he saw in the distance a large creature with people riding on its back. Hare thought that this would be fun, so he jumped on its back to join the people already there. They warned him, "You don't want to be up here with us, we are not likely to get off alive." But Hare replied, "I think it is great fun to be sitting and yet moving at the same time." Just then, he was suddenly engulfed, and found himself in a dark enclosure. When he was overdue at home, Grandmother went out looking for him. "Brother," she asked the monster, "have you seen my little grandson? He is very mischievous and may have caused you a problem without meaning to." The monster answered Grandmother's request by vomiting up her grandson. Hare seemed impressed: he told his grandmother, "My uncle must be a great spirit, since I was some distance away when he lapped me up."

The next day Hare covered his whole body with arrow points that he had collected. Then he climbed a hill and sang from its summit:

You who laps them in,
You of whom it is said, "He laps them in,"
Lap me in! Lap me in!

When the monster heard this, he rushed up and attempted to swallow Hare, but Hare dodged him. Being surprised at the sudden difficulty, the monster asked, "Aren't you the one I swallowed before?" Two more times the monster tried to lap him in, but each time he failed. However, the fourth time Hare allowed himself to be swallowed again. There were many people inside lamenting their fate. Then, unexpectedly, they were all swallowed again into the creature's second stomach. There Hare found many other people, some of whom were dead. Hare was enjoying himself, and began to play around inside the second stomach. Suddenly, the creature began to feel queasy: "It must have been something I ate," he thought. Then he vomited, spewing forth Hare and the others, but no sooner were they past his teeth, than water washed them right back in. This happened three more times, then Hare got tired of playing around. He told the people, "If you can find something in my head, I will use it to save our lives." They searched his fur and found one of the arrow points. Hare took the flint and began cutting away the fat inside the stomach, eating it as he went. Then he came to the heart and cut that to pieces. Once Hare made a hole in the monster's side, everyone escaped through it. They found themselves in a village where the monster had abducted scores of women and made them his concubines. To make sure that nothing like this would grow up to plague them again, they killed all the monster's children and all his pregnant concubines.1

Version 2 (§2 of the Russell Hare Cycle)

by Jacob Russell

translated by Richard L. Dieterle

Jacob Russell, 1912

Hocąk-English Interlinear Text

(41) Well, the next day he started off. The man went there, where the people were crying out. It seemed to be the noise of a crowd. They were all looking at something. "Yes, Sticks Its Tongue Out (Waregízinąpka) he usually laps them up," they said. "He will be lapped up." When he tried to lap him up, he couldn't do it. Again he laid on top of a tree stump. "Sticks Its Tongue Out usually laps them up," they said. "He laps them up. (43) He will be lapped up, that's all." For the fourth time he tried to lap him up. He swallowed, but when he swallowed him, his stomach ached, so he vomited. A person was also vomited up. They were washed out. He was completely flushed out, but again he swallowed him. (45) When he swallowed him again, he (Hare) said, "If one of our chiefs finds one of the weapons, I'll kill him. That's all. Find one for me. Find a stone arrowhead for me. Yes, I will kill him, and by this means we will escape alive. That's all. With a knife you will get your man. That's all. Stab him in the heart. That's all." So he stabbed and killed him. (47) When he was dead, he tore a rib out there. The people came out standing. That was all there was to it. That is the way they would escape from Sticks Out Its Tongue. That's all there is to it. "In this way I killed him." So he returned to the lodge. "Grandmother, I killed Sticks Its Tongue Out. He caused my aunts and my little uncles to die, and so I killed him. (49) That's all. It is done." "Yes, my dear grandson, it is good." "He caused my little uncles and aunts to die." "It is good. It's good that you killed him."2

Version 3

"There was a great, great elephant that used to devour people by reaching out for them with his long tongue and swallowing them. This elephant looked like a large hill all covered with grass. Wash-ching-geka [Wašjįgega] went out to kill the elephant because he devoured so many of the people. First he sprinkled himself all over with little pieces of flint, and then he sat down in front of the elephant and sang this song:

Song to the Elephant (Sheet Music)
Waregížirąnąpcąka, Great One who Licks Them Up with His Tongue,
Warąízinąnąps'ažé, aírera, You always lick them up with your tongue, they say.
Hįginą́pre! Lick me up!
Hįginą́pre! Lick me up!3

The elephant saw Wash-ching-geka's ears sticking up in the grass, and he thought they were feathers on somebody's head, so he reached out his tongue and swallowed the Little Hare. Inside the elephant all was dark and vast; there were starving people here, some dead and some dying, for they had no wood to cook with. Then Wash-ching-geka said to a young woman that was inside, 'Look in my fur and see if you can find a piece of flint.' The woman searched through his fur and found a little piece of flint. Wash-ching-geka struck his hand upon the flint and said, 'Grow bigger!' and it was bigger. Four times he struck thus, and each time the flint grew bigger. Then he struck it again and said, 'Be a knife!' and it was a knife. Then he struck yet again and said, 'Be a big knife!' and it was a great big knife. Wash-ching-geka felt along the ribs of the elephant till he found a soft place between two rib bones, and there he cut a hole like a door and sent out all the people. Then he ran forward to the elephant's heart, and with one blow of his knife he split the heart in two. Then he also jumped out through the hole. But on his way he caught up the elephant's young, and when he came outside he threw the little elephants clear across the water. That is why the elephant now lives only on the other side of the water."4

Commentary. We are led to believe that the monster is aquatic because he seems to be in the water when he vomits up Hare the second time. In the myth the extremes of the previous episodes are unified. Hare, when he mounts the back of the monster is at once both immobile (sitting) and mobile (moving with the monster). The opposite of acting at a distance and trapping (two forms of hunting) are also unified: the monster acts at a distance with his tongue, but it is by this very immediate action that Hare is ingested and trapped in the stomach of the monster. When the water monster attempts to do the reverse of action at a distance (ejection), water washes Hare back in. So Hare becomes too intimate with water just as he had with fire in the sun episode, and with earth in the ant episode. Brilliantly, the myth combines the opposites of ingestion and escaping ingestion by having Hare escape ingestion by eating his way out. The very instrument by which the action is effected at a distance, the arrowhead, is the instrument by which the reverse relation is also effected. Furthermore, the instrument of action at a distance now becomes the instrument of immediate action.

The water monster is never said to be a Waterspirit, but probably serves esoterically to function in the role. The Waterspirit is especially connected to a certain kind of action at a distance: magic. Also Waterspirit creation is the reverse of that of sky beings like Earthmaker, which may explain the host of reverse relations found in the story.

Comparative Material. The version of the closely related Ioway substitutes the Twins (Wahre'dua and Dore) for Hare. "Again, the next day, when he [the Twins' father] was about to set out on his hunt, he warned them against going to a certain place. As soon as he was out of sight however, Wahre'dua said to Dore, 'Father said for us to go to that place.' 'Oh no,' answered Dore, 'He said for us to stay away from it.' 'Well then, if you don't want to go with me, give me back my scalp lock.' So as usual Dore gave in to his more powerful brother, and they went to the forbidden place. Now it so happened that at this place dwelt the U'ye (the female organ of generation of the world). This U'ye swallowed all manner of animals and people who ventured near it, for it had the ability to suck them down into its maw. When the U'ye saw the two boys approaching, it spoke to them and warned them to keep away from it. 'No matter,' said the twins, 'Swallow us just as you do everybody else.' And they stripped off their clothes until they were naked all but the gee string. They hunted for a place where there were many flint rocks, then they lay down and rolled in them, after which they ran up to the U'ye and begged it to swallow them. The U'ye swallowed them, but immediately, finding them covered with the hard flint rock, it spat them out again, and blew upon them until it blew away all the stones that adhered to their bodies, then it swallowed them again. As soon as they were in the maw of the U'ye they found themselves in a vast dark place. There were many people and animals there, some dead and digested, some dying, and some newly captured. There was no escape, although they wandered and searched for many days. They asked all the animals and people whom they met, but none had any hope of escape. Dore wept at times and was frightened, but Wahre'dua only laughed. Finally they searched all over their bodies to see if they could find any flint left there, but none could be discovered until finally Wahre'dua found a little particle under his foreskin. He took it and commanded it to grow in the shape of a flint knife, and such was his magic power that it did so at once. It is said that this U'ye had a heart, liver and throat, as well as a stomach, so Wahre'dua went to its diaphragm and cut it with his knife. This only tickled the U'ye, but at last he hacked his way through it and cut off the heart. Then the U'ye died, and all became dark, for it shut its mouth. Then Wahre'dua began to cut a hole out of its side. Through this the twins and all the other living captives escaped. When the U'ye died it shuddered so that all over the earth the fact was known by the earthquake, and everyone knew it was the twins that had done the deed. Since then the world has never had an U'ye."5

In the Omaha version, the role of the water monster is played by a hill called, "Hill that Swallows." For the identity of Waterspirits and hills, see the Commentary to Bladder and His Brothers. In the Omaha story, Hill that Swallows refuses to swallow Hare, but he sneaks in with a hunting party that the hill does swallow. Nevertheless, he soon vomits up Hare. Next Hare disguises himself as a man and sneaks back in with another group of hunters. This time he cuts the hill's heart up and packs it home to his grandmother. He refuses the general tender of chieftainship and tells the people to go back to their own homes.6

Here again, in the Ponca version, the monster is a hill. Despite being warned by his Grandmother, Rabbit goes to a hill that swallows people. He invited the hill to swallow him, and he spend some time being ingested before he reached the interior. There he found many bodies, but a few were still alive. Rabbit promptly cut the hill's heart, the the hill disgorged everyone. The rescued survivors declared Rabbit to be the chief of the nations, but he declined and told them to go back to their former homes.7

In this Osage version, the story is blended with the story of the hill that devoured people (q.v.). "There was once a village by a hill. The hill was eating up everything all the buffalo and deer and horses. Finally there was a boy in the village, who said, 'I will kill that hill.' His mother said, 'You leave him alone, for he eats buffalo and deer, as well as men.' But the boy said, 'I will kill him anyhow.' He got his knife and sharpened it. He went out to the hill, and said to it, 'Now eat me; you have eaten lots of men.' The hill said, 'What! Will a boy like you say that to me! I will eat you, sure enough!' So the hill ate the boy. As soon as the boy was inside of the hill he cut the hill's heart, and the hill wondered how such a boy could make him sick; he thought he must be mad. After a while, the hill died. The boy came out, and 'I have killed — sure said, him, enough.' So — everything that was inside of the hill came out buffalo, deer, turkeys — and all went into the woods. The chief of the village said he must have a council and do something for the boy, in return for what he had done for the people. So they held a council meeting, and they decided to let the boy have the chief's daughter. He invited all the chiefs to come and take dinner with him."8

The Dakota version is similar to that of the Omaha. Grandmother warns Rabbit not to approach a hill that swallows people, but he goes there anyway. He said to it, "Pahe-Wathahuni, draw me into your mouth! Come and eat me!" But the hill knew the rabbit and did nothing. However, when the hill swallowed a hunting party, Rabbit followed them in, but the hill vomited him out again. When the next hunting party stumbled onto the hill, Rabbit was disguised as a man, and this time he got in without being ejected. He saw in there people in many states of life and decay. Rabbit then took out a knife and cut apart the hill's heart. The hill split apart, and all the living people stumbled back out. The people wanted to make Rabbit their chief, but he refused, saying that he only wanted the fat he had cut from the monster. With this food he returned to his grandmother.9

The Blackfoot figure, Blood Clot, is very similar to Hare, although the particulars of most of his stories do not correspond to those of the Hare Cycle. Nevertheless, the story of the fish is a pretty good fit to the present story. In this story, Blood Clot left the old women whom he had helped, and as he left they warned him to stay on the south side of the road. Just the same, he stayed on the dangerous north side. He was overtaken by a great wind storm caused by a sucker fish that sucked him into its mouth. Inside the fish's stomach were many people, some dead, but others still alive. Blood Clot told the people that they must have a dance, so he painted himself and attached a white stone knife to his head so that it stuck point up. They danced jumping up and down until finally in one of his leaps, Blood Clot struck the heart of the fish with his knife point. He then cut the heart out, and taking his knife, he cut through the side of the fish so that all the people inside could escape from the hole.10

The Siouan Crow have a similar story as part of their Twins myth. One day the father of the Twins said, "This time I really want you to obey me. There's a hill nearby. I don't want you to go over it." Just the same, the boys went over the hill where they found a monster very much like an alligator. This monster sucked in air until he drew them inside himself. There they found many other people. They asked the monster what the thing beating in his side was, and he said, "It is the thing in which I lay my plans." So they took a knife and cut it up. This killed the monster. They cut a hole in its side and escaped, but not before they cut off a piece of its heart to take home to their father.11

The Crow also tell this story about Old Woman's Grandson. Old Woman warns her grandson Kúricbapìtuac not to got to where a giant buffalo is to be found. The next morning he goes there anyway. He is carrying a large lodge pole when the buffalo tries to suck him in. The lodge pole jams into the lips of the buffalo and prevents him from sucking in Kúricbapìtuac. However, Kúricbapìtuac kindly allows that he will put down the lodge pole if released and allow the buffalo to ingest him. This is what happened. Once inside he finds only four men there who are left alive, two are able bodied, but two are injured. Kúricbapìtuac asks the buffalo what two of his organs are, and he says that the first is "what I go by," and the second is "my slippery stones." So Kúricbapìtuac cuts out his kidneys and heart. He cut a hole in the side of the buffalo and got the four survivors out alive. He showed them how to make arrows, and from that time on buffaloes ceased to eat people and instead the human hunted and ate buffalo.12

Much the same tale exists as an episode in a Cheyenne story. A boy of mysterious origins arrives at the teepee of an old woman. He says that he is thirsty, but the grandmother tells him that only the fastest runners can get water. She explains that a Mih' (an animal similar to a Waterspirit) lives where they get their water, and it will eat anyone too slow afoot. Despite her warning, he went to the stream to get some water. Soon a giant Mih' raised its head above the water and drew in air with such force that the boy was sucked inside the creature. There he found many people who had suffered the same fate. He took his knife and cut a hole in the Mih' from which everyone escaped. When he got back, the grandmother asked who he was, and he revealed that he was Falling Star.13

This version is found among the neighboring Menominee people. A great fish had been devouring fishermen, so the people appealed to Manabush for help. Manabush took his singing sticks and announced that he was going to allow himself to be swallowed. He paddled out into the middle of the lake and sang, "Mashenomak, come and eat me, you will feel good." Mashenomak at first sent his children to swallow him, but Manabush refused to accept this, so Mashenomak himself gulped him down. When Manabush came to, he found that not only was he inside the belly of the fish, but so too were his brothers Bear, Deer, Porcupine, Raven, and Pine Squirrel. Manabush started his war song, and all his brothers danced around inside Mashenomak's stomach. As he passed by the monster's heart, he cut it three times, then ordered, "Mashenomak, swim towards my wigwam!" The monster became ill and rolled about violently. When Manabush came to, he was lying on the shore and the monstrous fish was beached with a hole in its side. Manabush took his singing sticks and sang a song that revived all his brother inside, who came out to daylight through the hole.14

The following story is said only to be "Algic" (Algonquian), but is probably specifically Ojibwe. One day Manabozho (Hare) learned of a great evil-doing fish called "Megissogwon." He determined to catch him. So he threw a line into the water, but it was only when he called upon the King of the Fishes to take it, that he was able to snare him. However, with a single bite, the fish swallowed both Manabozho and his canoe. So Manabozho found himself inside the belly of the fish. He took up his warclub and struck the beating heart of the fish. This merely made the fish a bit nauseous. So he struck the heart again. The fish was about to vomit him up in the middle of the lake, when Manabozho wedged his canoe in sideways, thereby preventing the fish from ejecting him. Manabozho finally killed the fish by another attack on its heart. Then he heard the sounds of surf, after which he heard the scratching sound of birds pecking away at the fish carcass. After that daylight appeared as the birds cut through, allowing Manabozho to escape.15

For the Kitkahahki Pawnee, this is a story in the Twins Cycle. Once a water monster swallowed their father, so the Twins filled their pockets with flint stones, and slid down a beaver path into the water. There they turned into foam and were swallowed by the monster. Once inside, they lit a fire using their bows and arrows. Eventually, this caused the monster to explode, and they blew onto dry land with their father. There they took the skin which had been blown off the animal, and made a tobacco pouch out of it for their father.16

The Wichita also have a version of this story, which like their kindred the Pawnee, belongs to their Twins Cycle. The father of After Birth Boy and his brother had made them a netted hoop, but had strictly forbidden them to roll it in a westward direction. However, at the first opportunity they did just that. The hoop took off and kept rolling. The boys chased after it, but could not gain on it. They wanted to stop, but found themselves under some kind of strange supernatural compulsion to continues the pursuit. The hoop rolled into a large lake, and the boys rushed right into the water after it. Soon they were swallowed by a giant fish. When their father returned home he found the boys missing and he presumed that they had met a hard fate, so he turned himself into a star. Meanwhile, back inside the fish, After Birth Boy began to swing his bow around in a circle. This caused the fish to fly through the air and crash on dry land. The boys left by the back part of the fish.17 [previous episode of this story]

The following Tlingit trickster story, summarized by Radin, has some resemblance to the Hare myth: "[Raven] flew inside a whale, and lived on what it swallowed and its insides. At last he cut out its heart and killed it. After he had floated ashore the people cut a hole through and he flew away."18

The distant Salish (Flatheads) also have a version of this story. Tomtit warned Coyote not to go to a certain valley since there was a monster there that swallowed everything that came its way. Coyote went anyway. For protection, Coyote uprooted a large pine tree. As he went his way he noticed that he was treading on bones, in fact the whole valley was full of them, and in the middle was an emaciated man sitting on top of a mountain of skulls. This man informed Coyote that he had already been swallowed by the monster, and the darkness at the end of the valley was the closing of his mouth. Coyote propped his pine tree against the sides of the monsters, then climbed up to cut away some of his entrails. After he and the thin man ate heartily of this repast, Coyote mounted the tree and cut the monster's heart. This killed the creature, and at that very instant, all the bones reassembled into living human beings, complete with their flesh. They exited from the nine holes that opened in the monster's carcass and made good their escape.19

The above two stories recall the Hebrew myth of Jonah and the great fish. "So they picked Jonah up and threw him into the sea; and the sea ceased from its raging. Then the men feared the Lord even more, and they offered a sacrifice to the Lord and made vows. But the Lord provided a large fish to swallow up Jonah; and Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights. Then Jonah prayed to the Lord his God from the belly of the fish ... Then the Lord spoke to the fish, and it spewed Jonah out upon the dry land."20

Links: Hare, Earth, The Sons of Earthmaker.

Links within the Published Hare Cycle: §9. Hare Burns His Buttocks, §11. Hare Kills Wildcat.

Links within the Russell Hare Cycle: §1. Hare Steals the Fish, §3. Hare Kills a Man with a Cane, Version 2.

Stories: featuring Hare as a character: The Hare Cycle, Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, The Necessity for Death, The Mission of the Five Sons of Earthmaker, Hare Acquires His Arrows, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, Hare Kills Wildcat, The Messengers of Hare, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, Hare Kills Flint, Hare Kills Sharp Elbow, Hare Visits His Grandfather Bear, Grandmother Packs the Bear Meat, Hare Visits the Bodiless Heads, Hare Visits the Blind Men, Hare Kills a Man with a Cane, Hare Burns His Buttocks, The Hill that Devoured Men and Animals, Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, Grandmother's Gifts, Hare and the Grasshoppers, The Spirit of Gambling, The Red Man, Maize Origin Myth, Hare Steals the Fish, The Animal who would Eat Men, The Gift of Shooting, Hare and the Dangerous Frog, Thunder Cloud is Blessed, The Coughing Up of the Black Hawks, The Animal Spirit Aids of the Medicine Rite, The Petition to Earthmaker; featuring Grandmother Earth as a character: Medicine Rite Foundation Myth, Maize Origin Myth, Grandmother Packs the Bear Meat, Grandmother's Gifts, Owl Goes Hunting, Hare and the Grasshoppers, Hare Acquires His Arrows, The Plant Blessing of Earth, The Stench-Earth Medicine Origin Myth, Hare Visits the Blind Men, Hare Visits His Grandfather Bear, Hare Visits the Bodiless Heads, Hare Burns His Buttocks, Hare Kills Wildcat, Hare and the Dangerous Frog, Hare Retrieves a Stolen Scalp, Hare Recruits Game Animals for Humans, The Necessity for Death, Hare Secures the Creation Lodge, Hare Steals the Fish, Hare Kills Sharp Elbow, Hare Kills Flint, The Gift of Shooting, The Creation of the World, The Creation of Man (vv 4, 6), Hare Establishes Bear Hunting, Redhorn's Father (?).

Themes: a song taunting a predator to kill or eat the singer: Lake Winnebago Origin Myth, Wolves and Humans; traveling by riding atop a water monster (or Waterspirit): Ocean Duck; being swallowed whole: The Hill that Devoured Men and Animals, The Great Fish, The Waterspirit of Rock River, The Baldheaded Warclub Origin Myth, The Bungling Host, The Dipper; someone is abducted and led off into captivity: The Captive Boys, A Man's Revenge, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Lost Child, Wears White Feather on His Head, Įcorúšika and His Brothers, Bird Clan Origin Myth, The Man Whose Wife was Captured, Bladder and His Brothers, The Boy who was Captured by the Bad Thunderbirds, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister, Black Otter's Warpath, The Boy who was Blessed by a Mountain Lion, The Green Man, Brave Man, The Chief of the Heroka, Šųgepaga, Hare Acquires His Arrows, The Raccoon Coat, Wojijé, Wolves and Humans, The Woman Who Became an Ant, Thunderbird and White Horse, Heną́ga and Star Girl, Brass and Red Bear Boy, Traveler and the Thunderbird War (v. 5), The Boy who Flew, Testing the Slave, Soldiers Catch Two Boys, a Black One and a White One; men whose bodies are (partly) covered with pieces of flint: Bluehorn's Nephews, Hare Kills Flint, The Children of the Sun, The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head, The Red Man, The Chief of the Heroka; a prisoner escapes by killing (some of) his captor(s): Wears White Feather on His Head, Įcorúšika and His Brothers, Hare Acquires His Arrows, Thunderbird and White Horse, The Boy who Flew, The Raccoon Coat, Wojijé, The Captive Boys; polygamy: Bladder and His Brothers (v. 2), The Spotted Grizzly Man, The Daughter-in-Law's Jealousy, The Green Man, Wazųka, Bluehorn's Nephews, The Markings on the Moon, Redhorn's Sons, The Sons of Redhorn Find Their Father, Hare Kills Sharp Elbow, Bluehorn Rescues His Sister, The Spirit of Gambling; good spirits rescue women held by an evil spirit: The Spirit of Gambling, The Green Man, The Spotted Grizzly Man, Brass and Red Bear Boy, Iron Staff and His Companions.

Songs. Bladder, Song about the Older Brother (v. 2), Bladder, Song about the Older Brother (v. 3), Buffalo Dance Songs, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Song for Returning, Clan Songs, Bear Clan, Song for Starting Out, Clan Song, Bear Clan, Song of the Youngest, Clan Songs, Buffalo Clan, Clan Songs, Buffalo Clan, The Four Songs of Hojanoka, Clan Songs—Deer Clan, Clan Songs—Wolf Clan, Clan Songs—Wonáǧire Wąkšik Clan, The Crawfish's Song, Duck Song, Farewell Songs, The Four Services Songs, Grandfather Sparrow's Rain Songs, Grizzly Bear Songs, Hare's Song to Grasshopper, Hare's Song to the Wągepanįgera, Hare's Song to Wildcat, Hawk's Song, Heroka Songs, Holy Song, Holy Song II, Little Fox's Death Song, Little Fox's Death Song (for the Warpath), Little Fox's Tail Song, Love Song I (female), Love Song II (female), Love Song III (female), The Mouse Song, Nightspirit Songs, The Quail's Song, Redman's Song, Slow Song of the Heroka, Soldier Dance Songs, Song for Calling the Buffalo, Song from the Water, Song from the Water (King Bird), The Song of Bluehorn's Sister, Hocąk Text — The Song of Sun Caught in a Net, The Song of the Boy Transformed into a Robin, Song of the Frog to Hare, Song of the Thunder Nestlings, The Song of Trickster's Baby, Song to Earthmaker, The Song to the Elephant, The Sun's Song to Hare, Three Warrior Songs, Turtle's Call for a Warparty (v. 1), Turtle's Call for a Warparty (v. 2), Turtle's Four Death Dance Songs, Twins, Ghost's Song (v. 1), Twins, Ghost's Song (v. 2), Twins, Ghost's Song (The Two Brothers), Twins, the Songs of Ghost and Flesh, Twins, Song of the Father-in-Law, Victory Song, Wailing Song, Warrior Song about Mącosepka, What a Turtle Sang in His Sleep, Wolf-Teasing Song of the Deer Spirits. Songs in the McKern collection: Waking Songs (27, 55, 56, 57, 58) War Song: The Black Grizzly (312), War Song: Dream Song (312), War Song: White Cloud (313), James’ Horse (313), Little Priest Songs (309), Little Priest's Song (316), Chipmunk Game Song (73), Patriotic Songs from World War I (105, 106, 175), Grave Site Song: "Coming Down the Path" (45), Songs of the Stick Ceremony (53).


1 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948) 103-105. Paul Radin, The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology (New York: Schocken Books, 1956) §14, pp. 76-78. The original Hocąk text is missing, but the English translation of Oliver LaMère is preserved in Paul Radin, "The Hare Cycle," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3851 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago IV, #1: 69-77. See also Oliver LaMère and Harold B. Shinn, Winnebago Stories (New York, Chicago: Rand, McNally and Co., 1928) 143-145. Informant: Oliver LaMère of the Bear Clan.

2 Jacob Russell, Stories from the Hare Cycle, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Winnebago III, #14, Freeman #3893 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) 41-49. Phonetic text only.

3 the Hocąk was originally taken from Natile Curtis (see next note), but corrected by Amelia Susman, "Song of Waccįkéka to Elephant," Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1939) Book 10, Song 1, p. 84.

4 Natalie Curtis Burlin, The Indians' Book: an Offering by the American Indians of Indian Lore, Musical and Narrative, to Form a Record of the Songs and Legends of Their Race (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1907) 248-249.

5 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan) and Julia Small (Otoe), "Dore and Wahredua," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [...].

6 Roger Welsch, Omaha Tribal Myths and Trickster Tales (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1981) 22-23. J. LaFlèsche, "How the Rabbit Killed the Devouring Hill," in Rev. James O. Dorsey, "¢egiha Texts," Contributions to North American Ethnology, 6 (1890): 34-35.

7 Nudáⁿ-axa, "How Rabbit Went to the Sun" in Rev. James O. Dorsey, "¢egiha Texts," Contributions to North American Ethnology, 6 (1890): 31.

8 "34. The Boy who Killed the Hill," in George A. Dorsey, "Traditions of the Osage," Field Columbian Musem, Anthropological Series, 7, #1 (Feb., 1904): 42.

9 Lewis Spence, Myths of the North American Indians (London: George G. Harrap & Company, 1916) 302-303.

10 Mythology of the Blackfoot Indians, compiled and translated by Clark Wissler and D. C. Duvall (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995 [1908]) Story 2: 56-57. On the Blood Clot stories, cf. Blackfoot (Grinnell, 29); Dakota (Riggs, Contributions to North American Ethnology, IX, 95); Dhegiha (J. O. Dorsey, Contributions to North American Ethnology, VI, 48). The Maidu myth of Kutsem Yeponi, the conqueror who grew from a bead (Dixon, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, XVII, ii, 59), seems to be a Californian equivalent.

11 "Lodge-Boy and Throw-Away," in The Storytelling Stone: Traditional Native American Myths and Tales, ed. Susan Feldmann (New York: Dell Publishing, 1965) 179-183. Originally in Tales of the North American Indians, ed. Stith Thompson (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1929).

12 Scratches Face, "2. Old-Woman's-Grandchild (Kúricbapìtuac)," in Robert H. Lowie, "Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians," Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 25, part 1 (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1918) 57-69 [63-64]. This story is also briefly referred to in Timothy P. McCleary, The Stars We Know: Crow Indian Astronomy and Lifeways (Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1997) 40.

13 Henry Tall Bull and Tom Weist, The Rolling Head (Billings: Montana Indian Publications, 1971) 22-23.

14 Dorothy Moulding Brown, Manabush: Menomini Tales, Wisconsin Folklore Booklets (Madison: 1948) 6-7.

15 "Manabozho, or the Great Incarnation of the North," in Henry R. Schoolcraft, Schoolcraft's Indian Legends, ed. Mentor L. Williams (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1991 [1956]) 69-70.

16 Thief, "Long Tooth Boy," in George A. Dorsey, The Pawnee Mythology (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1906]) 493.

17 Ahahe, "12. The Deeds of After-Birth-Boy," in George A. Dorsey, The Mythology of the Wichita (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995 [1904]) 88-102 [100-101]. [15] Paul Radin, The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology (New York: Schocken Books, 1956) 105. Tlingit trickster tales are collected in J. R. Swanton, Tlingit Myths and Texts, Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington, D. C.: Bureau of American Ethnology, 1909) Bulletin 39, 416-419.

18 Radin, The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology, 104-109.

19 "Coyote Kills Terrible Monster," in American Indian Trickster Tales, selected and edited by Richard Erdoes and Alfonso Ortiz (New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc., 1998) 20-22.

20 Jonah 1:16-2:10.