Notes to The Twins Retrieve Red Star's Head

1 "The Epic of the Twins, Part One," in Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 24-41. The original text is in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago V, #2: 1-123 (syllabic text), 1-38 (English translation).
2 Samuel D. Robbins, Jr., Wisconsin Birdlife: Population and Distribution Past and Present (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991) 398.
3 Robbins, Wisconsin Birdlife, 398-399.
4 See the map showing distribution in Robbins, Wisconsin Birdlife, 398.
5 David H. Dye, "Art, Ritual, and Chiefly Warfare in the Mississippian World," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South (New Haven: Yale University Press and The Art Institute of Chicago, 2004) 192.
6 Johann Theodor de Bry, America: das ist Erfindung vnd Offenbahrung der Newen Welt, 2d ed (Frankfurt am Main: Nicolaum Hoffman, 1609) part II, plate 16. See David H. Dye, "Art, Ritual, and Chiefly Warfare in the Mississippian World," in Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South, 202, fig. 26.
7 Klaus F. Wellmann, A Survey of North American Indian Rock Art (Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1979) figure 909. Originally contrasted with white tempera paint, but the tracing given here is an inverse image with the matrix erased.
8 Paul Radin, "Morning Star (Wiragocge Xedera)," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook 8: 1-93 [40-42].
9 Charles Anthon, Classical Dictionary (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1851) 279 sv caduceus. Classical dictionaries and encyclopedias often cite this story, but never its original source.
10 Henri Frankfort, The Iraq Excavations of the Oriental Institute 1932/33 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1934) 1: 10; Elizabeth Douglas van Buren, Archiv für Orientforschung 10 (1935-1936) 53-65; Walter Burkert, Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985 [1977]) 158.
11 Paul Radin, "The Blue Man," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #55: 14-15.
12 Burkert, Greek Religion, 158.
13 "Blue Horn's Nephews" in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) #58: 75.
14 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 195.
15 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 162, 195.
16 Apollodorus, 2.6; Burkert, Greek Religion, 158.
17 Paul Radin, "Wak'čexi Hečoga (Waterspirit Bluehorn)," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) #66, Story 2: 1-13 [9-10].
18 Mary Carolyn Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago: An Analysis and Reference Grammar of the Radin Lexical File (Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December 14, 1968 [69-14,947]) s.v. jič.
19 Charles N. Houghton, "The Orphan who Conquered Death," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 70, p. 4, handwritten note by Radin.
20 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 85.
21 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 86.
22 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 87.
23 Alois Walde and Julius Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (Bern and Munich: Francke Verlag, 1927–1932) 1:822-823, s.v., *perkᵘ̯u-s.
24 Walde and Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1:822-823, s.v., *perkᵘ̯u-s. See the more recent discussion of the god *Perkʷúh₃nos in Peter Jackson, "Light from Distant Asterisks. Towards a Description of the Indo-European Religious Heritage," Numen, 49, #1 (2002): 61-102 [75-78].
25 Arthur Bernard Cook, "The European Sky God," Folk-lore, 15 (1904): 264-426 [291-297, 306-307].
26 Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic, I.9.
27 Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966).
28 Radin, "Morning Star," Notebook 8: 32, 40-42.
29 For the Menominee — Huron H. Smith, "Ethnobotany of the Menomini Indians," Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 4, #1 (Dec. 10, 1923): 1-174 [70, plate 29, fig. 3]. For the Potawatomi — Huron H. Smith, "Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians," Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 7, #4 (May 9, 1933): 1-230 [104-105]. For the Dakota — Stephen R. Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1890]) 313, sv mdo. Openauk reported as the name given to it by the people encountered by Hariot when he visited the coast of what later became Virginia in 1584, see V. Havard, "Food Plants of the North American Indians," Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 22, #3 (Mar. 27, 1895): 98-123 [101-102]. In 1751, Peter Kalm wrote a pamphlet on his botanic observations while in America, entitled, "A short account of the natural position, use, and care of some plants, of which the seeds were recently brought home from North America for the service of those who take pleasure in experimenting with the cultivation of the same in our climate" (Printed at the command of the Royal Academy of Science). Kalm remarks, "#49. ... It [Apios americana] is called Hopnis by both the savages and Swedes in America. It grows in good, loose, black mould in forests and groves. Use: The roots are used like potatoes for food, and the savages also eat the peas. Care: It is sown in good, loose mould, kept free from weeds, and supplied with poles or sticks to climb on. It is propagated by roots like the potato." Esther Louise Larsen (trs.), "Peter Kalm's Short Account of the Natural Position, Use, and Care of Some Plants, of Which the Seeds Were Recently Brought Home from North America for the Service of Those Who Take Pleasure in Experimenting with the Cultivation of the Same in Our Climate," Agricultural History, 13, #1 (Jan., 1939): 33-64 [44-45].
30 Fanny D. Bergen, "Popular American Plant-Names," The Botanical Gazette, 17, #11 (Nov., 1892): 363-380 [368]. Fanny D. Bergen, "Popular American Plant-Names, II," Journal of American Folk-lore, 6, #21. (Apr. - Jun., 1893): 135-142 [140]. Fanny D. Bergen, "Popular American Plant-Names. IV. Ranunculaceæ," The Journal of American Folklore, 9, #34 (Jul. - Sep., 1896): 179-193 [185]. Fanny D. Bergen, "Popular American Plant-Names. VII," The Journal of American Folklore, 11, #42. (Jul. - Sep., 1898): 221-230 [225]. Alexander F. Chamberlain, "Memorials of the 'Indian'," The Journal of American Folklore, 15, #57 (Apr. - Jun., 1902): 107-116 [108]. Havard, "Food Plants of the North American Indians," 101.
31 Jacques Philippe Cornut, Canadensium plantarum, aliarúmque nondum editarum historia (Paris: Simon Le Moyne, 1639) Chapter 76: 200-202. The inset at left is the earliest known illustration of this plant from p. 201.
32 Noel D. Vietmeyer, "Lesser-Known Plants of Potential Use in Agriculture and Forestry," Science, New Series, 232, #4756 (Jun. 13, 1986): 1379-1384 [1380].
33 Huron H. Smith, "Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians," Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee (Milwaukee: Board of Trustees, May 9, 1933) vol. 7, #1: 1-230 [104-105] and Plate 17.
34 Peter (Pehr) Kalm, Travels into North America, trs. J. R. Foster (Warrington and London, 1770–71) 1:385-386, quoted in Melvin Randolph Gilmore, Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region, Thirty-Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1911-12 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1919) 60.
35 Lena Artz and Marlin Krouse, Castanea, "A Massanutten Muskeg," 32, #4. (Dec., 1967): 190-191 [191].
36 David F. Costello, "Tussock Meadows in Southeastern Wisconsin," Botanical Gazette, 97, #3 (Mar., 1936): 610-648 [633].
37 J. A. Allen, "The Flora of the Prairies," The American Naturalist, 4, #10. (Dec., 1870): 577-585 [582].
38 Huron H. Smith, "Ethnobotany of the Menomini Indians," Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee (Milwaukee: Board of Trustees, Dec., 1923) vol. 4, #1: 1-174 [69-70] and Plate XXX, fig. 1.
39 LeJeune, The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents:Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791; the Original French, Latin, and Italian Texts, with English Translations and Notes, ed. Reuben Gold Thwaites (Cleveland: Burrows Bros. Co., 1900) 6: 273.
40 John Brereton, "Briefe and True Relation of the Discoverie of the North Part of Virginia, 1602" (1602) p. 35, in Henry Sweetser Burrage, ed., Early English and French Voyages . . . , 1534-1608, American Historical Association Original Narratives of Early American History, gen. ed., J. F. Jameson (New York, 1906) 325-340 [335]; quoted in M. K. Bennett, "The Food Economy of the New England Indians, 1605-75," The Journal of Political Economy, 63, #5 (Oct., 1955): 369-397 [389-390].
41 Samuel Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas His Pilgrimes, Contayning a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Lande Travells by Englishmen and Others. 20 Volumes (Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons, 1905), quoted in Charles Francis Saunders, Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada (New York: Robert M. McBride, 1920) 1-2.
42 Havard, "Food Plants of the North American Indians," 101-102.
43 Kalm, Travels into North America, 1: 400.
44 Charles R. Lee, "Public Poor Relief and the Massachusetts Community 1620-1715," The New England Quarterly, 55, #4 (Dec., 1982): 564-585 [568]. See Darrett B. Rutman, Husbandmen of Plymouth: Farms and Villages in the Old Colony, 1620-1692 (Boston: Beacon Pres for Plimoth Plantation, 1967).
45 Joseph Ewan, "Plant Resources in Colonial America," Environmental Review, 1, #2 (1976): 44-55 [44]. On this topic V. Harvards remarks in this connection, "The tuber is of slow growth, requiring two or three years before reaching sufficient size to be useful, and its creeping, scattering habit renders the harvest laborious." Havard, "Food Plants of the North American Indians," 102.
46 Vietmeyer, "Lesser-Known Plants of Potential Use in Agriculture and Forestry," 1380, citing a personal communication and newsletter from W. Blackmon, Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, Louisiana State University.
47 Havard, "Food Plants of the North American Indians," 101, citing Rafinesque.
48 H. H. Smith, "Ethnobotany of the Menomini Indians," 70.
49 Emma Helen Blair, The Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and Region of the Great Lakes, 2 vols (Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark, 1911) 1:115.
50 F. V. Hayden, "Contributions to the Ethnography and Philology of the Indian Tribes of the Missouri Valley," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Ser., 12, #2 (1863): 231-461 [369-370].
51 "The tubers of Apios, which the Rappahannock call 'ground nuts,' are no longer sought, except by children and some of the old people who retain their appreciation of the things they used to eat before these days of luxury were known to the dwellers in the back districts." Frank G. Speck, "The Rappahannock Indians of Virginia," in Indian Notes and Monographs, 5, #3, ed. F. W. Hodge (New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1925) 25-83 [70].
52 Harold E. Driver, and William C. Massey, "Comparative Studies of North American Indians," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Ser., 47, #2 (1957): 165-456 [212, Table 1]. "Its swollen roots contain several times the protein of potatoes ..." Vietmeyer, "Lesser-Known Plants of Potential Use in Agriculture and Forestry," 1380.
53 Saunders, Useful Wild Plants, 4.
54 Hayden, "Contributions to the Ethnography and Philology of the Indian Tribes of the Missouri Valley," 369-370.
55 Louis L. Meeker, “Siouan Mythological Tales,” Journal of American Folklore, 14 (1901): 161-164.
56 "Blue Horn's Nephews" in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1912) #58: 36.
57 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 66.
58 Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 333-334; Jasper Blowsnake, Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3876 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #7: 265-268 [266].
59 Jasper Blowsnake, Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3876 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #7: 218-220, on interstitial page 219/220.
60 Paul Radin, "Morning Star (Wiragošge Xetera)," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook 8: 1-93 [33].
61 Fred W. Price, The Planet Observer's Handbook, 2d ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) 124.
62 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 234.
63 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 470-471.
64 Anthony F. Aveni, Skywatchers (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) 184.
65 Price, The Planet Observer's Handbook, 75.
66 Price, The Planet Observer's Handbook, 88.
67 Price, The Planet Observer's Handbook, 124.
68 George E. Lankford, Reachable Stars: Patterns in the Ethnoastronomy of Eastern North America (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2007) 30.
69 Kenneth Brecher, "Sirius Enigmas," in Astronomy of the Ancients, edd. Kenneth Brecher and Michael Feirtag (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1979) 91-116.
70 Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) ...
71 Big Crow, "6. How Evening Star's Daughter was Overcome," in George Dorsey, The Pawnee Mythology (Washington, D. C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1906) 1: 38.
72 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan) and Julia Small (Otoe), "Dore and Wahredua," Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 427-506 [427].
73 Thief, "Long Tooth Boy," in George A. Dorsey, The Pawnee Mythology (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997 [1906]) 493-494.
74 Ahahe, "11. Owner-of-Black-and-White-Flint-Knives and His Son," in George A. Dorsey, The Mythology of the Wichita (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995 [1904]) 81-87.
75 Martha Warren Beckwith, "Myths and Hunting Stories of the Mandan and Hidatsa Sioux," Publications of the Folk-Lore Foundations (Poughkeepsie: Vassar College, 1930) #10: 1-116 [30-34].
76 "19. Found-in-the-Grass," in Alfred Louis Kroeber, Gros Ventre Myths and Tales, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History (New York: Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History, 1907) Volume 1, Part 3, p. 77-82.
77 "98. The Woman Who Fell from the Sky," in Jeremiah Curtin and John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt (collectors), Seneca Fiction, Legends, and Myths, in Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1918) 32: 460.
78 Aileen O'Bryan, Navaho Indian Myths (New York: Dover Publications, 1993 [1956]) 75-81. These stories were collected by the author in 1928 from Old Man Buffalo Grass.
79 O'Bryan, Navaho Indian Myths, 83-84.
80 O'Bryan, Navaho Indian Myths, 54.
81 Zitkala-Ṣa, "Mastin, the Rabbit," Old Indian Legends (Lincoln: Univesity of Nebraska Press, 1901) 144-147.
82 Elsie Clews Parsons, Taos Tales (New York: The American folk-lore society, J. J. Augustin, 1940) 53-56.
83 Panayús, "48. The Sun Boys," in Robert H. Lowie, Shoshonean Tales, The Journal of American Folk-lore, 37 (1924): 1-242 [76].
84 Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), translated by Charles P. Bowditch & Frank E. Comparato; J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) 5: 45.