Hocąk Text — The War of Indian Tribes against White Soldiers

by Stella (Blowsnake) Stacey, a.k.a. Mountain Wolf Woman
transcribed by Sheila Shigley


Stella Stacy (Mountain Wolf Woman)

English Translation


Stylistic Features

hapaxlegomena: giže’é, "and/so that one"; gųą́nąjı̨́, "immediately"; hakíšák, "to beat unconscious"; hirapé, "to lie in wait"; hiyák’ó́, "to turn around"; kóréisge, "to be incredible"; wazą́zą́, in the sense, "to pull back".
rare words: gážeesge, "in that way," found embedded in gážeesgégiží in another of Stella's works; gážegų, "like that" (found only in Kingswan); kíká’ų, "to get up" (found only in Helmbrecht-Lehmann); žḗsgé, "that kind".

First Line Tape 7256 from the American Philosophical Society
Second Line Tape OT 7694_atm_MDPI_40000001139890_01_access.mp4
Third Line Transcription
Fourth Line Translation

01:21.5 ?
01:03.78 OT
Žé, wą́giyą́, wánąkše, jásgé híreánąga cégéja Waruǧápᵋną̄gre wawa’ų́įnegi,
This one, a man, he was saying, how it was done, and in the past these Warbundles when they would be made,

 


01:26.9
01:03.8
že’é, že’é, žḗsge, áną́kže. Nąke iyanąga† cįcįžą ? Waruǧábᵋra wawa’ųne,
that, that,* that kind, he said. There he did, and a boy the Warbundle he made it with him,

* pausing to think, Stella repeats herself.
† < hi-anąga, the /h/ having been dropped due to external sandhi.


01:30.4 01:34
01:12.11 01:15.78
giže’é že’é žesga[_] hą́táraginącwiánąga, tónįkewehíwiánąga íwúst’érakı̨́wiánąga
and/so that one that one even you fasted, and you were hungry, and you were thirsting yourselves to death, and

 


01:40.5 01:45.4
01:22.55 01:27.5
éja te’é, Waruǧápᵋną̄gre wawa’ų́įneną. Waką́já eja howáji, te’é, Waruǧápᵋną̄gre,
there this one, this Warbundle they made it. Thunderbird there it came from, these, these Warbundles,

 


01:50.5 01:54.9 ? 01:58.6
01:32.67 01:37.29 01:40.95
wírókų xetéxjı̨́ me’é, gážeesge, te’é péžéga hižą́ hísgéra ną́’į̄́negi, kízá xetéxjı̨́ ų́įneánąga,
instruments very great these, in that way, these whoever one genuinely if he tries, fighting great they did, and

 


02:1.4 02:05.1   02:08
01:43.9 01:47.75   01:50.68
hokízá xetéxjı̨́r̨a ižą éja, te’é, Waruǧápᵋną̄gᵋra hižą́, hanį̄́neánąga, éja [ų́įnešjé],
battle the great ones one there, this, the Warbundles one, they had, and there [they did much],

 


02:17.7
01:59.57
hąké wapahí hirakíš’onįkjaną́winą, éže, žé hižą́ wáną́kše. Giží, žḗsge
not weapon they will not have been touched, he said, this one he said. So that way

 


02:24
02:05.96
hī́reže, egi hisgéra ną́’ı̨́naké, egų žḗsge hī́reže. Že’é, hohó,
they did, and truly because they tried, and so that way they did. That one, hohó,

 


02:28.4
02:10.29
ke Hocą́gᵋra šąną, wa’ų́įnanįže. Cíną́kiją, wówacéhi, róhą́
not Hocą́gᵋra only, they would not do it. Living there, to group with them,* many

* meaning other tribes.


 

02:38.8 ?
02:14.8
hakíšjékireánąga že’é, že’é* éja, mą́ną́pe† waxópı̨́nį, žḗsge kízáireže.
they were together, and that one, that one there, spirit soldiers,‡ that kind they were fighting.

* Stella is repeating herself here while gathering her thoughts.
† almost mą́ną́wąpe?
‡ meaning "white soldiers".


02:41.5 02:45
92:23.64 02:27.13
Žésgé kízáirekjenégiži, éja howaráireže. Že’é wažą́ karagų́sireánąga,
That same kind when they were about to go to war, there they went. This thing they taught their own, and

 


02:49.4
02:31.58
jásgé* hírekjenégi, ésgé hakaragų́sire.† Že’é wą́kcówe, wą́kwášoše cówé,
how the way they were to do, thus they counseled all of their own. This lead man, lead warrior

* or gają.
† sounded as ésgakaragų́sire. The ha- in hakaragų́sire would normally be the ha- meaning "I", but here we have a rare case of the prefix ha- meaning "all" (Helmbrecht-Lehmann).


02:55 03:00
02:37.35 02:42.13
ejere,* že’é Šų́gépága žı̨́gáireánąga,† égi žigī́žą́ Pų́zákexə́tega higáireánąga, [ke?]
there he was, this Dog Head [they called him,] and and another one Big Sand Bar they called him, and ?

* -že higáireánąga?
† < eja heré.


03:04.2
02:46.61 02:56.99
égi žigī́žą́, Tóšą́nąksépka higáireánąga, égi žigī́žą́ …* kénı̨́ žigī́žą́ áiranį
and another one, Black Otter they call, and then another one ... [wait] another one they did not say,

* this reflects a long pause of 5.93 seconds.


03:22.1
03:04.72
nųnįge žé [wákga], karáik’ųšųnųn’.* R̨a, wą́gᵋrə́ žénąka jópíwi [hi?]rájiren'.
but this [gentleman], they used to give it (his name) to me. So, the men in total four of them they were named.

* After this word there is a pause of 3.3 seconds.


03:24.7
03:07.4
Že’é, hokízá wą́kwášoše s’írejąxjį waworágires’a, giži, giži é žé
These, war braves for a very long time they were repeatedly spoken of, so, so they these

 


03:32.5 03:35.3
03:15.27 03:18.06
wawagánągᵋra. R̨a, žḗsgé hī́reže. Mą́įxəte mą́ną́pe, že’é, kízá [herekjenegi,]
it is who they mean. So in that manner they acted. Big Knife soldiers, these, to fight [when it would be time,]

* or gekjenegi.


03:42.4 03:39.3?
03:24.1 03:32.3
éja howaráireže. Giží, giží, wáireže. Wą́gᵋną́ka, že’é* Šų́gépáną́ka é
there they went. So, so, they have said. Those men, this one Dog Head he himself

* sounded as že and elided with the next word.


03:54.4 03:58.7
03:37.45 03:41.76
wacóžuákižu, wéže, "Wanı̨́ksgánįkižą́ hų́k’ų́(į?)neže, áireną. Te’é,
to those leaders with him, he said, "A little white bird (Snowbird) they gave me, it is said. This,

 


04:06.5
03:49.67
wažą́naižą́, gážḗsge hašjáwígi hąké t’éhíwinįą́je. Že’é, hákáranįkjanáwiną," éže.
something in that way if you see, not do not kill him. This one we will bring home," he said.

 


04.12.2 04:15.5
03:55.53 03:58.79
Giží, éja hégų, haráireže. Hišgé gójá mą́ną́peną́kašge hacı̨́ja wawamą́kiraciregi,
So, there then, they started. Also over there those soldiers, but where they had planned to go,

 


04:23.6
04:07.05
éjašge, hajī́rekjenégi, é howáré wa’ų́ną̄́kše. Giží, že’é
there if they would come, them to go towards he was. So, these

 


04:32.7 04:35.3
04:14.29 04:18.97
wákíjairekjenehégiží, heréže. Gają, ų́sge, wą́giyą́ že’é, Tóšą́nąksgaga* higáire,† giží
if they would see them, they did. But, well, a man this one [Black Otter] they called him, thus

* she gives his name incorrectly as Tóšą́nąksgága, "White Otter." It should be Tóšą́nąksepka, "Black Otter," as it is elsewhere.
† the initial /h/ is dropped and this word is elided with the previous name.


04:41.2  
04:24.97  
wa’ų́ą́kše. Éja, éja xatáp mı̨́ną́ka éja, gają, éja wažą́ xgíxgí nįsge
he was. There, there brush sitting there, then there someone he moved about sort of

 


04:50.7
04:34.64
[unintelligible] éja wą́giyą́ huhéže. Xatáp éja, xatápᵋra wazą́zą́,* áirešųnųną.
[?] there a man he was coming. Brush there, the brush [he pulled back, ?] they used to say.

* an unknown word.


04:54.9 04:58.3
04:38 04:42.3
Xatáp horógéja hogíémą́nı̨́,* wagáirešųnųn'. Šų́kxə́te sgá hižą
Brush in their midst [the place the enemy himself walks,] they always said. Horse white a

* this may be from ho-, spatial prefix; ki, “enemy”; e, “he”; and mą́nı̨́, “walks”. Xatáp horógéja hogíémą́nı̨́, wagáirešųnųn’, "The enemy walks through the brush," (for concealment).


05:03.2
04:47.36
rutíánąga, éja huhéže. Giži hákją́kjąpą́kše, hégų́ wą́gą́ka, Mą́įxəté hižą, wa’ųą́kše,
he was leading, and there he came. And so he looked back, and the man, Big Knife a, he was.

 


 
 
Hákją́kjąpąki wą́gą́gᵋre (hi)šgé égų éja, égų́, mą́įja gisgáp
When he looked back, this man also and there, well, on the ground he laid down and hid himself

 


  05:18.4
  05:02.8
mı̨́k, hirapéže. Gają égų́*́ tḗja hákją́kjąpąk, žḗsge hiyák’ó, kíká’ųną́gᵋnə̨́ga,
he lay, to lie in wait. And so then there looking back, just like that he turned around to get up,

* voiced as, gajégų.


05:26.3 05:32
05:10.8 05:16.7
te’é. Hegų nų́wą́gᵋnə̨́ga, haruxé mą́nį̄́negają, ára rusták harukósse.* 'Gi égi
this one. Then he ran, he turned around and next he walked, his arms he flattened to catch him. And then

* for harukósše.


wéže, "Hoooo, Šų́gépága, wažą́ižą́ hok’ų́(į?)neže, éra wą́giyą́,́ égi hinįátukóssąnooo!"*
he said, "Hoooo, Dog Head, something it would be given, as it was said, a man, and I have captured him for you!"

* hinįhatukosšąną, casual (sąną instead of šąną), emphatic (-no instead of -ną).

 


05:42.7 05:48.7
05:27.6 05:33.7
éže. Giži žḗsgé hī́reže, žégų́ haną́cixjį nų́wą́kire, hijónų́wą́kireže.* Hégų́
he said. And so like this it was done, then absolutely all of them they started to run, there they ran. So

* hija ho-.


05:54.1
05:39.14
hižąkíšąną hajī́rega haną́c hojį̄́nes’áže. Hojį̄́nes’áže,
one by one they arrived, and everyone they repeatedly struck him. They repeatedly struck him,

 


05:58.8
05:43.96
wą́k honą́k áiregi, ésgé híwa’ų́įnes’áže, áiren'. Hižą́
man to count coup as they call it, so they were implacably angry, it is said. One of them


06:03.2
05:48.4
kjénı̨́sgáirega, hinįánukósirega, hojį̄́nes’áže. Rážᵋra
as they took revenge upon him, when they took him prisoner, they repeatedly struck him. Their names

 


kírajírᵋánąga, é é éja, žé(e), wą́k honą́k herega, hokárákires’áže,
they called out themselves, and he he there, this one, man to count coup as he was, they would tell him,

 


06:11 06:14.5
05:56.3 05:59.9
žḗsgé hī́reže. Hóhóp hajiakaráireánąga* giží, "Égi hąąą, Šų́gépága, hokízá rukąnąna,
that kind it was. War hoops they started, and then, "Well hąąą, Dog Head, the battle master,



06:24.2
06:09.8
hacı̨́janągra, éja howánı̨́kerekjawįną," áireže. Giži ésgé hī́reže, te’é wą́gą́gᵋre xópı̨́nįą́gᵋre,
wherever he is, there we will be taking him," they said. So thus they did, this the spirit man,

 


06:30.3
06:16
éja hanįagī́reže. Giží, wéže, Šų́gépága, "Mą́įxetenə̨́gᵋre, wágáxšge, hirokíkit’aires’áže,
there they brought him. Then he said, Dog Head, "Those Big Knives, paper, also they will always use to communicate with one another,

 


06:39.3
06:25.1
áireną. Ruhą́wı̨́r̨e, wórúcgeže, [hajáišge] nįgé, wagáxrášge hižą́,
it is said. We must search, guessing with our hands, if it is seen anywhere, paper even one,

 


06:49.1
06:35.25
hanı̨́ wa’ųą́k(ž?)e. Wágáx hanį̄́žąįšge, wórákiyą́šge wa’ųą́ki, wagáǧᵋra káránįą́(kgųnı̨́),*
to be taken it is. Paper even one taken, even a communiqué were there to be, the accounts he took with him perhaps,

* or káránįą́(khonı̨́).


06:53 06:57.5
06:39 06:43.75
ruhą́wı̨́r̨e," ége, ḗsge žḗsge hī́reže. Ruhą́įr̨egają́, wažą́ hi’éranı̨́že.
we must search," he said, so that is what they did. When they searched, not anything they could not find.

 


07:01 07:04
06:47.3 06:51.1
Gé* wóną́įxətera, wóną́žįr̨ašge égi hogirušorojiren'. Gają́ kážı̨́’éranįne.†
Again his coat, his waistcoat also then they took off him. But they could not find anything.

* for Žigé.
† from ke wažą hižą eranįne ?


07:11
06:57.6
Ho 'gų́ wažągá wóką́nągᵋra gišorójirega, hakaranı̨́mı̨́kjéną.* "Wóką́nąk
Ho, then that his hat when they took it off him, he grabbed hold of it. "Hat

* the initial /h/ is dropped and this word is elided with the previous word.


07:14.5
07:01.2
[gajéšge] wažą́s’áre," airege, ésge, wóką́nągᵋra, egé,* rús
even that how it might be something," they said, so therefore the hat because he told them, to take

* perhaps this is more likely wóką́nągᵋra egi.


07:18
07:04.69
hireánąga, horoǧojᵋre.* Gają,† wóką́nąk úkᵋrógéja, rucák ą́ka rókéja,
they did, and they must examine it. And so, hat [at its edge ?] he sewed up on each side inside there

* or horoǧocire?
† or gaja.


07:24.8
07:11.66
wágáx hot’ų́bią́kše. Giži, "Ąhooo!" Žaᵂanų, wórágᵋną́kašge, hotᆠwagáx
this paper it lay. Then, "Ąhooo!" Prophet,* this information, also, some of them writing

* Žawanų in these stories is generally understood to be the Shawnee Prophet, Tenskwatawa.
† sounded as wórágᵋną́kašgotá.
‡ an initial /h/ was lost from external sandhi.


07:33.1 07:35.2
07:20 07:22.2
hipéres‡ wa’ų́ną̄́kšąną.* "Hajáwíre jágú é wágiží. Kóréisgešge wažą́ wą́gigái
to understand they do. "We are doing what he he calls for.† Perhaps us something to say to us

* elided with the previous word to sound like, hipereza’ų́ną̄́kšąną.
† or, "look what it itself calls for."


07:39.3 07:41.9
07:29
wa’ųą́ks’áre," áireže. Wą́kwášoše cówéjerénąk, ḗsge žḗsgé hī́reže. Hajáiregają, te’é
he does," they said. Warrior the leading, so that kind he was. When they saw, these

 


07:47.2
07:24.4
howaréire, ésge é wákše, "Hócą́k, cíną́giją hokírác wa’ųą́kiži, wą́kšígᵋną̄́gre
they went forward, so he he told them, "Hócą́k, member of a foreign tribe different as they are, these people

 


07:56.5 07:59.5
07:43.88 07:46.9
žéją́įwahíkjawíną. Hakíšák* hį́wahíkjawíną. Žéją́įwahíkjawíną."
we will annihilate them. I will kill them by hand (?) we will beat them. We will annihilate them."

* probably a mis-hearing of hagisák, "I will kill them by hand."


08:01.6 08:05.8
07:49 07:53.3
Hą́įnįgíhi, é wa’ųą́kše. Giži ḗsge wáireže, 'gi égų́ žé
When morning arrives, he himself he is going to do it. And thus it was said, and then these

 


08:14.1
08:01.8
wákíšjekiregiži, éja égų́ mą́ną́peną́ka, "Égi hą́įnįgiží, hįkízákjawiną. Hą́įnįgi
they cooperated, there then those soldiers, "Then in the morning, we shall fight. In the morning

 


08:20.2
08:08
ų́kjáinįšgáicawiną,"* áireže, mą́ną́peną́ka. 'Gi wą́kšígᵋną́gᵋre, "Hą́," áireže,
we choose that it will be done tomorrow," they said, those soldiers. And these men, "Hą́," they said,

* < ų́kje-háinįšgá-haicą́winą, "it will be done - tomorrow - we choose."


08:23.8
08:11.67
"Hojiá," áire(gi?). Nų́nįgé, wáireže, že’é hokízá hų́k, hiruką́ną, wą́k cówéjera jópíwi,
"Alright," they said. However, they said, these war-chiefs, those in charge, men the lead four,

 


08:33.8 08:34.8
08:21.29 08:22.9
wáwíže, "Hijá, ho, jágú hį’ų́kjáwíže. Wóróhą wa’ųą́nąk, wapáhí cų́ wa’ų́ną́kžį (?),
they said, "There, ho, what we will do. Many [there were,] weapons many there were in this case,

 


08:41.4
08:29.6
wažą́ [ųwia]páhí* wą́gacų́xjı̨́nįahą́kwíną. Ną́įnegi, žégų gųą́ną hérekjéną.†
not anything [...] sharp we do not have plenty. When they sleep, then right away it will come to pass.

* páhí, in any case, means "sharp."
† or hairekjéną.


08:44.5 08:45.7
08:32.7 08:34.1
Jágú jı̨́ ukjáwįn'. Gųą́nąjı̨́ kíkárati, herékjéną." Ḗreže.
Whatever it is hard we will do. Immediately to make our own move, let it be so." They dispersed.

 


08:49.7 08:56.3
08:48.14 08:44.9
Ḗsge žḗsge hī́reže. Hą́héregi ną́įnegáją, wánímı̨́gireže. Éja, róhą́ t’éhī́reže.
So that is how they did. At night when were sleeping, they jumped them.* There, many they killed.

* they rushed them, attacked them.


08:59.5 09:04.4
08:48.1 08:53
Éja, nįgé, nįgé gixgáp kı̨́(nh)įsgé, t’éhī́reže. Mą́įxete róhą́ mą́ną́pera
There somewhere, somewhere, they [became sort of trapped,?] they were killed. Big Knife many soldiers

 


09:07.4 09:10
08:56.2 08:58.9
róhą́ t’éhī́reže. Hąké hą́įnį hapé(i)ranįže. Gáisge* ákšąną, žésgéxjį éja, ną́xgų́n'.
many they were killed. Not morning they did not wait for. That's how it was, just like that there, I heard.

* < gá-esge, but often pronounced closer to gáisge.


09:14.3 || 09:15
09:03.29 || 09:03.96
Žéną́ka hán'.*
That's all I (have to) say.

* the /h/ is lost through external sandhi, and elided with the previous word: žéną́kán'.


Source:

Stella Stacy, "War of Indian tribes against white soldiers" (formerly, "The red man's plaint against the white man about white supremacy"), reading by Sheila Shigley, from audio tapes in the American Philosophical Society. Fraenkel, Gerd. Mss.Rec. 29, recorded 11 July 1959, 1 .mp3; 00:01:21.5 - 00:09:15. Copy made by Gerd Fraenkel of an original tape held at the Archives of Languages of the World, Indiana University. This program comes from original tape 524. APS accession number 7256; APSdigrec_0940; Recording Number: 02; Program Number: 01.