Hočąk Text — The Bear Feast


English Translation


Original Texts, Notebook 24: | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 |

Original Texts, Winnebago III, #7: | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 |


Stylistic Features

  hapaxlegomena: hagējīni, "behind"; hąkiją hiniąjē, "don't do otherwise"; higit’ą̄p, "to place something" (< higit’ą̄bwirē); hižakere, "to put something on something" (as a kettle on the fire); hižąkira used as a verb, "to be only one"; mąráč, expanding the sense from "to make an appointment, date," to "to promise to do"; nąbánį̄k, "fork" (utensil); šanąkjį (< šaną-kjį), "only".
  rare words: gizo, "to be faithful" (< hįragízoxjįwiną, "you have acted faithfully for us") is probably Kingswan's gizó, "said of a gun, straight shot" (being faithful = straight shooter); horuč, "meal" (as in dinner); težegųkíra, "this only".  
  a fondness for the expresson teérena, "here it is," rather like the French voilà.
  a very heavy use of aíreną, "they say, it is said".
  a complete absence of žigé, "again", as a narrative flow particle.


 

Line 1 Winnebago III, #7 A carefully transcribed text with sentence numbers but without diacritical marks. Underlines have been replaced with ogeneks.
Line 2 Notebook 24 Used to supply diacritical marks and translation.
Line 3 Translation Brackets [] indicate translations supplied from other sources. Translations not in brackets are from Notebook 24.

 


Winnebago III, #7:7 = Notebook 24:11 Notebook 24:12      
1 "Hąho, manųpera wirawiacinina tcąt’įną. 2 ho epíną. 3 djihure deereną: dee
"Hąho, manąpera wirawiašinina čąt’įną. Ho, epíną. Jihuré teéreną: tee
"[Exclamation of greeting], [soldiers] your reward (?)* [it is visible]. [Ho,] [it is good.] Come forth [here it is:] in this

* Shiela Shigley suggests that wirawiašinina (wirawiašįnįną) could be woirowe-hašiniwira [elided as wirowiašįnįįną], "your reward," which is attested in the Gospel of Luke. Radin's translation remains inscrutable.


 

hirokipunųreną. 4 wahuiedja wająniją hiraikiraguigiji
hirokipunų̆́reną. Wahuiedja wažą́nižą hiraikiragŭigiži,
they are led to be remembered. From where we came from [something] if we were even [equal to] any [task],

 


 

hakdja hidja howarehakdje hįgaireną. 5 deereną, wohra hidjakerere, wohǫra hidja hakereną.
hakjá hijá howárehakje, hįgaireną. Teéreną, wohǭra hijakererē, wohǭ́ra hija hakereną.
[back] there I should send it, [I am told.] [Here it is,] the kettle put it on, [the kettle] [there] [I put on.]

 


 

6 reγinįgiją hijąkiraną deereną. 7 nąboruxadjera deįgineną. 8 egi djanąga wąkcik’iągere
Reǧinįgižą hižąkiraną, tēéreną. Nąboraxajᵋra teį̄gíreną. Egi jánąga wąkšik’ią́̄gᵋrē
A little kettle* there was only one, [here it is.] My offering it is in this. [And] [all] that live,

* the translation has, "the little kettle."


 

dee hanątc hiruapuna wa’unąkcaną. 9 wagigo xede nąbiruxadjenągere hikisgeje aireną, esge
téē hanąč hiruápunu wa’unąkšaną. Wagigo xētē nąbiruxadjenągᵋrē hikisgéže, aíreną. Esge,
[these] all I plead for in this act. Feast big offerings it is not equal to, [it is said.] [So,]

 


 

mejesge aireną. 10 egi hatcindja hu-iakorohiwina c’agwahawira tciaperekdjone
mežesge aíreną. Egi hačį̄ja hu-iakōrohiwina,* š’agwahawira čiaperekjōnē,
[this is what] [they say.] [And] from where we were about to come here, our [ancestors] would remain at home,†

* hi is written above the line with a caret.
† above this phrase is written, "(spirit)".


Notebook 24:13        
aireną, 11 egi dee hįkarakdjǫbenikdjonihawiną, jee aireną. 12 dee wagaireną.
aíreną. Égi tēḗ hį̄karakjǭbᵋnį̄kjōnihawiną. Žēē aíreną. Tēē wagaíreną.
[it is said.] [And] [these] [they] would be in a state of expectation.* [This] [they say.] [This] [it is what they meant].

* the translation has "he" in place of "they".


 

nąbiruxatc dee wagaireną. 13 egi honįgidagikdjonihawiną; dani hiwogijukdjawiną, nąbanįgera
Nąbiruxač tēē wagaíreną. Egi honį̄gitagikjōniháwiną; tani* hiwogižukjawiną, nąbánį̄gᵋra
[Offering] [this] [they meant]. [And] I'll tell you: [tobacco] we'll pour for them, forks

* in Notebook 24:13, something has been lined out after dani.


 

djopiwi higit’ąbwire, pedjitcedjeregi wat’ųbwire. 14 hanąxgųwįre dani nopaxųkdjoniheną,
jopiwi higit’ą̄bwirē, pejičējēregi wat’ų̄bwírē. Hanąxgų̄́wįrē, tani nopaxų̄kjōnihéną,
four place them there,* by the edge of the fire [place them]. Listen, [tobacco] I'm going to pour,

* the original translation, "together" has been lined out.


 

hanąxgųwįre. 15 sanįk siniohuhiregi egi wajągųzera jesge nįgųzwiną. 16 "Egi
hanąxgų̄́wįrē,* sanį̄k sīniohuhíregi, egi wajągų̄́zᵋra žesge nį̄gų̄zwiną. "Egi
so listen, [side] [where it is cold (north),] [and] [the Creator] [this way] he created. ["Then]

* Notebook 24 has hanañxgûⁿ´wiṇê.


 

          Winnebago III, #7:8    
kikinųbera djopiwi egi nįt’ąbwiną. 17 edja hawira dee hirorapunuwiną,
kíkinų̄bᵋra jopiwi egi nį̄t’ų̄bwíną. Eja hawíra tēē hirorapunuwíną,
[the brothers] [four] [here] he placed you. [There] when we start away [these] we ask to be remembered by,

 


                       Notebook 24:14              
deereną; danina, mącųra, wohǫra, deereną. 18 de nąbiruxadjera deereną. 19 egi wajągųzera
tēḗreną; taníra, mąšúra, wohǭra, tēḗreną. Te nąbiruxájᵋra* tēéreną. Egi wajągų̄zᵋra
[here it is;] [tobacco] [feathers] [the kettle] [here they are.] [These] [offerings] [here they are.] [And] [the Creator]

* Notebook 24:14 has denaⁿbiruxádjᴇra.


 

hąpdjoni jesge hicurukonokdjawi jesge. —* 20 wąkcigo‘į hicurukonowiną, nicge
hąpjōni žesge hišurukonōkjawi, žesge ų̄gigíwiną. Wąkcigo‘įra† hišurukōnōwiną. Nišgē
[Light and Life] kind you would be in charge of, [this way] he made you. [Life] [you are in charge of]. We in turn

* this word was omitted in Winnebago III, #7:8, sentence 19.
† Notebook 24:14 has Xo-îⁿ-.


 

dee nįgidawiną: dee curuzwigiji nicge djagu nįgidawire, nicge jesge hanįkdjonihawiną. 21 djagu
tēē nį̄gítawiną: tēē šuruzwígiži, nīšgē jagu nį̄gitawirē, nišgē žesge hanįkjōniháwiną. Jagú
[this] I ask of you: [this] when you take it, also [what] we ask of you, [also] [this kind] we will receive. [What]

 


 

hirorapunuwiną, deeredjigo. 22 mejesge aireną. wąkcik hiwi-įwiną, dee hereną. 23 egi
hirōrápunuwiną, tēērejigo!* Mežesge aíreną. Wą̄kšík hiwi’į́winą, tēē heréną. Egi
[we ask to be remembered by,] [here they aaaarrrrre!] [Thus] [they say]. The ones we live from,† these they are. [And]

* a long, drawn out /ą/ becomes an /o/.
† see Miner: wą̄kšík hįwį’į́wįná, "our ancestors (those who brought us into the world, to life)."


            Notebook 24:15  
mejesge mąradjireną.* 24 djanąga hokikaradjera herera hanątc hirokarapunuwi hiwánągwiną,
mežesge mąrájireną. Janąga hokikaradjᵋra herera, hanąč hirokarapunuwi hiwánā́gwiną.
[this] they promised to do. [As many of] [the relatives] [there are], [all] we are pleading for as we say this.

* Winnebago III, #7:8 has nąradjireną. Cf. mąráč, "to make an appointment", and mąrájše (m Ltt dAe), "he made a date".


 

jesgekdjoniheje aireną. 25 hokikawa’ųwiną, dee hereną. 26 egi wąkcigo’įra wągamącdjąkdjonihawije aireje
Žesgekjōniheže, aíreną. Hokikawa’ų̄winą, tēē heréną. Egi wąkcigo’į̄ra wągamąšjąkjōnihawiže, aíreže,
[Thus it will be,] [it is said]. Where we arise from [that] [it is]. [Then] [the life] it will be strong, [they say,]

 


 

aireną 27 deereną. ¶ 28 waroγi dee hiropunuireną, dee honįgidak hanogwire; mejesge woroγira
aíreną. Tēēreną. Woroǧi tēē hiropŭnuireną, tēē honį̄gítak hanṓgwirē; méžesge woroǧíra
[it is said.] [Here they are.] Council [this] they pleaded for, [this] that I'm telling you of [lay them there]; thus in our rules

 


 

hanįwije aireną. 29 egi hirakaraxdjį hi’ųkdjoniheje aireną. 30 wohōra hiją curutcgusgiji,
hanį̄́wiže, aíreną. Egi hirakáraxjį hi’ų̄kjōnihéže, aíreną. Wohǭ́ra hižą šuručgúsgiži,
we have [it is said]. [And] very cautious we must act in them, [it is said.] [The kettle] [one of them] after you put it away,

 


                                Notebook 24:16  
edja canąkdjį hirorak’ųkdje aireną. 31 hąkidją hiniądje, dejegųkiraxdjįje aireną. 32 warutcǫra weną,
eja šanąkjį hiroráką̄kjē, aíreną. Hąkiją hiniąjē, težegų̄kiraxjįže, aíreną. Waručǭ́ra wéną,
[there] only you must use it, [it is said.] Don't do otherwise, this way only, [it is said.] [The attendant [he said,]

 


 

Winnebago III, #7:9        
"jegų," eną, "djanąga harakitcąkdjegiji wagurare!" 33 tcųgiracaną hakaranirekdjeną.
"Žegų́ną." Éną, "Janąga harakičąkjegiži, wagúrarē!" Čųgírašaną, hakaranirekjéną.
"Ready." [He said,] ["As many of] that you would eat with, go and get them!" Only their spoons, they must bring.

 


 

34 wagijukiriną wasgenįgera hiją, edja hojure, edja kerere hogigįx minągwire. 35 pedjera
Wagížukíriną wasgénį̄gᵋra hižą, eja hožurē eja kererē hogigī́x minā́gwirē. Pejera
He brought them back little plate a [there] place it [there] [he placed it around it seat yourselves. [The fire]

 


 

horuzire agiminągwire, tcugira horatcgedja wirarukozwire aratcge kic’ųkdjonihawiną.
horuzírē agiminą́gwirē,* čugíra horačgeja wirarukōzwirē, aračgē kiš’ų̄kjōnihawiną.
he turned down [go and sit,]† your spoons with left hands hold them, left hand you will use.

* for hagi-miną́k-wi-rē, the initial /h/ having been lost from external sandhi.
† the translation has "sit ready."


 

36 waradjwigiji hąkiją hit’at’awiniądje; hąkiją hikcawiniądje. 37 djagu hiharągre jesge hiwiadje.
Warajwigiži, hąkižą hit’at’awinią́́jē; hąkižą hikšawiniąjē Jagu hihaną́́gᵋrē žesge hiwiájē.
When you eat, none you must not talk none you must not laugh. What I say that way do.

 


Notebook 24:17        
nąwąwigiji horudjera herekdjoniheną. 39 nąwąkdjonihawirą hereginina: –
Nąwąwigiji, horujᵋra herekjōnihéną. Nąwąkjōniháwiną, herégīginą:
When we sing, the meal it shall begin. We are going to sing it is now:

 


Songs:

1. 38a hotcągera nągura howahuhaireną.
    Hočą́́́gᵋra nągúra howahuhaíreną.
    Hočą́gara on the road they are coming.

 


 

2. 38b hotcągera, hotcąk hit’e hahuhaireną.
    Hočą́́gᵋra Hočąk hit’e hahuhaíreną.
    Hočā́gara Hočąk speaking they are coming.

 


 

3. 38c peje hagedjeni hekdjeje?
    Pežē hagējīni hekjéžē?
    Who behind he can be?

 


 

4. 38d peje wągedja nihexdjeje?
    Pežē wągēja nihekjéžē?
    Who above he can be?

 


 

39 mejesge aireną, "wąkcigo’įwigiji," dejesgeje aireną. 40 "wotcexi wąkcik hi’įwije," aireną.
Méžesge aíreną, "Wąkšigo’į̄wigiži," težesgeže aíreną. "Wočḗxi wąkšik-hi’į̄wiže," aíreną.
[Thus] [it is said,] "Whence we beg for life," [this is the sort of thing] [they say.] "[Difficulties] we originated," [they say.]

 


 

40* egi warudjera rucdjaįreną. 41 epįną. woroγinįgera, mejesge hawira hinągidjiwianąga pįxdjį
Egi warujᵋra rušjaįreną. Epįną. Woroǧínį̄gᵋra, méžesge hawíra hinągijiwiánąga pį̄xjį
[And] [the meal] it was over. [It is good.] [The little rite] [this] we have done you've come for us, and very well

* the numeral 40 is used for two different sentences.


Winnebago III, #7:10                           Notebook 24:18      
hįragiradjiwira wa’įnįginąbwiną. 43 egi wąkcikwią’įwiną, mejesge hįgairawiną; dejesge
hįragirejiwira wa’įnį̄ginąbᵋwiną. Egi wąkšikwią’į̄winą,* méžesge hį̄gaírawiną; tḗžesge
you've eaten for us we thank you for it. [And] ones we originated from, [this kind] they told us; [in this way]

* Notebook 24:10 has X wi-aⁿîⁿwi/ = wąkšik wi’ąį̄winą,


 

woroγi dee hiropunuįreną.* 44 hirakaraxdjį ha’ųkdjawi aireną. 45 mejesge hįragizoxdjįwiną
woroǧi tēē hiropúnuįreną. Hirakaraxjį ha’ų̄kjawi, giži.† Mežesge hįragízoxjįwiną.‡
[rite] [this] they pleaded for. [Very carefully] we should do [.] [In this way] you have acted faithfully for us.

* hiropunuįreną is repeated erroneously.
† Notebook 24:18 has γ, which stands for giži.
‡ Notebook 24:18 has hiṇagízoɕwinaⁿ = hiragízoxjįwiną.


 

pįgadją. 46 pįxdjį tcebinągigiwira pįgadją jegų hihiwigadją. 47 nįkuruhindjwiną. 48 jenųganą.
Pį̄gają. Pį̄xjį čēbinągigiwira. Pįgają. Žegų̄́ hihiwigają, nį̄kuruhį̄jwiną. Ženų̄gáną.
[It is good]. Very well you've eaten for us. [It is good.] [Indeed] we shall do, [I salute you.] [This ends.]

 


Source:

Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 24, pp. 11-19; and Winnebago III, #7, pp. 7-10.