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Paul Radin, “Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian,” The Journal of American Folk-lore, 26, #102 (October-December, 1913): 293-318.


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Commentary


THE JOURNAL OF
AMERICAN FOLK-LORE
Vol. XXVI. — OCTOBER-DECEMBER, 1913 — No. CII

PERSONAL REMINISCENCES OF A WINNEBAGO
INDIAN
BY PAUL RADIN
Very many laymen and ethnologists have frequently brought against ethnological memoirs the indictment that they represented but the skeleton and bones of the culture they sought to portray; that what was needed, if we were ever to understand the Indian, was an interpretation of his life and emotions from within; which was what, for the most part, ethnological memoirs did not do.
To a very large extent, I think, this general indictment is quite correct, although issue might be taken with the manner in which it has been brought forward, especially with the lack of specific details as to how, indeed, an inside view of the Indian was to be obtained.
The answer to the “dry-as-bones” memoirs has taken two forms; either an attempt has been made to interpret such memoirs, or a “civilized” Indian has interpreted, as best he could, the memories of his childhood and his youth, and presented them in poetic English. The general criticism that might be applied to both these methods of procedure is, that they do not really give that which the critics of the ordinary descriptive memoir insist is vital, — an inside view of the Indian's emotional life. For to do that, it is a primary requisite that the Indian be a real Indian, and not a Christian looking back upon a “romantic” past.
In my studies among the Winnebago Indians, I happened to run across one of those serious and sedate middle-aged individuals whom one is likely to meet in almost every civilization, and who, if they chose to speak in a natural and detached manner about the culture to which they belonged, could throw more light upon the workings of an Indian's brain than any mass of information systematically and carefully obtained by an outsider.
Realizing that here was an excellent instrument for obtaining just what was so urgently needed, an inside view of an Indian's thoughts, I approached him with the

vol. xxvi.—no. 102.—19                    293

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idea of relating to me — whenever he chose, in any manner he chose — something about that culture of which he had formed an integral part up to the time of my coming among the Winnebago. I told him I wanted something about his beliefs and about the people he had met; but beyond that I did not guide him in any respect. Of course, one difficulty was encountered, one that is encountered everywhere, but most characteristically among the Indians, — the difficulty of presenting to a stranger memories, feelings, and facts that he had never been accustomed to arrange.
From this point of view, then, this inside view partakes of the artificial, and is most assuredly selective. Fortunately, my informant did very little arranging. The facts he chose to discuss were those, of course, that had impressed him most strongly during his forty-eight years of life. Everything he told me was told in Indian, and he was present when the English translation was made. Surely, no better opportunity for obtaining an “inside” view could be given.
There is still one danger lurking in the following pages. The language in which they were told is not literary or chosen Winnebago. The informant changes frequently from past to present tense, from direct to indirect discourse, etc. It is generally too concise and syncopated, and leaves much to be inferred by the reader. Add to this the ordinary difficulties of translating Indian into English, and it will easily be seen that the English rendering is liable to an interpretation, at the hands of “interpretative” minds, which may be utterly unjustified by the Winnebago itself. I cannot very well advocate the learning of Winnebago as an essential preliminary to the interpretation of the above pages; but that is, of course, what must be demanded of all those who refuse to accept approximations. The Winnebago original of this English account is printed below the rule. Words given in parentheses have been inserted to complete the sense. For explanation of alphabet see “Handbook of American Indian Languages,” Bulletin 40, Part I, Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 880 et seq. [see Commentary, "Phonetic Table"].
I. HOW ONE OF MY ANCESTORS WAS BLESSED BY EARTH-MAKER1
Wēcgī́́cega they called him. A Winnebago he was. When he was grown up, his father coaxed him to fast; (saying) that when Earth-Maker created the various spirits, as many good spirits as he made, all of them did he place in control of something. (The gift of) life, (of victory) in war, he put in control of some. Others

Wēcgī́́cêga higaírêgi. Hotcā́ñgijᴀⁿ herejế. Tcëkxêdếhugi hi-ā́ntchigi hāⁿdā́ginantc hak‘ārajī́́jê; mā́ⁿᵋnuṇa wāxopî́ni warā́tcirê wā́ᵋûñgi, djā́nᴀñga wāxopîni p‘íⁿṇa ᵋûñgíji, hanā́ⁿtciñxdjiⁿ wā́jiⁿṇuk‘òno wagigī́́jê. Ŭāñkcígo-îⁿ, wonā́jirê, kiruk‘ốnô wagigī́́jê. Hodā́ wātᵋḗhik‘ê hirekdjê,

1 This is really a version of a favorite story among the Winnebago. I believe that the only reason Blowsnake has associated it with one of his ancestors is because his father possessed a cane such as is mentioned at the end of the legend (cf. p. 298).

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were to be great hunters; that is what he blessed them with, what he gave to them. Again, some of the various spirits were to become very powerful. That is what they were put in control of; that is what he told them to fast for. Whatever practices and blessings the Indians (needed) to live, he placed in the hands of all the different and diverse spirits. These different things he gave them (the spirits). This is what he (the father) told him (the son) to try to find out (from the spirits). Thus he did.
When he (the young man) was fasting, he tried to find out something from the spirits. As he was fasting thus, he kept thinking, “Long ago Earth-Maker created the different spirits, and put every one of them in control of something, so people say. Earth-Maker, then, must truly be in control of everything. He must, then, be much more powerful (than the spirits). The different spirits, Earth-Maker created. He put them in charge of these (blessings); he gave them these gifts. Now, even as holy as these (spirits) are, so, assuredly, Earth-Maker must be mightier, holier,” he thought. He tried to dream of him (Earth-Maker). “What kind of a being is he?” he thought. As he was doing (fasting), he thought to himself, “Not any one of the different spirits have known him (Earth-Maker) as he was (that is, has he appeared to, in fasting); not even one of the different spirits has he blessed. I wonder if Earth-Maker would bless me; that is what I am thinking of.” So he thought, and, putting himself in a pitiable condition,1 he cried.2 He could not stop. “Earth-Maker, forsooth, I wish to obtain knowledge from,” he thought; “so that, if he does not bless me during the fasting, I shall assuredly die,” he thought. So to

jë́ske nā́ntcwirodjāⁿ hāniwagigī́́jê. Jigế hodā́ wāxopíni worā́tcirera hidadjếrekdjê. Jëskê hiṇuk‘ốnô wagigī́́gi, jëskê hagīnā́ⁿtccijề. Ŭā́ñkcigᴇnā̀ñgᴇrê hoixkốⁿṇa djāgúcᴀnᴀ ᵋū́nāñk‘ī wāxopíni warā́tcirera hok‘irā́tcᴇra hanā́ⁿtciⁿ nāⁿtcwirṓdjāⁿ. Hok‘irā́tc hāniwagī́́gijê. Jêê jếjëske hip‘érezᴇnaⁿìⁿcijê. Gī́́ji ᵋûⁿjế.
Hāⁿdā́gināntcgi wāxopî́ni hip‘érezᴇnā̀ⁿiⁿ waᵋûⁿjế. Gī́́ji hāⁿdā́gināntcgi wawewíⁿwiⁿᵋāñksᵋā̀jê, “Gīji hagârë́jᴀⁿ wāxopíni warā́tcirera máⁿᵋuṇa e waᵋûⁿjế hanā́ⁿtciñxdjiⁿ wajᴀnijā́ⁿcᴀnᴀⁿ hiruk‘ốnô wagigī́́jê, ā́nᴀñk‘-a. Māⁿᵋúnañk‘a ëxdjiⁿ wajôⁿnanā́ñtciñxdjiⁿ hiruk‘ốnônañk‘ìcni. Hiraitcerā́xdjiⁿnañk‘ùni. Wāxopî́́ni warā́tcirenᴀñgᴇrêrë̀cke. Mā́ⁿᵋuṇa éwawaᵋû̀ñgi. Jëske hiruk‘onaíⁿṇekdjê wogā́ra. Derë́ckera wā́k‘aⁿtcᴀñkdjinañk‘ā̀djaⁿ, mā́ⁿᵋúṇa wájaⁿ hekdjinàñk‘i, wak‘aⁿtcā́ñᴇra,” hiregíji. Hihāⁿdê nā́ⁿîñgi. “Djaskếxdjiⁿnañgi,” hirejế. ᵋuā́ñkᵋû̀ⁿ k‘iwewíwîñgā̀djaⁿ, “Hañk‘ế wàxopîni warā́tcirera hijaiⁿperếzᴇni, wāᵋúnañk‘i; wāxopī́́ni waratcirerarë́ckê hañk‘íjᴀⁿ nā́ⁿdjûⁿdjanigā̀djaⁿ. Djagŭấna māⁿᵋúnañk‘a naⁿdjûⁿdjấna, méjëske p‘ewímoñk‘.” Hiregíji, nā́ⁿdjok‘idjàⁿjê, γākgíji. Hañk‘ế naⁿcdjaⁿ ṇuxúrukᴇnìjê. “Mā́ⁿᵋuṇa, tcak‘ố, yap‘érezᴇnaⁿìñkdjê,” hirejế; “giji hañk‘ế nāⁿdjûⁿdjā́ⁿnickê jëgûⁿ hāⁿdā́ginantcirègi tcekdjê,” hirejế. Giji

1 A ritualistic manner of saying that he fasted.
2 Crying refers to the ceremonial wail.

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the utmost, with all his power, did he fast. Earth-Maker only he fasted for. At first, four days would he sleep;1 then six days he would sleep; then eight days he would sleep; then ten days he would sleep; and then twelve days he would sleep.2 After he had gotten thus far, he would eat. Yet (it was) quite positive that he had obtained no knowledge; that never (once) had he been blessed. Then he gave up (his fasting). As soon as he had reached the age of early manhood, he gave it up, and married.
He took his wife with him, and together they moved away to an out-of-the-way place. There they lived, he alone with his wife.
Then, again they commenced to fast, he with her. Earth-Maker he wished to dream of 3 before, and he felt that this time most assuredly would he die (if he did not appear to him) in the fasting. “Never had it been told that such a thing, that is, a blessing from Earth-Maker (has happened). I shall die during the fasting," he thought.
After a while, a child they had. It was a boy. He addressed his wife (and) asked her advice, saying that they ought to sacrifice their child to Earth-Maker. She consented. To Earth-Maker they will sacrifice it. They constructed a platform,4 and they placed (the child) upon it. And then both of them wept bitterly. In the nighttime, when they slept, Earth-Maker took pity on them, he said. He came to them, and they looked at him. He most certainly is the one; a soldier's uniform he wears; a high cocked-hat he carries on his head. His appearance was

ep‘ā́ hāⁿdaginántcᴇra māⁿcdjaⁿ ᵋûⁿjế. Māⁿᵋunā́cᴀnᴀⁿ haginā́ntccê. Tcëgếdja djobốhaⁿ, naⁿsᵋā́jê; hahī́́ hak‘ếwehaⁿ naⁿsᵋā́jê; jigiahí haruwốñgohaⁿ naⁿsᵋā́jê; hahí k‘erêpônohaíjᴀⁿ naⁿsᵋā́jê; hahí nûⁿbacᴀnáhaⁿ nañgī́́ji. Ep‘ā jêdjaíñxdjíⁿ p‘ā hiⁿpga ë́gi warutsᵋā́jê. Hiskếxdjiⁿ jëgŭañk‘ê wajîⁿp‘érêzᴇnìjê hañk‘agá wajáⁿnijᴀⁿ naⁿdjodjaⁿníjê. Hahík‘îñgìjê. Jédjûñga xêdê wogizṓkdjᴀñgi, rucdjā́nᴀñga hinûñk kanáñkcê.
Ë́gi hitcáwina hak‘arak‘íju gixônaíⁿṇejê maⁿwotcaíⁿnañxdjîⁿ. Hahí tcirejê hìtcáwinacᴀnᴀⁿ hak‘arak‘íju.
Ëgi jigế haⁿdáginantcìrejê hok‘ik‘íju. Mā́ⁿᵋuṇa hihaⁿdế rogúⁿnihera jédjûñga ë́dja hisgếxdjîⁿ tᵋḗkdjirejê hāⁿdáginandjedja. “Hañk‘agá hijaⁿ jë́skê horā́girani. Hāⁿdā́ginandjᴇrêgì, tcëkdjê,” hirejế.
Hagârë́jaⁿ hahí nîñkdjốñgᴇnîñgĭ-aⁿ hanínejê. Ŭañgᴇnî́ñgĭ-aⁿ herejế. Hitcáwina wagêjế hihók‘aragìjê, niñkdjốñkᴇnîñgra mā́ⁿᵋuṇa naⁿpigiruxā́tc hirekdjê, ejê. Giji hitcáwina k‘araxúruk‘i. Mā́ⁿᵋuṇa naⁿbigiruxā́djirejê. Hazadjíjaⁿ ᵋúiṇānᴀñga hihagếdja hatᵋû́ⁿpirejê. Ëgi jếdjûñga hinû́ⁿwiñk‘ê maⁿcdjaⁿ γágirejê. Haⁿhegā́djaⁿ naíⁿṇejê mā́ⁿᵋuṇa nāndjwodjaⁿjê éjê. Wiradji-ā́nᴀñga horuxúdjiregā̀djaⁿ. Hiskenaⁿdjếxdjiⁿjê manaⁿp‘e waíni ᵋŭā́nañga; wok‘ốnôñk‘ stā́k‘

1 Ritualistic expression for fasting. I believe that, after the first or second day of complete abstinence, the fasters, probably from weakness, really slept the greater portion of the day.
2 That is, he would sleep a certain number of days, and break his fast, then a longer period, and then another break, etc.
3 To be blessed by.
4 As the father belonged to the upper phratry, the child was buried on a scaffold.


Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian 297
pleasing. He (the man) looked at him. “I wonder whether it is Earth-Maker," he thought. Then he (the apparition) took a step. “He it must be, I was thinking," he thought.1 Then another step he took. That far now he moved. (Again) a step he took, and as he disappeared, moving, he uttered a cry. That one not Earth-Maker he was; a pigeon he was. They (the bad spirits) had fooled him.
Again, even more did his heart ache; even more was he wound up (in the desire to be blessed by Earth-Maker). Now, again he slept (fasted), and, indeed, Earth-Maker came to him. “Human, I bless you. Long have you wept to be blessed. Earth-Maker I am he," he said. When he looked at him, pleasing in appearance he looked. He (looked) was fine, and his clothing was pleasant to look at. “I wonder whether this is really Earth-Maker," he thought. He looked at him, and as he looked, he grew smaller, he thought. The fourth time he looked, a bird2 it was.
Then his heart ached even more. Bitterly did he cry. Now, for the third time, did Earth-Maker bless him, (saying), “Earth-Maker have you tried to dream of, and caused yourself great suffering. Earth-Maker I am he, and I bless you. Nothing will you be in want of; you will be able to understand the languages of your different neighbors; a long life you will not have to wish for; indeed, with every thing I bless you." Now, however, from the very first, his appearance did not inspire confidence,3 so that again (the man) he thought, “somebody must be fooling me."

hañkcíjaⁿ hok‘ônôñgā́nañga. Hádjara k‘arap‘iếsk‘exdjîⁿjề. Horuxútcceê. “Djagŭā́nackê mā́ᵋuṇa herénᴀⁿ,” hirejê gadjaⁿ. Nuⁿhaídjejê. “Jëskegúni yaréjarê,” hiregádjaⁿ. Jigê ruhai-djejê. Ép‘a dédjañk‘i. Ruhaidjê dowê ā́rejê gā́djaⁿ. Dê hañk‘ế māⁿᵋuṇa waᵋunidjếjê; djedjếdjijaⁿ waᵋûⁿdjếjê. Gicdjôñk‘érêgi.
Jigê idjaíra nantcgera dékcê; jigidjaíra hogirúdjasê. Ëgi jigế nañgádjaⁿ jếdjûñga māⁿᵋúṇa hidjádjijê, “Uañkcikᵋế naⁿdjonidjấna. Sᵋi ragā́kcᴀnᴀⁿ. Mā́ⁿᵋuṇa newinḗnᴀⁿ,” ejê. Horuxitcgádjaⁿ k‘arap‘iếskijê. Horuxúdjᴇra p‘îⁿjế, waíniṇa k‘arap‘iếske ᵋû́ⁿjê. “Djagŭā́nacke dêế mā́ⁿᵋuṇa waᵋû́ⁿdjânaⁿ,” hirejế-gadjaⁿ. Horuxúdjᴇra hok‘ugági, hiranáⁿîⁿjê. Hidjobốhôⁿṇa horuxutcgā́djaⁿ, stastak‘éjaⁿ waᵋûⁿdjêje.
Nantcgéra hidjaíra dëkcê. Māⁿcdjáⁿ γakcê. Hidaníhôⁿṇa jigê māⁿᵋúⁿa jếdjûñga naⁿdjonidjáⁿjê,“Maⁿᵋuṇa hirahā́ⁿdê naⁿṇacᵋĭā́nᴀñga hawerak‘icáwañgra. Mā́ⁿᵋuṇa newinénᴀⁿ, naⁿdjonidjấnᴀⁿ. Hañkế ‘wajáⁿnijaⁿ ṇoragúnikdjônènᴀⁿ; tcinốñgijàⁿ hitᵋe djagúrackê hanā́ntc wananā́ñxgûñkdjônènᴀⁿ; ŭañkcîgoᵋíṇa hañk‘ế rorā́gunîkdjônènᴀⁿ; djaguranaⁿtcî́ñxdjîⁿ nadjironidjā́ṇaⁿ.” Ëgê tcëgếdja djaski-ā́djᴇra hañk‘ế horuxúdjᴇra, jëskê hanîⁿdjếjê, ëdjā́xdjîⁿ jigế dêế, “Wajîⁿdjahî́ⁿjê

1 The change from indirect to direct discourse is very confusing here, and is probably due to forgetfulness on the part of the informant.
2 I do not know the English equivalent of the bird.
3 A free translation is impossible here.

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A bird1 it was. “Now, indeed, I will not eat, but I wish to die,” he thought. “As many bad birds (as there are, that many) have made sport of me.” They were, indeed, doing it.
Earth-Maker on high, where he sat, knew of (all this). (The man's) voice he heard. “Wecgícega, you are crying. To the earth I am coming,” he said to him. “Your father, O Wecgícega! has told me.” When he (Wecgícega) looked, he saw a ray of light extending very clearly from above to the earth. To his camp it extended. “Wecgícega, you will see me, you said. That, however, I cannot do. Yet this (the ray of light) is I. You have seen me.”
Not any war-powers was he blessed with, only with life was Wecgícega blessed. The light came from Earth-Maker. To the earth it reached. He made a copy of it on a cane. To this he would offer tobacco. As they approached it, life they would ask from it; and at the present time they are still doing it.
2. REMINISCENCES OF CHILDHOOD
When I was a very small child, the first thing that has staid in my memory (is how) my father carried me (to some place), where, looking around, I saw a long lodge full of Indians. And there was an old man with very gray hair, drumming and singing. Near the man who was singing, we took our seats. There my father carried me. Closely and intently did I look at the man who was singing. I liked it

hîngicdjốñk‘êdjegùni,” hirejế gadjaⁿ. Cîñk‘ok‘ogíjaⁿ waᵋûⁿdjéjê. “Jédjûñga jëdja, tcak‘ố, hañk‘ê wahádjᴇni, jëgûⁿ tcëkdjê,” hirejê. “Djā́nᴀñga wanîñk‘ cicîgᴇrági hîñkcakcaírê.” Hirejê gadjaⁿ.
Māⁿᵋuṇa ᵋŭañgᴇrêgináñk‘i hip‘éressê gadjaⁿ. Hitᵋéra nañxgû́ⁿjê. “Wecgícera, rajagᴇrádjegê naⁿṇégi adjī́́nᴀⁿ,” higếjê. “Higû́ⁿ hi-ā́ndjiṇa, Wecgícera,” hîñgếjê. Horuxitcgádjàⁿ ᵋŭáñgᴇrêgi hadak‘ā́tc p‘îñxdjîⁿjaⁿ maⁿṇégi hirak‘erêdjejê. Yotcíra ë́djaxdjîⁿ hirak‘érê waᵋûⁿdjéjê. “Wecgī́́cera hiⁿcdjákdjê hicéra. Hañk‘ê jëskê haduxúrugᴇninᴀⁿ. Mêế newinénᴀⁿ hiⁿcdjánᴀⁿ,” higếjê.
Hañk‘ế wonáγirê naⁿdjirodjáⁿijê; ŭañkcîgoᵋîⁿṇácᴀnᴀxdjîⁿ naⁿdjirodjáⁿjê Wecgīcega. Haⁿbᴇra māⁿᵋúṇa ëdjowádji. Maⁿṇégi hirak‘erêdjèga. Hirok‘íᵋûⁿ hisagúîⁿjaⁿ ᵋûⁿjê. Jêế dani-ogíju hahúirêgi ŭañkcîgoᵋîⁿ gidanáñkcᴀnᴀⁿ; higû́ⁿ mejêgunegíckê higûⁿ waᵋunáñkcᴀnᴀⁿ.

Hixônốxdjîñgᴇrềgi tcë́kdjîⁿ wanaⁿî́ⁿtcûⁿ hadjinốgᴇra, djádjiga hiṇuốⁿnôñkcᴀnᴀⁿ woduzuzútcgadjaⁿ tcísêrêdjìjaⁿ, ŭañkcîgᴇroíxdji-àñkcᴀnᴀⁿ. Ë́gi ŭáñgᴇnunaⁿdju sañxdjî́ⁿjaⁿ reγodji-ā́nᴀñga naⁿwáⁿnañkcᴀ̀nᴀⁿ. Naⁿwáⁿnañk‘a ë́dja ackéniñk‘ mianáñganañgwìnᴀⁿ. Djádjiga hiṇu-ā́nañga. Ŭañgᴇnúnîñk naⁿwáⁿnañgrê hoduxútcinᴀⁿ wogízokdjîⁿ. Hagip‘ī́́nᴀⁿ, djagŭấnᴀ

1 English equivalent unknown, probably a species of timber-quail.

Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian 299
very much, and I wondered to myself whether, at some later time, I, too, would be able to say what he was saying. Thus I was thinking. How I yearned and prayed to be able to say what he was saying! Thus I thought.
As I grew up into manhood, all the desires that I had then remained with me; and at all times I knew (that all these desires) were still uppermost in my heart. Never did they stop agitating me. I knew that at all times I wished to learn the songs that I had heard this old man sing when I was a small child, and that I had liked so much. This was the desire that was very strong within me at all times. All the old customs of the Indians I wished to practise thoroughly. I know that it was this thought that I used very much;1 and that is why, from the very first time I killed deer, I enjoyed it so much.2 From that time on, sometimes I would be in charge of the ceremonial deer-hunts; for the feasts I was able to obtain the deer.3 As many deer as were used, that many I myself would kill. For the feast we gave (sometimes) twelve deer. (I would kill) sometimes only eight; (while sometimes) I could not get any more than six for me to put into the kettles.
My uncles, all of them, said to me that I was doing well, and that the warbundle would surely be mine. That they told me. “You will have full charge of it (the bundle), and whatever speeches your ancestors have delivered, they will be yours. May we be there then (with you)! If you will utter your thankfulness to the spirits, whatever speeches our parents and ancestors delivered

hahí déjëskê eduxúrugᴇnaⁿ. Yarénᴀⁿ. Ënaī́́ñxdjîⁿ jë́skê hihe duxúrûgcèjê! Yarénᴀⁿ.
Ë́gi jigế hagârë́jaⁿ hîñxêdế hiwusúntc hahínᴀⁿ, hoicî́p djagu roᵋā́gûⁿ hanihéga hoicî́pdjîⁿ naⁿtcgi-ā́níṇegi yap‘érêsdiⁿ hanihéᴀⁿ. Higŭā́ñk‘aga hiṇucdjáninᴀⁿ. Naⁿwaⁿ yap‘erêzséjê jë́skê ro-ā́gûⁿnᴀⁿ hoicî́pdjaⁿ hîñxônúnîñgᴇrềgi yap‘erêzgádjaⁿ uañgᴇnúnîñgĭaⁿ naⁿwáⁿnañgᴇra hagíp‘inᴀⁿ. Wowéwîⁿ jêế hoicî́p maⁿcdjā́ñxdjinᴀⁿ hicínᴀⁿ. Ŭañkcî́k wocgáñgᴇrê hanā́ⁿtcîⁿ yap‘erêzdî́ñkdjê. Yaréra wowéwîⁿ jêế yaᵋû́ñxjîⁿnᴀⁿ, ëskê djadjaíñxdjîⁿ tca tᵋéhi hak‘ip‘ínᴀⁿ. Jêdjaíñxdjîⁿ wanaⁿséra hagaíracgê iⁿnék‘i haᵋuáⁿdjaᵋûⁿ; wogígâra duxúrûkcᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Tcára djánᴀñga hiᵋúiṇecᴀnùnᴀⁿ, jë́nûñga tᵋehága. Ë́gi wagigấra haᵋû́ⁿwicᴀnùnᴀⁿ tcára kerêp‘ônaíjaⁿ nûⁿbácᴀnᴀⁿ; haruwốñk ducᵋákdjîñga, hak‘ếwê wahaⁿcᴀnúnᴀⁿ.
Hagârë́jaⁿ hiándjwahàra hanáⁿtciⁿ waigaírenᴀⁿ p‘îⁿhádjegê waruγábᴇra nêánijê hîñgaírenᴀⁿ. “Nerak‘úruk‘ônồnᴀⁿ hoítᵋêtᵋéra djagú ādjírêgi uañgᴇnúnîñgᴇra nêacînínᴀⁿ. Hidja nañgwícgê. Wāxop‘î́ni wa-ináñginaⁿbikdjègi hicëkdjénᴀⁿ, ëskê hoitᵋêtᵋéra cᵋagi-ahíwigi djagú waruγápdjanê


1 He means that the thoughts and desires were as much the cause of his success in attaining his ambition as any of his actions. To the Winnebago (as I understand them), thoughts, desires, hopes, etc., are as real and as efficacious as any data acquired directly through the senses.
2 He is referring to the deer killed for some religious feast.
3 A very great honor for a young man.

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in connection with the war-bundle, these all will be yours. Those who do all these things carefully will be like a set of brothers.” All this they will do for that one (who observes all these customs); and I was the one, they told me.
And now if in a family they think highly of some one person, they would give the means of life. If they thought highly of us, our lives they would select for us. Thus my uncles informed me how we (human beings) first came into the world. And if any one in our family had a child named, it was my father who did it. From now on, he gave that right to me. Our clan, as many as there were, for that many I would have the right to give a name, if they wished it. I would go through the ceremony. That work was mine. At any time I could perform it.
Four men Earth-Maker sent here from above; and when they came, all their various characteristics were used for making proper names. Thus at the present day, the characteristics of the thunder-birds, all of their actions, are used as proper names. Thus my father told me. (At the beginning), four men came from above. And from that fact there is a name, He-who-comes-from-Above; and for a woman there is the name She-who-comes-from-Above. From above, four men Earth-Maker sent down. And since they came like spirits, there is a name, Spirit-Man; and for a woman, Spirit-Woman. And as there was a drizzling fog when the four men came from above, so there are names, Walking-in-Mist, Comes-in-Mist; and a woman they would call Drizzling-Rain-Woman. It is said that when they first came to Dérôk,1 they alit upon some brushes, and bent them down; and from

ë́dja adjírêgi hanā́ⁿtciñxdjîⁿ nê-ácîninᴀⁿ. Uáñgonihera hijérega hijáⁿ wocgốⁿ dêê harucérëtcga.” Ë dếjëskê gigiresᵋági; nêwinéjê, hîñgaírenᴀⁿ.
Ëgi jigế uañgonihéra hijérêgi hijáⁿ p‘îⁿhiranáⁿîⁿṇega eyoikᵋûⁿṇésᵋajê. Uáñkcîgoᵋîⁿ haníwiṇa hijáⁿ p‘îⁿṇa naⁿî́ⁿṇega earadjiresᵋájê. Hiandjwahára uañkeîgoᵋíⁿṇa djagú wak‘ik‘awaᵋû́ⁿwigi ne p‘eres ᵋúinenᴀⁿ. Ëgi jigê uañgonihéra hijérêgi hijañk‘íra nîñkdjôñk racᵋûⁿsᵋájê. Giji djádjiga erëdjᴀⁿ ᵋûⁿwë́rêgi hûñkᵋúnᴀⁿ. Ë́p‘a uáñgoni haniwína djānᴀñga haniwî́ñgi hijáⁿ rac tcûⁿ rogigû́ⁿiṇegi. Ne rajaᵋûñkdjê, hîñgaírêgi. Hihanấnᴀ. Worê jêế nianiṇérêgi. Djandjánᴀñgi hihananấnᴀⁿ.
Uáñgᴇra djop‘íwi māⁿᵋúṇa ë́dja huwagigíra ᵋuañgếdja hahúirega ë́p‘a hoixgốⁿṇa djagú ᵋúiejê hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ jêế rajᴇra erérënᴀⁿ. Higû́ⁿ haⁿp dêế wak‘andjára hoixgôñxgốṇa djagu ᵋúnañgᴇrê hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ jếê rajᴇra ererếnᴀⁿ djádjiga hîñgénᴀⁿ. Uáñgᴇra djop‘íwi uáñgᴇrêgi hahúirera jêê rajíjaⁿ herë́nᴀⁿ Uañgêdjáhuga; ëgi hínû́ñgᴇra hijérêgi rajᴇra Uañgêdjahúwîñga. Ëgi uáñgᴇra djop‘íwi ᵋuáñgᴇrêgi māⁿᵋúṇa huwagigíra waxop‘íni hik‘ískê hahúirega ëskê rajíjaⁿ jêérenᴀⁿ, Uañgwáxop‘iniga; ëgi hínûñgᴇra hijérêgi hinûñg Wáxop‘iniwîñga. Ëgi uáñgᴇra djop‘íwi ᵋuáñgᴇrêgi māⁿᵋúṇa ëdja huwagigíra nijuxotcgura xi hahúirejê ë́skê rajíjaⁿ jêérenᴀⁿ Ximánîñga, Xigúga; ëgi hinûñgᴇra Nijuxotcgêwîñga airanā́nᴀⁿ. Ëgi


1 The name of the place where the Winnebago are supposed to have originated. It is near the city of Green Bay, Wis.

Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian 301
this fact there is a name, She-who-bends-the-Brushes. On the limb of an oak-tree that stood there, they alit; and they bent it down as they alit on its branches. From this there is a name, She-who-bends-the-Branches-down. And since they alit on the tree, there is a name, He-who-alights-on-a-Tree and She-who-alights-on-a-Tree; and from the tree itself there is the name Oak-Woman. Thus they would say. And because they stepped from the oak-tree to the ground, from the fact of their stepping on the ground, there is a name, He-who-alights-on-the-Ground; and the woman they would call She-who-alights-on-the-Ground. And since they came with the thunder-birds, there is a name, Thunder-bird; and for a woman, Thunder-bird-Woman, and White-Thunder-bird and White-Thunder-bird-Woman, and Black-Thunder-bird and Black-Thunder-bird-Woman. And since the thunder-birds thunder, there is a name, He-who-thunders; and for a woman, She-who-thunders. And since they make the noise tcinwin, people are called He-who-makes-Tcinwin, and some are called He-who-comes-making-Tcinwin; for it is said that the thunder-birds come making the sound tcinwin. When the thunder-birds walk, rain accompanies them; and from this fact we have a name, He-who-walks-with-Rain, while the woman would be called She-who-walks-with-Rain. And since the thunder-birds come walking, we have a name, Walking-Thunder; and since the thunder-birds walk with a mighty tread when they start out, there is a name, He-who-comes-walking-with-a-Mighty-Tread, and for a woman, (the name) She-who-comes-walking-with-a-Mighty-Tread; and since the earth shakes when they commence walking, there is a name, He-who-shakes-the-earth-with-force, and for a woman, She-who-shakes-the-earth-with-force. So they would say. Now, when

tcëkdjinᴀ derôk airêgi ëdja djidjérêgi xoxawaídja hadjidjérejê gadjaⁿ hanốⁿzogirèjê, jếê rajíjaⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Xaⁿwiánôⁿzogewîñga. Ë́gi jigê tcacgêgúijᴀⁿ ëdjádjegi ak‘aratcgếdja hadjidjéregadjaⁿ ak‘áratcgèra hanôⁿzógirejê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Náⁿnazógêwîñga; ëgi jigế náⁿdjega ëdja hadjidjérenᴀⁿ ë́skê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Náⁿdjidjega, Naⁿdjidjêwîñga; ëgi náⁿdjega rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Tcacgêgúwîñga. Airanấnᴀⁿ. Náⁿdjega tcacgëgúijᴀⁿ heregế ë́skê ë́gi maíndja hidjérejê maiⁿdjidjérega jêế rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Maiⁿdjidjéga, ëgi híjûñgᴇra Maiⁿdjidjêwîñga wigairesᵋā́jê. Ëgi jigế wak‘ándja wak‘íju hadjírega jêế rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Wak‘andjága, ëgi jigế hínûñgᴇra Wak‘andjáwîñga; ëgi jigế Wak‘andjáskaga, hinûñgera Wak‘andjaskáwîñga; ë́gi jigế Wak‘andjásepga, hínûñgᴇra Wak‘andjásebîñga; ëgi jigế wak‘andjánañgrê kᵋónañk‘ê, jêê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Kᵋónihéga, ëgi hinûñgᴇra Kᵋonihéwîñga; ëgi jigế kᵋoírega tcîⁿwîⁿhírañk‘ê Tciⁿwîⁿdjik‘erêhiga, airesᵋā́jê ëgi jigê hodá. Tciⁿwîñgúga rajᴇra airesᵋā́jê, wak‘andjára hagúirega tcíⁿwîⁿañgùañk‘ê. Ëgi jigế wak‘andjánᴀñgᴇrê nijú manínañk‘ê rajíjᴀⁿ je-érenᴀⁿ Nijumániga, hinûñgᴇra Nijumaníwîñga wigaíresᵋajê; ëgi wak‘andjánoñk‘a mani-añgúirêgi, jêế rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Wak‘andjámanîñga; ë́gi jigê wak‘andjára mani-añgúirêgi maⁿcdjáⁿ mani-añgúirêgi rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Maⁿcdjaⁿmánîñga, hínûñgᴇra Maⁿcdjaⁿmaníwîñga wigairesᵋájê; ëgi jigê wak‘andjára maⁿni-añgúirega maⁿṇá giksûntc hagúnôñk‘a rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Mañgíksûntcga,


302                                         Journal of American Folk-Lore
the thunder-birds walk, they shake the earth, and thus there is a name, He-who-shakes-the-Earth-by-Walking; and for a woman, She-who-shakes-the-Earth-by-Walking. And since there is always wind and hail when the thunder-birds come, we have a name, He-who-comes-with-Wind-and-Hail. Now, since one of the thunder-birds (i.e., of the first four from which all the others have sprung) came first, there is a name, He-who-walks-First; and since one of them was the leader, therefore there is the name Thunder-bird-Leadcr, and for the woman, Thunder-bird-Female-Leader. Now, since the thunder-birds flash (their eyes) in every direction, so we have the name Flashes-in-every-Direction, and there is a woman's name (like the above). Now, we don't see the thunder-birds, but we see their flashes only; and thus there is a female name, Only-a-flash-of-Lightning-Woman; and since the thunder-birds (flash) streaks of lightning, there is a name, Streak-of-Lightning; and since cloudiness is caused by the thunder-birds walking in the clouds, there is a name, He-who-walks-in-the-Clouds. Now, since the thunder-birds have long wings, there is a name, He-who-has-Long-Wings. And, again, since a thunder-bird in a flash of lightning will (at times) strike a tree, there is a name, He-who-strikes-a-Tree; and, again, for the action of hitting a tree, there is a name, He-who-hits-a-Tree, and for a woman, She-who-hits-a-Tree. So they would say, it is said. Now, when the thunder-birds come, they come with terrible thunder-crashes, it is said; and as many people as there are on this earth,

hínûñgᴇra Mañgiksûntcwîñga. Wigaíresᵋajê. Ë́gi wak‘andjára hagúirega maⁿṇa nañksû́ntc hagúiresᵋàjê gíji jêê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Maⁿnañksûntcga hínûñgᴇra Maⁿnañksûndjêwîñga; ë́gi jigế wak‘andjára hagúirega maⁿᵋé hagúirecᴀnùnᴀⁿ jếê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Maⁿᵋêmanîñga. Ë́gi jigê wak‘andjánañk‘i hijáⁿ tconi djéjê hagúirega ë́skê jêế rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Tconimániñga; wak‘andjánañk‘a hijᴀ́ⁿ tconídjega hawáᵋûⁿ jigế jêê rajíjAⁿ herénⁿ, Wak‘andjátconîñga, hinûñgᴇra Wák‘andjatconìwîñga. Wak‘andjánañgrê djáⁿbirega wákcañkcaⁿ djirêhínañgrê jêê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Djaⁿbwakcáñkcañga, ëgi hinû́ñk rájᴇra. Wak‘andjánañgrê hañk‘ế hiwadjáwini-ā̀nañga djaⁿbᴇra-cᴀnᴀⁿtcsⁿtᵋî́ⁿnañk‘ê jêê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, hinûñk rajíjᴀⁿ Djaⁿᴇrácᴀnᴀⁿ-tcaⁿtᵋîⁿwîñga; ë́gi wak‘andjánañgrê djaⁿp djicêhínañk‘a rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Djaⁿpdjirêhíga; ë́gi jigế wak‘andjánañgrê mañxíwi manínañkcᴀnᴀⁿ mañxiwíxdjîñgàcᴀnᴀⁿ ë́dja máni-añgunàñkcᴀnᴀⁿ, jêê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Mañxíwimànîñga; ë́gi jigế wak‘andjánañgrê ahúra seretcinâñkcᴀnᴀⁿ jêê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Ahúseretcga; ë́gi jigê wak‘andjánañgrê djáⁿbirega naⁿṇa hijᴀ́ⁿ ë́dja djidjêhíranânᴀⁿ ë́skê rajíjᴀⁿ jeérenᴀⁿ Nodjôⁿpga; ë́gi jigê wak‘andjándjánañgrê naⁿnijodjíṇega naⁿhodjínôñk‘a rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Nódjîñga, ë́gi jigê hinûñgᴇra Nodjíwîñga. Wigaíresᵋājê, aírera. Ë́gi jigế wak‘andjánañgrê hagúirega rudjáxᴇra rok‘ốnô waᵋúiṇenᴀⁿ aírecᴀnùnᴀⁿ; uañkcî́gᴇra djā́nañga maⁿṇégi-añk‘i é jêê hererā́nᴀñga djā́nañga wani-oítcgera maⁿnégi-añk‘i here-ā́nᴀñga xawinanấnᴀⁿ djānañgā́k‘a hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ niju hirā́nᴀñga wak‘andjánañgrê 

 


Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian 303
and as many animals as there are on the earth, and as many plants as there are on the earth, indeed, everything, the earth itself, they deluge with rain, and thunder-crashes (are heard), — for all this they have a name; they call him Warudjáxega.1
3. THUNDER-CLOUD AND MY FATHER
There is a man named Thunder-Cloud, whom the white people also call Thunder-Cloud. It is said that he is living his third life as a human being.2 He had lived once long ago, had joined the Medicine Dance and had strictly adhered to all its precepts. A good man he was; no one did he dislike; never did he steal; and never did he fight. He did everything in connection with the Medicine Dance carefully. This ceremony he performed well, they told him. He thought it was true, and that is why he did it.3 Offerings of tobacco he made; and he would always be giving feasts; and sacrificial soup he would prepare, they say. Just as they expected, so he always did.
Once, long ago, he had reached old age and had died. The sacred affair (the Medicine Dance) he had finished, it is said. That he had done; so up above, where all those who have heeded the injunctions of the Medicine Dance go, there he went.4 There (in the heavens) he lived, and there he took a wife, and there he lived with her.
In the early time the Medicine Dance was not as it is now. Someone had been

máⁿnañgrê é jêê wárudjaxᴇnàñkcᴀnᴀⁿ ë́skê wánañkcᴀnᴀⁿ warudjáxega ā́nañgrê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Warudjáxega.

Uañgíjᴀⁿ Mañxíwiga higaínenᴀ, maⁿhíñxêdê hitᵋé rajᴇra Thunder-Cloud higaírenᴀⁿ. Jêê wénᴀⁿ uañkcî́g ak‘íhaⁿ ā́nañgrê jë́skejaⁿṇènᴀⁿ. Hagârë́jᴀⁿ sᵋiredjā́ñxdjîⁿ uañkcigᵋî́ⁿjê giji mañk‘ā́ni wocgốⁿ ᵋûⁿjê wocgốⁿ p‘îⁿhi ā́nañgrê jëskéjᴀⁿ herejế. Uáñkcik p‘îⁿā́nañga hañk‘ế uañkcîk hocᵋíginisᵋā̀jê; háñk‘aga wak‘izáni-anañga hañk‘aga wamaṇúnijê. Ëgi mañk‘óᵋuṇa haizóxdjîⁿjê. Wocgốⁿ jêê p‘î́ⁿjê hogirágirêgi. Hiskêranáⁿîñgi ᵋûⁿjê. Dani wogíjura p‘îⁿhijế wagigā́ra hoicîp wagigosᵋā́jê, waxop‘ini niⁿdák‘atc gigi, ā́nañk‘a. Djaskếxdjîⁿ wagánañk‘iji jëskếxdjîⁿ hoicîp híjê.
Ë́gi hagârë́jᴀⁿ cᵋokdjînigā́nañga tᵋéjê. Wocgốⁿ p‘iⁿṇa hijếdjaⁿhi ā́nañgrê. Jë́skê híjê; giji ᵋuañgᴇrêgi mañk‘ā́ⁿni wocgốⁿ p‘îⁿhíra hatcî́ndja nañk‘íji ë́dja gíjê. Ë́dja tcíjê hijᴀ́ⁿ hitcáwîⁿ hijê hak‘araík‘itci ë́djanañkcê.
Giji mañkóᵋŭañgrê tcëgếdja djaskê gû́ⁿzirêgi jëgúṇegi jë́skê ā́ni-añk‘ê. Hijᴀ́ⁿ p‘îⁿᵋûⁿ hukdjê aírejê; ha-éhiregàdjᴀⁿ ë́cᴀnᴀⁿ p‘îⁿhíjê aírejê.

1 This is the narrator's name. It signifies “terrible thunder-crash.”
2 Thunder-Cloud is one of the few individuals still found among the Winnebago, who claim they are living their third life on earth. I was fortunate enough to obtain his own account of his lives; and this will be published in a different connection.
3 It must be remembered that the narrator was no longer a pagan when he dictated these texts, and the old beliefs seem false to him.
4 It is one of the cardinal doctrines of the Medicine Dance, that whosoever observes all its teachings will, after death, reside up above with Earth-Maker, and will be given the choice of living on earth again in whatsoever form he desires.

304                                         Journal of American Folk-Lore
sent to put (the world) in order, it is said; and he alone had arranged it after they had counselled about it.1
He (Thunder-Cloud) is to come on earth again, so he fasted; only once a month did he eat. All the different spirits that are above, they all blessed him; all those who live on earth blessed him; and all those who live under the earth blessed him: indeed, all the different spirits whom Earth-Maker had created, blessed him. Up above he fasted, and thus it was. Then he came to this earth. As a human being he was born again. When he arrived here, he fasted again; but he didn't fast much. He fasted only once in a while, and at night. The different spirits blessed him every once in a while; with some (power) they blessed him. Then he would sleep (i.e., fast) for two or three days at a time, and some one of the different spirits would come and bless him. Then four days he fasted; and now, as many as there were who had blessed him, these different spirits did it again. The different spirits, all of them (dwelling) above where Earth-Maker sits, came and blessed him who was now fasting on earth for the second time. Thus he became a holy man, and because he was holy, he became a bad shaman.2 When he came, he became a shaman, for he was very holy: indeed, he was a North-Spirit.3
Indeed, he was my brother-in-law. When he went around doctoring, I would go along with him. Very holy I used to think he was. Once when I was sick, he

Ë́skê maⁿṇégi howáhukdjegi, ëdja haⁿdáginantcê gíji wijôñgácᴀnᴀⁿ warutsᵋájê waxop‘îni warádjirera djā́nᴀñga ᵋuáñgᴇrêgi ā́k‘i hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ naⁿdjodjaíⁿṇejê, ëgi maⁿṇégi djánᴀñgak‘i hanā́ⁿtcîⁿ naⁿdjodjaíⁿṇejê mañk‘úhaⁿṇegi jigê djanᴀñgák‘i hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ naⁿdjodjaíⁿṇejê; waxop‘ini warádjirera wajᴀñgû́ⁿzᴇra djā́nañga ᵋûñgíji hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ naⁿdjodjaíⁿṇejê. ᵋUañgᴇrêgi haⁿdáginantcgi je jë́gûⁿ hijê. Ëgi maⁿṇégi howáhugi. Uañkcî́gᴇrêgi hadjí hakdjá uañkcikᵋî́ⁿjê. Ë́gi jigê hadji ᵋûⁿdjáᵋûⁿ haⁿdáginantcê; hañk‘ế haⁿdáginandjᴇra rok‘ốnôxdjîⁿ waᵋúnijê. Higû́ⁿ hagaíracgê háhaⁿhe hi-ā́nañga nᴀñga. Waxop‘íni warádjire naⁿdjodjaíⁿṇesᵋajê hagak‘írahaⁿ nñga; jigê nîñgê naⁿdjodjáiⁿṇesᵋajê. Hahi nûⁿbáhᴀⁿ daniháñxdjîⁿ nᴀñga jigê waxop‘î́ni warádjirera ë́dja hijᴀ́ⁿ hagŭā́djiranᴀñga naⁿdjodjaiⁿṇesᵋā́jê hagaíracgê hiradjirā́nᴀñga naⁿdjodjaíⁿnesᵋajê. Hahi djobốhaⁿ naⁿjế ëgi jë́djûñga waxop‘î́ni warâdjirera djā́nañga naⁿdjodjánihera ë́dja jigế hanáⁿtcîⁿ  p‘îⁿhi naⁿdjodjaíⁿṇejê. ᵋUañgᴇrêgi māⁿᵋúṇa hominốñgêdja haⁿdáginandjᴇra waxop‘îni warádjirê naⁿdjodjáⁿṇanihèra hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ jigê hak‘íhaⁿ maⁿṇégi hadjí naⁿdjodjaíⁿṇejê. Ëskê uañgwak‘aⁿtcáñgijᴀⁿ herejế. Hok‘ᴀ́ⁿ wañxk‘èjᴀⁿ herejê wak‘atcáñkdjegê. Ë́gi hagârëjᴀⁿ hadjí uañkdocếwejê giji wak‘aⁿtcáñkcê hisgếdja warazíjᴀⁿ herejế.
Ë́gi hagârë́jᴀⁿ hitcáⁿhara. Ë́skê uañkdócêwê regácgê, hak‘íju hahicᴀnúnᴀⁿ. Hisgếdja wák‘aⁿtcañk hiranáⁿíⁿcᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Hagârë́jᴀⁿ hap‘ajánᴀⁿ,

1 He refers to the four culture-heroes despatched by Earth-Maker to rid the world of evil spirits and protect the human beings. Hare, the last one, succeeded, and before returning, with the aid of the other three, instituted the Medicine Dance.
2 Literally, a poisoner.
3 That is, the re-incarnation of the North-Spirit.

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treated me. As soon as he came, my father arose with his tobacco and made him an offering, greeting him as follows: —
“My son-in-law, tobacco do I offer you, and I make offerings to your spirits. You have made your hat1 become holy, for the various spirits made the hat holy for you. I greet you.”
Speaking thus, he arose, crying. Then the one they were pouring tobacco for blessed us all.
My father used to preach to me, to this effect: —
“Never overdo anything,” he told me.2 “The war-bundle bearers practise in the same way” (as the professional shaman),3 he said. “The carrying of the war-bundle makes a weakling of nobody (i.e., it makes one strong). Those who carry the war-bundle will not be killed, the spirits would see to that,” he told me. “If an Indian who is held in great honor falls ill, and you cure him, the people will consider you a holy man (shaman), and they will greet you with the ceremonial greeting. Not anything (of social standing) will you obtain, (unless you do this). An honored Indian is about to die, and it is up to you (to show your skill). Thus thinking, they will greet you: ‘You won't do well in anything, if you don't succeed

ë́gi hî́ñk‘icerènᴀⁿ. Tcëkdjínᴀⁿ hidjádjira, djadjiga dani hánitᵋaⁿpdjirā̀nañga daniogíju ruhî́ntccᴀnᴀⁿ wagénᴀn.
Wadohótcira daniónîñgijùra waxop‘îni waratcábᴇra wánîñgiduhìntccᴀnᴀⁿ wok‘ốnôñgra wák‘aⁿtcañk rák‘aragicônôñk‘i. Ë́gi waxop‘î́ni warádjirera wok‘ốnôñgra wák‘aⁿtcañk nîñgirírêgi nîñgiduhî́ntccᴀnᴀⁿ.”
Γágᴇnaⁿji-ā̀nañga higénᴀⁿ. Ë́gi dani-ogíjuirànañk‘a hîñk‘úruhîndjwìnᴀn.
Djádjiga hoík‘unᴀⁿwénᴀⁿ. “Hañk‘ế wajᴀⁿ ṇok‘ốnô huni-ā́djê,” hîñgénᴀn.
“Sakᵋína uañkdocếwêdjaⁿṇê hík‘ik‘iskaìrejê,” énᴀⁿ. “Sarakᵋî́ñgi hañk‘ế wahehé waᵋúîⁿṇanijê. Sakᵋî́ⁿnañgrê waxop‘î́ni warádjirera gitcgû́ⁿzirega waᵋúiṇesᵋajê,” hîñgénᴀⁿ. “Uáñkcîk hik‘oracícîgirèra híjᴀⁿ howajā́nᴀñga uañkdócêwêjê wacᵋúṇadjegê wák‘aⁿtcañk raníjê ā́nañgrê, niⁿṇuhî́ndjiregàdjaⁿ. Hañk‘ê wajáⁿnijᴀⁿ curuxúrunîñkdjᴀnènᴀⁿ. Uañkcîk p‘îñxdjíⁿjᴀⁿ tᵋekâro hogếdjêni winaⁿjî́ñxdjîⁿṇê. Nî́ⁿṇuhîntc hiregádjaⁿ. ‘Hañk‘ế wajî́ⁿṇanîñkìragᴇnîñkdjᴀnènᴀⁿ curucᵋák‘i.’ Inîñgíxdjairekdjᴀnènᴀⁿ hátcaⁿtᵋîⁿ. Hícgê wanîñgaírekdjᴀnenᴀⁿ. ‘Uañg wak‘aⁿtcáñkdjaⁿṇê’ nîñgaírekdjᴀnenᴀⁿ. Giji

1 Probably the object given to him by the spirits, and with which his especial blessing of doctoring was associated.
2 This and what follows constitute the teachings inculcated in the minds of all children, but particularly of the boys. They appear rather vague and brusque as given here; but each precept was in all probability accompanied by illustrations and explanations. Part of the brusqueness is unquestionably due to the extreme conciseness with which the narrator expressed himself.
3 What is really meant here is not war-bundle bearer, but war-bundle owner. The reason so much stress is laid on possessing a war-bundle, is because the narrator's father possessed one, and wished to leave it to his son, if he showed himself worthy of it.
 

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in this.’ The people will make fun of you publicly. ‘A holy man, indeed!’ they will call you.1 Those who are in mourning,2 whose heart is sore, will make you burn like a blaze,3 when you are least aware of them. ‘You amount to nothing,’ they will say to you. And if at any time you carry the war-bundle (lead a war-party) when you are not authorized to do so, you will be really throwing away (killing) your followers; and all those whom you have placed in mourning, they may at any time use their knife and slash you to pieces, and they will take burning stakes and torture you with cinders. They'll make fun of you, and call you a real shaman, a real war-leader.
Now be careful in heeding the warnings enjoined by your father.”
Then he (Thunder-Cloud) told of his fasting experience. “At the very beginning, those above taught me (the following). A doctor's village existed there; and all the various spirits that lived up in the clouds came after me, and instructed me in what I was to do.4 In the beginning they taught me, and did the following for me. ‘Human, let us try it,’ they said to me. There, in the middle of the lodge, lay a dead, rottening log, almost completely covered with weeds.5 There they tried to make me treat (the sick person). Then once he breathed, and all those that were in the lodge also breathed; then the second time he breathed, and all breathed with him; then for the third time he breathed; and then for the fourth time he breathed.

wagitᵋénañk‘a naⁿtcgéra degírêgi keskê cewéwiniconồñkᵋûⁿ p‘édjêni wasósôtc hírekdjᴀnànᴀⁿ. ‘Nîñgécgê wajᴀⁿ ranijaⁿnánᴀⁿ,’ hîñgaírekdjᴀnenᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigê sarakᵋî́ñgi hiniṇúdjisgàdjaⁿ wacᵋûñgíji uañgᴇratᵋû́ⁿcerekdjᴀnènᴀⁿ giji djā́nañga wagitᵋérak‘ìji hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ honicᵋigirekdjᴀnènᴀⁿ hahícgê maⁿhî́ⁿᵋuiṇā́nᴀñga manik‘únuk‘unukìcgirekdjᴀnènᴀⁿ jigécgê naⁿᵋû́ⁿsterijîⁿ ᵋuiṇā́nañga daxúxunirekdjᴀnènᴀⁿ. Hahícgê inîñgíxdjairekdjᴀnènᴀⁿ uañgwák‘aⁿtcañk dótcaⁿwatcojùdjera hinîñgaírekdjᴀnènᴀn.
Wajᴀⁿ djadjíga waroigíγixdjìnᴀⁿ dêê yarénᴀⁿ.”
Ëgi haⁿdếhok‘árakcúnᴀⁿ. “Tcëkdjína ᵋuáñgᴇrêgi uáñkdocêwê tcíjañk‘i ë́dja hîñgŭadjírenᴀⁿ waxop‘î́ni djā́nañga mañxí uañgᴇrêgi-ák‘i hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ wajîñgigû́ⁿzirê, djáskê hakdjéra hîñgigû́ⁿzirenᴀⁿ. Tcëkdjinᴀ waigiᵋúinenᴀⁿ. Uañkcigế hiᵋû́ⁿdjakdjènᴀⁿ, hîñgaírenᴀⁿ. Nañxatᵋégiaⁿ máⁿiñk xaⁿdji-áni γíγik tciok‘iságᴇdjakcê. Ë́dja uañkdócêwê hik‘ítcga hîñgigírenᴀⁿ. Tcëkdjínᴀ honihátᵋôⁿp gadjᴀⁿ djā́nañga tci-óju-ak‘a hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ nîñgihaírenᴀⁿ; hinū̀bốhôⁿṇa jigiop‘ếγûñgàdjᴀⁿ hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ nîñgihaírenᴀⁿ; hidaníhôⁿṇa jigiop‘ếγuna, hidjobốhôⁿṇa hop‘êγogádjᴀⁿ.

1 This is, of course, meant satirically.
2 Those who are in mourning because some one who is not holy has presumed to lead a war-party, and sacrificed some of his followers. In any case where it could be shown that an unauthorized individual led a war-party, the relatives of any person who had lost his life on such an occasion could demand the same redress as in cases of actual murder.
3 Metaphorical manner of saying, “They will kill you.”
4 This is the fasting-experience told by all those who have been blessed with shamanistic powers.
5 The log represents a sick person.

Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian 307
As a young man he, the dead log, arose and walked away. After the fourth breathing, he arose and walked away. 'Human, very holy he is,' they said to me.
There, from the middle of the ocean, they (the spirits) came after me, for there, in the middle of the ocean, is a shamans' village. There they blessed me, — as many (spirits) as there are in the middle of the ocean, they all blessed me. There they made me try my power. As many waves as there are, all of them as large as the ocean, they asked me to blow upon; and as I blew upon them everything became (as quiet) as (water) in a small saucer. So it became. Then I blew for the third time, and again it was that way. The fourth time they made the ocean choppy, and had it (the waves) piled one upon the other; and they told me to blow again and show my power. And I blew, and the ocean, mighty as it was, became quiet again.
‘This, Human, is the way you will have to do,’ they said to me. ‘Not anything will there be that you can't accomplish. Whatever illness all (the people) may have, you will be able to cure it,’ they told me. All those who are on earth (the spirits) blessed me. ‘If any human being who has suffered pours tobacco for you, then, whatever you demand, that we will do for you,’ they said to me. At Blue-Clay-Bank (St. Paul) there is one who is a dancing grizzly-bear (spirit), and there they came and blessed me. If ever I should meet with some great trouble, they will help me, they said. I should pour as much tobacco as I think (necessary) for them, and they will smoke it, they told me. Songs they gave to me; and the power of beholding them, a holy thing, they permitted me, they told me; and their claws,

Uañgᴇra watcegíjᴀⁿ hik‘áwaᵋûⁿ k‘irik‘érehanᴀⁿ nañxatᵋégôñk‘a. Djobốhaⁿ honihatᵋốⁿpgadjᴀⁿ uañkcîgíjᴀⁿ k‘ik‘áwaᵋûⁿ k‘irik‘erénᴀ. Uáñkcîgê wák‘aⁿ tcañgádjᴀⁿ hîñgaírenᴀⁿ.
“Ë́gi jigê dedjốnadjedja hîñgŭadjírenᴀⁿ dedjốnatck‘ìsakdji-èdja uañkdócêwê tcíjañk‘i ë́dja náⁿdjûⁿdjoiṇènᴀⁿ djā́nañga dedjóju-ak‘ìji hanā́ⁿtcíñxdjîⁿ naⁿdjûⁿdjaíⁿṇenᴀⁿ. Ë́dja hik‘ikᵋû́ñkdja hîñgigírenᴀⁿ dedjốna djasgếxdjeⁿnôñk‘a hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ tcacdjốṇa rok‘ốnôxdjìnồñkᵋûⁿ howéγûⁿ hicírera. Haᵋúnᴀⁿ hop‘ếγûñgadjᴀⁿ, hadákdjîⁿ k‘iridjêhánᴀⁿ. Waskêxônúnîñk hojuk‘eréreniskê k‘iridjénᴀⁿ. Jígê hidaníhôⁿṇa hop‘ếγûñgadjᴀⁿ, jigê jëerénᴀⁿ. Hidjobốhôṇa dedjốṇa wak‘únuk‘unûk hak‘iwuxốnᴀⁿ hîñgik‘ốnôñgirā̀nañga, jigê howeγúîⁿcirènᴀⁿ hik‘ikᵋû́ñkdjarê hîñgaírenᴀⁿ. Hop‘ếxûñgadjᴀⁿ dédjôṇa djaskếxdjiⁿnôñk‘a honā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ hadák k‘iridjehā́nᴀⁿ.
“‘Uáñkcîgê, dejḗskê waragígiranicekdjènᴀⁿ,’ hîñgairenᴀⁿ. K‘ê wajâⁿnijᴀⁿ curucᵋā́gᴇnîñkdjᴀnènᴀⁿ. Howajá djagúra hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ rucdjáⁿ warakdjᴀnénᴀⁿ, hîñgaírenᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigê máⁿṇegêrèra djanañgā́k‘i hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ naⁿdjûⁿdjaíⁿṇenᴀⁿ. Uáñkcigerìjᴀⁿ haⁿbaixā́wanañga dani-ónîñgijùrêgi djagúrijᴀⁿ hicegíji nîñgíwanikèkdjᴀnàwinᴀⁿ, hîñgaírenᴀⁿ. Manitcórôs ā́nañgrê ë́gi maⁿtcówacijàⁿnañgre ë́dja hîñgŭadjírenᴀⁿ naⁿdjûⁿdjaírenᴀⁿ. Hagârë́jᴀⁿ wajáⁿnijᴀⁿ tcexi-áwigi hîñgidjiraírekdjᴀnènᴀⁿ, hîñgaírenᴀⁿ. Daníṇa djā́nañga wiranáⁿîñgi wagip‘axû́ñgi harak‘îⁿṇanihek‘djᴀnènᴀⁿ, hîñgaírenᴀⁿ.

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which are holy, they gave to me, they told me. Then the grizzly-bears danced, performing while they danced. Their abdomen they would tear open, and making themselves holy, they would then heal themselves. Then they did it again, and shot bear-claws at each other, and they were badly choking with blood. Then they made themselves holy, and cured themselves. Now, again, they did the following; they made a front paw disappear in the dirt, and after a while they pulled out a prairie-turnip.1 Then, again, they grabbed a hold of a small plum-tree that stood there, and breathed upon it, and shook it, and many plums began to fall.
Then all sorts of ‘shells’2 they gave, so they were not visible. ‘All of this, Human, we bless you with; and if you do (what we desire), you will obtain (what you desire),’ they said. Then he sang, and breathed (upon me), and squirted some water on my chest. ‘Very true this is; very holy it is, I believe,’ he said. ‘You will get well,’ he said to me.”3
And all the good medicine that exists, all of it, he knew and used in order to make me well; and thus doing I recovered from my illness. I got well. He (Thunder-Cloud) was holy. From sickness I have been cured, I knew.
Then, again, once as he (Thunder-Cloud) was sleeping, he dreamed the following.4 He met a man looking very much like a white man. “He was pleasant

Honihára ᵋûñkᵋúinenᴀⁿ hodjáⁿbᴇra wak‘áⁿtcañgᴇnañk‘i hûñkᵋúiṇejê hîñgaírenᴀⁿ. Ë́gi náⁿbᴇra wak‘aⁿtcáñgᴇnañk‘i hûñkᵋúiṇejê hîñgaírenᴀⁿ. Ë́gi maⁿtcónañk‘a wacírenᴀⁿ waᵋúiṇenᴀⁿ wicgatc ᵋúinera wacirā́nañga. Nîñxára k‘irup‘árac hohe-agúirānᴀñga ë́gi γōp k‘iáⁿdji-araìrega rucdjôñk‘ínicᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigê waᵋúiṇécᴀnùnᴀⁿ maⁿtcócak hik‘igúdjiranᴀñga wa-íra irak‘ik‘íniṇegàcgê maⁿcdjáⁿ xōp k‘i-áⁿdji-araìrega rucdjáⁿ k‘iṇesᵋájê. Ë́gi jigê hoda waᵋúiṇejê mañk‘ájedjá ā́ra hixấrogerêgihirā̀nᴀñga ë́dja ëgi tcë́rap ëdja haniaⁿhiagúresᵋàjê. Ë́gi jigê k‘aⁿdjú-ijᴀⁿ hidja ë́dja hánîⁿdjinôgirā̀nᴀñga nihairā́nᴀñga ruksûñksû́ntcirega k‘áⁿdjᴇra rohā́ñxdjîⁿ cibrê hiresᵋájë.
“Ë́gi jigê máⁿwodja hok‘íratc ᵋúiṇejê, hañk‘ế tcaⁿtᵋîⁿ ᵋúiⁿṇanisᵋā̀jê. ‘Uañkcîgế dê anā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ náⁿdjironidjàⁿwinᴀⁿ, cᵋû́ñgi curuxúruikdjᴀnènᴀⁿ,’ higaírejê. Ë́gi naⁿwā́nᴀñga nihā́nᴀñga máñgᴇrêgi niṇaxû́ⁿcᴀnùnᴀⁿ. ‘Hiskêgadjᴀⁿ hak‘aⁿtcáñkdjîñgadjᴀⁿ, yarénᴀⁿ,’ énᴀⁿ. ‘Niṇucdjốñkdjᴀnenᴀⁿ’ hîñgénᴀⁿ.”
Ë́gi jigê mañk‘áⁿp‘iⁿṇa djā́nañga hip‘érêzgi hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ wawikᵋuā́nañga rucdjáⁿwîñkdjê; ā́nañga waᵋûⁿdjénᴀⁿ. Howajára hinucdjấnᴀⁿe wak‘áⁿtcañk‘ê howajára hiṇucdjáñguni, yarénᴀⁿ.
Ë́gi jigê hagârë́jᴀⁿ naṇákᵋûⁿ haⁿdéjê. Uañgíjᴀⁿ hak‘idjágiji uáñk

1 Tcërcep‘ in Winnebago; but I am not certain whether there is a prairie-turnip.
2 Maⁿwódja. Although literally the word probably means “shells,” its meaning here is quite different. It refers to places where blessings, such as food, etc., are stored for the faster. However, this passage is not quite clear to me.
3 Here the account of how Thunder-Cloud obtained his shamanistic powers ends.
4 This is another fasting-experience of Thunder-Cloud.

Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian 309
to behold, dressed in a suit of white buckskin,” he said. “My friend, not through mere chance have I come to you,” he said to him. “The deeds you have done in the past is the reason for which I now am truly going to bless you,” he said to him. “It must be he whom they call our nephew,”1 he thought. “Whatever you will say, if you only say it, those who have closed their ears to it will be confounded; whereas those who listen to you will live.2 Just as he whom we call our nephew (the Hare) led back into the fold the bad spirits to whom re-incarnation was denied, so will you bring back those who now doubt your teachings,” he said to him.
A person can become re-incarnated if he fasts, they say; and if one fasts very much the spirits will certainly bless him with (certain powers), “Then if at any time you die, you will come back again,” he said to him. Once when he (Thunder-Cloud) died, those (different spirits) (who had blessed him) told his ghost that it (the ghost) could go back. If he did well, he was to become human again, he was told. Back as a human being he would come and live, they used to say.
Then, at another time, those who are called cannibals blessed him. These cannibals are living across the sea. They can't be very holy, for it is said they are cannibals. Like human beings they are, and very much like us do they speak, it is

skaijônéjê. “Horuxúdjᴇra k‘árahieskiñxdjî̀ⁿjê wáxuskaràrik‘i hik‘ik‘ā́janᴀñga,” wagejế. “Hitcak‘ấro hañk‘aíjᴀⁿ jëskánîñkdjônègê ë́skê hiránidjìnᴀⁿ,” higêjế. “Hitcak‘ấro hañk‘aíjᴀⁿ jëskánîñkdjônègê ë́skê hiránidjìnᴀⁿ,” higêjế. “Wocgaíⁿjᴀⁿ p‘îⁿcᵋûⁿcura hicgế dejë́skê naⁿdjironídjaⁿṇê,” higejế. “Hitcûⁿcge gik‘arádjirera wadjegúni,” hirejế. “Djagúicekdjᴀnèra hicegíji, djā́nañga hañk‘ế hanánixgùnigi jê anā́ⁿtcîⁿ honaṇásewekdjᴀnènᴀⁿ, ëgi djā́nañga hanaⁿníxgûñgi jêéji ni-áⁿbirekdjᴀnènᴀⁿ. Hitcûⁿcgế gik‘arádjirera wáxop‘ini cicîgᴇra djā́nᴀñga wairecgúnina hanaⁿsgábᴇra djasgế wawagígigi jë́skê waragígikdjᴀnènᴀⁿ djā́nᴀñga k‘ibánîñgigìgi,” higejế.
Ë́gi jigê uáñkcîgak‘ìhᴀⁿ ā́nañgrê hijᴀ́ⁿ haⁿdáginaⁿdjā̀nᴀñga rok‘ốnôxdjîⁿ haⁿdagináⁿdjᴇra, higícᴀnᴀⁿ waxop‘î́ni warádjirera hijᴀ́ⁿ naⁿdjodjᴀ́ⁿnañga. “Hagârë́jᴀⁿ cdjegíji, ë́gi rak‘írikdjᴀnènᴀⁿ,” higegí. Uáñkdjega hagârë́jᴀⁿ tᵋegíji nañγíragᴇra warádjirê naⁿdjodjáⁿnihera ë́dja ginấnᴀⁿ giji jêế waxop‘î́ni waradjirénôñk‘a waganáⁿjê. Jigế p‘îⁿhi uañkcî́k cᵋîñkdjégi hakdjá uañkcî́gᴇrêgi hak‘íri uañkcî́kᵋîⁿnàⁿjê aírecᴀnúnᴀⁿ.
Ë́gi Jigê uañgᴇrútcgê wigaírêgi jë́skê naⁿdjodjaíⁿṇejê uañgᴇrútcgenôñk‘a dedjôⁿ agếdja. Wajᴀ́ⁿ wak‘aⁿtcáñkdjîⁿ wagánañkcê uañgᴇrútcgenôñk‘a. Uā́ñkcî́k wagánañkcê uañkcî́k hiyáᵋŭanàñgwirê hicgê jë́skêxdjîⁿṇèjê,

1 Ceremonial name for Hare.
2 For the last ten years, or thereabouts, Thunder-Cloud has preached fiercely against the new religious sect known as the “Peyote” or “Mescal-Eaters.” “Those who will not hear” are the adherents of the new sect; “those who listen” are the pagans.
        Thunder-Cloud is one of the principal members of the Medicine Dance, and it is therefore quite in place that the Hare, the mythical founder of the Medicine Dance, should appear to him, and command him to take strict measures against the innovators. According to some people, Thunder-Cloud even claims that he is the Hare re-incarnated.

vol. xxvi.—no. 102.—20


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said. Holy they are thought to be, these cannibals, they who, nevertheless, ate human beings, as it is told.1
4. THUNDER-CLOUD AS A SHAMAN
Before I joined the Peyote sect,2 all these things (that I have been recounting) I believed to be absolutely true. Not any of it is true (I now know); it is all a falsehood and deception.
Ever since I was a small child, that man Thunder-Cloud had been my brother-in-law. I knew him well. What he once did (I knew). He was a holy man (shaman); and whenever a person was about to die, they would send for him and he would do what was necessary. That is what he used to tell us; and I believed that it was all true.
In those days he was a poisoner (i.e., a bad shaman); and he used to travel at dead of night,3 they say. That is what he was going to do, he said. At night, at about eleven o'clock, he got ready. He was going to poison a family by the name of B —, he said. We were all listening; in the house we were lying. Then outside, some noise he was making. We were afraid of him, because we thought he was a poisoner. He would say that he was in control of our household. Nothing could they (my people) accomplish (without consulting him); for we knew he was a poisoner, and were afraid of him on that account. He came from among the spirits; he was a re-incarnated man: and if we displeased him, he would poison us. So, whatever he said, we did for him. That way it was.

hî́tᵋêtᵋéracgê híwik‘iskaírejê airecᴀnúnᴀⁿ. Wak‘aⁿtcáñk hirejế, uáñgᴇrutcgê ā́nañgrê uañgᴇrútcwigê wánañkcê.

K‘éni mañk‘aⁿhádjêni wajᴀ́ⁿ mejëskágᴇrê hiskếxdjîⁿjê yárecᴀnunᴀⁿ. Hañk‘ê nîñgískanîñgàdjᴀⁿ; hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ woícdjôñk‘ek‘àdjᴀⁿ.
Thunder-Cloud, uáñk jêê hixônúnîñgᴇrèdjᴀⁿ hitcáⁿhagê yáp‘erezdìnᴀⁿ. Djagú-ijᴀⁿṇènᴀⁿ hagârë́jᴀⁿ waᵋúnᴀⁿ. Wak‘aⁿtcáñkdjegê djadjốna uañkcîgᴇríjᴀⁿ tᵋékdjê higírêgi jëskê náⁿjê. Méjëskê hîñgáwicᴀnùnᴀⁿ, higejế yarecᴀnúnᴀⁿ.
Hagârë́jᴀⁿ waᵋúnᴀⁿ wak‘áⁿwañx haⁿhi-orádjê ā́nañgᴇrê. Jë́skê hírekdjᴀnèjê énᴀⁿ. Haⁿhérêgi ëdjā́xdjîⁿ 11 o’clock waᵋûⁿ rek‘ârohónᴀⁿ uañkcî́k honihéjᴀⁿ B—— wigaírera, jêê ë́dja wak‘áⁿwañxcekdjᴀnèjê énᴀⁿ. Hanáñxgŭaⁿ hañgwínᴀⁿ; tcië́dja hamîñgwi-ā́nañga. Hahí tcañgerếgi wajᴀ́ⁿ γaγak hinốñkcᴀnᴀⁿ. Wak‘áⁿwañxk‘ê hiranáⁿîⁿwîñgi nañk‘ếwekdjàwigê. Ë wátciwi-ë̀dja eruk‘ốnônᴀⁿ herekdjégê djagúijᴀⁿ egíji. Hañk‘agá hiṇucᵋágᴇnîñkdjàwigê howacéra wak‘aⁿwañxk‘éjᴀⁿ waᵋû́ⁿdjegê nañk‘awawínᴀⁿ. Waxop‘î́ni warádjirëdja howádji waᵋû́ⁿdjegê uañkcîgak‘íhaiⁿjᴀⁿ wajáⁿnijᴀⁿ hañk‘ế eri-agigíwinîñgi hîñk‘áwajikdjônàwigê. Ë́skê djagúrijᴀⁿ egíji hagiᵋû́ñkdjawi. Jëskénᴀⁿ.

1 Every now and then the narrator cannot refrain from making fun of the older beliefs, and this is especially the case when he speaks of mythological figures such as the cannibals.
2 Literally, “before I ate medicine.”
3 That is, he was a wizard.

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He had been married to my eldest sister, and now he wished to marry the second eldest, he said. Where he had been, there where Earth-Maker dwells, there his wife (my eldest sister) lived. But now he claimed that the second sister resembled his wife.1 “She must be the one I left behind when I came,” he thought. Up above to Earth-Maker's village he went to see his wife (i.e., his first wife). She was still there, he noticed. “How is this? I thought I saw you among human beings again, (and that is why) I came to see if you were still here,” he said. And the woman, answering, said, “Why, where was I to go? Here you left me when you went away, and here I have remained up to the present time. What kind of a woman is she whom you mean, (i.e., the one who resembles me?”) said the woman. “Bring her here to me,” she said.
Thus spoke my sister. The second one it was whom he said resembled his wife living above; and for that reason he wished to marry her, he said. A shaman, a bad shaman (poisoner), he was both; and for that reason they let him marry her, because they were afraid that, if they didn't permit him, he would poison them. They let him marry her because he was a shaman. Thus he married two women, he used to say.
“Up above, where Earth-Maker lives, is the place I came from, and there Earth-Maker said to me that I was to bring back four men (Indians), and I was to look them over, so that they were men of virtue. Not a quick-tempered man, nor one of changeable ideas, did he mean, but a really virtuous man, (a man of

Hinûñgwátcabᴇra xedéra k‘onôñkdjá nunigê jigê xêdénûⁿbra k‘onaíñkdjê, énᴀⁿ. Nîñgi-owádjigi ë́dja maⁿᵋúṇa hóminañgềdja ë́dja tcigi hitcáwiⁿhigi ëdjanáñkcê. Hinûñgwátcabᴇra hinûⁿbếdjerèdjega hitcáwiⁿhira ᵋuáñgᴇrêgi náñkcê, horuγúdjᴇra hik‘iskếxdjîⁿjêⁿ, éjê. “Djaskêgádjᴀⁿ djagú hatᵋûⁿda hunᴀⁿ yaréra,” hiregíji. ᵋUañgᴇrếgi māⁿᵋúṇominôñgềdja hitcáwina k‘araícdja hije gádjᴀⁿ. Higû́ⁿdêê hidjanáñkcê, wagéjê. “Uañkcigếdja hahiánitcagê djaskegádjᴀⁿ yarégê, niⁿcdjak‘irínᴀⁿ,” higejế. “Hatcáⁿwaⁿdekcê? Ë́gi hinaⁿtᵋúⁿ cara cererá higû́ⁿîñgi haᵋúnañk‘àdjᴀ́ⁿ,” higejế. Hinûñgenôñk‘a wéjê, “Uáñkcîk djagúijᴀⁿ waragégiji?” — “Hanî́ñk‘iri-àdjê,” éjê.
Ë́skê hinûñgwátcabᴇra hinûⁿbédjadjega ewagadjénᴀⁿ ᵋuáñgᴇrêgi hijaíⁿtcawehìgi hik‘iskếxdjîⁿjê horuγúdjᴇra; ë́skê k‘anaíñkdjê, énᴀⁿ. Wak‘aⁿtcáñgi-aⁿ wak‘áⁿwaiñxk‘èdjᴀⁿ wanôñk‘édjeni k‘ônôkgigírenᴀⁿ nôñk‘áwairegê hañk‘ê giᵋúiṇanìckê wak‘áⁿwaiñxdjanègê. K‘ônôkgigírenᴀⁿ wak‘aⁿtcáñgi-aⁿ waᵋû́ⁿdjegê. Ë́skê hinû́ñgᴇra nûⁿp k‘ônốkcᴀnᴀⁿ wesᵋā́jê.
“ᵋUáñgᴇrêgi māⁿᵋúṇa hominốñgᴇnôñk‘i ë́dja wawadjínᴀⁿ ëgi māⁿᵋúṇa waigénᴀⁿ, uañkcî́kᴇra djop‘íwi haniáñgikdjê hîñgénᴀⁿ, wódoγudjā̀nᴀñga uáñkcîk wanaⁿî́ⁿp‘îⁿ. Hañk‘ế wanaⁿî́ⁿ-agi, wánaⁿîⁿṇunầṇa, jë́skê wagánijê,

1 It was frequently believed that the resemblance of some living person, especially of some young person, to an older person who has died, meant that the younger one was the re-incarnation of the older one. For this reason, in adopting a child to replace one that had died, parents always tried to find some one who closely resembled the deceased.

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conservative tendencies), — that kind he told me to take back to him.” Thus four men there were whom he was to take back to Earth-Maker, he used to say.
For all these things, I used to love my brother-in-law. Never did I show any disrespect to him.1 Whatever he asked me (to do), I always did; whatever work he asked me to do, I did. Never was I angry at him for the things he did. Zealously and painstakingly did I perform all actions in my association with him; for if (as a result of this) he loved me and blessed me, then I would surely be one of the four men that he was to take back with him to Earth-Maker. I wished whole-heartedly to be like him; and in my association with him I always thought of this, and did everything to the best of my ability. With Earth-Maker I wished to be; and as (I saw) my brother-in-law very scrupulous in his dealings with him, so I, too, acted accordingly.
Now that I am a Peyote follower, I know Earth-Maker (God);2 and what his Son accomplished for us only when he took upon himself human shape, that (also) I know. I know that if I do what Earth-Maker's (God's) Son told me to do, then, up above, I shall see Earth-Maker (God). I was always wishing that my brother-in-law would take me back to Earth-Maker as one of the men he was talking about; but now I know there was no foundation to what he said, I know now that he lied about all that he said. Most assuredly he would not get back to Earth-Maker (God), — he who stood around and lied, he who had two wives. He was lying about Earth-Maker (God). Not to Earth-Maker would he return, we were saying. My brother-in-law was married to my eldest sister, and she believed him. So she

uáñkcîk p‘î́ñxdjîⁿ jë́skê hanîñgicíjê.” Ë́skê djop‘íwi maⁿᵋúna ëdja howā́ni k‘érekdjᴀnèjê, esᵋā́jê.
Ë́skê hitcûⁿhára wagixếdêcᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Hañk‘ế dajídjᴇni-ā̀nᴀñga; djagúra hijîñgéga. Hañk‘ế hiṇucᵋágeninᴀⁿ wajâⁿnijᴀⁿ wocérejᴀⁿ ᵋúiⁿcigi djaskégi hagiᵋunấnᴀⁿ. Ë́gi hocᵋik p‘iñxdjîⁿ wajᴀⁿ ᵋûñgáckê hañk‘agá wacᵋígᴇninᴀⁿ. Haizóxdjîⁿ hak‘íju uáñkcîgaᵋìnᴀⁿ, woigixếdegi naⁿdjûñgidjañgi uañkcî́gᴇra djop‘íwi māⁿᵋúṇa ë́dja howanî́ñk‘erekdjồnega. Ë́naīñxdjîⁿ ṇḕjᴀⁿ ᵋúiṇejèjê, yarégê hok‘icagốⁿṇa p‘iñxdjîⁿ hā́nᴀⁿ. Māⁿᵋúna ë́dja howā́rê ruā́gûñgê hitcốⁿhara hanaⁿdjihíxᴀnìnᴀⁿ hiskế wadjejế wadjejế, yarégê.
Mañk‘ā́ⁿ hadjgádjᴀⁿ māⁿᵋúṇa yap‘érêz hadjidjénᴀⁿ; māⁿᵋúṇa hinîñgra ë́cᴀnᴀⁿ uañkcî́k nañγírak ni-áⁿp híruxurukdjèra yā́p‘erezsồnᴀⁿ. Māⁿᵋunínîñgᴇra ëdjagúera haᵋûñgícᴀnᴀⁿ. ᵋUañgᴇrếgi māⁿᵋúṇa hatcanấnᴀⁿ, yap‘erêzsốnᴀⁿ. Hitcᴀ́ⁿhara māⁿᵋúṇa uáñkcik yowā́nik‘erèkdjônê ā́djega ëdjinî́ñk‘ecejë̀jê ru-agŭā́ⁿdjega, hoskếxdjîⁿ wā́djera yap‘erêzsônᴀⁿ. Djagu ādjega hanáⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ retᵋû́ñk‘ wádjera yap‘erezsốnᴀⁿ. Ëxdjiⁿṇë́ckê hañk‘ê māⁿᵋúṇa ëdja gininasᵋā́rê, hinûñk nû́ⁿp k‘ônôñk, rétᵋûñk naⁿjî́ñgi. Māⁿᵋúṇa regitᵋû́ñk naⁿjî́ñgi. Hañk‘ế māⁿᵋúṇa ë́dja ginínaⁿsᵋā̀rê déjëskê hihawínᴀⁿ. Hitcaⁿhára hak‘íju hitcáwina xêdếnôñk‘a higûⁿ, hiskê wesᵋā́rê. Hiranáñkcᴀnᴀⁿ.

1 That is, although, being his brother-in-law, he stood to him in the joking-relationship, which permitted him to play jokes upon him with impunity, he never did it.
2 Wherever Earth-Maker corresponds to God, I have added the word “God.”

Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian 313
thought. That he was lying, she did not know; she thought he was telling the truth.
5. HOW I JOINED THE MEDICINE DANCE
I was about thirteen years, and over, when they told me that they would make me a member of the Medicine Dance. I liked it very much. Some people don't at all like it when they are asked (to join) the Medicine Dance. I, however, liked it very much. The Medicine Dance I am going to join, they told me. Very much did my parents desire me to do it, and so I did it. If I wished to lead a holy life, (that is what I should do), they told me.
Then, when everything was in readiness for my initiation into the Medicine Dance, we moved on to the place where the ceremony was to take place. At night, they were to sing at the Medicine Dance; and they (my relatives) were to join in the singing with them. There they also preached to me.1 They told me that the custom (the Medicine Dance) was a good thing. I did not think, even then, that those who were to initiate me into the Medicine Dance would kill me when they shot at me. Never had there been such a life (perfect), they said, as the one I was going to live, now that I was about to join the Medicine Dance. Never, at any time, could I have thought of such a life. Those who are about to make me join the Medicine Dance (told me) that the Indians, when they hear of it, will expect me to do great things; that the Indians will speak well of me, and like me. That is all I can (now) think of (concerning that matter).

Retᵋûñkdjéra hañk‘ê hip‘érêzeninốñkcùnᴀⁿ; higûⁿ hodá hiskếwê híranaⁿiⁿnàñkcᴀnᴀⁿ.

Mañk‘erêp‘ốnaijānᴀñga dani-áⁿcᴀnᴀⁿ haniṇégi mañk‘áᵋûⁿ hîñgigírekdjê hîñgaírenᴀⁿ. Haip‘î́ñxdjiⁿnᴀⁿ. Hodā́ckê, mañk‘áᵋûⁿ wáwirok‘itᵋaìrega hañk‘ế ᵋû́ⁿṇanisᵋàjê airera. Dêéji haip‘î́ñxdjiⁿnᴀⁿ. Mañk‘áᵋûⁿ hârogá ᵋûñkdjᴀnê hîñgaírera. Ëgi hickê cᵋágwahara ᵋûⁿroigigû́ñxdjîⁿnᴀⁿ, haᵋŭā́nᴀñga. Uáñkcîgoᵋìⁿṇa p‘iáⁿᵋûⁿjèjê hiraírenᴀⁿ.
Hagârë́jᴀⁿ mañk‘áⁿ ᵋúiñgigirekdjᴀnèra, jë́djûñga hatcî́ndja hérekdjônèra ë́dja waíxanawìnᴀⁿ. Mañk‘áᵋûⁿ haⁿhégi naⁿwaíⁿṇedkjônèra ëdjorók hahí naiⁿwaíⁿṇekdjônera ᵋuiⁿṇénᴀⁿ. Ë́dja hoík‘uⁿiⁿṇènᴀⁿ. Wocgốⁿ p‘îⁿjônénᴀⁿ hîñgā́nañkcᴀnᴀⁿ. Hañk‘ë́cgê mañk‘áᵋûⁿ hîñgigí k‘ârohoírega hî́ñgudjirā̀nañga tᵋéwiṇekdjônèga, jëā́ga p‘ewinínᴀⁿ. Hañk‘ế jigᴇagā̀ckê uáñkcigoᵋìⁿjᴀⁿ herejê ánañgᴇra uañkcî́gaᵋîñkdjônègê mañk‘áᵋûⁿ yák‘ârohòra. Hañk‘ế uañkcîgoᵋíⁿnôñk‘a hagá p‘ewinínᴀⁿ. Mañk‘áᵋûⁿ hîñgigík‘ârohoìrega uañkcî́gᴇrêgi naiñxgúⁿiⁿṇegi jë́dja wajᴀⁿ xëdë́jᴀⁿ haᵋúiⁿ yak‘ârohòga; uañkcî́gᴇrêgi hiṇatcáñgirekdjê hîñgip‘iⁿṇékdjê. Jëgûñk‘íra p‘ewínᴀⁿ.

1 The Medicine Dance is full of speeches admonishing the young men and women who belong to the society to adhere to the teachings of the society and of their ancestors.

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Now these who are about to make me join the Medicine Dance are preparing to show me the shell,1 and (for this purpose) they are taking me to the brush.2 There they (the elders) preached to me. I was not in the least bit frightened as (after this) they prepared to shoot me (with the sacred shell). Indeed, I was not in the least bit worried about it; nor did I think to myself, “I wonder how it is going to be.” Then, those who already belonged to the Medicine Dance, those whom I had dreamed of (all this time, shot me). When they shot me, I didn't die. That thought was in my mind; but when they shot me, (as a matter of fact) I didn't even lose consciousness. Almost immediately I knew how to do it, (i.e., shoot). They liked it very much. Everything they told me to do I did immediately, nor was I backward about anything. The medicine-men liked it. Never had any one learned as quickly as I had done, they were saying; that augurs well for him. Now I thought (then) that it (the Medicine Dance) was true.
When we returned (i.e., from the brush), I entered the lodge. Not in any direction did I look. Not once did I speak; not once did I move around; not once did I change my position. Just as they told me to sit, that way I remained sitting. As many Indians as were gathered in the lodge, all of them I failed to notice. Not once did I by chance permit my glance to wander from side to side. I was doing everything exactly (as I was told). The medicine-men liked it.
Whenever, thereafter, a Medicine Dance was given, I attended it. Whenever I went in at night, I remained there until it was all over, not going out once. And

Aī́gi mañkáⁿûⁿ hîñgigikárahoírega maⁿdjaī́́ⁿgigirèkdjegi, gixā́ra howénianaìrenᴀⁿ. Ë́gi ë́dja hûñkitᵋaírenᴀⁿ. Hañk‘ë́ckế náñγidanìnᴀⁿ, hî́ñgudjikâronoìrega. Ë́́gi jigế hañk‘ë́ckê háhuhunìnᴀⁿ; ë́gi jigế djasgếxdjîñkdjègi hañk‘ë́ckê yarā́ninᴀⁿ. Tconī́́nê mañkaᵋúnañgrê jë́skê ‘yaháⁿdega. Hîñgúdjirega hañk‘ế tcanícᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Jếê tcaⁿ p‘ewínᴀⁿ. Howaréra, hañk‘ế wánaⁿiⁿṇa hixáwani-àⁿdjikaranìnᴀⁿ, hî́ñgudjirèra. Higŭấnᴀ wadupî́ñxdjiⁿnᴀⁿ. Gip‘ī́́nᴀⁿ rohốⁿṇainènᴀⁿ. Djagū́xdjîⁿ ᵋúîncirera, jegûⁿ higŭấnᴀ wagiᵋúnᴀⁿ, hañk‘ế radjádja hak‘înínᴀⁿ. Mañk‘ániṇa gip‘îⁿṇénᴀⁿ. Hañk‘agé hijᴀ́ⁿ jëskā́nigadjaⁿ xapgénîñk‘ warup‘î́ñxdjîñgàdjᴀⁿ; wajîñgế p‘îñgádjᴀⁿ hîñgaírenᴀⁿ. Higŭấⁿna hiskeranáⁿiⁿnᴀⁿ.
Hagíwira tcíra waík‘awawìra. Hañk‘agā́ nîñkế woduγúγudjînìnᴀⁿ, hañk‘agá jigế yatᵋā́ninᴀⁿ, hañk‘agá jigế runáⁿdjinaⁿ nagᴇnìnᴀⁿ, hañk‘agá p‘iⁿháñk‘ik‘ànagᴇnìnᴀⁿ. Djā́skê mínᴀñk‘ hîñgigírera, jë́gûⁿ haináñgᴇra jëgúnᴀⁿ. Hañk‘ế uañkcî́gᴇra djā́nᴀñga stoigíckê yapérezᴇnìnᴀⁿ. Hî́ñk‘aga hik‘ínû djáⁿbᴇra hik‘idjáⁿṇegi watcā́djik‘aràninᴀⁿ. Jëgŭáⁿᵋuanañkᵋû̀ⁿ waicî́pcanᴀⁿ. Mañk‘ā́niṇa gip‘íⁿṇenᴀⁿ.
Ë́gi jigế máñkaⁿ ᵋúiṇega hagếdja hidjorogáᵋûñga. Haⁿhérêgi wak‘ếwega háñk‘aga yahínabᴇnìnañkᵋûⁿ horucdjốṇa hérecônùnᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigế háⁿbᴇrêgi

1 The sacred shell of the Medicine Dance; the migis of the corresponding society among the Chippewa, Menominee, etc.
2 That is, the “Brush Ceremony,” the details of which are described in my paper on the Medicine Dance. 

Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian 315
during the day ceremony, not once did I permit my glance to wander outside. Never did I permit myself to lie down from fatigue; nor did I permit my glances to wander outside because there was much noise there, or because some people were doing funny things. Not even within the tent did I glance. Indeed, I never allowed my glances to wander (in any direction). All the holy things I was told to do I did. This is a holy ceremony, and I was bashful in its presence.
If at any time any of my leaders (in the Medicine Dance) wished to give a Medicine Dance, I would stay at his house together with those who had been invited. I would do all the work for him, sing the Medicine Dance songs, etc. All the different things he was supposed to do, all that I would do for him.1
When his wife cooked, I carried the water for her, I made the fire, and helped her with the dishes. And all the work she liked to have done in the house I did for her.
All the clothes I possessed I gave to him. Money I gave to him; and the food he needed I procured for him. Whenever he gave a feast, in addition to what he cooked, I would put a special pail of food on the fire for him. When he ate it, he was thankful.
“My son, what do you think I possess, that you are doing all this for me?” But I continued; and when I killed a medium-sized buck, I made a feast in his honor, and all the clothing he needed, I gave him. Then I also gave him a gun, a costly

hok‘áwairëcgê, hañk‘agá tcañgếdja wodúγitc rehánicᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigế hañk‘agá hintcgénañk‘a, hawáᵋûⁿ hamî́ñga hîⁿbᴇnínᴀⁿ, hañk‘agá jigế tcañkᴇrếgi woγếxdjîⁿ hirā́nᴀñga waxdjā́xdjîⁿhíra naⁿdjegā́ckê, hîñk‘aga hagidjóduγudjᴇnìnᴀⁿ, hîñk‘agá hidjóduγudjᴇnìnᴀⁿ. Hañk‘agá tciró-gañgrê ë́gi djáⁿpᴇra hihináⁿp hanicᴀnúnᴀⁿ. Wogízokdjîⁿ djagúxdjîⁿ ᵋúiⁿcirèra jejë́skêxdjîⁿ hánᴀⁿ. Wóckaⁿ wak‘antcáñgijᴀⁿ heregếdjîni, haicᵋā́kdjinᴀⁿ.
Ë́gi xᵋokêwatcàbᴇra djadjốna hijᴀ́ⁿ mañk‘áᵋûⁿ hogirágirega jêdjaíñxdjîⁿ p‘á xᵋóke-atcàbᴇra hotci-ë́dja hahí haᵋŭā́nañga. Mañk‘áⁿ naⁿwáñkdjega, woréra hanáⁿtcîⁿ hagiᵋû́ⁿcᴀnunᴀⁿ. Woréra djā́nañga ᵋû́ñkdjônega hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ hagíᵋûⁿcᴀnùnᴀⁿ.
Ë́gi jigế xᵋoke-átcabᴇra hitcáwina warudj ᵋúiⁿckê niáñgakŭā̀nᴀñga. Ë́gi jigê p‘ëtc wagitᵋúⁿnaⁿjiā̀nañga ëgi wáskê k‘icérêrackê hidjá gidjídecᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Ë́gi tci-ếdja woréra djā́nᴀñga ᵋuⁿṇogû́ⁿdjera hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ hagíᵋûⁿcᴀnùnᴀⁿ.
Ë́gi jigế waíniṇa djā́nᴀñga haniáⁿdjega wagip‘áγukcᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Higŭañgaírackê jigế júra wā́kᵋûⁿcᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigế hagaírackê worúdjᴇra djagú rúitcegi hagíᵋûⁿcᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigế wagigógi djagú ohañkdjéra jigế ë́xdjîⁿ ruitcéra iⁿtcábᴇnîñk‘ neγᴇríjᴀⁿ hagík‘erê-ā̀nᴀñga, dutc hágigiā̀nañga. K‘urútcga waináⁿpcᴀnunᴀⁿ.
“Hisûñk‘ā́xdjîⁿ djagu hiraínaⁿ cᵋîngā́djᴀⁿ wainagícᵋuṇàdjejê?” Hagā́rë́jᴀⁿ jigế jë́skê hagigínᴀⁿ, tcaxếdê xônúnîñgijᴀⁿ tᵋehára, tca p‘î́ñxdjîⁿjᴀⁿ

1 Of course, he is doing all this with the object of obtaining information from one of the leaders of the Dance, so that at his death he would, perhaps, be permitted to fill his place.

316                                       Journal of American Folk-Lore
repeating-rifle, the one I used in hunting. All these things I offered him. Then I gave him an eagle, so that he could make a medicine-pouch out of it. Money I also gave him, and gourds. Thus I acted, feasting him, and offering him gifts all the time. I worked for him all the time.
(One day) he said to me, “My son, you have been treating me very well. Even my very brothers never treated me as you have been doing. I thank you. All my kindred hate you, but don't pay any attention to them. You are from a different family; and I am teaching you various things, they are saying. They want me to stop instructing you. My father left this affair (the Medicine Dance) for me to take care of. I am in complete control of it. Not one of these people (i.e., my kindred) has ever done anything for me in their life. My ancestors said that you are my relative for what you have done. I cannot teach them (my relatives) the details of this ceremony, as I would have done, had they acted correctly. (My knowledge) of this ceremony belongs to you, for you have paid for it. My remote ancestors told their descendants, as it has passed down from mouth to mouth to us, that whosoever pays careful attention to (all that pertains to this ceremony), that whosoever has a good memory, — he is the one to whom it should be taught. Thus they spoke.
My son, you alone have been good to me,” he said. “This ceremony you will learn. Our son, He-who-stands-on-a-Cloud, and you have been kind to me. Both of you will live a long life. Never divide this ceremony in two. Never keep

heréra, jếê woháñgiᵋŭā̀nañga, ë́gi waíniṇa hináⁿ hagiᵋŭā́nañga. Ë́gi hijúk‘ roháⁿdjadjox tcexíjàⁿ nañk‘ík‘ara yaᵋŭáⁿhira hágitᵋûⁿdènᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigế tcáxcêp‘ ponáñgijᴀⁿ dani-óju hikᵋû́ñkdjegê. Jêê júra hirasā́ hagigínᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigế p‘ëγíjᴀⁿ p‘iáⁿᵋûñxdjîⁿ ā́nañga júra hirasá hagigínᴀⁿ, p‘éγᴇnîñk‘a. Jéjëskê hagigínᴀⁿ, wogigó hok‘áhi wajî́ⁿ híⁿhagitᵋû̀ⁿdecᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigê wagidádjegê.
Ëskê waigénᴀⁿ ë́dja, “Hisûñk‘ā́xdjîⁿ p‘ínagigìnᴀⁿ, wak‘inû́ⁿpdjinaṇë̀ckê hañk‘íjᴀⁿ jë́skê hîñgiginínᴀⁿ. P‘inagigínᴀⁿ. Ë́gi wak‘ínûⁿbᴇra hanā́ⁿtcîⁿ ník‘iwasaìnera. Hañk‘ế wanā́ñxguniṇe. Uañkcîk idjaⁿhí ranigádjᴀⁿ. Wajáⁿ nîñgígûⁿzàdjejê hîñgaíranañga. Roígiγinàñkcᴀnᴀⁿ. Nunigế djádjiga wocgốⁿ dêê hirak‘ára hitᵋúnak‘erèra. Ne yak‘úruk‘ônấnᴀⁿ. Hañk‘íjᴀⁿ hagá wajîñgíᵋuni naⁿji-ā́nañga. Uáñkcik‘xêdoixgàñgᴇrê hîñgigû́ⁿzwirê ne wájiⁿ ṇawìna hîñgaírêgi wájaⁿ wahága hawáᵋûⁿ. Hañk‘ê wagigû́ⁿs duxúrûgᴇnìnᴀⁿ djagúrijᴀⁿ hegaígiᵋùnegadjᴀⁿ wocgốⁿ wagigû́ⁿzikdjejê. Wocgốⁿ dêê ṇë́cᴀnᴀⁿ hácurucèrëtccᴀnᴀⁿ. Wocgốⁿ dêê cᵋag nā́naⁿdjodjaìⁿsgera godjā́xdjowadji hirok‘írak‘ hadjírêgi hijᴀⁿ harucéredjunᴀñga, wiwéwina p‘inanácᵋîñgi gigû́ⁿzadjê. Hîñgairenᴀⁿ.
“Hisû́ñgêdjîⁿ në́cᴀnᴀⁿ p‘inagigínᴀⁿ,” hîñgénᴀⁿ. “Wocgốⁿ dêê hirap‘érêzikdjônā̀rê. Hī́́nîñgihìra Mañxíwi-anaⁿjî̀ñga ḗcᴀnᴀⁿ naⁿtckế watcinᴀⁿ. Hak‘ik‘íju uáñkcîk‘ cᵋiⁿ cérëkdjônàwirê. Wocgốⁿ dêế hañk‘ế k‘irutcế howániṇawini-àndjê. Niñkế k‘irútce rák‘ere-wìgi ha-éhiwiā̀nañga.

Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian 317
anything separate, but do the two of you counsel about everything. If one of you knows anything, tell it to the other. Two people are necessary to make the ceremony truly efficacious (for either one). Never dislike one another.
My younger brother, you are going to be a chief. No one else pays attention to this ceremony. You alone are doing it. If at any time I should leave your presence, when I am about to go, I know that you, oh, my son and brother, I will leave behind me, peacefully travelling along. Thus I will think as I am about to depart. Thus my ancestors told me.”
Thus in trying to obtain information,1 I made myself pitiable. I tried to be blessed. I performed all kinds of work. Even woman's work I did. Thus I kept myself in a pitiable condition, and for that reason my brother-in-law blessed me. He blessed me with the ceremony of his ancestors. He told it to no one else but to me; and if any one else, at the present time, tells you that he knows the ceremony as performed by our band, he is not telling you the truth. Up to the present time, this ceremony was an Indian ceremony, and not a second time will I tell it to (a member) of the white race.2
This ceremony moulded me. I paid the most careful attention to it; I worshipped it in the best way I knew how. I was careful about everything in my life. I never drank. A (holy) life it was that I sought. Most earnestly did I pray to be re-incarnated. That is what I yearned for. If I do everything this ceremony enjoins upon me, well, I will return to Earth-Maker, they told me. This is what I wished.

Hijaíⁿskê wacawíguni hiraráwigiji ë́dja hogitᵋáⁿbiadjê. Nûⁿp‘íwi dêê homañk‘ícdjaⁿ cᵋûñkdjônáwirê. Háñk‘aga k‘iwásaⁿwiniàndjê.
“Ë́gi hisû́ñgêdjîⁿ në́cᴀnᴀⁿ tcowë́ra ninékdjonenᴀⁿ. Hañk‘íjᴀⁿ wocgốⁿ dêế harucéredjônìnᴀⁿ. Në́cᴀnᴀⁿ ninénᴀⁿ. Hagârë́jaⁿ nî́ñk‘aratᵋû̀ⁿdê hadjik‘érêgi, hisûñkhára, hinîñk‘ā́ra, racgúnîxdjîⁿ; watᵋûⁿdá hugádjᴀⁿ yā́radahekdjanènᴀⁿ, hîñgaírenᴀⁿ, uáñkcîk‘ êdoixgáñgerê.”
Ë́gi yáp‘erez náⁿinaⁿ, ŭánaⁿdjodjaìⁿskê waᵋúnᴀⁿ náⁿdjogidjaìⁿṇê náñkikᵋìnᴀⁿ. Woréra yakᵋúnᴀⁿ. Hinûñk‘ wóre hagerë́ckê, hirasá haniáⁿ ᵋunᴀⁿ. Ë́gi ŭánaⁿdjodjaìⁿ skêxdjîⁿ hak‘ik‘áraninᴀⁿ hiskế naⁿdjê hiniⁿhára naⁿdjûⁿdjấⁿnᴀⁿ. Wocgốⁿ dêê ŭáñkcîk‘ xêdoixgáñgᴇre náⁿdjiroìdjânᴀⁿ. Hañkế hijᴀ́ⁿ wajáⁿnijᴀⁿ hogirágᴇninᴀⁿ në́cᴀnᴀⁿ ᵋŭinénᴀⁿ; honihé ë́gi waskiók‘erê haníwiṇegi méjëskềṇegi hijᴀ́ⁿ yap‘érezsồnᴀⁿ, wocgốⁿ dêế egíji, hoskế wëkdjᴀnénᴀⁿ. Jedjấnᴀ wocgốⁿ dêế uañkcî́gᴇrêgi maíñxedera howárekdjônàrê, ép‘a wocgốⁿ dêê hañk‘ê hinûⁿbốhôⁿṇa he-ehánikdjône, jësgë́jᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ.
Wocgốⁿ dêế ewaiⁿúnᴀⁿ. Haizóxdjiṇa haizấra djáskê p‘îⁿhanấnᴀⁿ jëske hánᴀⁿ. Hoixgoⁿxgốⁿninᴀⁿ hirak‘ára haᵋúnᴀⁿ. Ë́gi hañk‘ế wadatcgî́ninᴀⁿ. Uañkcîgaᵋîⁿ roágûñgê. Ënaíñxdjîⁿṇa. Uáñkcîgak‘ìhaⁿ hanijèjê. Jéjëskê rogû́ñxdjiiⁿjaⁿ. ᵋUinénᴀⁿ mañk‘óᵋŭañgᴇrê p‘îⁿhági máⁿᵋuṇa ë́dja

1 My informant is speaking of himself again.
2 He is referring to the description of the Medicine Dance that he told me.

318                                        Journal of American Folk-Lore
I was doing well as a medicine-man, and every one loved me. This ceremony was made with love.
I knew all the songs. Indeed, the leader of the dance would make me sing the songs for him. As many medicine-men as there were, they all liked me. I was not overbearing, but modestly did I comport myself right along. All the medicine-men told me that I was doing very well, and they offered thanks in my behalf.

hagikdjốne hîñgaírera. Jếê roágûñxdjìnᴀⁿ gadjᴀⁿ. Mañk‘anixếdera p‘îⁿhádjegê hanāⁿtcîⁿ woígixedèrenᴀⁿ. Wocgôⁿ dêế híwoxêdë ᵋuinénᴀⁿ.
Ë́gi náⁿwaⁿ yáp‘erezā̀nᴀñga. Xᵋóke-atcábᴇra hahí waigíᵋûⁿcᴀnùnᴀⁿ, në́cᴀnᴀⁿ naⁿwaiñgígicᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Mañk‘ā́ni xêdénañk‘a djanañgā́ka hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ hî́ñgip‘inènᴀⁿ. Ë́gi jigế hañk‘ế hirok‘ốnô hak‘înínᴀⁿ, hoicî́pdjîⁿ worudjísdi hak‘ik‘uranìnᴀⁿ. Hanáⁿtcîⁿ mañk‘ā́niṇa p‘îⁿhádjejê hîñgaírecᴀnùnᴀⁿ. Wa-îñgináⁿbirecᴀnùnᴀⁿ.
         Santa Fᴇ́, N. Mex.

Commentary 1

"Phonetic Table" — the reference given by Radin is not very helpful. A better account is found in his Winnebago Tribe,1 the content of which is tabulated below (with some modifications).

  c sh in English   ê a long close e
  j z in azure   ë a broad impure e as in an accentuated
  tc ch in church     pronunciation of ei in eight
  dj j as in judge   i a short open i as in tin
  x ch as in German bach   ĭ a short close i
  γ the sonant of x   ī a long close i
  r a slightly trilled linguo-apical r   o a short open o
  ñ ng in sing   ŏ a short close o
  always represents r preceded by a   ō a long close o
    nasalized vowel   ô a long open o
  t a marked surd   u a short open u
  b, g intermediate stops, except in certain   ŭ a short close u
    positions, where they become true   ū a long close u
    sonants.   û a long open u
  glottal stop   an obscure a
  an aspirated stop after a consonant   an obscure e
  â au in aught   denotes the nasalization of the
  a the short continental a     preceding vowel
  ā a long a   ´ primary stress accent
  e a short open e as in pen   ` secondary stress accent

"English equivalent unknown" — the cîñk‘ok‘ok (šį́k’ok’ok) is the robin. Cf. J. O. Dorsey, šiñkókogara, "robin"; šįkókok, "robin" (Miner, Helmbrecht-Lehmann).

"Tcërcep‘" — this is mistranscribed for tcërap [ceráp], as may be seen in the Winnebago text above the footnote. At Winnebago I.7a, Radin says that the čeráp is "a weed found in shallow water whose roots were dried and then boiled." In The Winnebago Tribe, he says that the čerábera is a water root (apparently the lotus), and under čerápera, that it is "a plant growing in the water, the root of which was eaten boiled with meat (this is apparently the lotus)." W. C. McKern says that tcelʌ́p (= čeráp) is a water lily root. More recent vocabularies describe it as a "lotus, water lily, or lotus root" (Miner and Helmbrecht-Lehmann). Today it is also used as a word for the banana (Helmbrecht-Lehmann). Če-ráp means, "buffalo chew." The "prairie turnip" (Psoralea esculenta) is the tokéwehi, whose name means literally, "hunger."



1 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 379.