Redhorn Notes

1 Paul Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1948).124. In John Harrison, "The Giant or The Morning Star," translated by Oliver LaMere, in Paul Radin, Notebooks, Winnebago III, #11a, Freeman Number 3892 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Story 8, pp. 92–117 [112-114], he is called Wągíšjahorùšika, "Wears Man Faces on His Ears." Paul Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) #14, 1–67 [65-67]; Thomas Foster, Foster's Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1, #3: p. 3 col. 1; Kathleen Danker and Felix White, Sr., The Hollow of Echoes (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978) 24-25; W. C. McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," Yearbook, Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 9 (1929): 215-230.

2 Robert Small (Otoe, Wolf Clan), and Julia Small (Otoe), "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," in Alanson Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," The Journal of American Folklore, 38, #150 (October-December, 1925): 457-458. He also appears in a Twins myth, where his is called Wankistogre, "Man-in-the-Earring." Small & Small, in "Dore and Wahredua," in Skinner, "Traditions of the Iowa Indians," 440-441.

3 Danker & White, The Hollow of Echoes, 24-25. Informant: Felix White, Sr.

4 Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagos (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923) 410-411.

5 Louis L. Meeker, “Siouan Mythological Tales,” Journal of American Folklore, 14 (1901): 161-164.

6 George E. Lankford, Reachable Stars: Patterns in the Ethnoastronomy of Eastern North America (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2007) 124.

7 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 115-136.

8 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 123-129; McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," 215-230. Hočąk myths depicting lacrosse are tabulated in Lankford, Reachable Stars, 83.

9 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 123-129; McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," 215-230; Radin, Redhorn's Nephews, 1-16; Harrison, "The Giant or The Morning Star," 112-114. The same episode occurs in a lacrosse game in which the hero is called "White Cloud" — Radin, "The Roaster."

10 Radin, "Intcohorúcika," 65-67.

11 Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 57.

12 Brown, “The Cahokian Expression,” in Richard F. Townsend and Robert V. Sharp, Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand: American Indian Art of the Ancient Midwest and South (New Haven: Yale University Press and The Art Institute of Chicago, 2004) 105, 114; Carol Diaz-Granados, and James R. Duncan, The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2000) 231-232; James R. Duncan, and Carol Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, 25, #1 (Spring, 2000): 1-26 [10]; Carol Diaz-Granados, and James R. Duncan, edd., The Rock-Art of Eastern North America: Capturing Images and Insight (Tuscaloosa & London: University of Alabama Press, 2004) 146, 148-149, 150 (where one of his sons is identified with Morning Star), 203; Robert L. Hall, "The Cultural Background of Mississippian Symbolism," in Patricia Galloway, ed., The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex: Artifacts and Analysis. The Cottonlandia Conference (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989) 239-27 [241-242, 257]; Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 148-149; F. Kent Reilly, III, “People of Earth, People of Sky: Visualizing the Sacred in Native American Art of the Mississippian Period,” in Townsend & Sharp, Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand, 132-135.

13 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 41-42, 50.

14 Paul Radin, The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. A Study in Comparative Literature, Part I (Basil: Ethnographical Museum, Basil Switzerland, 1954) 13. This may in part rest on the identity of Evening Star as "the red star" (wiragošge šuc).

15 Lankford, Reachable Stars, 125; the Morning Star and Redhorn problem is discussed on pages 72-125.

16 Égi že tanihajega wiragošge wa’ųnąkše. Hitánike wiragošgežą horokanakąnąpra hanątc´ herenagi, žee e hereže. Horokanakąnąpra skanąga čo, hánąga šujanąga zinisganąki ereže, Įčohorúšika. Égi hijanénąka, hiniwahira, hišge wiragošge hireže. Hitánike stonąki e herereže. Radin, "Intcohorúcika," 65-67.

17 Harrison, "The Giant or The Morning Star," 92-117.

18 “So in the morning he went out wearing a hummingbird on each ear.” Égi hainigiži, taniakanąkanąkera a’aki horušikanąga reže. Paul Radin, "The Dipper," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3850, #3896, & #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library, n.d.) #49, 91 (Hočąk syllabary with an English interlinear translation).

19 The word wegodiwa, alternant regodiwa, of unknown meaning, is foreign, undoubtedly Algonquian.

20 Paul Radin, "The Chief of the Heroka," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) #33, 1-66.

21 Paul Radin, "The Red Man," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) #6, 1-72.

22 Paul Radin, "Redhorn's Nephews," Notebooks, Freeman #3860 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1908–1930) Winnebago IV, #7a: 1-16 [16].

23 John Rave, "A Wakjonkaga Myth," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) #37, 1-70 [54-56].

24 The name Hejąkiga, “One Horn,” occurs as a common personal name in a number of different Hočąk clans. See Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 170-172.

25 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 134-136.

26 McKern, "A Winnebago Myth," 215-230.

27 Paul Radin, "The Squirrel," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #22, 1-85 [80]. Since the original word is in Hočąk syllabic orthography, which is highly ambiguous, it is difficult to determine the exact form of the word. The word meaning "protruding" is probably pųjoge, from pųč-hoge, or pųč-joge, akin to pųč, which means, "the snout of an animal (the projecting part of the face)."

28 Wąkšikra kšakša nąš’įną. Nįge hočįčįnįk he-pųjoge hibonįgišara hiranihekjaną. Radin, "The Squirrel," 84.

29 F. Kent Reilly III, "The Petaloid Motif: A Celestial Symbolic Locative in the Shell Art of Spiro," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms: Interpretations of Mississippian Iconography, edd. F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007) s39-55.

30 The word "prosopic" derives from Greek πρόσωπον, "face."

31 Small & Small, "6. Wąkx!istowi, the Man with the Human Head Earrings," 457-458.

32 Stephens Williams, and John M. Goggin, "The Long Nosed God Mask in Eastern United States," Missouri Archaeologist 18, #3 (1956) 4-72; Robert L. Hall, "Cahokia Identity and Interaction Models of Cahokia Mississippian", in Thomas E. Emerson, and R. Barry Lewis, Cahokia and the Hinterlands: Middle Mississippian Cultures of the Midwest (Champagne: University of Illinois, 1991) 3-34 [30-33]; Timorthy R. Pauketat, The Ascent of Chiefs: Cahokia and Mississippian Politics in Native North America (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1994) 83, 85, 91; Robert L. Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul: North American Indian Belief and Ritual (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997) 147-149; Timorthy R. Pauketat, Ancient Cahokia and the Mississippians (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) 114-116, 170-171; John Paul Staeck, Archaeology, Identity, and Oral Tradition: A Reconsideration of Late Prehistoric and Early Historic Winnebago Social Structure and Identity as Seen through Oral Traditions, Ph.D. thesis, Rutgers (New Brunswick, 1994). "Archaeology, Ethnicity, and Oral Tradition-Chapter 6"; Carol Diaz-Granados, "Marking Stone, Land, Body, and Spirit," in Townsend & Sharp, Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand, 139-150 [148]. See a map of their distribution in Robert J. Salzer & Grace Rajnovich, The Gottschall Rockshelter: An Archaeological Mystery (St. Paul: Prairie Smoke Press, 2001) 62, fig. 48; and in Hall, "Cahokia Identity and Interaction Models of Cahokia Mississippian", 32.

33 Foster, Foster's Indian Record and Historical Data, s.v. "beads (wampum)"; James Owen Dorsey, Winnebago-English Vocabulary and Winnebago Verbal Notes, 4800 Dorsey Papers: Winnebago (3.3.2) 321 [old no. 1226] (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, 1888) 82 pp; Charlie N. Houghton, "Turtle and a Giant", in Paul Radin, Notebooks, Winnebago III, #9, Freeman 3894. (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) 160-161; J. W. Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library) Notebook 72, Story 51, pp. 1–52; R. S. [Rueben StCyr ?], "Snowshoe Strings", in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) #60, pp. 4–33 [17].

34 Kenneth L. Miner, Winnebago Field Lexicon (Kansas City: University of Kansas, June 1984) s.v.; see Harrison, "The Giant or The Morning Star," worušige-nąka, "the earbobs."

35 The name "Wears Faces on His Ears" is made from the same stem: Įčo-horušik-ka. In one story, wampum is simply called horušik (R. S., "Snowshoe Strings", 21).

36 T. T. Richards, "Relics from the Great Mound," American Naturalist 4, #1 (1870) 62-63; Williams & Goggin, "The Long Nosed God Mask in Eastern United States," 23; Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 147.

37 Duncan & Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 1.

38 Philip Phillips, and James A. Brown, with the collaboration of Eliza McFadden, Barbara C. Page, and Jeffrey P. Brain, Pre-Columbian Shell Engravings from the Craig Mound at Spiro, Oklahoma, 6 vv. (Cambridge, Mass.: Peabody Museum Press, c1975-1982); Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 539, fig. 2-108a; Diaz-Granados & Duncan, The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri, 212; Duncan & Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," : 4.

39 See Williams & Goggin, "The Long Nosed God Mask in Eastern United States," 55-58.

40 Williams & Goggin, "The Long Nosed God Mask in Eastern United States," 36, fig. 18.

41 Duncan & Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 6.

42 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 115.

43 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 115-118. The name is found only in translation.

44 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, 118.

45 Paul Radin, "A Man and His Three Dogs," in Notebooks, Freeman #3853 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Winnebago IV, #6: 143-147.

46 žigi Hočąk’ čínoknôkšgúni. wągwášoše xetéra hočįčįnįgią gičoínegi. p’įxjį. xetéhi nąúže, hahí warújenįk gip’į́giži ča-raxúra šana rúčgigis’áže. sagerékjege wágiúnąkše. James StCyr, "Fleetfoot," in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook 19, Story 2, 18.

47 Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 151. Duncan & Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 1-26.

48 Radin, Winnebago Hero Cycles, Red Horn Cycle, §11.

49 James A. Brown, "On the Identity of the Birdman within Mississippian Period Art and Iconography", in Reilly & Garber, Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms, 56-106 passim.

50 The separation of the Osage from the Hotcągara dates to ca. 1000 A.D. James Warren Springer, and Stanley R. Witkowski, "Siouan Historical Linguistics and Oneota Archaeology," in Guy E. Gibbon, ed., Oneota Studies, University of Minnesota Publications in Anthropology, #1 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982) 69-83.

51 Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 151. Pressing this line of argument, Hall connects this name to the Bi-Lobed Arrow Motif of the SECC, arguing that it may be a graphic depiction of the calumet. Hall, The Cultural Background of Mississippian Symbolism, 239-278.

52 James A. Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center: the Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern Oklahoma, 2 vols. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, no. 29 (Ann Arbor : Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, 1996) 523b.

53 Hamilton, "The Spiro Mound," 34-35. Spectroscopic analysis has yet to be carried out on this artifact — Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523b.

54 Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523b. "Both of the holes interrupt the 'feather' or 'spade' pattern on the blanket without their being a border or rim around the holes. Just such an absence of rim would be consistent with holes drilled after the blanket pattern had been finished."

55 Henry W. Hamilton, Hamilton, Henry W. "The Spiro Mound," Missouri Archaeologist, 14 (1952) 17-88 [33-34, plates 9-10].

56 Hamilton, "The Spiro Mound," 34-35. Charles C. Willoughby, "Textile Fabrics from the Spiro Mound," Missouri Archaeologist, 14 (1952) 107-124 [113], comments, "We may be sure that feather garments from capes to long cloaks were not uncommon use throughout the United States from New England to California in early historic days, although but few of them have been preserved. Some of them were not only warm and serviceable, but were beautifully wrought in attractive designs in various colors."

57 Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523b.

58 Hamilton, "The Spiro Mound," 35; Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523b.

59 Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523a.

60 Williams & Goggin, "The Long Nosed God Mask in Eastern United States," 35-37, 53. Brown, The Spiro Ceremonial Center, 523a, thinks that the noses are short because of the "limitation the material places on the sculpture."

61 Reilly, “People of Earth, People of Sky," 132.

62 Brown in Reilly & Garber, Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms, 99.

63 Duncan & Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 6.

64 Brown, "On the Identity of the Birdman", 56-106.

65 Robert J. Salzer, "Oral Literature and Archaeology," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 74, #1-4 (1993): 80-119 [84-85].

66 Salzer & Rajnovich, The Gottschall Rockshelter; Robert J. Salzer, "Wisconsin Rock Art," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 78, #1-2 (1997): 48-76. For the initial descriptions of the site, see Robert J. Salzer, "Preliminary Report on the Gottschall Site (471a80)," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 68, #4 (1987): 419-472; Robert J. Salzer, "A Wisconsin Rock Art Site," Wisconsin Academy Review, 33, #2 (1987) 67-70; Robert J. Salzer, "Introduction to Wisconsin Rock Art," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 68, #4 (1987): 277-287.

67 Salzer & Rajnovich, The Gottschall Rockshelter, 3.

68 Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 150. This is a letter from Robert Hall to Bob Salzer dated July 31, 1982 (Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 191 nt. 45).

69 Salzer & Rajnovich, The Gottschall Rockshelter, 21-33.

70 Hall remarks, An Archaeology of the Soul, 191 nt. 45, "Salzer ... identifies as Red Horn himself the figure I identified as the son of Red Horn by the red-haired giant, although the figure in the cave has no little heads on his ears, as either Red Horn or Red Horn's son by the woman with the white beaver skin wrap could be expected to have had."

71 Salzer, "Oral Literature and Archaeology," 88; Salzer & Rajnovich, The Gottschall Rockshelter, 63-67.

72 Legacies News: Newsletter of Cultural Landscape Legacies, Inc., 3 (April, 2005): 8-9.

73 Salzer & Rajnovich, The Gottschall Rockshelter; Pauketat, The Ascent of Chiefs, 83, 85, 91. Pauketat, Ancient Cahokia and the Mississippians, 117-118, 131.

74 "It may indeed be that some of the paintings were meant to record the Red Horn myth, but the evidence falls short of convincing." Ronald J. Mason, "Archaeology and Native North American Oral Traditions," American Antiquity, 65, #2 (April, 2000): 239-266 [255]. See also, Richard Dieterle in Legacies News, 8-9. See "Gottschall: A New Interpretation."

75 Discovered in 1990. See Carol Diaz-Granados, The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri: A Distributional, stylistic, Contextual, Functional, and Temporal Analysis of the State's Rock Graphics. 2 vols. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri..

76 Diaz-Granados, The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri; Hall, An Archaeology of the Soul, 148; Diaz-Granados & Duncan, The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri, 212; Duncan & Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 4; Diaz-Granados & Duncan, The Rock-Art of Eastern North America, 146-150; Diaz-Granados, "Marking Stone, Land, Body, and Spirit," in Townsend & Sharp, Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand, 148.

77 Duncan & Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 4.

78 Diaz-Granados & Duncan, The Rock-Art of Eastern North America, 146, and 148-149 (where they say he is also called "Hawk"), 150 (where one of his sons is identified with Morning Star), 203.

79 Diaz-Granados & Duncan, The Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Missouri, 212; much the same is said at Duncan & Diaz-Granados, "Of Masks and Myths," 4.