Hocąk Text — The Hocąk and Menominee Farm Side-by-Side as Friends

by Stella (Blowsnake) Stacey, a.k.a. Mountain Wolf Woman
transcribed and translated by Sheila Shigley


Stella Stacy (Mountain Wolf Woman)

English Translation


 

hapaxlegomena: hagakira, "all at once "; horuxoro, "to peel," cf. horuxó, "to scrape a tree" (as a bear does); wōwaxų, "to pour something".
Expression of unknown meaning: higų wažaga, a phrase that might mean, "with others" (︎); tacąna (tą̄cšąną ?) (); wāgegi (︎).

 


Part I

00:24.8             00:30.6        
Žee Hōcągara ēja, ną̄kše, cīnąk ų̄įɽegi. Giži, mą̄x ų̄įɽe anąga, mą̄x
At that time the Hōcąks there, to live they were, village they made. So, fields they made and, fields

 


 

  00:35.4        
hožuiranąga. Mą̄x hokīžuiranąga mą̄ǧᵋra, wākarak’ųįɽe, anąga mą̄ǧᵋra
they planted as well. They planted them for themselves, and the fields they made their own, and fields

 


 

      00:48.3    
hanącįxjį wākarak’ų rušjąįɽegi, ēgi* ēgi hijōwaraireže, tōgīra airegi,
absolutely all of making their own when they finished, and then they went there, summer lodges as they called them,

* there is a pause after this word in which Stella contemplates what she is going to say next.


 

          00:59.4      
esge, žigenįge* ną̄kīkara, žeesge waganą̄kše. Giži, hagoreižą ų̄sge, hākja hagīreže,
so, any place there was hunting, that is what they meant.** So, after awhile well, back they'd come back,

* sounded as genįge.
** or, "they were saying."


 

    01:5.5        
mą̄ǧᵋra rōcųną̄kše. Giži mą̄ǧᵋra rōcųną̄kše. Giži mą̄ǧᵋra wikaragišereireže,
the fields they would be ripened. So the fields they would be ripened. So the fields they attended to,

 


 

wažąɽa haną̄c tāwus wakaragīranąga wicąwąs ną̄kašge, tāwus wakaragīranąga.
everything dry they would make it, and corn that too dry they made them as well.

 


 

01:16.8          
Ēgi, mą̄x ųįɽekjanega Hōcągᵋną̄gᵋre mą̄ɽa k’airanąga, mą̄ɽa
Then fields once they had been done, the Hōcągara the ground they dug as well, the fields

 


 

          01:32.9      
ųįɽarēxjį, k’airanąga, ų̄ rōkšį̄k k’airanąga, ēgi ēja pēc hot’ų xete
they were worked, they dug, and doing pretty deep they dug, and then there fire to build big

 


 

              01:43.6      
ųįɽe,* wōxejega ēja, "wōxe" aireraže, k’aną̄k. Ēja ną̄ɽa rōhąxjį ēja, ēgų,
they built, that pit there, "pit" it was called, earth they dug. Then wood a lot of there, well,

* the terminal -įɽe appears to have been contracted.


 

    01:51.2      
tāxįnįgi į̄nį̄jobeire.* Į̄nį ēja hobeiranąga, ēgi,
when it was burnt to embers they would throw it on the rocks. Rocks there they threw, and well,

* < į̄nį̄-eja-hobe-ire.


 

              02:01.5  
haną̄c ų̄xįnįɽa tācep hiregi, į̄nįną̄ka tākac heregiži, hoxjąnągiži, wō’abᵋra,
everything ashes to burn when it had been, those rocks to burn it had been, when it was evening, the husks,

 


 

wicąwązᵋra wakuruweiregiži, wō’abᵋra ēja wobeireže, pōxeja rōōhą
the corn after they gathered it together, the husks there they'd throw them, in that hole soooo many

 


 

      02:16.5           02:23.2    
ēja, hobeire anąga. Ēgi wicąwąs horuxoro ną̄gᵋre, ēja wožuireže. ’Ną̄c* ēja wožuiregi,
there, they threw, as well. Then corn ears peeled those, there they put them. All there they put it,

* a front clip of haną̄c.


 

            02:30.5
ēgi, žige, wō’ap ną̄ka ēsge hohirārukąįɽe. Ēgi* jōbīhi,
then, again, husks those in that way in the tub they covered them up. Then in four places,

* the initial é of this word appears to have been clipped.


 

      02:35.1            
hikijąija, pōx kereire. Ēja, nį̄ɽēx ēja wōwaxų, ēgi wō’abᵋną̄ka hojaną̄c*
around the sides, hole they put. There, water pail there to pour it, then these husks even all of them

* < hoja-haną̄c. If the word is hoja, it would mean, "even this much"; or if it is hoją, it would mean, "that's why."


 

          02:49.9    
wobeiregi, ēgi mą̄ hirārukąįne, x’aireže. Ēgi, hijōbike owaną*
they threw them, and earth [they covered,] they buried it. Then four-way to send rolling over

* Sheila Shigley reads here, hopox’ų anągą, "they made holes, and," which makes more sense. An initial /h/ in howaną has been lost through external sandhi.


 

      02:53.7          
ēja nį̄ wowaxųn'.* Ēg' wōxe ej' ēg',† ēgų, cį̄wįje[že], nį̄jōwaxų[įɽegiži]‡
there water they poured. And pit in then, well, it made a great noise, when they poured the water

* uncertain reading with respect to grammar.
† these words are run together: Ēgwōxejēgēgų, for Ēgi wōxe eja ēgi, ēgų.
‡ the audio has a rather short shrift of the grammar here: cį̄wįje, nį̄jōwaxų, "it made a great noise to pour water". There is a long pause, then she says giži, after which there is another pause before the next sentence. Her brothers Jasper and Sam Blowsnake often used giži rather like a period to indicate the end of a sentence.


 

  03:00        
giži. Hąįnigi, hą̄įnįxjį̄k, karaiparairegi, wicąwązᵋra rōōhąxjį
[.] In the morning, early in the morning, when they dug it out for themselves, corn sooo much

 


 

                 
tūc hīren',

hagakira.

Kījire ųįɽanąga wicą̄s ną̄ką wašguire [anąga.]
to cook they had done, all at once. To help each other they did, and corn that they shelled as well.

 


 

03:11.3         03:15.2    
Tāwus wahīre, warusgu hīrera wākik’ųįɽeže, airen’. "Mą̄ wīrohą" airegi,
To dry they did it, the dried corn they had made they prepared it, they say. "Earth oven" as they call it,

 


 

          03:18.7
ēsge, žeežesge hīres’aže, Hōcąk ną̄ka. |
so in that way they used to do, Hōcąks those. |

 


Part II. The Menominee Move In

00:09            
Že, Hocąkra eja mįnągires’aže, hacįja, wāgegi, tēžą, tacąna* eja,
There, the Hocąk there, used to sit (be?), where, [unknown word], a lake [?] there,

* tą̄cšąną ?


 

            00:22.7  
eja mįnągire, eja mąxhožu xetešge ųįnes’aže. Giži, hagoreižą te,*
there they sat, there fields great they used to work. Well, once upon a time then,

* hagorei-te?


 

        00:29.3          
Kaǧi hahīreže, gixąną wa’ųną̄kš'. Gišge hisge hīreže, egi egųšge cīranąga,
the Menominee they came, migrating they were. [Thus] also they did, and [that way also] they lived, and

 


 

        00:37.5     00:40
cikik’ųįnanąga egųšge eja mąxožuireže.* Mąxožu† xete ųįnes’aže.‡ Giži hagoreižą
making camp as well and even there they put in fields. Putting in fields large they were [always doing]. So at one point

* mąxožugiži? The //h/ in -hožu- has been lost through internal sandhi.
† < mąx-hožu, from mąx, "field", and hožu, to put in. The /h/ has been lost through internal sandhi.
ųįnes’ar'?


 

                 
že mąǧra wakarak’ųįnanąga egų gaegų įnąk’ų, hagoreižą egų, "tōgīra"
[these] fields they were making for themselves, and this way - doing, at one point, - "summer lodges"

 


 

  00:49.8                
aires’ą[že]. Nįge, cinągᵋranąkanąka egi žige,* žige nįge hija ną̄ harairešge,
as they were called. Somewhere, [they developed a village?] and [again,] [again] place any trees [they went,]

* for egi žige, substitute eja?


 

  00:58                
airešųnųn'. Gižeesge egų žige* nąkikara, ca, wanį, že esge honįne,† waganą̄kže,‡
they used to call it. So that way then [again] there was hunting, deer, meat, that way they hunted, what was meant,

* sounded as, gižeesgeųge.
† sounded as, že esgonįne.
‡ this may be hokanąkše, "putting into". Its initial /h/ is dropped from external sandhi.


 

    01:06   01:08.75    
"togira" aną̄k. Togira haraireže. Giži, hagoreižą, hakirīregają, warocųą̄kš'.
"summer lodgings" as they're called. Summer lodges there were. Well, once, when they returned, they lay ripened.

 


 

01:14.5       01:18       00:23
Wažąna hanąc rōcųną̄k’ų, hakirireže. Giži, egų, mąǧᵋra wikarakišereire. Hožunanąc*
The things all when they were ripe, they returned. So, then, the fields they would harvest. Putting out everything

* hanąc is elided with the previous word and its initial /h/ lost to external sandhi.


 

    | 01:25
tawus wakarakireną.  
to be dried they did this together.  

 


Part III. The Hocąk and Menominee Work Together as Friends

00:58.4     01:01.5    
Mąxra hanąc wikarakišereireaną. Ožunąc* tawus wakaragīranąga
The fields all they harvested for themselves. Putting out everything to be dried they did it for themselves, and

* < hožu-hanąc, the letters /h/ being lost through sandhi.


 

          01:16.4    
mąnį mąnį* warujira hanąc wakuruckuzireže. Že, higų wažaga,‡ Kaǧira, wakižu
winter winter the (stores of) food completely they prepared for themselves.† So, - the Menominee, together

* Stella pauses mementarily and resumes by repeating the last word that she had uttered.
wacgus, "to finish a job completely."
‡ unknown phrase – "with others"?


 

  02:20.4             | 01:26
ųįne, ga že esge, ejaxjį [unintelligible] Kaǧinąka hicakoro hakį̄nes’ašgųnįže, Hocągara.  
they worked [did], [and] in that way, in those times - the Menominee as friends they actually took, the Hocąk.  

 


Source:

Reading by Sheila Shigley, from audio tapes in the American Philosophical Society: Part I: 10-04. Fraenkel, Gerd. Stacy, Stella. Incorrectly titled, "Forgiveness for a killer [4 of 4]," Mss.Rec. 29, recorded 20 July 1959, 1 .mp3; 00:00:24.8 - 00:03:18.7. Copy made by Gerd Fraenkel of an original tape held at the Archives of Languages of the World, Indiana University. This program comes from original tape 529.8. APS accession number 7214; APSdigrec_2197; Recording Number: 02; Program Number: 49. Part II: 10-04. Fraenkel, Gerd. Stacy, Stella. "How the Winnebago and the Menominee lived together near the Great Lake (1)" Mss.Rec. 29, recorded 13 July 1959, 1 .mp3; 00:00:09 - 00:01:25. Copy made by Gerd Fraenkel of an original tape held at the Archives of Languages of the World, Indiana University. This program comes from original tape 528.12. APS accession number 7239; APSdigrec_2187; Recording Number: 02; Program Number: 39. Part III: 10-04. Fraenkel, Gerd. Stacy, Stella. "How the Winnebago and the Menominee lived together near the Great Lake (2)." Mss.Rec. 29, recorded 13 July 1959, 1 .mp3; 00:00:58.4: - 00:01:26. Copy made by Gerd Fraenkel of an original tape held at the Archives of Languages of the World, Indiana University. This program comes from original tape 528.12. APS accession number 7208; APSdigrec_2188; Recording Number: 02; Program Number: 40.