Archaeology of the Wazija

The Wazija, "the Place at the Pines," or "the Pinery," is the name given to the territories in Wisconsin which were once occupied by the Hocąk Nation.


Excerpts were taken from the following works:


Location of Villages

Paul Radin's Map (Modified),
by Paul Radin

1829 Map of the Lead Mining Region (Modified),
by Richard W. Chandler

The Archaeology of the Lake Koshkonong Region,
by H. L. Skavlem

Villages and Campsites of the Lower Rock River, Wisconsin,
by Charles E. Brown

The Archaeology of Winnebago County,
by Publius V. Lawson


Turtle Creek Villages and Campsites,
by Robert H. Becker

Green Lake Antiquites,
by Charles E. Brown

Lake Wingra Antiquites,
by Charles E. Brown

Lake Waubesa Antiquites,
by Dr. W. G. McLachlan

Lake Kegonsa Antiquites,
by Dr. W. G. McLachlan

Location of Villages

A Greatly Modified Version of Paul Radin's Map of Wisconsin Hocąk Villages1

[The numbers on the map indicate the location of some of the Winnebago villages in Wisconsin.]

1. Big Hawk's Village at Pike Lake
2. Little Decorah's Village, 1827
3. Buzzard Decorah's Village, 1787
    Village of One-eyed Decorah (Big Boat), 1832
4. Village of Washington Decorah (Wakąhaga), 1832
5. Doty Island (Wisconsin Rapids) Village, 1634-18322
6. Big Butte des Morts Village (Exact Location Unknown)
7. Pesheu's Village on Garlic Island, 1797-1833
8. Smoker's Village 1816
9. Village of Sarrochau (Smoker), Fond du Lac, 1788
10. Black Wolf's Village, 1816
11. Rush Lake Village, Keramąnįga's Village, ca. 1830
12. Yellow Thunder's Village, 1828-1832
13. Village of Sarcel (Teal, Dog's Head), Green Lake, 1829
14. Old Gray-headed Decorah's Village, 1793
15. Nąga Keramąnįga's Village at Little Green Lake, 1829
16. Scalp Village, 1829
17. Grand Bourbier Village
18. Elk Village (Village of Big Fox), 1829
      White Breast's Village, 1830
19. Big Fox's Village, 1832
      Grizzly Bear's Village, 1838
20. Cugiga's Village,  1816
      White Ox's Village, 1832
      Whirling Thunder's Village, 18363
21. Old Gray-headed Decorah's Village, 1793-1836
22. Yellow Thunder's "Forty"
23. Keramąnį's Village, 1832-42
      Little Soldier's Village, 18364
24. Little Sioux's Village, 1829
25. Village of Sarcel (Teal, Dog's Head), at English Prairie (now Muscoda), near the mouth of Pine River, 18275
26. Wakąga's Village, 18376
      Village of Keramąnį the Younger (date uncertain)7
27. Mud Lake Village
28. Watertown (Grand Rapids) Village
29. Iron Walker's Village
30. White Crow's Village, 1832
31. Old Turtle's Village, Lake Mendota8
32. Broken Arm's Village, Lake Monona
33. Spotted Arm's Village, Lake Wabesa 
34. Dayton Village9
35. Mammoth's Village, Lake Kegonsa
36a. Te Hera, "The Lake Point" Village10
36. Little Priest's Village, 1832
      Whirling Thunder's Village, after 1836
37. Village of People Eater (Wąkšígᵋrucká), 183211
38. Burnt Village (White Crow), 183212
39. Spotted Arm's Village, Exeter, 1829
40. Catfish (Howį́x)Village
41. Nąhųra Rohara (Sturgeon's Spawn), Village of White Breast (Mą́kskaga), Sugar Creek
42. Round Rock Village, 1829
43. Standing Post, 1829
44. Turtle Creek, White Crow's Village, 1829
      Keramąnįga's Village, 1832

1 Modified from Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1923) 51.
2 A great and populous village last governed by Four Legs. It was this village that was run by Glory of the Morning, who with her husband Sabrevoir de Carrie, founded the Decorah clan.
3 "[Whirling Thunder] at the time [October, 1836] had a camp on the high land north of the city end of the present Wisconsin river bridge." Moses Pauquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebagoes," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII (1892): 399-433 [402].
4 Keramąnįga was the Peace Chief, and inasmuch as Dandy was the son of Black Wolf, he was the War Chief. He was eventually recognized as chief of the tribe by the U. S. Government, reflecting a break down of the old system.
5 "Dog's Head ... lived in 1827, at English Prairie, now Muscoda. ... The Indians cultivated some fields there, and lived there as one of their changeable localities." B. W. Brisbois, "Recollections of Prairie du Chien," Wisconsin Historical Collections, IX (1882/1909): 282-302 [300].
6 Radin identifies the village at the mouth of the Kickapoo River (43.085809, -90.876643) to be that of Snake (Wakąga) by 1837, although we see that in 1829 Wakąga was living in the Lake Mendota Village (another man of this name was living in Turtle Village). The town of Wauzeka located near the mouth of the Kickapoo River was once the site of a Fox village. B. W. Brisbois, "Recollections of Prairie du Chien," Wisconsin Historical Collections, 9 (1882): 282-302 [295]; C. E. Brown, "A Record of Wisconsin Antiquities," Wisconsin Archeologist, 5, ##3-4 (April-Oct., 1906): 300; cf. Virgil J. Vogel, Indian Names on Wisconsin's Map (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991) 161. As the Fox were displaced, the Hocągara moved into their former territory. Miner records that the Hocągara called this village, Waziga, "Pine," now called "Wauzeka." The name Waziga is from wazí, "pine"; and -ga, a personal name suffix. So the site was named after an individual called "Pine," Waziga being a clan name in the Upper Moiety whence the chiefs were drawn. So Snake's village was also Pine's village. The reason for this is, as McKinney tells us, that Snake was a Warleader. The War Chief could be drawn from any clan, whereas the Peace Chief was usually drawn from the Thunderbird Clan. Therefore, this village has a dual designation.
7 Moses Pauquette states that this was Keramąnįga's village "after he returned to Wisconsin." See Moses Paquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebagoes," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII (1892): 399-433 [408].
8 This site was said by Reuben Gold Thwaites to be the village of White Crow (note 9): "Kaukishkaka (White Crow), a Winnebago chief, who had but one eye, and something of a reputation as an orator. His village, which comprised about 1,200 persons, housed in tepees covered with red-cedar bark, appears to have been situated about where is now the little village of Pheasant Branch, at the west end of Lake Mendota, Dane county." On the other hand, Radin identifies White Crow's village in 1832 as being at 30 on our map. It remains possible that this site, the Pheasant Branch site at 31, was White Crow's and the site at 30 was Old Turtle's village; or that 31 was White Crow's before 1832. In any case, Thwaites is the source of the idea that White Crow's village was at 30 (see the note below).
9 The township of Dayton is located at 42.8269474 -89.5131761 according to the U.S. Geological Survey, and is actually part of Exeter. Therefore, the Dayton Village may be the same as the Exeter Village, but in any case, the distance between them shown in Radin's map would not be correct.
10 For this village, see H. L. Skavlem, "The Archaeology of the Lake Koshkonong Region. II. The Village Sites," Wisconsin Archeologist, 7, #2 (April-June, 1908): 74-102 [75-77]. Phonetically rendered as "Taye-he-dah," apparently for Te-hera, from te, "lake, body of water"; he, "horn"; and -ra, a definite article. This topographic feature is known as "Taylor Point," and can be seen in NE ¼ of Section 6 of Milton Township (T4N R13E) on the 1873 plat map (on the property of Taylor & Carr). The sketch map in the Interior Notes of G. W. Harrison to the original 1834 plat map of T4N R12E, shows the Rock River trail terminating in this villages (indicted by a group of 5 dots). The sketch map of March 31, 1834 for T4N R13E shows this as an "old Ind. Vil." on "Lake Kuskawenong." The village is also shown on the original plat map of T4N R13E of 1834-1836 as a set of triangles with a trail emanating from it to the north and mounds extending southward. On contemporary maps, Te Hera would be located at 42.843972, -89.002766.

S. D. Peet
Antiquities at Lake Koshkonong

11 This village is assigned to Wąkšígᵋrucká in the Map in Tom Jones, Michael Schmudlach, Matthew Daniel Mason, Amy Lonetree, and George A. Greendeer, People of the Big Voice: Photographs of Ho-Chunk Families by Charles Van. Schaick, 1879–1942 (Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2011) 15. On the location of the Koshkonong villages, see Steven D. Peet, Prehistoric America, 2 vols. (Chicago: American Antiquarian Office, 1896) 2:241-242; the map above is from 240 verso.
12 Located within 200 feet of 42.906578, -88.770737. Described as being, "... Burnt Village — known, also, as the White Crow's town — was on the south side of what was then called the Whitewater River (now Bark River), at its most southerly point, on the north half of Section 12, in Township 5 north, of Range 14 east — town of Koshkonong — about two and one-half miles southeast of the present Fort Atkinson. This is the village generally, but incorrectly, stated to have been located upon the north side of Lake Koshkonong, some eight miles distant. When, on the 6th day of July, 1832, Gen. Atkinson, in pursuit of Black Hawk, reached the place, it was found deserted." A History of Jefferson County (Chicago: Western Historical Co., 1879) 322. For Section 12, see the 1919 plat map for Jefferson County, Koshkonong Township.

A Highly Redacted Version of Chandler's 1829 Map of the Lead Mining Region1

[The numbers on the map indicate the location of some of the Winnebago villages on Rock River and the Lead Mining Region. Some sites are duplicated from the map above.]

20. Cugiga's Village,  1816
      White Ox's Village, 1832
25. Village of Sarcel (Teal, Dog's Head), at English Prairie (now Muscoda), 1827
26. Wakąga's Village, 1837
30. White Crow's Village, 18322
31. Old Turtle's Village, Lake Mendota
32. Broken Arm's Village, Lake Monona
33. Spotted Arm's Village, Lake Wabesa
35. Mammoth's Village, Lake Kegonsa
     a. Dyerson Site
     b. Williamson Site
     c. Stendahl Site
36. Spotted Arm's Village, Exeter, 1829
37. Catfish (Howį́x) Village
41. Nąhųra Rohara (Sturgeon's Spawn), Village of White Breast (Mą́kskaga), Sugar Creek

42. Round Rock Village, 18293
43. Standing Post, 1829
44. Turtle Creek, White Crow's Village, 1829
      Keramąnįga's Village, 1832
45. The Village of the Elder Winneshiek (Mąwáruga) on the Pecatonica, 18294
46. White Breast's Village at the Mouth of Sugar Creek
47. The Village of People Eater (Wąkšígᵋrucká), at the forks of the Rock River where they peel the bark, also called "Little Rapids of the Rock River," 18295
48. Village at Birds Grove, 18216
49. Sycamore Village at the Mouth of the Kishwaukee River, 18297
50. Jarrot's Village, before 18298
51. Village of Peją́ga (Crane), before 1829
52. Sugar Camp, the Village of Wabokieshiek, the Winnebago Prophet

1 Morgan Martin, "The Narrative of Morgan L. Martin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XI (1888): 385-415 [400 verso].
2 Said to be located near Fox Bluff (43.110204, -89.454071), but also near the mouth of the north branch of the Catfish (Yahara) River. This places it very close to Old Turtle's village just to the east of Pheasant Branch Creek. Fortuneately, Chandler's map marks the place of this village with two teepees, locating it at Fox Bluff. See Reuben Gold Thwaite's note #2 in Morgan Martin, "The Narrative of Morgan L. Martin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XI (1888): 385-415 [401].
3 Chandler's map is compressed north to south in this area and does not properly reflect the actual distances between the villages numbered 39-40.
4 this village was located near the present town of Freeport, Illinois (42.307292, -89.630589).
5 this is right at the end of the rapids (42.431635, -89.048842), called by Kinzie the "Little Rapids of Rock River." However, the village given this latter name is actually at the mouth of the Sugar River not far upstream from where these rapids begin.
6 The forest preserve within which this name is still retained, is named for Xųnųnį́ka (corrupted to Hononegah), the first born daughter of a chief. She married the trader Steven Mack. The exact location of Birds Grove is 42.436361, -89.046791.
7 called Kishkawaka on van Shaik's map.
8 For Jarrot, see Jerrot's Temperance Pledge — A Poem, Jarrot's Aborted Raid, Jarrot and His Friends Saved from Starvation, How Jarrot Got His Name.

The Archaeology of the Lake Koshkonong Region1
Sites 9

H. L. Skavlem

The Koshkonong Region2
— Key —

Uncircled numbers represent Section numbers
Circled numbers mark the location of mounds and villages

① Conch Shell Cache, 1842.
② Black Hawk's Camp, 1832.
③ Ogden Group.
Rock River Group and Village Site.
Tay-e-he-dah Group and Village Site.
⑥ Taylor House Group.
⑦ Fulton Group.
Koshkonong Group and Village Site.
⑨ John Son Group.
Noe Springs Group and Village Site.
⑪ North Group.
⑫ Rufus Bingham Group.
Le Sellier Group and Village Site.
⑭ Goldthorpe Burials.
⑮ Messmer Garden Beds.
⑯ Kumlien Group.
⑰ a-b-c. Koshonong Creek Mounds and Village Site.
⑱ Conch Shell Cache, 1867.
      ⑲ Draves Group.
⑳ Skavlem Group.
Carcajou Mounds and White Crow'sVillage.
㉒ Loge Bay Mounds and Garden Beds.
Altpeter Group and White Ox's Village.
Man Eater's Village.
㉔ & ㉕ General Atkinson Group.
㉖ Hoard Group and Kewaskum's Camp.
㉗ Fun Hunter's Point Mound and Cornfield.
㉘ Lockopt Group.
㉙ Haight's Creek Group.
㉚ Atkinson's Camp.
㉛ Indian Cornfields.
㉜ & ㉝ Ira Bingham Group and Village Site.
㉞ & ㉟ Thiebeau Point Village Site and Cornfields.
㊱ French Trader's Cabin Sites.
㊲ Camp Site and Cornfield.
㊳ Black Hawk Island Camp Site.

1 H. L. Skavlem, "The Archaeology of the Lake Koshkonong Region. II. The Village Sites," Wisconsin Archeologist, 7, #2 (April-June, 1908): 74-102 [75-77].
2 The map is from Skavlem, "The Archaeology of the Lake Koshkonong Region. II. The Village Sites," frontispiece.

Villages and Campsites of the
Lower Rock River, Wisconsin
Sites 15, 16, 17, 18

Charles E. Brown

Wisconsin Archeologist  
— Key —

1. Black Hawk Village Site. Mr. H. L. Skavlem describes this village site: "At the south end of Lake Koshkonong the river is again confined within its primary channel. Near the center of Section 7 (42.822398, -89.006139), Town of Milton, the shore on the south side is low and marshy for some distance back from the river. It gradually rises to a dry and sandy plane. Back of this to the south and east are moranic gravel ridges rising from 40 to 70 feet above and enclosing this almost level plateau, forming a beautiful amphitheatre of several hundred acres. Here is where the pioneers located Black Hawk's camp in 1832."
2. Quarry Mound. NW ¼ Sec. 7, W. Splitter farm (1917 map).
3. Newville Cache. NW ¼ Sec. 7, A. Rutz farm (1917 map).
4. Rock River Village Site. SW ¼ Sec. 6, and NW ¼ See. 7 (1917 map). "This village site begins north of the creek bed which forms the eastern boundary of the Pierce Village Site. It occupies the fields of the Morris Cooper (formerly Benjamin Cooper) farm on both sides of the road, and extends on to the more elevated lands of the Herman Krueger farm beyond on the Lake Koshkonong shore." 42.833295, -89.010057
5. Pierce Village Site. SE ¼ Sec. 1 (1917 map). "At Newville on the north side of the Rock River road on the Henry Pierce farm is a very sandy cultivated field. In this field, extending back from the highway, are four sand ridges elevated but a few feet above the road. On the top of these ridges evidences of aboriginal occupation are very abundant." 42.833325, -89.018237
6. Newville Village Site. NE ¼ Sec. 12 (1917 map). "Of this village and the number of its inhabitants during these years very little is known. Its chief or chiefs were not sufficiently prominent to have won historical recognition. It was a good fishing locality and Indians continued to visit and to camp in this locality in numbers for many years after the white settlers came to this region." 42.831128, -89.021059
7. Riverview Resort Village Site. NW ¼ Sec. 12 (1917 map). "... the land along the river bank is rather level and covered with sod. This common, over which are scattered the cottages of the Riverview resort (most being grouped at its western end) is about a thousand feet in length and at different points from 60 to 80 feet in breadth. On it are scattered oak and other trees. It is traversed by the river road. Near its western end a spring-fed brook runs from an adjoining field into the river.2 Throughout the entire length of this common flint refuse and hearth-stones of workshop and wigwam sites are exposed at intervals in the road and in other places which are bare of sod. These sites extend into the cultivated fields in the rear of the resort. The river opposite the resort is about 400 feet-wide from bank to bank." 42.830096, -89.025570
8. Ridgeview Village Site. NE ¼ Sec. 11 (1917 map). "In a small sandy garden plot at the eastern end of this resort flint refuse and hearthstones of a former wigwam fireplace were exposed. Similar indications of former Indian occupation are found at intervals in the bed of the river road and the bank of the cottage lots fronting on the road." The western edge of the fields for this village is found where "a dirt road comes down to the river from the Newville to Edgerton highway, and unites with the river bank road." This is at 42.831410, -89.042139. The village was situated around 42.832247, -89.037255.
9. South Bank Camp Sites. NW ¼ Sec. 12 and NE ¼ Sec. 11 (1917 map).
10. Oak Ridge Village Site. E ½ Sec. 14 (1917 map). "The Rock River makes a big bend to the west opposite the road and rather level river fields of this farm. At this bend a large marsh extends inland in a southeasterly direction for a considerable distance. On the border of this marsh on the Ulysses G. Miller farm is a sandy knoll in use during the summer of 1928 as a watermelon patch. Here were found the scattered stones of a wigwam fireplace, flint refuse and a broken flint blank. Some flint points have been found here by the son of the farmer. ... Across the marsh from the farm fields to the south is a woodland. Indications of this former village site also extend on to the Mrs. Will Earl and adjoining farms." 42.810776, -89.036548.
11. River Bend Shell Heap. SW ¼ of the NW ¼ of Sec. 14 (1917 map).
12. Edgerton Camp Sites. N ½ Sec. 15 (1917 map). 42.811228, -89.056385.
13. Miller Camp Site. NW ¼ Sec. 15 (1917 map).
14. Devil's Oven. NE ¼ Sec. 16 (1917 map).
15. Brown Camp Site. SE ¼, NW ¼ Sec. 16 (1917 map).
16. Southworth Farm Village Site. NE ¼ Sec. 16 (1940 map). "An Indian village site is located on the Southworth farm, formerly the John C. Hurd farm, on the eastern bank of the third bend of the Rock River. Its southern limit is at a distance of about two city blocks north of the northern limits of Indian Ford. Its northern limit extends into the southwest corner of the NW ¼ of Section 15." 42.813200, -89.077137
17. India Ford3 Camp Site. SW ¼ Sec. 16 (1917 map).
18. Indian Ford Heights Camp Site. SW ¼ Sec. 16 (1917 map).
19. South Indian Ford Camp Site. SE ¼ [of the NW ¼ of]4 Sec. 20 (1917 map).
20. Indian Ford Flats Village Site. NW ¼ Sec. 20 (1891 map & 1917 map). "Adjoining Sunny View on the south is a large cultivated field of the Schofield farm. In this field, bearing a crop of corn at the time of our visit, the evidence of former Indian occupation was abundant. Burned stones from wigwam fireplaces and fragments, flakes and chips of flint were scattered over the entire river frontage of this field and extended for a considerable distance toward its rear. Hearth-stones of all sizes were more numerous here than on any site along the river which we have recently examined. Small fragments of clam shell valves were also scattered over some parts of the field."5 42.801882, -89.097194.
21. Rainbows End Corn Field. NW ¼ Sec. 20 (1917 map).
22. Indian Hill Mound Group. NE ¼ Sec. 19 (1917 map).
23. Catfish Village. NE ¼ of the SW ¼ Sec. 19 (1917 map [L-3]). "At the mouth of the Catfish or Yahara River, where it empties its waters into those of the Rock, was located the Winnebago Indian village known as Catfish Village. ... This was a village site of some importance. Several trails from the northeast, the north and the south centered here." 42.790299, -89.121621. See the entry under "Catfish Village."
24. Stone Farm Village Site. SE ¼ and SW ¼ Sec. 19, and NW ¼ of Sec. 30 (1917 map). "This village site is located on the east bank of the Rock a mile and a quarter southwest of Indian Ford. A part of it lies directly across the river from the Catfish Village site. This village site appears to have extended over the fields and pastures along the banks of the river for a mile or more. ... For many years the old Stone farm, now the Ellingson and Flom farm, has been a quite widely known collecting ground." 42.788673, -89.129276, and 42.791925, -89.118933.
25. Murwin Camp Site. NE. ¼ Sec. 31 (1917 map).
26. Hubbell Village Site and Mound. Secs. 30 and 31 (1917 map). "Miss Minnie F. Hubbell informed us of the former existence of a group of isolated Indian mounds on the Alfred Hubbell farm (SW. ¼ Sec. 30 and NW. 14 Sec. 31), on the west bank of the Rock River. ... South of this field and separated from it by a sparkling spring brook which flows to the Rock from the west, is another very level field, at this time in use as a pasture. This is a part of the old Indian village site from which many flint and stone artifacts have also been collected. This village site has been referred to locally as an Indian "battle-field." The very level fields of this site are bordered on the south and west by a semicircle of hills and elevated land once covered with forest." 42.768726, -89.118891 ?
27. Beggs Camp Site. Center of Sec. 31 (1917 map).
28. Northwest Sections Camp and Village. Secs. 6, 5, 9 and 10 (1922c map). "One of these sites is on the Reid farm in the S ½ of Section 5. On the west bank of the river near where the north and south center line of Section 9 meets the river bank (42.742155, -89.085065), Mr. Horace McElroy about twenty years ago collected flint points and a stone celt from a camp site. This was on the Pahl and Diehls farms where camp site debris was scattered over cultivated fields.
29. Four Miles Bridge Village Site. SE ¼ Sec. 10 and NE ¼ Sec. 15 (1922c map). "This site is located on the eastern bank of the Rock River on land forming a part of the Shoemaker Stock farm. It is opposite the Four Mile bridge crossing of the Edgerton to Janesville highway. This highway, running in an east and west direction at this point, cuts this site in two. The part of this site located north of the road is on rather level ground which rises gradually to the east to elevated ground." 42.730213, -89.056836.
30. Parish Camp Site. W ½, NE ¼ Sec. 15 (1922c map).
31. Elmhurst Village Site. SE ¼ Sec. 15 (1922c map). "A short distance south of the Parish site Three Mile [Marsh] Creek, a clear and very attractive stream, flows from the wet through the northern part of the farm of Louis Anderson, called "Elmhurst," into the Rock River. The creek is from fifteen to eighteen feet wide in places and its banks lined with willow and other trees. The soil of the level fields of the Anderson farm is clay. These fields, once covered with rather heavy forest were a very favorable location for an Indian village site. In pioneer days Indian dugout canoes were occasionally seen passing this place or drawn up on its banks." 42.721583, -89.054366.
32. Three Mile Creek Camp Sites. Section 15 along Marsh Creek (1922c map).
33. Wixon Hill Site. SW ¼ Sec. 14 (1922c map).
      34. Riverside Park Village Site. S line of Sec. 14 and NE ¼ of Sec. 23 (1922c map). "What is probably the most important old Indian village site north of the City of Janesville, in Janesville Township, is located in the Big Bend of the Rock River, on the west bank of that stream. In this beautifully located recreation park of the City of Janesville traces of former Indian residence were found on the grounds of the park athletic field. ... The rhizomes of this abundant plant of the water plantain family furnished the water potato,6 a favorite food of the Winnebago and of other Wisconsin Indians, being boiled or roasted by them in the ashes of their fires." 42.716639, -89.038995.
35. Sutherland Graves. NE ¼ Sec. 34 (1922c map).
36. Crystal and Hiawatha Springs Village. SW ¼ Sec. 14 (1922c map). This is probably a Potawatomi village. "This property, located on the eastern bank of the Rock River, across the stream to the north of the Riverside Park site, was formerly known as Burr Springs ... North of the park the bases of high gravel hills come down to the river bank. These are forested on their slopes and tops, except at one place where there is a large gravel slide. Among its pebbles and boulders are many rocks of white and other flint which could have been utilized by the natives for implement manufacture." 42.715127, -89.033989.
37. Stonehenge Camp Site. NE ¼ Sec. 23 (1922c map).
38. Broege Island Camp Site. Janesville (1891 map): the property of Frank Broege is entered as "F. Brog" on the map. This is now a peninsula known as "Traxler Park." "The Winnebago name of this former camp ground is given as Weetch-chi-nuk [Wic Ciną́k], 'island camp'."
39. Riverbank Camp Sites. E ½ Sec. 23 (1922c map).
40. West Bank Camp Sites. Secs. 26 and 36 (1922c map).
41. Pearl Street Cache. "A cache or deposit of five blue hornstone knives of the prized 'turkey-tail' type was obtained in November, 1903 by laborers engaged in digging a trench at the corner of Pearl and Elizabeth Streets in Janesville." 42.689019, -89.038629.
42. Round Rock Village. Near N Line of Secs. 1 and 2 (1873 map, the area between Western Avenue and the river; for the sections, see the 1891 map). "The most important historic Winnebago village between the Catfish Village near Fulton and the Turtle Village at Beloit was the village located on the Rock River at Janesville. The Indian name of this village was E-nee-poro-poro [Įnį́poroporo], meaning "round rock or stone," taking its name from the large stone outcrop in the river known as Monteray Point. ... This village was located on the north bank of the river in the part of Janesville located along Western Avenue and known in former years as Monteray. ... Monteray Point, a picturesque narrow point, extends into the river from near the north side of the Rock River bridge at Center Avenue. An ice house building stands at its base. Its narrow apex is a limestone and sandstone outcrop. At its tip is a small cave about 20 feet in length, 10 feet across at its mouth and about 8 feet high. This is excavated in the light colored sandstone with a layer of limestone at its top. The cave mouth is about 25 feet above the water. It has been stated that years ago there were on the walls of this cave some rude incised markings thought to have been Indian pictographic records. These have gone. The Winnebago name of this rock appears to have been E-nee-wa-kan-junk [Įnį́wakącą́k], "medicine rock or spirit stone." Opposite the "Big Rock" on Monteray Point was the Indian ford from the one bank of the river to the other. It was early known as "Rock Ford," the rock serving as a guide to the river crossing." 42.669147, -89.041215 (between Rockport Road and the river). See the entry on Round Rock Village.
43. South Palm Street Camp Site. Hearthstones were found on a small plot of cultivated ground at the southwest corner of Western Avenue [Rockford Road] and S. Palm Street in Janesville. 42.672098, -89.037875.
44. Spring Brook Mounds. Section 1 (1891 map). Two Indian mounds were located on the edge of a very steep gravelly bluff overlooking the Rock River and its wandering tributary, Spring Brook, at the southeastern city limits of Janesville. This locality was east of the bend of the river and east of Main Street (42.669545, -89.009197).
45. Bailey Mounds and Corn Fields. SE ¼, NW ¼ See. 1 (1891 map).
46. Eastern Avenue Village Site. Secs. 1 and 2 (1891 map). "Another Indian village site was located along present Eastern Avenue and adjoining city streets on the south bank of the Rock River in the southern part of Janesville. This site appears to have extended from the Monteray bridge crossing of the Rock (present Center Avenue) eastward along the river bank to beyond the point where Spring Brook flows into the Rock at the proposed Jeffris city park." 42.667717, -89.020527.
47. Kellogg Corn Field." Sec. 2 (1891 map).
48. West Janesville Mounds. NE ¼ Sec. 3 (1891 map).
49. Rulondale Camp Site. SW ¼ Sec. 10 (1940 map).
50. Afton Mound Group. SE ¼ of NE ¼ Sec. 28 (1922c map).
51. Afton Mill Camp Site and Mounds. SW ¼ Sec. 27 (1922c map).
52. Holzapfel Camp Site. SW ¼ Sec. 27 (1922c map).
53. Antisdell Village Site. SW ¼, and SE ½ of Sec. 19 (1891 map). From a village site on the Simon Antisdell farm on the north side of Bass Creek, about two and a half miles west of Afton, Mr. Horace McElroy collected many flint points and some perforators. Considerable numbers of potsherds were also found. A flint workshop was located in the southeastern corner of this farm. An Indian camp site was also located on the old Bartels (now the Gokey [1940 map]) farm on Bass Creek above Afton. Here many flint points are reported to have been found. 42.614422, -89.120903.
54. Mouth of Bass Creek Camp Site. SE ¼ Sec. 27 (1922c map).
55. Bass Creek Site. SE. ¼ Sec. 27 (1922c map).
56. M. E. Church Picnic Ground Camp. SW ¼ Sec. 26 (1922c map).
57. River Heights Camp Site. SE ¼ Sec. 3 (1891 map). "On the farm fields of the State School for the Blind, on the east bank of the Rock at River Heights, southwest of Janesville, traces of a small camp site were formerly to be seen."
58. Willard School Camp Site. NE ¼ Sec. 15 (1922c map).
59. Riverside Camp Site. SW ¼ Sec. 15 (1917 map).
60. Coates Camp Site. NW ¼ Sec. 22 (1917 map).
61. Woodstock Mounds. NE ¼ NW ¼ Sec. 22 (1891 map).
62. Oakley Farm Camp Site. SW ¼ Sec. 22 (1917 map).
63. Inman Camp Site. NW ¼ Sec. 27 (1917 map).7
64. Rasmussen Camp Site. SE ¼ Sec. 27 (1917 map). "According to old settlers in this locality an old Winnebago Indian who employed his time in making splint baskets, once lived on this land. His dwelling was a dugout, roofed-over place in a bank at a distance of about 600 feet from the river shore."
65. Rice Camp Site. N ½, NE ¼ Sec. 35 (1891 map).8
66. Clam Shell Site. SW ¼ Sec. 36 (1891 map).
67. West Bank Camp Sites. Secs. 2, 11 and 14 (1891 map).
68. Big Hill Camp Site. Big Hill, located in Section 11 (1891 map) is an old campsite. "The Winnebago Indian name of Big Hill was Cha-cha-tay [Xexete]."9
69. Poe Mound. NE ¼ Sec. 26 (1891 map). Located at 42.519202, -89.038099.
70. West Beloit Camp Sites. Sections 26 and 35 (1891 map). "A band of Winnebago, gathered here for removal, were encamped here when Caleb Blodgett came to Beloit in 1836.10 Others were here in 1837 and other Indians camped here from time to time in small numbers for many years afterward."
71. Roth Mounds. SE ¼ Sec. 1 (1922c map).
72. The Oaks Camp Site. NW ¼ Sec. 11 (1922c map).
73. Yost Park Village Site11 and Mound. SW ¼ Sec. 11 (1922c map). At this place, on the east bank of the Rock River, on the John A. Yost farm and at Yost Park adjoining its fields on the north was located the early Winnebago Indian village of "Standing Post." Its location is given as about two miles north of Beloit. Its Winnebago name is given as Ho-bo-sa-che-nug-ra [Hoboza Cinągᵋra]." See the entry under "Standing Post."
74. Baldwin Mound. SE ¼ Sec. 14 (1891 map).
75. Weirick Mound Group. NE ¼ of Sec. 23 (1922c map).
76. Beloit Country Club Camp Site. NE ¼ of Sec. 23 (1922c map).
77. Henderson Effigy. SE ¼ Sec. 23 (1922c map).
78. U. S. 51 Camp Site. [SW ¼ Sec. 25, NE ¼ Sec. 36] (1940 map).
79. Adams Mounds. "This mound group "is at the north end of an 80 acre tract now a part of the Fairbanks Morse Co. property (Pageant Park)." This manufacture still exists at 42.512894, -89.028674.
80. Water Tower Mound Group. This still exists at 42.509138, -89.030610.
81. Beloit College Mound Group. The college is located at 42.502885, -89.030900.
82. Turtle Village. "The present site of the City of Beloit was the early site of a large and important Winnebago Indian village, being the largest of the historic Winnebago villages along the Rock River between the Illinois-Wisconsin boundary and the foot of Lake Koshkonong. ... This village was located on the former bottom lands be- tween the Rock River and the mouth of its tributary, Turtle Creek. North of it were high hills with broad prairie lands on their tops." 42.494524, -89.040893. See the entry at "Turtle Village."

1 Charles E. and Theodore T. Brown, “Indian village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 9, #1 (October, 1929): 7-93.
2 The brook is not evident in satellite views, however, some of this site is one the Richardson farm (1917 map), and the road here referenced is now called "Richardson Spring Road," a name sufficient to indicate the presence of this brook somewhere along the course of this road.
3 "At this settlement on the highway from Edgerton to Janesville there was an Indian crossing or ford of the Rock River from the trail on its eastern bank to that on its western. The old Winnebago Indian name of this locality was Nee-ru-tcha-ja, or "river crossing," also given as Ho-ru-tchkach. Pioneer and other old settlers remembered numbers of both Winnebago and Potawatomi Indians crossing the river in the shallows at this place, the women at times rather heavily laden with bundles on their backs and shoulders. They were on their way to Lake Koshkonong or to points down the river. The early ford is reported to have been just above the present highway bridge" [42.804232, -89.090033]. (p. 39) Nee-ru-tcha-ja is for nįruceja, from , "water"; harucé, "to go across"; eja, "at, the place where" — "the place at which to go across the water." The other term bears some resemblance to what Jipson obtained for "ford": niorurujgax, which may be from , "water"; ho-, "the place where"; harurucé, "to go across," with an emphatic reduplication of the syllable ru; and gax, "to make." This supposes that ho-ha would resolve to ho- by sandhi. This would allow us to say that Ho-ru-tchkach is a corruption of horucegax, from ho-, "the place where"; harucé, "to go across"; and gax, "to make" — "the place to make a crossing."
4 The bracketed material was clearly omitted, as the SE ¼ of Sec. 20 is about ¾ of a mile from the river.
5 The S. Scofield farm in 1917 was restricted to the NE ¼ of Sec. 20; however, on the 1891 map, George Scofield owned the land that made up the NW ¼ of Sec. 20, so perhaps the original designation was correct, but obsolete with respect to land ownership.
6 This is the Sagittaria latifolia, shown in the inset to the left, also known as duck potato, arrowleaf, swan potato, wapatoo, wappato, katniss, swamp potato, and tule-potato, called sįpóro, "round rice," in Hocąk. The tubers of which were boiled or roasted.
7 The text has "NW ½." This should be "¼": northwest is a quadrant, and the Inman farm is shown as confined to the northwest part of section 27.
8 The text has "NW ½," where NW would necessarily designate a quadrant.
9 This is for Xéxete, from xe, "hill, mountain"; and xete, "big." So "Big Hill" is a translation from the original Hocąk.
10 William Fiske Brown, Rock County, Wisconsin; a New History of Its Cities, Villages, Towns, Citizens and Varied Interests, from the Earliest Times, up to Date (Chicago: C. F. Cooper and Co., 1908) 1:33.
11 Standing Post Village.

The Archaeology of Winnebago County1
Publius V. Lawson
Sites 31, 34, 35

Publius V. Lawson

Wisconsin Archeologist  
— Key —

Note – dashed lines represent the boundaries of townships

1. Menasha Mounds. "When Dr. Increase A. Lapham visited the young village (now city) of Menasha in the year 1851, he found located there two mounds which he describes as follows: 'In the village of Menasha is an elongated mound, quite high at the end towards the river, and terminating at a point at the other. A similar one exists on Doty's island, forming a sort of counterpart to the first. They are not exactly opposite, but are both directed towards the river.' (Antiquities of Wisconsin, p. 61.)"
2. Fourth Ward Mounds. "These were first described by Dr. Lapham, (Antiquities of Wisconsin, p. 61) who says of them. '. . . Half a mile from Menasha is a group of eight mounds about four feet high and from forty to fifty feet in diameter. They are on the SE ¼ of section fourteen, township twenty [Menasha Township], range seventeen, not far from the shore of Lake Winnebago'." Section 14 and the Fourth Ward can be seen in the map of Menasha Township, Neenah Township, Winnebago County 1889.
3. Fox River Trail. The route from Green Bay to Ft. Winnebago. Shown on the map above as a dotted line.
4. Sill's Creek Shell Heaps. Located in the NE ¼ of Section 3 [Menasha Township]. Section 3 can be found on the 1889 map of Menasha Township, Neenah Township.
5. Little Butte des Morts, "The Hill of the Dead." A large burial mound for those killed in a battle between the Fox and the French and their allies. "It was located a distance of 360 feet west of the lake shore and 300 feet south of the east and west quarter line of section 16 [Menasha Township]." This feature is recorded on the original Plat Map for T20N R17E as "Little Butte des Mortes (artificial Mound)" on the west side of the Little Butte des Mortes Lake opposite Section 15. Shown very nicely on A. G. Ellis' Interior Field Notes of Dec. 1834 (INT164E03) at the top center of the map. The 1889 map of Menasha Township, Neenah Township shows that the railroad and a highway in Section 16 cut through where the mound had formerly stood.
6. Fox Village Site Stockade Embankment. Located in SE ¼ of Section 8 [Menasha Township]. See the 1889 map of Menasha Township, Neenah Township.
7. Great Serpent Mounds. "This group is located about one and a half miles west of Little Butte des Morts lake and about two and one-half miles northwest of the city of Neenah. It is only about 500 feet northwest of the remains of the old Fox stockade embankment just described." Henry Race is said to have built his house and barn at its SE terminus. On the 1909 map of Menasha and Neenah, there are 40 acres belonging to H. Rase located in the SE ¼ of the SE ¼ of Section 8.
8. Kame Burials. "At various places in the southern portion of this town [of Menasha] and in the town of Neenah on the Blair, Jennijohn, Moulton, Hankey and other farms gravel pit interments are frequently disturbed in taking out the material for road work. These graves are usually at a depth of but a few feet beneath the surface. They are generally about 2 feet wide and deep and 6 feet long. The bones lie in a horizontal position, the direction varying greatly." On the 1909 map of Menasha and Neenah, the farm of Jennijohn is found in the S ½ of Section 17, and the farm of an L. Hank is found in the N ½ of Section 21.
9. Doty Island Village Site. The place at which Nicolet first encountered the Hocagara in 1634. "The island itself is formed by the division of the Fox river where it leaves Lake Winnebago and is about 1½ miles in length, ¾ of a mile in width and about 700 acres in extent. It was in early days overgrown with great oaks and noble elms and is now occupied by the fine residences, thoroughfares and gardens of the twin cities of Neenah and Menasha. It is upon this picturesque island that the principal village of the powerful Winnebago tribe, so intimately associated with the early history of the state, was. located from as far back as the year 1634 to 1830, the date of the death of Four Legs, the last of its great warlike chiefs."
10. Stockade Embankment. "Situated partly upon the property of Mr. L. Pinkerton and Mr. Striddie at a distance of 47 rods east of Ninth street in Neenah and directly in line with a series of effigy mounds, are located the remains of the earthern embankment at one time supporting the walls of the Winnebago stockade or fort which was destroyed in 1728 by the French and Iroquois expedition which also destroyed the Fox Indian stockade on the mainland as already described. (Fig. 5.) While the villagers returned and continued to inhabit the island it does not appear that the stockade was rebuilt. The position and shape of the embankment enclosure is best to be seen in the cut. As it was not possible to enclose the entire population of the island within the stockade, it is supposed that it was only occupied in time of war, when the women and children were probably removed to a distance for safety. The peculiarity of the double enclosure indicates that one is simply the result of the enlarging of an earlier and smaller stockade. There are enclosed at present within the embankment of the stockade about three quarter acres of land. The northern side of the enclosure is 200 feet, the southern side 300 feet in length and its extreme width about t6o feet. The embankment is from 18 inches to 3 feet in height." Judging from the map of Fig. 5, the location of the stockade was ca. 44.191172, -88.441391.
11. Doty Island Cornfields. "The cornfields of this village are still to be seen at the eastern end of the island on the property of Mr. G. C. Jones and along the Neenah Fox river. They consist of long regular drills or ridges covering several acres of ground, each row being from 3 to 6 inches in height, about 3 feet in width and from 4 to 6 feet apart from center to center. ... At the water's edge several hundred feet southeast of the old Doty homestead there is a black trap boulder having on its top several highly polished basin-shaped depressions which are said to have been employed by the Indians in grinding their corn. This boulder is somewhat oval in form, 6 feet in length, 3 feet in height and 3 feet in thickness." The cornfields will have been located at ca. 44.190145, -88.439401.
12. Doty Mounds. "These mounds are located on a terrace which circles the eastern end of the island and marks the ancient flood plane of Winnebago lake and the Fox river. This terrace is elevated about 15 feet above the level of the lake. The group consists of a string of effigy, oval and round mounds beginning near the middle of the eastern end of the island and extending from thence in a general southwesterly direction across the Winnebago village site for a half mile or more to near the shore of the Neenah Fox river at its southern margin." See the map in Fig. 5.
13. Treaty Elm. "For many years one of the most interesting land marks in the county was the "Treaty Elm" or "Council Tree" beneath whose wide spreading branches the chiefs of the neighboring tribes are said to have been wont to gather in council. It was located on Riverside Park point at the mouth of the Neenah-Fox river in the City of Neenah. It was of immense size and girth and towered above all the surrounding forest and could be seen from points from 5 to 8 miles distant." Probably located at 44.185826, -88.442522.
14. Manser's Bay Cemetery. "On the farm of Mr. G. H. Manser on the shore of Manser's bay, Lake Winnebago, in the NE ¼ of section 9 [Neenah Township], there are indications of a rather extensive aboriginal burning place." The property of G. H. Mansur can be found on the 1889 map of Menasha Township, Neenah Township.
15. Allenville Cornfield. "I have recorded the existence of an aboriginal cornfield in section 6 [Vinland Township], about 1 mile north of Allenville, and of the existence of a similar evidence of cultivation at the head of a creek about a mile south of the center the northern boundary of this town." The first, in Section 6 on the 1889 Vinland map, would probably fall within O. Lindsey's property. The second would be in the center of Section 4 on J. Dix's property at the head of the creek (44.147282, -88.601627) that branches off from Daggeis Creek.
16. Paine's Point Mound. "Formerly situated at Paine's point, 3 miles south of the City of Neenah, near the shore of Lake Winnebago." Payne Point is located at 44.125963, -88.463852.
17. Island Park Village Site. This was Village of Pesheu (Wildcat) on Garlic Island. "It would appear that the village occupied both the island and mainland; that the wigwams were well constructed, the fields of Indian maize of considerable extent, and the population at that time one of 1000 or more persons."
18. Island Park Mound. "At the southern extremity of the island there is a cairn or mound built of stones." Located at 44.088092, -88.481914.
19. Winnebago P. O. Mounds. These are situated 1½ miles north of the Northern Hospital for the Insane. The Post Office and the Hospital (now the Winnebago Mental Health Institute) are seen in Section 31 (T19N R17E) of the 1889 Oshkosh Township map.
20. Asylum Bay Graves. "Located on the shore of Lake Winnebago, about three miles north of the City of Oshkosh."
21. Sunset Point Cemetery. "There was an aboriginal cemetery located at Sunset point on the north shore, at the lower end of Big Lake Butte des Morts." This is located roughly at 44.053739, -88.587546.
22. Plummer's Point Mound. "On the property of Mr. Levi Plummer at a place called Plummer's Point, in the SE ¼ of section 30, there is a round mound about 25 feet in diameter and now about 30 inches in height. It is located in a wood about 80 rods east and elevated about 25 feet above the north shore of the Fox river. " The Plummer property lying on a point is actually seen in the NE ¼ of Section 31 (T19N R16E) of the 1889 Oshkosh Township map. (44.081935, -88.624457).
23. Oshkosh Mound. "In former years before the waters of Lake Winnebago had eroded away the land upon which it was constructed, there was situated in the east side of the City of Oshkosh at an equal distance between Washington and Merritt streets, a round mound measuring 8 feet in height and about 20 feet in diameter." This would be located approximately at 44.018878, -88.516165.
24. Otter Street Graves. The exact location is unknown. Otter Street is now known as "Otter Avenue."
25. Stony Beach Mounds. "Hon. James G. Pickett remembers to have seen, many years ago, some round mounds on the farm of Mr. William Wright, at the place now known as Stony Beach, in section 36 [Algoma Township], about 1 mile south of the City of Oshkosh." Both the land of W. W. Wright and Stony Beach are shown in Section 36 of the 1889 Algoma Township map.
26. Oakwood Mounds. "This at one time fine group of effigy and other mounds is located on fractional lot 8, at the delightful summer resort called Oakwood [Algoma Township], on the south shore of Big Butte des Morts lake." Shown in Section 8 of the 1889 Algoma Township map (44.045201, -88.607674) on the properties of J. D. Olcott and William Sawtell.
27. Hammer Mounds. "Located on a tract known as the James Hammer place in section 7, in the town of Algoma. They are about 2 miles west of Oakwood and about one mile south of Big Lake Butte des Morts. ... There was an aboriginal cemetery on the same tract."
28. Randall's Point Kitchens. "At La Belle or Randall's point on the west shore of Lake Winnebago, in fractional section 16 [in Black Wolf Township], on land now owned by Mr. E. H. Farnly, there are still to be seen several circular excavations which were employed as kitchens or dining pits by the aborigines located there. ... The kettle of whole fish, birds, meat and corn was boiled at a nearby fire, then brought into the pit and hung upon a cross-piece supported at either end by a forked upright. The Indians, old and young, then seated themselves in the pit and each in turn fished out with his fingers his portion of the dinner. Fish bones and other remains of these dinners are still to be found in the pits." This is seen as "Randall's Point" on the 1889 plat map of Black Wolf Township, and as "Point la Belle" on the 1909 map (= 43.945257, -88.480233).
29. Randall's Point Cornfields.
30. "Black Wolf Point Village Site. "On a point of land now known as Black Wolf point (Sec. 21 [in Black Wolf Township]), jutting out into Lake Winnebago at a distance of seven miles south of the city of Oshkosh, there was formerly located a Winnebago Indian village over which Black Wolf, a Winnebago war chief, presided. This village was not a large one, as it is said to have numbered not more than forty huts. The date of its establishment here is not exactly known, but it is supposed to have been about the year 1800 or slightly before. Mrs. G. A. Randall, who formerly resided at Randall's point, remembers to have seen the Indian tepees and campfires along the shore of Black Wolf point as late as the year 1846." Black Wolf Point is seen in Section 21 of the 1889 plat map (= 43.928047, -88.471532).
31. Long Point Bay Cornfield. "On the shore of Long Point bay, Lake Winnebago, about 500 feet inland, in the south-eastern corner of this town, indications of an aboriginal cornfield probably belonging to the before mentioned village, are still to be seen. (SE ¼ of Sec. 33.) The cornhills are about 5 acres in extent." Probably around 43.902256, -88.466413, but the location is uncertain.
32. Manitou Rock. "This huge granite boulder, the largest glacial rock in the county, is located on the property of Mr. Adolph Freiberg (Section 33 [Black Wolf Township]) at the water's edge on the shore of Long Point bay. It is a prominent landmark in a district where there are no other large boulders, and is the subject of an interesting tradition or legend [which he does not relate]. It is rather angular in shape and measures 8 feet across the top. It stands 5 feet above the ground and extends at least as many feet below the surface. On its top are two seemingly artificially excavated basins or depressions, each about 3 inches in depth and highly polished, which were probably used as 'corn-mills' by the aborigines of the neighborhood." The property of A. Freiberg in Section 33 is shown on the 1909 map, which would put the boulder at ca. 43.902524, -88.469505.
33. Davis Mound. "This mound is located on the farm of the Alvin Davis estate in the NW ¼ of the NW ¼ of section 30 [Nekimi Township]. It is in the rear and about 50 feet distant from the Davis dwelling and is about 12 feet in diameter and 2 feet in height." The dwelling of A. H. Davis is depicted on the 1889 plat map in Section 30, which would make the location perhaps at 43.922951, -88.639208.
34. Richter's Landing Shell Heaps. "On the property of Mr. Chas. Richter in the E ½ of section 31 [Winchester Township], about one mile east of Richter's landing on Boom bay, there are according to the statement of Mr. Clarence Olen of Oshkosh, a number of large shell heaps and indications of an aboriginal burying ground. Some of the shell heaps are from 3 to 4 feet in height." Richter's property is actually in W ½ of Section 31: see the 1889 plat map of Winchester Township. The middle Richter's property lies at 44.164655, -88.762189.
      35. Clark's Point Mounds. "At this place in the SE ¼ of section 33 [Winchester Township], about 500 feet east of the east shore of Lake Winneconne and elevated about 35 feet above it, there is a mound resembling the so-called 'turtle' form." Clarks Point is located roughly at 44.152092, -88.707006, 500 feet east of the shore in the SE ¼ of section 33 would be somewhere around 44.157294, -88.709463.
36. Cross Cornfield. "An aboriginal cornfield, probably three or four acres in extent, formerly located in a black oak grove on property owned by Mr. S. J. Cross, in the W ½ of the SW ¼ of section 36 [Winchester Township]." See the forested area around 44.160615, -88.659506, in the NW ¼ SW ¼ of Section 36. The 1889 plat map of Winchester Township shows this to be on the NW edge of J. C. Cross, sr.'s property.
37. Placenza Shell Heaps. "There were formerly located near this place in the NE ¼ of fractional section 4 [Winneconne Township], according to Mr. Clarence Olen of Oshkosh, a number of shell heaps." Placenza is labeled in the 1889 plat map of Winneconne Township contained within L. Clark's property (44.153552, -88.706895). The sketch map in the Interior Field Notes (Mar. 1839 - Apr. 1839) of D. Giddings for the original plat shows an Indian Village whose center is situated at 44.147377, -88.710342.
38. Placenza Kame Burials. "In removing gravel from a pit located about ¼ of a mile east of the last mentioned site two or three skeletons have been disinterred. It is highly probable that others may yet be found there."
39. Lasley Village Site. "The site is located on the 192 acre tract of land owned and occupied by Mr. R. Lasley, in the SW ¼ of section 10, on the eastern shore of Lake Winneconne, about one mile north of the village of Winneconne. This village site, which begins at the low eastern shore of the lake, rises gradually until at its farthest limit, about one-third of a mile beyond, it reaches an elevation of about 25 feet above the lake level. Scattered all along up this gentle wooded slope, are shell heaps at distances varying from a few to as much as 300 feet apart. ... Almost every part of this property exhibits abundant evidences of aboriginal occupation. About 15 acres of it are covered with the long, regular corn rows of the aborigines. Near at hand, are also to be seen hundreds of stone heaps of various sizes, and a considerable number of apparently artificial depressions, each about 3 feet in diameter and 8 inches in depth, which may have served as bake holes or for the threshing of wild rice after the custom of some of the local tribes." The property of Mrs. R. Lasley is shown in the 1889 plat map of Winneconne Township, Section 10. Fortunately, the exact loction of this village is shown (technically in Section 9) on the sketch map in the Interior Field Notes (Mar. 1839 - Apr. 1839) of D. Giddings for the original plat (the center of the village was located at 44.127885, -88.705652).
40. Ball Prairie Mounds. James G. Pickett is quoted as saying, "I think it was on the east half of the SE ¼ of section 1 in the town of Winneconne, and on property probably now owned by F. G. or J. Cross, that there were located at an early day several quite prominent mounds. A beautiful little prairie called 'Ball Prairie' and by which the locality is still known, then covered a part of these lands." The center of Section 1 is at 44.1480556, -88.6542766; the 1909 plat map of Winneconne Township shows the properties of F. G. Cross and J. Cross within Section 1.
41. Big Butte des Morts. "This supposed mound is described by Dr. I. A. Lapham in his "Antiquities of Wisconsin" (p. 63) as follows: 'Just before the Neenah (Fox) river enters Lake Winnebago it expands into a broad sheet of water called the Great Butte des Morts lake. Near the head of this lake is the mound from which its name is derived, on the north or left bank of the river. This is the site of the conflict of the Chippewas and French against the Sauk and Fox bands, but I can find no authority for the belief that the tumulus was raised for covering the bodies of the slain'."
42. Omro Village Site.2 "According to Mr. T. R. Fowler of Omro, abundant indications of the former location of an aboriginal village site and burial place have been found upon a tract of land [6.5 acres] owned by Mrs. Catherine Dunn, in the NW ¼ of section 18 [Township of Omro], on the north bank of the Fox river near the village of Omro. From this tract a large number of stone and copper implements, potsherds and human bones have been collected. Upon the farm of Mr. C. E. King in the same quarter section [7 acres] indications of an Indian cornfield were still to be seen several years ago. There were to be observed at that time four parallel rows of hills, extending in an east and west direction and each about two rods in length. The hills were from 8 to 10 inches in height."3 The properties to which reference has been made are most in Section 7 as seen on the 1909 plat map of Omro Township. The village was centered at 44.040030, -88.758425.
43. Bayou Village Site. "Mr. Fowler also reports the location of a village site and indications of extensive aboriginal cornfields upon an elevation on the J. S. Bennetts place, near the Fox river, in section 17 [Omro Township]. The site is bounded on its west and south sides by a bayou." The 1909 plat map of Omro Township shows land labeled "J. B. B." which might answer to J. B. Bennett. It consists of 17 acres in the NW ¼ of the NE ¼ of Section 17, occupying part of what is now the Omro Ballfield (44.039106, -88.733774).
44. Kame Burials. Hon. James G. Pickett calls attention to the fact that many skeletons and some implements have been disinterred at different times in working the gravel pit of the Cook & Brown Lime Company located about two miles west of the Hammer place." The "Hammer" place is actually that of E. Hammond in the SE ¼ of the SE ¼ of Section 2 on the 1889 plat map, where the number 44 is placed on the map above.
Plate XLI-3  
45. "Spread Eagle" and "Alligator" Mounds. "These are described by Dr. Increase A. Lapham in his "Antiquities of Wisconsin." (p. 63). 'Near a small stream, called Eight-mile creek, in the town of Utica on the land of Mr. E. B. Fiske (NW ¼ of section fourteen, township seventeen, range fifteen [Utica Township]) is a mound called the Spread Eagle (see Plate XLI, No. 3). It is of small dimensions, the whole length being only forty-six feet. There are two oblong embankments in the vicinity; and the house is built upon another called the Alligator, but its form could not be traced at the time of our visit. (1851)'." The 1889 plat map of Utica Township shows the E. B. Fisk property in the NE ¼ of the NW ¼ of Section 14, the NE most part of this property is nearest Eight-mile Creek (43.952356, -88.674449).
46. Hunter Mounds. Located on a "forty acre piece of land belonging to Mr. J. L. Hunter in the NE ¼ of the SE ¼ of section 20 [Utica Township] consists of prairie land which slopes gently northward to the O. F. Miller farm across the highway." This is located at 43.929957, -88.728479, the Miller farm having been on the other side of what is now called "Bonnie View Lane." See the 1909 plat map for Utica Township.
47. Pickett Mound. "This mound is located in the SW ¼ of section 20 [Utica Township]. Mr. Pickett reports that it is located near the apex of a hill about 100 feet in elevation, the highest land in the vicinity and overlooking the country for miles in every direction. A road which ascends the hill winds past the mound. It is oval in shape, 3 feet in height, 30 feet in length and 15 feet in width." See the 1909 plat map for Utica Township. The hill is located at 43.924440, -88.737910.
48. Beans Mounds. "These mounds are located on the E. Beans' property in the SW ¼ of the NE ¼ of section 25 [Utica Township], a few rods south of the road which crosses the land." See the 1909 plat map at 43.920296, -88.645043, which is actually in the NE ¼ of the NE ¼ of Section 25.
49. Thada Mounds. "Mr. Pickett has kindly reported the existence of this group of tumuli to me. They are located on a farm now occupied by Mr. John Thada in the NE ¼ of the SW ¼ of section 19 [Utica Township], about one mile east of the shore of Rush lake." No such name could be found on the plat maps, but the center of the 40 acre plot specified would be 43.929286, -88.761994.
50. Tustin Mounds. "These mounds are located in the NW ¼ of section 31 [Wolf River Township], about ¼ of a mile north of Lake Poygan and ½ mile east of and across the county line from the village of Tustin in Waushara county." On the 1909 plat map of Wolf River Township, this would be within the property of W. Springer (44.168771, -88.867927).
51. Poygan Village Site. "Soon after Governor Henry Dodge's treaty at the Cedars, opposite Kimberly in Outagamie county, with the Menomonee Indians in 1836, by which large tracts of their lands were purchased, they were settled on the south shore of Lake Poygan. There were then 700 or more Indians in the tribe and their tepees were scattered along the lake shore in small groups for a distance of six miles or more in the town of Poygan and into the town of Winneconne."
52. Lapone's Village Site. "About the year 1836 and for some years later there was a Menomonee Indian village of "Wau-kau" located on the north shore of the Fox river opposite the old village of Delhi [Rushford Township]. According to Hon. H. H. G. Bradt of Eureka this village was still in existence at this point when he settled in the town of Rushford in 1849. The chief at that time was called 'Lapone,' an excellent Indian. The village consisted of a dozen cabins and about thirty people. Traces of their corn hills and burying ground may still be seen." The 1889 plat map of Rushford Township shows Dehli as being located in the NW ¼ of Section 23. The village site would be 44.024655, -88.799300.
53. Delhi Mounds. "This group of six mounds is located in section 23 [Rushford Township], on an open prairie elevated about 10 feet above the Fox river, near the village of Delhi." This would be ca. 44.022341, -88.799355.
54. Eureka Mound. "A round mound which formerly stood on the edge of the public highway in that village ... has long since disappeared. Of its exact size or contents nothing can be learned. There was also an aboriginal burying-ground near this village in former years."
55. Rush Lake Enclosure. "Mr. W. H. Foote, a pioneer resident of the town of Nepeuskun, gives the following information in regard to an enclosure (Fig. 7) formerly located on the property of his father, Mr. E. P. Foote, located at the head of Rush lake in the SE ¼ of the SW ¼ of section 11 [Nepeuskun Township].3 "The sides of the square were about 4 rods long, 3 to 4 feet high and 3 to 4 feet broad. They had probably once been somewhat higher. At the openings at each corner within the square were round mounds of earth. ... This property is now owned by Mr. Will Hall." For this property, see the 1909 plat map for Nepeuskun Township. This would be located at 43.953801, -88.796486.
56. Hall Mounds. "These were located on the north shore of Rush lake, on the farm of Mr. Will Hall, on fractional section 14 [Nepeuskun Township]." This would be ca. 43.952167, -88.795747.
57. Outlet Village Site. "Up to as late as the year 1846 there was according to Hon. James G. Pickett, a Winnebago village numbering from one to two hundred Indians, located about the present outlet of Rush lake near the center of section 13, of this town [Nepeuskun Township]. The cemetery belonging thereto was located on the farm of Mr. David Lewellyn on the south side of the present highway and about 40 rods east of the outlet bridge."4 David Lewellyn's farm is clearly indicated on the 1889 plat map for this township. On the 1909 map, this property, labeled "A. L." extends some distance east of the bridge over Waukau Creek. The cemetary would be at 43.946735, -88.770980. However, this is not south of the highway, so the direction from the highway must be west. However, this does not place anything to the south of the highway. Due to this defect, we cannot properly locate anything.
58. Anklam Point Camp Site. "Mr. Pickett states that in the year 1846, this peninsula located in the NW ¼ of section 24 [Nepeuskun Township] was covered with a heavy growth of hard maple. It was undoubtedly a favorite camping-ground of the Indians, as a large amount of pottery fragments are still scattered over the now cultivated land." See A. Anklam's land in the 1889 plat map. The peninsula is located at 43.932323, -88.782414.
59. Eagle Point Mounds. "Upon a sharp wedge of land locally known as Eagle point, in the NE ¼ of section 26 [Nepeuskun Township], where the north and south boundary line of sections 25 and 26 touches the shore of Rush lake, there were formerly located according to Mr. Reagan, an old resident of the neighborhood, one or two small round mounds and a number of Indian graves." These are located at 43.919821, -88.784454.
60. Radke Mounds. "Upon the property of Mr. F. Radke and about 20 rods [330 feet] east of the shore of Rush lake (NW ¼ sec. 25 [Nepeuskun Township]) there was formerly located a group of some seven or eight round mounds." The 1909 plat map shows the lands belonging to the estate of F. Radke, but the specification of their location is not specific enough to give the coördinates for their location.
61. Dutchman's Island Group No. 1 — "Gleason Mounds." A paper treating of this group was read before the Lapham Archeological Society of Milwaukee, in 1878, by Mr. Thomas Armstrong of Ripon. Extracts of this article were afterwards published by the same gentleman in the U. S. Smithsonian Report of the year 1879. 'These mounds,' says he, 'are situated on the southern shore of Rush Lake, on land belonging to Mr. (J.) Gleason in the SE ¼ of the SE ¼ of section 27, and the SW ¼ of the SW ¼ of section 26 [Nepeuskun Township], and were visited by a party of students from Ripon College, May 12, 1877. The mounds, sixteen in number, are ranged in an irregular line running essentially east and west, about 20 rods from the shore of the lake, which is here high and steep, though all the adjacent shores are low and marshy'." The lands of D. Gleason can be seen on the 1909 plat map, which coincide with the lands of J. Gleason on the 1889 plat map. The location of this string of mounds includes 43.910492, -88.804872.
62. Dutchman's Island Group No. 2. "These mounds which were described by Mr. Thomas Armstrong of Ripon, Wis., in an article entitled "Mounds in Winnebago County," appearing in the U. S. Smithsonian Report of 1879 (pp. 335-39) were located on the property of a Mr. M. Hintz in the SW ¼ of the NE ¼ of Section 34." The land of M. Hintz (G. Hinz in 1889) can be seen in the 1909 plat map. This would place the mounds at 43.904893, -88.811239.

1 Publius V. Lawson, “Summary of the Archeology of Winnebago County, Wisconsin,” Wisconsin Archeologist, 2, #2-3 (January, April, 1902): 40-85.
2 "The north side of the Fox river was referred to as "Indian Land." For this reason all dwellings and mills at first were built on the south bank of the river which was government land." Mariam Smith, The History of Omro [Wisconsin] (Omro: Omro Public Library, 1976) 40.
3 "The following extract from a letter directed by Hon. James G. Pickett to Mr. Chas. E. Brown, dated April 17, 1903, will assist the reader to a proper understanding of the antiquities listed under this town. He says:

Agreeable to my promise I have revisited all of the village sites, mounds and other evidences located on the east side of Rush lake in the town of Nepeuskun. I had been over them all many times during the years following 1846. The mounds were then quite prominent and remained so for seven or eight years later, when those who had entered the land began its clearing and cultivation. At the present time they are nearly obliterated and their exact locations can only be learned through the assistance of the old residents. Probably no section of the state was in prehistoric time more densely populated than the eastern border of Rush lake. In fact this entire shore line appears to have been one continuous village site, as evidenced by the numerous mounds and earthworks and the hundreds of human remains exhumed from them or turned up in the fields by the plow. Nowhere in the state has a greater harvest of aboriginal implements of stone and copper been obtained, and certainly no site could have been better chosen for the location of an aboriginal village. The locality known as Dutchman's island, bounded on the west by the lake and on its other sides by great peat marshes, was then a veritable island, containing about three sections of firm ground. The lake had its outlet at its southern extremity, connecting with Green Lake and the Fox river instead of at its north-eastern side as now. The waters of the lake were from 4 to 6 feet higher than at present, thus covering the great marshes and making it fully three times its present size. The evidence of this change is shown by the miles of ridges surrounding the marshes, composed of gravel, boulders, shells and the debris thrown up by the action of the ice. The island was only approachable by boat and could be easily defended. Wild rice, fish and waterfowl were very abundant. These natural advantages combined to make the locality an ideal dwelling place.

4 Lawson goes on to give Pickett's description of Hocąk burial practices. This is presented separately in this collection as "Burial Practices in 1846."

Turtle Creek Villages and Campsites1
Robert H. Becker
Turtle Creek Roll

WorldWind Explorer  

— Key —

Circled numbers mark the location of villages or campsites

① Beloit Township. KAU-RAY-MAU-NEE's VILLAGE. At the time of the coming of the first pioneers in this region, there was a Winnebago village located on Turtle Creek (probably near the mouth of the stream), and where the City of Beloit now stands. It was called Turtle by the early traders and pioneers. On page 29 of the "History of Rock County" is this passage regarding the village: "The other settlement of Winnebagoes within our County, called Turtle village, occupied the site of the present City of Beloit. The chief of this village was Kau-rau-maw-nee, or Walking Turtle. That chief, who delivered up Red Bird at the close of the Winnebago war." This village had been abandoned in 1832, when the regulars and militia in pursuit of the Sauk chief, Black Hawk, and his band, reached the present site of Beloit. Kau-ray-mau-nee was in his day a principal chief of his tribe. He is said to have fought under the leadership of Tecumseh in the war of 1812-13. He was a signer of the treaties of 1816, 1825, 1829 and 1832. In a report made to the Indian Office, in 1829, John H. Kinzie, the Indian agent stationed at Fort Winnebago, mentions the village at "Turtle River", as consisting of 35 lodges and having 600 inhabitants.
② BELOIT GARDEN BEDS AND CORNFIELDS. Garden beds existed near the site of the old North Western depot, in Beloit. This location is near the mouth of Turtle Creek, in the SE ¼ of Section 35. Indian cornfields were located on the Turtle Creek bottom, near the present college athletic field, in the SE ¼ of Section 36. No traces of these can he seen today.2
③ Turtle Township. SCHULZ CAMP SITE. On the high bluff overlooking the Creek at Beloit Junction, on the property of K. G. Schulz, in the SW ¼ of Section 31, is a camp site. Fireplace stones are in evidence. But few aboriginal implements have been found here.
④ WHITFIELD CAMP SITE. On the east side of the Creek and one-quarter of a mile northeast of Beloit Junction are evidences of a camp site. This is on the property of W. W. Whitfield, in the SW ¼ of Section 30. A small spring brook flows at the north edge of the bluff which this site is located, making this spot a desirable one. Many arrow and spearpoints have been secured from this site, which covers about one acre.
TURTLEVILLE VILLAGE SITE. At the villages of Turtleville and Shopiere, Turtle Creek flows through a beautiful valley, banked by high bluffs. This must have been a favorite camping place for the Winnebago. Evidences of Indian occupation are numerous here. In the village of Turtleville, east of the bridge and on the gently sloping south bank of the Creek, are evidences of a small village site. This site is on the property of D. Holmes, in the NE ¼ of Section 9. Arrow and spearpoints, axes, perforators, rubbing stones, fragments of state gorgets, stone balls and other artifacts have been collected here. Burned fireplace stones are still to be seen in great numbers. Mr. Holmes has collected over 200 arrow and spearpoints from this site, which has also been a favorite collecting ground for others. When the first settlers came a small band of Indians was living here. Indian cornfields were located just east of the site.
⑥ BALDEZAR CAMP SITE. Across the creek from the above village site, on the A. Baldezar farm, in the SE ¼ of Section 4, is a well marked camp site. It extends along the creek bank for several hundred feet. Here are many burned hearth stones. Many chert arrow and spearpoints have been obtained from this site.
    ⑦ PORTER CAMP SITE. (NE. ¼, Sec. 9) East of the Turtleville village site, upon the high bluff overlooking the Creek valley, was a favorite Indian camp site, according to Mr. J. Hopkins and Mr. Barret Smith, who are among the earliest settlers near Shopiere. Mr. D. Holmes has obtained a large grooved stone axe from this site.
⑧ HOPKINS CAMP SITE. On the J. Hopkins farm in the SW ¼ of Section 3, and west of the Hopkins house, are evidences of a camp site. But few aboriginal materials have been found here. Mr. Hopkins states that in the early ’40's the Indians camped many times in the field west of his house.
⑨ KLINGBIEL CAMP SITES. East of Shopiere the Creek valley widens and the stream has broad high banks which slope gently back to the bluffs. About one-half mile east of Shopiere there flows into the Turtle from the southeast a small stream called the Spring brook, which winds through the densely wooded hills to join the Creek. This is on the C. Klingbiel farm (NE ¼, Sec. 2). Along Spring brook in the rear of the Klingbiel house was an Indian camp ground. Mr. Barret Smith states that at one time the woods along this stream were full of tepee poles as large bands of Winnebago came here to trap. Along Turtle Creek in front of the farm house, where Spring brook flows into the creek is a well marked camp and workshop site extending over an acre Several caches of chert blades have been ploughed up here by Mr. Klingbiel, also many fine arrow and spearpoints. The burned stones of the fireplaces are still in evidence. This is a favorite hunting ground for collectors.
⑩ SPRING BROOK BURIAL SITE. Just back of the camp site, in the bank along Spring brook, Indian burials have been found. In 1895 and 1896 several skeletons were disinterred, also many fine stone artifacts, including several axes, arrow and spearpoints, etc., which had probably been interred with the dead.
⑪ SPICER CAMP SITE. (NW. ¼, Sec. 2). About one-quarter of a mile up the creek from the Klingbiel sites, on the west bank of the stream, are evidences of a camp site. Mr. Barret Smith states that in 1848 a large band of Indians was encamped here. They traded with the farmers. A number of arrow and spearpoints have been collected here.
⑫ La Prairie Township. SMITH CAMP AND WORKSHOP SITE. On the Barret Smith farm, about three fourths of a mile east of Shopiere, in the SE [SW] ¼ of Section 36, are indications of a camp and workshop site. Mr. Smith has an interesting collection of aboriginal artifacts, most of which he picked up from this site. He has found several caches of chert blanks here. Formerly there were heaps of chert and flint chippings where the Indians had engaged in the making of chert implements.
⑬ THE OLD COUNCIL HOUSE. But little is known, regarding the old Indian Council House which stood near Turtle Creek, and which has never been definitely located. Mr. Barret Smith locates it in the extreme SW ¼ of Section 17, on the C. Lathers' farm, on the west bank of the Creek. Mr. Smith's authority for placing it here is in early settlers (who saw the remains of the Council House), namely Mr. J. Swingle and Mr. Bostwich, who settled near in this region in 1837.

1 Robert H. Becker, "Turtle Creek Mounds and Village Sites," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 12, #1 (June, 1913): 7.
2 Steven D. Peet, Prehistoric America, 2 vols. (Chicago: American Antiquarian Office, 1896) 2:391.

Green Lake Antiquites1
by Charles E. Brown
Green Lake Roll

Wisconsin Archeologist  
— Key —

Note – some numbers denote one mile square sections indicated on the map by latitude and longitude lines.

1. Silver Creek Mounds.
2. Sugar Island Campsite. In the forties and fifties, and occasionally up to about thirteen years ago, the Winnebago Indians camped on Sugar Island, a small island covered with a heavy stand of maple timber. It is located a short distance east of the mouth of Silver Creek, being bounded on the north and west by the creek, and on the south and east by swamps. Here the Indians made quantities of maple sugar, the tree trunks showing the scars made by their rude implements in tapping the trees. The removal of the timber in recent years caused them to abandon this camp site. The island is situated in the SW of Section 26 of Brooklyn Township. The Indian method of keeping maple sugar was to place it in birch bark boxes or receptacles called mococks each holding a small number of pounds. Encased in this manner it was also disposed of to the Indian traders.
3. Sugar Creek Campsite and Mound. In the early days of settlement the Winnebago camped along the east shore of Green Lake, both to the north and south of the Silver Creek outlet. A large portion of this camp site, which was formerly overgrown with tree, is now submerged in the waters of the lake. Mr. Mitchell has in his collection many stone implements which were found here. The land at the tip of the point between the creek and lake is marshy. Beyond it is elevated and largely overgrown with trees. In a small cultivated field on the creek side of this point, indications of this early camp site are yet to be seen. Mr. Lee R. Whitney of our party collected along the water line of Silver Creek point a number of chert chips, and fragments a rude arrow point, and a rhyolite blank. Other specimens washed up from the submerged camp site have been collected here by summer visitors and other persons.
4. Dakin Creek Campsite. This camp site was located on both banks of Dakin Creek, a small stream flowing west and northwest into Green Lake in the SE ¼ of the SE ¼ of Section 26 and the NE ¼ of Section 35 at a distance of about one fourth mile northeast of Mitchell's Glen. The two points on opposite sides of the creek at which Mr Mitchell has found evidences of aboriginal residence are not more than sixty rods apart. The land is hilly and covered with timber. It is his belief that when this land is cultivated the camp site may prove to have been more extensive than is now apparent from surface indications. He has in his collection both stone and copper implements collected from this site. In the spring time, Dakin Creek teems with suckers (Catastomus commersonii) and their great abundance Mr. Mitchell believes may have been responsible for the congregating of the Indians at this place. He has himself, in past years, thrown out upon the creek bank with a fork as many as two hundred and fifty large fish within an hour.
5. Military Road Planting Grounds.
6. Military Road Mounds.
7. Glen Creek Campsite and Mound. This site is located on the south side of the junction of Glen and Dakin Creeks in the SE ¼ of the NW ¼ and SW ¼ of the NE ¼ of Section 35 on property belonging to Mr. Gustave Maug. On the land occupied by it was located one of the finest stands of maple trees in this part of the state. In former days, these trees all showed indications of having been frequently tapped by the natives to obtain the sap for the making of maple sugar. On the west side of the creek Mr. Mitchell has collected flint implements, fragments of pottery vessels, a stone pipe and an iron implement. A single conical mound about 30 feet in diameter and 3 ½ feet high was formerly located on this property. When first seen by Mr Mitchell in 1850, charcoal had been burned on its top by local charcoal burners. He excavated it in 1860 and found in it only fragments of a pottery vessel which had probably been buried with the dead.
8. Glen Creek Caches.
9. Dakin Creek Caches.
10. Steele Caches.
11. Powell Creek Caches.
12. Crook Village Campsite and Mounds. Indications of an early Indian village site occur on the H. D. Crook farm on the north, and on the A. F. Albrecht farm on the south side of Powell Creek. In recent times Mr. Mitchell has seen camps of Winnebago Indians at this place. In his collection are flint chips and fragments arrow and spear points, potsherds and several native copper implements which he has gathered from the cultivated fields on these farms. Mr. Henry Crook has in his possession a number of flint points and a stone celt collected from his fields. One of the blanks is made of the blue hornstone obtainable in Indiana. A collection of flint chips and fragments made here by the writer shows that the varieties in use by the Indian arrowsmiths at this place were the familiar clouded, so-called Bad Axe flint, a salmon colored flint, blue hornstone and a poor quality of whitish flint, the latter occurring in the local limestone. The potsherds found were ornamented with cord marked patterns. In a bend of the creek a short distance west of the Crook farm house, a large number of Indian corn hills were still to be seen when we visited this site in September 1913. There were several hundred of these, the low hills extending from the low swampy land bordering the creek northward through a grove of oak trees to and beyond the country road. The corn hills were from six inches to a foot or more in height and from 2 ½ to 3 feet across. There was no regularity of arrangement, the hills being scattered over the entire area several acres in extent. We examined with a spade a number of the hills in different parts of the field but found no evidence of their having been fertilized with fish or other animal matter. Corn hills formerly occurred also on the south side of the creek. At the northeast corner of the field among the hills south of the road, a small plot of Indian garden beds was located. In this plot four distinct beds with paths between them could still be traced. The beds were about a yard in width and about two and one half feet apart, their direction being northeast and southwest.
13. Forest Glen Beach Group.
14. Mitchell Effigy.
15. Green Lake Prairie Village. The principal Indian village on Green Lake was located at its southeastern shore on what was formerly known as Green Lake Prairie. Morgan L. Martin refers to this village in his narrative of a journey made by him from Green Bay to Prairie du Chien in 1829. He says, "The Indians there [at] Lake Horicon essayed to put us on the trail to Four Lakes but we brought out at the Green lake prairie where we struck another village of the Winnebagoes. To seek information of these was impossible, for the women and children hid themselves and the bucks were assembled in their long medicine lodge gambling, and would pay no attention whatever." 11 WHC p. 400. Sarcel, or the Teal, Wheankkaw [Wį́xka], is mentioned as the chief of the village at Green Lake Prairie in that year. He was also called "Big Duck" and had other names. He fought with the British under Col. Robert Dickson (Dixon) in Ohio in the war of 1812, and was a member of the expedition which attacked the American Fort Shelby at Prairie du Chien in 1814. He was present in 1830 with other Winnebago chiefs at Green Bay at a meeting with commissioners appointed to locate lands for the New York Indians. Augustin Grignon states that in his younger days his reputation was not good, but he became a very good Indian.
      Indian Agent John H. Kinzie in his census of the Wisconsin Winnebago, made for the U. S. Indian Office in 1829, states that the chief of the Winnebago at Big Green Lake was Sweet Corn. His village was one of eight lodges and was inhabited by 150 Indians. Of this chief nothing more is known. It is possible that he and Sarcel may have been joint chiefs of the same band. Mr. S. D. Mitchell states that in his boyhood, 1845-1855, as many as five hundred Winnebago sometimes camped along the south shore of Green Lake between Powell Creek and the present Spring Grove hotel, a distance of about one mile. He says that the chief of this village was Big Soldier then a wrinkled old man. His son was High Knocker afterwards the chief of all the local Winnebago. He is described as a man of much intelligence and it is said that he displayed great bravery during the Black Hawk War, rendering the United States soldiers valuable assistance for which he was awarded a silver medal by the Government. This medal Big Soldier was very proud of wearing it suspended to a string of beads which encircled his neck. Some few of his tribe lingered long in the country and twice a year regularly visited a relative of the chief's who had the medal in his possession who showed them with much pride the relic left by the old warrior. Portrait and Biographical Album of Green Lake, etc., p. 201. Big Soldier, who in 1840 was fifty years old, was a subordinate chief or captain of the Winnebago.
16. Powell Trading Post.
17. Satterlee Clark Mound and Cornfields.
18. Powell Creek Group.
19. Carlsruhe Group.
20. Germania Mounds.
21. Miller Mound.
22. Spring Grove Group.
23. Lucas Bluff Campsite. The Winnebago Indians camped on Lucas Bluff, also known as Sandstone Bluff, on the south shore of Green Lake, in fractional Sections 32 and 33 of Green Lake Township. Mr. Albert Hill states that they continued to camp on this elevated wooded land up to as late as about the year 1882. There were sometimes as many as two hundred Indians here. It was reported that the dance circle used by them was still in evidence. Messrs. Geo L. Pasco and Towne L. Miller visited the site, but found no such earthwork or level space which showed indications of such use.
24. Runals Trading Cabin.
25. Horner Creek Campsite. Horner Creek is the outlet of the Twin Lakes (Minnie and Gussie), two small lakes which are both located at distances of about one mile south of Green Lake. This creek flows in a northeasterly direction from Lake Minnie, the nearest of the lakes in the NE ¼ of Section 5 through Section 33 of Green Lake Township, and empties into Green Lake. Mr. Mitchell has in his collection flint and other implements which he collected from several places along Horner Creek where camp sites are indicated. We were unable to visit these places as the ground was covered with growing crops.
26. Lake Minnie Group.
27. South Shore Mounds.
28. Lake Gussie Campsite. Mr. Mitchell has in his collection a number of stone implements obtained from an Indian camp site on the property of the John Nichols Estate on the south shore of Lake Gussie in the NW ¼ of Section 8, of Green Lake Township. Other collectors have also obtained specimens here. Lake Gussie is also called "Olega." It is twice as large as its twin with which it is connected by Horner Creek. Some early settlers state, and a map in the State Land Office shows, the Twin Lakes to have been formerly a continuous strip of marsh.
29. Spring Lake Mounds.
30. Gardinier Mounds.
31. Dantz Tavern Mounds.
32. Radke Mounds.
33. Le Roy Creek Group.
34. Marquette Road Campsite. In the cultivated fields on the Robert Walter and adjoining lands west of the mouth of Le Roy Creek in the SE 14 of Section 10, Princeton Township, indications of an Indian camp site occur. We found at this place scattered fireplace stones a few flint chips and nodules pebble hand hammers and a small number of arrow points. Mr Mitchell has located several camp sites in the fields along the course of Le Roy Creek. One of these is situated on elevated land south of Center House. South of the creek in the S ½ of the SW ¼ of Section 16 on the F. G. Miller place, an Indian trader is said to have once had a cabin. Le Roy Creek takes its name from Pierre, known as Pete, Le Roy a trader located at Little Green Lake. He is reported to have been a favorite with the Indians. Richard Dart says of him, "He was a half-breed trader farmer whose plantation lay four or five miles south of us, two or three miles due south of where the Center House now stands. Le Roy had a big spring on his place, the source of the creek that bears his name. He was a son of Francois Le Roy the trader at the Portage. He was in Pierre Pauquette's employ and moved on as the country settled. (1909, Proc. Wis. Hist. Soc., p. 256).
35. Babcock Groups.
36. Quimby Bay Group.
37. Sugar Loaf Mounds.
38. Lone Tree Point Mounds.
38a. Malcolm Point Campsite. Mr. Mitchell reported the location of an Indian camp site on the north shore of Green Lake to the west of Malcolm Point in the NE ¼ of fractional Section 30, Brooklyn Township. This place is northeast of Pigeon Cove. At this place fireplace stones flint chips and fragments, and occasional implements, were found in the sand blows.
39. Maplewood Campsite, 1845. Where the Maplewood Hotel stands overlooking Dartford Bay, the Winnebago Indians had a camp in the year 1845. Mr. J. C. Sherwood, the father-in-law of Dr. Victor Kutchin, the Green Lake naturalist proprietor of the hotel, was transported across the lake by the natives in a canoe to this camp in that year. There were ten or more wigwams on the elevated land and along the shore. On the lake shore at this place there is a fine spring now known as Tecura spring, and the presence of which the natives are certain to have appreciated. On the elevated land where the hotel is situated are many fine old oak trees.
40. Oakwood Earthwork.
41. Pleasant Point Campsite and Mounds. Evidences of an Indian camp site exist on elevated ground on the Wilke place in the SW ¼ of the SE ¼ of Section 22 of Brooklyn Township. Numerous flint implements have been collected by Mr. Mitchell and others from both the top and slopes of this sandy field. In a number of places where the action of the wind had excavated shallow pits in this field, we found exposed on the surface numerous hearth stones, flint chips and fragments, and a few potsherds. Dr. Victor Kutchin remembers that a linear mound was in former years located on this farm. No trace of it can now be found. This site is directly across the road from, and north of, Terrace Beach.
42. Terrace Beach Mounds.

1 Charles E. Brown, “Antiquities of Green Lake,” Wisconsin Archeologist, 16, #1 (March, 1917): 1-55.

Lake Wingra Antiquites1
by Charles E. Brown

Wisconsin Archeologist  
— Key —

Note – Camp and village sites are indicated by dotted areas, trails by broken lines and outlines of former marshy areas by dotted lines.

1. Oregon Street Group
2. Dividing Ridge Group
3. Greenbush Mounds
4. Vilas Park Group
5. Vilas Park Village Site and Mound. The village site was located in the park below (43.060482, -89.413584) the crest of the Monona-Wingra ridge. "When th present park lands were still in a wild state there existed at the northern end on the elevated land now occupied by the animal house and shrubbery a patch of Indian corn hills. There are said to have been several hundred of these. No vestige of them remains. In 1908, when the ground about the cluster of old oak trees in the center of the park was being prepared for the lawn, numerous flint chips and fragments and occasional arrow points, tips of deer antlers, animal bones, potsherds and scattered fireplace stones were collected by the writer. Several celts, grooved stone axes, and flint points had previously been collected here by local boy collectors. The writer is informed that from the early fifties to
      the eighties small numbers of Winnebago Indians camped from time to time on this elevated land which was then bounded on several side by a part of the Lake Wingra marsh, and also upon the land at the base of the ridge slope beyond."
5a. Lewis Effigy
6. South Warren Street Group
7. Bear Effigy and Curtis Mounds
8. Monroe Street Group
9. Jefferson Street Group
9a. Lincoln Street Mound
10. Edgewood Group
11. Wingra Group
12. Cemetery Woods Group
13. Nakoma Mounds
14. Lake Forest Group No. 1
15. Lake Forest Group No. 2
16. Vilas Group 

1 Charles E. Brown, “Lake Wingra,” Wisconsin Archeologist, 14, #3 (September, 1915) 76-117.

Lake Waubesa Antiquites1
by Dr. W. G. McLachlan
Lake Waubesa Roll

Wisc. Archeologist, 1914
Dr. W. G. McLachlan

Wisconsin Archeologist Note: a small part of this map, its eastern extremity, has been cut off due to the rebinding of the journal in which it is found.

— Key —

Uncircled numbers represent Section numbers
Circled numbers mark the location of mounds
The symbol "
Λ", representing lodges, marks the location of the Hocąk village ("OLD INDIAN VILLAGE") in Section 9

① Sure Johnson Group
② Skare Group
③ Ottum Group
④ Olson Group
⑤ Daley Group
⑥ Henry Group
⑦ Allison Group
⑧ Evans Mound
⑨ Eli Johnson Groups and Cornfield
⑩ Holver Johnson Group
⑪ Lewis Group
⑫ Bryngelson Mounds
⑬ Edwards Park Group
⑭ Larsons Park Group
⑮ Eighmy Group
⑯ Dale Group
⑰ O. E. Evans and Nelson Mounds
⑱ Wa-che-et-cha Park Group
⑲ B. Larsen Group
⑳ Brown Mound
㉑ Morris Park Group
      ㉒ Sherlock Group
㉓ Sprague Mounds
㉔ Bram Mounds
㉕ McConnell Group
㉖ Williamson Group and Cemetery
㉗ Thompson-Timmerman Group
㉘ Nondahl Group
㉙ Voges Mounds
㉚ Selney Group
㉛ Ward Group
㉜ Sigglekow Mounds
㉝ Schimming Mound
㉞ Pflaum Mound
㉟ Halverson Group
㊱ Pflaum-McWilliams Group
㊲ Tompkins-Brindler Group
㊳ Nichols Group
㊴ Bryant Group
㊵ Gilman Mound

1 W. G. McLachlan, "The Mounds of the Lake Waubesa Region," Wisconsin Archeologist, 12, #4 (January, 1914): 107-166 [109 verso].

Lake Kegonsa Antiquites1
by Dr. W. G. McLachlan
Lake Kegonsa Roll

Wisconsin Archeologist  

— Key —

Uncircled numbers represent Section numbers
Circled numbers mark the location of mounds
* indicate the locations of the mound groups of the adjoining Lake Waubesa region2
The letter "V" marks the location of villages or campsites
A red "V" represents historically known Hocąk villages

  ① Otto Shantz Group
② P. Anderson Mound
③ Lerum-Skogen Group
④ Julius Freund Mounds
⑤ Moore Group
⑥ Roth Mounds
⑦ Meyers Group
⑧ Hanson Group
⑨ Lee Group
⑩ Brictson Bros. Group
⑪ Holscher Group
⑫ Mount Pleasant Group
⑬ North Williams Group
          ⑭ Williams North Group No. 1
⑮ Williams North Group No. 2
⑯ Williams South Group No. 1
⑰ Williams South Group No. 2
⑱ T. Olson Group
⑲ Orvold-Colladay Group
⑳ W. E. Colladay Group
㉑ C. M. Colladay Group No. 1
㉒ C. M. Colladay Group No. 2
㉓ Colladay's Point Group
㉔ Barber Group
㉕ Ole Quam Mounds
㉖ Atkinson Mound

1 W. G. McLachlan, "The Lake Kegonsa Region," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 4 ns, #4 (November, 1925): 181-206 [182 verso].
2 W. G. McLachlan, "The Mounds of the Lake Waubesa Region," Wisconsin Archeologist, 12, #4 (January, 1914): 107-166.