W I N N E B A G O  V I L L A G E  L I S T

COMPILED BY

JOHN H. KINZIE


With Translations of Winnebago Names by John Blackhawk & Richard Dieterle [in Brackets]


Indian Office Files
Michigan Territory, 1829-1832
Pension Building


Schedule of Number and Names of Villages, Lodges, and Persons1

Entries by Richard Dieterle are in brackets. Unmarked villages resort to the sub-agency at Fort Winnebago; those marked (•) to the agency at Prairie du Chien, and those marked (#) to the agency at Green Bay.
# Names of Villages Number
of
Lodges
Number of
Persons
Miles
from Ft.
Winnebago
Head Chiefs Corrected
Orthography
Translation
Rock River and Its Tributaries
1. Scalp Village [Map 16] 4 65 40 Nau-hee-hoa-nee-kaw Nąhįhonįga [Pleasure Seeker]2
2. Grand Bourbier (Big Swamp) [Map 17] 4 74 40     Stinking Turtle's Son
3. Elk Village [Map 18] 6 110 40   [Wašerekéga] Old Fox
4. Grand Rapids (Watertown) [Map 28] 8 124 60 Noa-kay-tshay-kaw Nįǧᵋčoga3 ? Blue Paunch
5. Muddy Lake [Map 27] 8 110 60 Nautsh-kay-saug-ray Nąčgesagrega Quick Heart
6. Fox Lake [Map 19] 4 86 20 Mautsh-koo-ah-shay-kaw [Mąčgúnąšéška]4 [Foot that Breaks the Bow]
7. Forks of the Rock River Where They Peel Bark
= The Little Rapids of Rock River [Map 47]
1 21 75 Woank-shik-rootsh-kaw Wąkšígᵋručká People Eater
8. Nah-hoo-rah-roo-hah-ray [Map, Map 41] 9 167 70 Maunk-skaw-kaw [Mą́kskaga]5 White Breast [pic]
9. Kosh-ko-nong [Map 36] 3 57 60 Morah-tshay-kaw Móračega6 [Travels the Land]
10. Little Lake 3 58 22 Roa-kay-kaw [Rukéka] Pond7

Four Lakes8
11. 1st. Old Turtle  [Map 31] 8 144 27   [Kešaka] Old Turtle
12. 2d. Broken Arm  [Map 32] 6 120 35   [Ašiška] Broken Arm9
13. 3d. Spotted Arm  [Map 33] 4 76 48   [Akerekéreška ?] Spotted Arm10 [pic]
14. 4th. Mammoth  [Map 35] 11 200 55   [Waregízinąną́pka ?]11 Mammoth

 
15. Cat Fish  [Map 40] 2 38 60      
16. Round Rock [Map 42] 2 31 60   [Hųgᵋxųnųnį́ka] Little Chief (Little Priest)12
17. Standing Post [Map 43] 1 17 60   [Jąbᵋguga] Coming Lightning
18. Turtle River [Map 44] 35 600 65 Kau-ree-kaw-saw-kaw Kaǧíosą̀ga13 White Crow
19. Mouth of Sugar Creek [Map 46] 1 23 65   [Mą́kskaga] White Breast [pic]
20. Sycamore Village14 [Map 49] 3 48 75      
21. Sugar Camp [Map 52] 6 98 120   [Wabokieshiek] White Sky15 [pic]

Ouisconsin and Its Tributaries
Barribault River            
22. Lower Village [Map 21] 10 200 8 Hee-tshaun-waun-saip-kaw [Hičawaxšepka] Black War Eagle
(Old Day-kau-ray)16 [pic]
23. Middle Village [Map 23] 3 50 10 Kaish-kee-paw Kaiškipega17 ?  
24. Upper Village [Map 24] 7 135 15   [Šąhąnįka] Petit Sioux

 
25. Pine River [Map 25] – • 6 100 45 Tshee-o-nuzh-ee-kaw Čiónąžįga He Who Stands in a House
26. Little Calf 4 76 35   [Sįčoga]18 Green Tail
27. Wau-kaun-haw-kaw's [Map 26] – • 8 150 80 Wau-kaun-haw-kaw Wakąhaga19 Snake Skin [pic]
28. Lake Puckaway [Map 14] 3 54 15   [Warečáwaga] The Twin
29. Little Green Lake [Map 15] 70 200 20 Nau-kaw (Kar-ray-mau-nee) [Nąga (Keramąnįga)]20 Wood [Walking Turtle] [pic]
30. Big Green Lake [Map 13] 8 150 30   [Híwaraką́nąga]21 Sweet Corn
31. Little Rush Lake [Map 11] 3 40 50 Tshah-wau-shaib-ee-[...?]aw-kaw Čawaxšebi_aga22 [... Eagle]
32. Big Butte des Morts Lake [Map 6] – # 3 47 60 Sar-ray-mau-nee Sąremąnįga23 [Walking Light in the Dark]

Winnebago Lake
33. Black Wolf [Map 10] – # 10 180 60 Shoank-tshunk-saip-kaw Šųkjągᵋsépka24 Black Wolf [pic]
34. Garlic Island [Map 7] – # 4 70 70 [Pesheu]25   Wildcat

Fox River and Vicinity
35. Winnebago Rapids [Map 5] – # 9 160 80 Hoo-tshoap-kaw Hujopka Four Legs26 [pic]
36. Fond du Lac [Map 9] – # 3 145 45 [Sarrochau]27 [Čáračų́ga, Tanixiga] Old Smoker

Upper Mississippi
Above Prairie du Chien [Map 3] 21 400   Watsh-hat-a-kaw (and others) Wajᵋxetega Big Canoe28 [pic]
 
 
  Total 246 4,424  

Endorsed: Schedule of
the number and names of
the different Winnebago
Villages, etc. etc. etc.
Oct. 1st. 1829.

Remarks.

                 The distances set down in the schedule are according to the
usual routes by land.
                 The Winnebago lodges, take them one with another, will not average
more than 18 persons each: — I have counted the number of persons
in several villages and found them not to exceed that number.
                  There are several small villages on the Upper Mississippi, the
exact locations of which I omitted to ascertain. The number of lodges
set down, is correct.
                  Those villages [unmarked] resort to the sub-agency at
Fort Winnebago; those marked (•) resort to the agency at Prairie du Chien,
and those marked thus (#) to the agency at Green Bay.
                                                          Fort Winnebago.
                                                               Oct. 1. 1829
                                                                   John H. Kinzie.


1 The wife of John Kinzie, Juliette Augusta Kinzie, the famous author of the classic Wau Bun, describes this payment, or one from the following year, in more detail:

(80) There were two divisions of the Winnebago Indians, one of which was paid by the Agent, at the Portage, the other at Prairie du Chien, by General Street. The first, between four and five thousand in number, received, according to treaty stipulations, fifteen thousand dollars annually, besides a considerable amount of presents, and a certain number of rations of bread and pork, to be issued in times of emergency throughout the year. The principal villages of this division of the tribe were at Lake Winnebago, Green and Fox Lakes, the Barribault [Baraboo], Mud Lake, the Four Lakes, Kosh-ko-nong, and Turtle Creek. Messengers were dispatched, at or before the arrival of the annuity-money, to all the different villages, to notify the heads of families or lodges to assemble at "the Portage." When arrived, the masters of families, under their different (81) chiefs, give in their names, and the number in their lodges, to be registered. As, in paying, a certain sum of money is apportioned to each individual, it is, of course, an object to the head of a lodge to make the number registered as great as possible. Each one brings his little bundle of sticks, and presents it to the Agent to register. Sometimes a dialogue like the following occurs: "How many have you in your lodge?" The Indian carefully, and with great ceremony, counts his bundle of sticks — "Fifteen" "How many men?" "Two." The Agent lays aside two sticks. "How many women?" "Three." Three more sticks are separated. "How many children?" "Eight." Eight sticks are added to the heap. "What is the meaning of these two sticks that remain?" The culprit, whose arithmetic has not served him to carry out his deception, disappears amid the shouts and jeers of his companions, who are always well pleased at the detection of any roguery in which they have had no share. The young officers generally assisted in counting out and delivering the money at these payments, and it was no unusual thing, as the last band came up, for the chiefs to take a quantity of silver out of the box and request their Father to pay his friends for their trouble, seeming really disturbed at his refusal. In this, as in almost every instance, we see the native courtesy and politeness, which are never lost sight of among them. If a party comes to their Father to beg for provisions, and food is offered them, however hungry they may be, each waits patiently until one of the company makes an equal distribution of (82) the whole, and then, taking his share, eats it quietly, with the greatest moderation.

Juliette Augusta McGill Kinzie, Wau-Bun, The "Early Day" in the North-west (Chicago & New York: Rand, McNally & Company, 1873 [1856]) 80-83. This makes it likely that the several villages for which we have no data, were paid at Prairie du Chien or even Green Bay.
2 From Nąhį-honį-ga: nąhį, "pleasure" (used once by Jasper Blowsnake); honį́, "to seek, to search for, to search" (Helmbrecht-Lehmann); -ga, a suffix indicating a personal name.
3 From Nįǧᵋ-čo-ga: nįx, "stomach, paunch"; čo, a color spanning the spectrum from blue through green; -ga, a suffix indicating a personal name. Given the meaning of čo, the name could also be translated as "Green Paunch (or Stomach)." The transcription of the name would suggest Nokešeka.
4 Mąčgúnąšéška: mąčgú, "bow"; ną-, a prefix indicating "with the foot, by walking, stamping"; šéš, is unattested outside of this name, but by interpolation it means, "to break"; -ka, a suffix indicating a personal name. Mąčgúnąšéška is recorded by Foster as a Bear Clan name.
5 Mą́kskaga is attested as a Bear Clan name by both McKern and Lurie, and in fact, White Breast was known to have been a member of the Bear Clan (q.v.). The name of his village, Na-hoo-rah-roo-hah-rah, is for Nąhų́ra Ruhara, "Sturgeon Spawn." This village is not listed separately under this name in the rolls given below.
6 Móračega is a well attested name from the Buffalo Clan, and other clans, that means, "Travels the Earth." However, this is one of the names by which the elder Little Priest was known, and Koshkonong was the village in which he was raised. See under Koshkonong.
7 However, the given transcription is equivalent to Rokeka. Given the general confusion of /o/ and /u/ in Siouan languages, the best translation would be "Comforter," from Rukek-ka: rukék, "to stop someone's crying, to ease someone's sorrow, to comfort someone" (Helmbrecht-Lehmann); and -ka, a personal name suffix. This comes nowhere near meaning "Pond," as given by Blackhawk. Dorsey records te-xununįk as meaning "pond" (literally, "little lake"). Given that the name of the village's chief is "Little Lake," it seems likely that "Little Lake" does not designate a place, but is short for "Little Lake's village." However, about a dozen miles northwest of Ft. Winnebago is a Little Lake, but this does not quite match the 22 miles given for its distance from the fort. This Little Lake should also be near the Rock River or one of its tributaries.
8 Jipson adds in a note: "Kinzie numbered the Four Lakes from the north, number one was Lake Mendota; number two Monona; and so on [number three, Lake Waubesa; number four, Lake Kegonsa]." The site of the Hočąk village at Lake Mendota (Lake One) is based on the statement of Martin in Morgan L. Martin, "The Narrative of Morgan L. Martin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XI (1888): 385-415 [401]: "On the south shore of Third Lake, also on the north shore of Fourth, — east of where Pheasant Branch now is, — we found a few Winnebago Indians located." Of the location of the Fourth Lake, Kegonsa, Pratt tells us, "[We] proceeded up the Catfish river, knowing that that stream would lead us to the 'Fourth Lake,' where were several Indian wigwams." Alexander F. Pratt, "Reminiscences of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, I (1903): 127-145 [142-143].
9 The name is found on the Treaty of 1829 rendered as, "Ah-sheesh-kaw, broken arm." Although he is said to be the chief of the village at the Second Lake (Monona), he is not listed there, most likely because he is recorded under his clan name. Spoon Decorah mentions him as one of the "principal chiefs," and states further that he had fought under Tecumseh. Atwater says this of him, "Broken Arm, who had been severely wounded in the attack on fort Meigs, in the late war, was particularly conspicuous. The wound was so painted, and the blood which run from it was so well represented by the painter, as to look like the reality itself. At a short distance from him, on a first view, I thought he had recently been badly wounded." E. B. Washburne says, "There was Broken Shoulder, an Indian of stalwart frame, great intelligence, courage, and sobriety. He had previously been an enemy of the whites, and he was shot in the shoulder while scalping a white-man at Fort Edwards, near Warsaw, Ill. Hence his name, Broken Shoulder." E. B. Washburne, "Col. Henry Gratiot — a Pioneer of Wisconsin," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, X (1888): 235-260 [253]. Caleb Atwater, Writings of Caleb Atwater (Carlisle, MA: Applewood Books, 2007) 308. Charles J. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. 2, Treaties (Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904) 2:302. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Treaty of 1829, 61, #49).
10 Later, in 1832 he had a village not far from the Sugar River at the site of what is now Exeter, Wisconsin (42.788183, -89.589470). [Map 15] "Edward D. Beouchard's Vindication," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 289-296 [291].
11 The word waregízinąną́p, meaning "mammoth" was collected by Miner ca. 1984. The age of this word is hard to gauge, as is what is meant in this context by the English word "mammoth." Is it used literally, or figuratively, as meaning for instance, "very large"?
12 Hųgᵋxųnųga is the name by which both the elder and junior Young Priests went. Hųk usually means "chief," but can also mean "priest." Xųnų means, "small, young." Therefore, the name can be translated a number of different ways. The standard translation has been "Little Priest." This name is apparently popular.
13 White Crow is a famous person. For more details on him see the note at Turtle Creek Village.

14 For Sycamore Village, see Jipson, Winnebagoes of Rock River, 134. The village is said to have been located at the mouth of the Kishwaukee River on the southern outskirts of what is now Rockford, Illinois.
15 The Winnebago Prophet after whom the town takes its name, is Wāpakīshik, "White Sky" (Sauk) or "White Cloud" (Hočąk). For the identity of Sugar Camp, see below.

16 Hičawaxšepka means "War Eagle," the idea that it means "Black War Eagle" comes from a confusion of the syllable šep with sep, "black." In the treaties of 1829 and 1832, he signed as White War Eagle: Hičawaxšepskaga. For Old Gray-Headed Decorah, see Hexom, who also records that he signed a treaty under the name Čaxšépskaga, "White Eagle." The same is recorded by Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Hicawaxšεpskagǝ, 63, #62) for the Treaties of 1829 and 1832, and adds, "While this name is now fairly common, it is alleged that the person identified as "Old Decora" was the first to bear it, or the only one who is recalled as having had the name during the treaty period."
17 Kaish-kee-pay-kau was a signatory to the Treaty of 1829, but no translation of his name was given there either. In the Treaty of 1837, his name was entered as Keeshkeepakah. In the roll for the Middle Baraboo Village, where he is Kaish-kay-pee-way, the name is said to be Sauk. Charles J. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. 2, Treaties (Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904) 2:302.
18 Given the ambiguity of čo, the name could also be translated as "Blue Tail." This sounds like a Waterspirit Clan name. Waterspirits are known for extremely long tails, which represent the channels of rivers and streams, whose waters are conventionally čo.
19 Wakąhaga, often called "Wakawn Decorah," or "Washington Decorah," is easily identified by his snake skin headband. [pic]
20 There was a well known chief of the name Nąga (Keramąnįga), for whom see the Commentary to Kinzie's Wau Bun. However, two people named Nąga Keramąnįga signed the Treaty of 1829, the younger of whom is said to have been the nephew of the other. Nancy Oestreich Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Journal of the Wisconsin Indians Research Institute, 2, #1 (June, 1966): 50-73 (##2-3, p. 53). Lurie's informants told her that the Keramąnįs were originally of Fox or Sauk extraction. Foreign captives who are spared are always put into the Thunderbird Clan, or may enter it through marriage. Mrs. Kinzie said that this name meant, "Walking Rain." This is due to the fact that the name has a double meaning in Hočąk: Ke-ra-mąnį means literally, "The Turtle Walking," where -ra is the definite article. On the face of it, this name is rather peculiar, since the -ga attached to the end of it to indicate that it's a personal name is also a definite article. This leads to the rather stilted translation, "The Walking One Who is the Turtle." However, the same name differently parsed, Kera-mąnį, means "Walking Cloud," where kera, like the more common mąxí, means both "cloud" and "sky." It could be that Kera-mąnį-ga was originally a Thunderbird Clan name for the ancestor of the lineage, but members of that family liked the mystical association that the double meaning gave them to the God of War.
21 Hí-waraką́ną literally means, "dirty teeth," so the name could bear that translation. His son was (Little) Otter (q.v.).
22 Čawaxšep means "eagle," but with an illegible letter in the penultimate syllable, it is impossible to complete the transliteration or translation of the name.
23 Mąnį means, "walks," but sąré is more complex: "to show white in the dark, to show light color in the dark, to shine in the distance" (Helmbrecht-Lehmann).
24 For Black Wolf, see the Commentary to Kinzie's Wau Bun.
25 See the Commentaries in Kinzie's Wau Bun to "Garlic Island" and "Pesheu". The name Pesheu is actually the Menominee for Wildcat.
26 Four Legs was a famous chief. See the Commentary to Kinzie's Wau Bun; and Lawson, The Winnebago Tribe, 142-143.
27 The many variants of Sarrochau, Charatchou, Serachou, and Tshayrotshoankaw, are variants of Čáračų́ga, "Many Deer." Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," (55, #16) suggests that this name might actually be Čajᵋračoga, "Blue Air." Tahnickseeka, "Smoker," his alledged nickname, is for Tanį́ksiga, from tanį́, "tobacco"; ksi, "to have a habit, develop a habit; to overdo." However, Grignon says that Smoker was Sarrochau's son (Grignon's Recollections, Wisconsin Historical Collections, III (1857 [1904]): 288). Sarrochau is not listed under "Fond du Lac," but under the Second Baraboo Village. See the Commentary to Kinzie's Wau Bun.
28 For Big Canoe, see Lawson, The Winnebago Tribe, 141, Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," p. 56, #18.



KINZIE’S  RECEIPT  ROLL

OF  THE

ANNUITY PAID WINNEBAGO NATIVES

Nov. 8, 1832 - $15,000.00


With Translations of Winnebago Names by John Blackhawk


Roll Presented to the Chicago Historical Society
by William W. Gordon
July 24, 1919


We the chiefs, warriors, heads of families, and individuals without families of the Winnebago Indians of the State of Illinois and Territory of Michigan, do hereby acknowledge to have received in specie of John H. Kinzie, United States Sub Agent of Indian Affairs at Fort Winnebago, the sums affixed to our respective names, the same being in full of our respective proportions of the annuities due to the said nation for the year eighteen hundred and thirty two, for which we have signed duplicate receipts.


In the following tables clan names are supplied by Nancy Oestreich Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Journal of the Wisconsin Indians Research Institute, 2, #1 (June, 1966): 50-73. Clan names in brackets are supplied by Richard Dieterle.


Google
Distance Measurement to Various Points in the Vicinity of Scalp Village
"0" represents the site of Zoellner's Mill. The next marker to the north is 1,000 feet (60 rods) from the mill, the site of Scalp Village. About a half mile to the east is the proposed site of Scalp Lake. The fourth marker is situated somewhere in the cornfield about a half mile to the west of the village.

Heads of Families and Individuals
1. Scalp Lake

43.650111, -88.6801391
[Map 16]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Po-skaw-skaw Paskaga White Snout   X 3 5 2 10 36.87
To-shun-nuk-kaw Tošąnąka Otter [pic] [Waterspirit]2 X 4 4 7 15 55.31
Ah-oo-say-raitsh-kaw Ahúserečka Long Wings3 [Upper Moiety] X 5 7 4 16 59.00
Maw-hee-kee-okah Mąxikioga One Who Touches the Clouds [Upper Moiety] X 4 4 7 15 55.31

1 The location of "Scalp Village" was passed on to us by Brown: "Chester Township ... Indian village known as 'Scalp' village was located near Zoellner's mill, on the west side of the east branch of Rock River. Scattered graves nearby. Cornfield about 1 mile west of the village on the Dean and Hillebert places." Charles E. Brown, "A Record of Wisconsin Antiquities," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 5, #3-4 (April-Oct., 1906): 315. The matter is, however, obscured by the fact that contemporary maps do not have a west and east branch of the Rock River, but the South Branch and the West Branch of the Rock River. This latter, ironically, is the present designation for the eastern branch of the river. In a brief biographical sketch, we are told that, "Dehlia and Hugh went monthly to Zoellner’s Mill on Oak Center Road to get supplies and news, leaving the children on the farm with their grandparents." American Settlement, Exploitation & Conservation, 3. From this alone, we know that Zoellner's Mill is very close to the intersection of the West Branch of the Rock River with Oak Road (43.647496, -88.681391). It turns out that the corn field is about ½ a mile from the village (as it says here):

 
Google  
Scalp Lake (Te Nasura)  

"(498) Having given you a sketch of the early white settlement, let us turn for a few moments to the aborigines. It was no uncommon sight to see a band of Indians with their squaws, papooses and ponies traveling through the country, or to see their wigwams at their favorite camping grounds, or to hear the tinkle of the bells on their ponies on a still night. On a beautiful elevation on the west side of the east branch of Rock River, about sixty rods north from where Mr. Zoelloner's mill now stands, was the remains of an old French trading-post, known as Scalp Village. A fine spring of pure water issued from the bank and flowed into the river, but is now submerged by the mill-pond. A deep, worn path led from the village to the spring. The ground for some distance around the village was literally covered with bones of deer and other game that had been slain to provide food for the red man. Still farther back from the river, (499) scattered here and there among the rolling burr-oak openings, were a number of Indian graves, each being protected by a miniature log house, or what more resembled the second floor of a pioneer cabin, covered with shakes as the pioneer covers his, the top being about three feet high. But the plow and the ax of the white man have swept them all away, and naught is left to mark the spot where the red man sleeps his last sleep. About half a mile west from this village, was the Indian planting-ground, or cornfields, on lands owned by Mr. Dean and Mr. Hillebert. And about three-quarters of a mile southwest, on the lands now owned by Mr. Oleson, was the Indian sugar-bush, or sugar-camp, and from the scars the trees bore, it had evidently been used as such for many a year. From this village an Indian trail ran up the river, crossing at the place where the Fond du Lac road crosses (43.669419, -88.652810), thence to Fond du Lac. The trails were the Indian roads leading from one trading-post to another, or from one favorite camping-ground to another, and were often worn four or six inches deep. The second trail ran in a northwesterly direction, crossing the river on the rapids above the place known as the Sheldon deep hole, and thence through the grove and near the large oak (that one of our village lawyers in his early practice addressed with great force of eloquence as an imaginary Judge), thence through this village to Fox Lake. The fourth led in a northwesterly direction, near Mr. George Wells' residence (43.677624, -88.706463), to Green Lake. Near this trail, on lands owned by Mr. Carpenter (43.677624, -88.706463), on the south bank of what was then a small stream or brook, lay scattered here and there among the tall grass a number of human skeletons; who they were, or by what means they came to their death, is not known. Probably they fell in battle." The History of Dodge County, Wisconsin (Chicago: Western Historical Company, 1880) 498-499.

All this is confirmed by old plat maps of the area. Brown incorrectly identified the township, which in fact is Waupun Township (T14N, R15E) in Fond du Lac County, with Zoellner's Mill located in the SW ¼ of the SW ¼ of Section 26. The 1873 plat map shows this 10 acre property before the mill dam was constructed as "H Z" (for "Hall & Zoellner"), with subsequent plat maps (1893 & 1910), drafted after the construction of the mill dam, labeling the property as "Z Bros. & Hall." The 1873 plat map shows the property of J. C. Hillebert in the SW ¼ of the SE ¼ of Section 27, and that of D. S. Dean in the SE ¼ of the SE ¼ of Section 27, with Mill Road as their boundary. This road also serves as the boundary between SW ¼ and SE ¼ of the SE ¼ of Section 27. The southern border of these two sections is Oak Center Road. These sections can still be found on a contemporary map. The 72.5 acres of Hillebert and the 80 acres of Dean still retain their integrity. The cornfield is therefore found within a couple hundred feet of 43.651704, -88.689213. Zoellner's Mill is located at 43.647398, -88.681391. As to the village itself, 60 rods (900 feet) to the north places it at the bend of the river at 43.650121, -88.680143. At about the center of O. Oleson's 80 acre lot (43.649958, -88.671737), occurs an oddly shaped lake that looks rather like a person's hairpiece. There can be little doubt that this is Scalp Lake, so called on account of its shape. It is in its vicinity that the Sugar Camp is to have been found, except that it is ¾ of a mile south-east from the cornfields, not the village. The distance from the village to the center of Mr. Oleson's property, where the "sugar farm" was situated, is a little less than ½ mile.
2 The names Tošąnąkskága, "White Otter," and Tošanakxonunįka, "Little Otter" are Waterspirit Clan names (Foster and Lurie). There is also an Otter Subclan in the Waterspirit Clan. Tošąnąka, "Otter," was also known as Tošąnągᵋxųnųnįka, "Little (or Young) Otter." Under this latter name he signed the Treaty of 1832 as a member of the Fort Winnebago band. There he is said to have been the son of the obscure Sweet Corn, chief of the Green Lake band. Under the name "Otter," he signed the Treaty of 1837. He is said to have been a member of the Waterspirit Clan. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 68, #90.
3 The long wing refers to "a far extended cloud, clouds being the plumage of the Thunderbirds."



Victor Trapp
The Southern End of the Horicon Marsh

Heads of Families and Individuals
2. Grand Bourbier
ca. 43.513785, -88.6289041
[Map 17]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Wa-nik-kaw Wanįka Bird [Upper Moiety] X 4 3 2 9 33.19
Wee-rah-pay-kaw Wírapéga Sentinel [Ambusher]2   X 4 3 5 12 44.25
Hoon-haik-kaw Huheka [Coming on the Way]3   X 5 3 3 11 40.56
Kau-ray-shaw-kaw Korešaka4 [Surprise Attack]   X 2 4 5 11 40.56
Ho-tshah-noo-kaw Hočą́noga5 Youth   X 3 1 - 4 14.75
Pay-o-sik-kaw Peoziga6 Yellow Brow     1 3 2 6  


1 Grand Bourbier means "Great Marsh." Since it is roughly the same distance from Ft. Winnebago as Scalp Village, it would have to be nearby. We know that there was at least one village that was actually out in the marsh, so the coördinates given are just a crude indication of the sort of place in the marsh where a village might be set up.
2 Dorsey has, "he who lies in wait for, in ambush."
3 Blackhawk has "Chief," which would be Hųka.
4 The name might also be Kąrešaka, "Strike that Tips Them Over": kąré, "to tip over, to fall over, to faint"; šak, "to strike"; and -ka, a suffix indicating a personal name.
5 Hočą́no, meaning, "boy," is only found in Kinzie's word list. The usual word is hočįčį́nįk.
6 From pe-ho-zi-ga. Zi can mean, "yellow, orange, brown."



Anna C.
The Rock River at Horicon

Heads of Families and Individuals
3. Elk Village
43.446872, -88.6300911
[Map 18]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Wau-shay-ray-kaw Wašerekéga [Fox] [Wolf ?] X 3 6 - 9 33.19
Wauk-tshey-hee-tsho-kaw Wakčéxičóga [Blue (or Green) Waterspirit]2 [Waterspirit] X 4 4 2 10 36.87
Nee-hoo-kaw Nįhúga Flowing Water [Waterspirit, Wolf]3 X 7 7 6 20 73.75
Tshah-rah-wau-skaw-ween-kaw Čarawasgawįga [She Who Offends the Deer]4 [Wolf ?]     4 9 13  
Mau-say-mau-nee-kaw Mą́zᵋmąnį́ga Iron Walker [Thunderbird]5 X 2 7 11 20 73.75
Mau-shoan-skaw-skaw Mąšųskaga White Feather [Upper Moiety]6 X 3 4 3 10 36.87
Mau-sho-zee-wee-(ka) Mąšųziwįga Yellow Feather Woman [Upper Moiety ?] X 2 4 2 8 29.50
Wau-nik-sik Wanįgᵋziga [Yellow Bird] [Upper Moiety] X 3 5 6 14 51.63
Wash-tshink-(ka) Waščįka Hare   X 4 4 7 15 55.31

 
14 WHC 76v  
Satterlee Clark  

1 This village, in which Satterlee Clark stayed, was precisely located by him. "White Breast (Maunk-shak-kah, the Indians called it)," says the Hon. Satterlee Clark, "was for many, many years — I don't know how long — a noted Winnebago village. On the night of September 2, 1830, I slept in an Indian lodge on the east bank of Rock River, where Horicon now stands. There were two rows of lodges extending several rods north from a point near where the Milwaukee & St. Paul bridge spans the river. The population of White Breast, I should judge, was close upon two thousand ..." The History of Dodge County, Wisconsin (Chicago: Western Historical Company, 1880) 477. Not far away, and perhaps even part of this village, was one on the farm of Garry Taylor (43.457040, -88.615825), whose property can be found on the 1873 Hubbard Township Map in Section 5, with his house exactly a mile north from the southern edge of White Breast. Charles E. Brown, A Record of Wisconsin Antiquities, Wisconsin Archeologist, 5, #3-4 (Oct., 1906): 317 ("Hubbard Township"). Local traditions hold, "The Indian census of 1828-1832 by John M. Kinzie, Indian agent at Fort Winnebago (Portage, Wisconsin) lists Elk Village (at the present-day city of Horicon) with six lodges and 110 people and Old Fox as their chief. Deputies took the census with corn kernels, a red one for each man, yellow for women, and white for children. Indians also called the Horicon area Hochurunga (Fish Eaters), Maunk-shak-kah (White Breast), and Parachera (Fire Village). The oil painting in the one-room school house behind Satterlee Clark's house in Horicon depicts this Ho-Chunk village and their wigwam dwellings, and a spring which provided fresh water for them." Fire Village would be properly rendered Pejᵋra Činą́gᵋra; Maunk-shak-kah is a corruption of Mą́kskaga; and Hochurunga is for Hočą́kera, "the Cranberry [Marsh]." Molly Stoddard, "Horicon National Wildlife Refuge," U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (archived, 23 August 2013).
2 Blackhawk has, "Blue Mystic Animal." This animal is the Waterspirit. The name Wakčéxičóga is listed by Foster as a Waterspirit Clan name. Čo denotes that part of the spectrum than runs from blue through green, so the name can mean, "Green Waterspirit," as well.
3 Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," identifies this as a Wolf Clan name, which she translates as "Water Comes" (hu meaning, "to come towards the speaker"); Foster and Radin list it as a Waterspirit Clan name meaning, "He Who Discharges Water (as from a spring)."
4 This name occurs above at the Koshkonong Village. Since wolves "offend" the deer, this may be a Wolf Clan name.
5 The name "Iron Walker" by which he went was probably a nickname, as most Mąz- names are of the Bear Clan (Mązanąpįga, Mązawįga, Mązᵋsąwįga, Mązᵋwįga, and Mą́zičiga). We know that he was of the Thunderbird Clan because he was the son of Whirling Thunder, who himself was a chief. Mą́zᵋmąnį́ga gained notoriety by killing the translator Paquette in an affair of honor. He was initially convicted of murder, but on retrial was acquitted. Merrel tells us of his camp, which was not too far from his father's village:

Some years after, Captain Thompson was out with a party of soldiers gathering up the Indians to remove them west of the Mississippi, and came across a young Indian whom he induced to guide him to Man-za-mon-e-ka's camp; and he surrounded his wigwam before the Indian knew it. The Captain said he fouud him on an island in Winnebago swamp — since Lake Horicon — and never could have discovered his retreat but for his guide. Man-za-mon-e-kah was taken to Prairie du Chien, from which he soon disappeared, and no one knew what became of him. Captain Thompson said that Man-za-mon-e-kah, after taking him, said that he was never happy after killing Pauquette, as he dare not venture himself among his Nation, and had to secrete himself. He probably lived the rest of his life away from his people. Henry Merrell, "Pioneer Life in Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 366-402 [389].

The town of Mazómanie, Wisconsin, is named for him.
6 Mentioned as a Bird Clan name in Marino's Dictionary.



postcard
The Rock River just beyond the Rapids

4. Grand Rapids (Watertown)
43.177816, -88.7359591
[Map 28]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 Grand Rapids is reference to the white water of the Watertown area, this town having once been called "Johnson's Rapids" in honor of Timothy Johnson, the first white settler there. The Hočąk village was on the west side of the river, opposite a Potawatomi village on the other bank. Watertown, Wisconsin, City Directory, 1872, ed. Ken Riedl (Ken Riedl, 2005) 190. This village has been precisely located:

On the west bank of Rock River, within the city of Watertown, on the ground now owned by the Bethesda Lutheran Home, is the site of an ancient Winnebago village, about ten acres in extent. That this village was not of minor importance before the coming of the white settlers, and even after their arrival here can be deduced from the many and widely varied remains picked up from time to time and from authentic statements made by early settlers. The site appears to us at once as an ideal place for an Indian settlement. An abundant supply of water was always to be had from three crystal pure springs which bubbled from the base of the elevated ground whereon this village stood. Another inducement to locate here is found in the fact that Rock River in early days teemed with fish, and other forms of useful aquatic life. The pickerel, the bass, the sucker and the drumfish (Pogonias cromis) in particular seem to have been highly prized. ... The rich semi-sandy soil was unequaled for the planting of maize and other plant foods cultivated by the redmen. The elevation and rapid drainage protected him from the dampness of the nearby low-land. Bounteous nature gave the forest with its wild animal life and its trees so indispensable to the early Indian. In former times hunting in this region was excellent. Captain James Rogan, an early settler, states that droves of deer to the number of a hundred could be seen together, at times, sporting in the forest and on the open green which then covered the land whereon the city of Watertown now stands. Clay, for the making of pottery, was to be had in unlimited quantities from pits just across the river.

Anton Sohrweide, "The Watertown Village Site," Wisconsin Archeologist 5 ns, #2 (January, 1926) 51-56 [51].



Joshua Mayer
The Shoreline of Mud Lake

Heads of Families and Individuals
5. Muddy Lake Village
43.23312380, -88.878691501
[Map 27]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Zhoo-ree-ah-kay-kaw Žuriąkega [No Silver]2   - - - - - -
Nautsh-kay-sang-ray Nąčgesagrega [Quick Heart]3 X 8 4 6 18 66.37
  [Českága] White Ox [Buffalo]4 X 4 5 4 13 47.94
Wau-mau-nook-ay(ka) Wamąnųkega Robber [Bear]5 X 3 3 3 9 33.19
Wauk-tshey-he-ho-no-nik Wąkčexixųnųnįka [Young Little Waterspirit]6 [Waterspirit] X 2 6 5 15 47.94
Kwee-say-me-nunk-(ka) Giseweminąka One Who Sits Quietly [Bear]7 X 3 3 5 11 40.56
Ho-rah-oonk-kaw Xorahųka Chief of Bald Eagles [Eagle]8 X 4 1 2 7 25.81
Nau-sau-noo-hay-kaw Nąsąnehíga One Who Whitens Wood [Bear]9 X 3 3 1 7 25.81
Hoang-o-tshee-kaw Hųgočiga Chief's Dwelling   X 6 4 6 16 59.00
Wau-kaun-tshah-hoo-kah Wakąjáhųga Thunder[bird] Chief [Thunderbird ?] X 2 2 4 8 29.50
Ah-oo-say-raish-kaw Ahúserečka Long Wing [Upper Moiety ?] X 3 2 3 8 29.50
Nee-shun-uk-kaw Nišą́nąka River [Waterspirit]10 X 6 3 2 11 40.56
Wau-kaun-tshah-saip-kaw Wakąjásepka Black Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird Clan]11 X 4 3 3 10 36.87
Wau-tscho-paw-kaw Mąčopaga Grizzly Bear Head [Bear] X 4 4 3 11 40.56

1 There are a number of Mud Lakes in Wisconsin. That the village was located at this particular Mud Lake, in Dodge County, is stated explicitly in History of Columbia County, Wisconsin (Chicago: Western Historical Co., 1880) 331. Peet says that "Mud Lake ... is remote from settlements, and said to have been a favorite place of the Indians long after the rest of the country was deserted by them." Steven D. Peet, Prehistoric America, 2 vols. (Chicago: American Antiquarian Office, 1896) 2:243.
2 This name is probably a joke, from žuria, "silver"; and hąké, "no, not." Part of the joke is that Col. Kinzie was, like his father, called Šaniaki, which is Potawatomi for "Silver Man." The supplicant presented himself, in effect, as "No Silver Man." Kinzie, having written this down, then realized what it meant, and so lined out the other categories. See the Commentary to Mrs. Kinzie's Wau Bun.
3 An alternant form of the name, Nąčgesaka, substitutes sak, "fast, swift; to do something swiftly; to hurry," for sagre. Quick Heart signed the Treaties of 1828, 1829, 1837 (Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 61, #43). Oddly enough, Quick Heart had the nickname "Kinzie." The chief had two daughters, Mary and Hannah, one of whom married Abraham Wood of Madison. Norton William Jipson, The Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society [unpublished], 1924) 260.
4 His name is recorded in English. There seems to be no distinction between a buffalo and an ox, as both are denoted by the word če. This name is mentioned as a Buffalo Clan name by both Foster and Lurie. White Ox signed the Treaty of 1829. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," (62, #50). Radin says that White Ox's village was at Portage (Map 20) in 1832. His family is mentioned by de la Ronde in connection with the payment recorded here in Kinzie's rolls:

The same day [26 November 1832] the Indians were receiving provisions from the Government; and among them was Chas-ka-ka. or White Ox, whose son had been killed by another Indian two days before. The murderer happened to be there, when the oldest son of White Ox took his rifle and shot the fellow, the ball passing through his stomach, and out a little above the right shoulder. The wounded Indian started on a run from the place where he was shot near the warehouse, and near the Fox River bridge. I met him about half-way between the two Rivers. He was making wads in his mouth, and with them plugging up the holes made by the rifle-ball; but the blood would every now and then force out the wads. He succeeded in reaching the other end of the Portage, near Whitney's warehouse, where his lodge was; and, as he reached there, he dropped dead. John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [352]. 

5 Recorded by Dorsey as a Bear Clan name, and translated by him as, "Habitual Thief." However, it is often used as a warrior name according to Oliver LaMère. See Hexom, 64. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," (Wamanukegǝ, 70, #110) translates the name as "Clever in Stealing or Deceiving." He signed the Treaty of 1846.
6 Translated by Blackhawk as "Little Mystic Animal." Xųnų and nįk are both diminutives, although the former is more flexibly translated as "young."
7 Recorded as a Bear Clan name by Dorsey.
8 Listed as an Eagle Clan name by Dorsey and Lurie.
9 Both Radin and McKern record this as a Bear Clan name. Radin translates this as, "Makes a Tree Whitish by Scratching off the Bark." Cf. McKern, Nasanĕ́higa, "White Tree Trunks." He goes on to say, "Refers to the bark scratched off by bears."
10 Listed as a Waterspirit Clan name by Foster and Radin.
11 List by Sam Blowsnake as a Thunderbird Clan name.



VRBO
The Point at Chief Kuno Trail on Fox Lake

Heads of Families and Individuals
6. Fox Lake
43.587136, -88.9395861
[Map 19]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Woank-pau-kaw Wągᵋpaga Man's Head   X 1 3 - 4 14.75
Shoank-tshunk-kaw Šųkčąka Wolf [Wolf] X 1 3 3 7 25.81
Hoonk-kaw Hųka Leader2   X 4 2 5 11 40.56
Tshay-toak-kaw Četoka [Buffalo Bull] [Buffalo]3 X 1 1 3 5 18.44
Wau-kaun-tsho-ween-kaw Wakąčowįga Green Snake Woman [Snake]4 X - 1 5 6 22.13
Wau-nig-ee-nik-kaw Wanįgᵋnįka Little Bird [Upper Moiety] X 2 2 4 8 29.50

1 As to the location of the village of Grizzly Bear at Maple Point on Fox Lake (1838), see Charles E. Brown, "A Record of Wisconsin Antiquities," Wisconsin Archeologist, 5, #3-4 (Oct., 1906): 312. "Narrative of Spoon Decorah," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 448-462 [460].
2 Once again, the chief of the village, whom we are told is Foot that Breaks the Bow, is here referred to simply as "the Chief."
3 Blackhawk translates this as "Big Leading Buffalo," but četok is the standard word for a buffalo bull. The diminutive of this name, Četonįka, is a Buffalo Clan name (Dorsey).
4 Foster records the male version of this name, Wakąčóka, as a Snake Clan personal name.



SD
The Confluence of the Pecatonica and the Rock Rivers

Heads of Families and Individuals
7. Little Rapids of the Rock River = Forks of the Rock River Where They Peel Bark
42.431635, -89.0488421
[Map 47]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Woank-shik-ee-rootsh-kaw Wąkšígᵋručká  Man Eater [Hawk]2 X 4 4 4 12 44.25
Mau-kay-zu-mau-nu-kaw Mąkožumąnįga ? [Walking Medicine Chest ?]3   X 2 2 4 8 29.50
Tshee-wau-kay-ray-ka Čiwakerega Stores in His Dwelling   X 3 3 4 10 36.87
Hee-nook-shee-shik-ka Hinųgᵋšišika Bad Woman   X 2 2 1 5 18.44
Wau-to-heen-kuay-kaw Watohįkuega ? One Who is Provoked   X 4 4 3 11 40.56
Hoag-kay-tsho-kaw Hokéčoga Bittern [Blue Heron]4 [Upper Moiety] X 3 4 2 9 33.19
Woang-ee-rootsh-kaw Wągᵋručka [Man-Eater]5   X 3 2 1 6 22.13
Mau-nah-pay-kaw Mąną́pega Soldier [Bear] X 3 3 5 11 40.56
Haygh-kee-ween-kaw Hegewįga Vulture Woman [Upper Moiety ?] X 6 7 10 23 84.81
Nee-zhoo-hotsh-kay-mau-nee Nįžuhošgemąnįga Walking with Drizzly Rain [Upper Moiety] X 5 4 8 17 62.69

1 The table puts this village 75 miles from Ft. Winnebago, which is the same calculation made for Sycamore Village, which is also on the Rock River. So the two are nearby one another. The major fork in this vicinity is where the Rock River meets the mouth of the Pecatonica. However, we find People Eater's name entered in the roll from "Little Rapids of the Rock River." Just below this confluence are the rapids (42.432249, -89.050664), as shown on Chandler's map. In 1832, according to the map in van Shaik, Wąkšígᵋručká had a village on the east side of Lake Koshkonong, on the opposite shore from Little Priest's Village (q.v.).
2 This form of the name is found in the Hawk Clan, however the variant, Wągᵋrúčka, occurs in the Bear Clan. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Waŋkšigrucgǝ, 61, #46) says, "Although in recent times the name has belonged to other Bird Clan individuals it is properly a name of the Warrior (Hawk) Clan." He signed the Treaty of 1829.
3 From mąką, "medicine"; hožú, "to fill, to load; load, pack, bag, chest"; mąnį, "walker"; -ga, a personal name suffix.
4 Hoké-čo, "blue stomach", is said to denote the blue heron (Miner). Since the bittern is "brown and buff," it clearly seems more likely that the bird with the blue stomach is the blue heron.
5 Strictly speaking, the transliteration should be Wogiručka, which is easier to understand as a corruption of Wągᵋručka than what is implied by Blackhawk's translation as "One Who Eats for Shame." Nothing meaning "shame" seems to correspond to wogi (wa-hogi);; nor is it clear how one would get a name like "Eats for Shame," or even what it might mean. Names meaning "Man-Eater" are found in the Upper Moiety clans as well as the Bear Clan. See Note 1 above.



Miles Paddled
The Sugar River Near the Site of Sturgeon Spawn Village

8. Nąhų́ra Ruhara (Sturgeon Spawn)
42.638661, -89.3921361
[1834 Map, Map 41]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 It was located near the site of the present town of Brodhead (42.619051, -89.392672). An 1834 map locates the village in the NE ¼ of Fractional Section 23. George W. Harrison's survey sketch map of the east side of the river shows both De Mun's trading post and the village, which is described as being "in ruins." His earlier sketch map of 1833 of the west side of the river also shows De Mun's trading post, but not the village. De Mun's post is also clearly identified on the completed original plat map in the SE ¼ of Section 14. The 1873 map of Decateur Township (T2N R9E) clearly shows Section 23 with the site easily inferred to be on the 41.5 acre plot of H. S. Arnes (on contemporary maps, parcels 578-579). It further shows the effects of a mill dam and a "mill race" that still exists, which probably cuts through at least part of the village site. However, a trace of the original channel exists and the space of separation is quite short, so this placement of the village site is precise. For White Breast's villages, see Jipson, The Winnebagoes of Rock River, 132.



Wisconsin DNR
Lake Koshkonong

Heads of Families and Individuals
9. Koshkonong Village
42.884404, -88.9816281
[Map 36]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Pey-tshun-nee-kaw Pečanįka Little Crane     1 1 3 5  
Mo-rah-tshay-kaw Moračéga Traveler (Little Priest)2 [Bear] X 4 3 5 12 44.25
Wau-kaun-tshah-kaw Wakąjága Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird] X 2 2 3 7 25.81
Moy-ee-tshah-woank-shik-(ka) Moįjawąkšika Man on Earth3   X 4 4 1 9 33.19
Khee-mun-nee-kaw Ximąnįga Walking Smoke   X 1 1 2 4 14.75
Tshah-rah-wau-skaw-ween-kaw Čarawasgawįga [She Who Offends the Deer]4 [Wolf ?]   2 3 6 11  
Mau-nee-tay-pay-kaw Manit’epega ? [Ready for This Winter ?]5   X 5 5 7 17 62.69
Wauk-tshay-hee-shee-kaw Wakčexižiga Brown Waterspirit [Waterspirit] X 4 4 8 16 59.00
Kay-rah-mau-nee Keramąnįga [Walking Turtle]6 [Thunderbird] X 5 5 2 12 44.25
Mau-zhun-pee-nee-kaw Mašųpįnįka Little Good Feather   1 1 2 4  
Tshawnp-kuay-kaw Jąbᵋkwega Lightning Flash [Upper Moiety] X 3 3 6 12 44.25
Shoank-tshunk-saip-kaw Šųkjągᵋsépka Black Wolf [Wolf ?]7 X 1 4 2 7 25.81
Mau-roo-swa-mee-nun-kaw Mąrušaramįnáka ? He Who Sits on Bare Earth [Wolf ?] X 1 3 - 4  
Mau-tsho-kaw Mąčóga Grizzly Bear [Bear]8 X 2 3 6 11 40.56
Woang-ee-rootsh-kaw-ween-kaw Wągᵋručgewįga Giant Woman9     2 6 2 10  
Mau-kik-soatsh-kaw Mągíksųčka He Who Shook the Earth [Thunderbird, Buffalo]10 X 3 2 5 10 36.87
Ah-nautsh-oo-khat-toy-kah Ąnąčųxétega Big Armful [Bear]11 X 3 4 6 13 47.94
Nun-tshoo-zhoo-ween-kaw Nąčúžiwįga Brown Haired Woman [Bear]12   2 6 2 10  
Ee-tshah-wau-shaip-hat-tay-kaw Hičawaxšebᵋxetega Mighty [War] Eagle13   X 4 4 6 14 51.63
Seentsh-ay-ay-kaw Sįčeéga Bushy Tail [Wolf]14   0 1 2 3  
Hoank-ho-no-no-nik-(ka) Hųgᵋxųnųnįka Little Chief15   X 3 4 1 8 29.50
Pau-hee-sun-kaw Pahisąga White Head ? X 1 2 2 5 18.44
Hoank-see-kaw Hųgᵋziga Yellow Chief     1 2 5 8  
Wau-kaun-tsho-kaw Wakąčóka Green Snake [Snake]16 X 1 4 3 8 29.50
Hee-hee-ween-kaw Xihiwįga Smoking Woman17   X 3 4 0 7  
Wau-shay-ray-kay-(ka) Wašerekéga Fox   X - - - - -
Tshaush-tshaun-hat-tay-kaw Čaščąxetega Big Wave [Waterspirit]18 X 4 2 6 12 44.25
Hotshun-hee-kaw Hočą́higa [Made to Put on Leggings]     2 2 5 9  
Haump-mau-nee-kaw Hąbᵋmąnįga Walking Day [Bear]19 X 1 2 9 12 44.25
Mantsh-koo-nah-shisk-(ka) Mąčgúnąšéška He Who Breaks the Bow [Bear]20 X 0 2 1 3  
Wauk-tshay-wau-ee-kaw Wakjéwa’iga ? One Who Grants Victory on the Warpath21   X 1 2 3 6 22.13
Ish-tshah-saip-kaw Išjasepka Black Face   X 2 5 3 10 36.87
No-kaw-tsho-kaw Nokačoga ?       1 1 2 4  
Nau-tshee-o-zhoo-kaw Nąčiožuga One Who Takes Wood in the Camp22   X 2 2 3 7 25.81
Ee-nee-woank-shik-(ka) Įnįwąkšika Stone Man23 [Bear]   1 2 3 6  
Ray-ray-tay-kaw Rexetega ? [Large Drum ?]   X 2 4 4 10 36.87
Ho-gaugh-hay-kaw Hogaxega ? Fish [... ?]24   X 5 4 8 17 62.69

1 There were two villages on Lake Koshkonong, the smaller one being to the east side of the lake. The larger village on the north side was that of Little Priest. On the location of the Koshkonong villages, see Steven D. Peet, Prehistoric America, 2 vols. (Chicago: American Antiquarian Office, 1896) 2:241-242.
2 This is the elder Little Priest (for whom see the Commentary to Jipson, "Winnebagoes of Rock River"). Jipson says that he was born and raised in the Koshkonong Village. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (58, #31) draws attention to the fact that he went by a variety of different names: "Mórajegǝ [Mórajega] – 'Travels the Earth'; Huŋkxónugǝ [Hugᵋxų́nųga] – 'Little Chief'. This individual had several names in the course of his life: Mocosεpgǝ [Mąčosēpka] – 'Black Grizzly Bear;'; RohaŋtɁehigǝ [Rohąt’ehiga] – 'Kills Many'. While a Wolf Clan person has also had the name Morajegǝ, the treaty signer is known to have been of the Bear Clan." He signed the Treaties of 1828, 1832, 1837, 1846, and 1855. Col. Gratiot said of him that, "Little Priest was one of the most reputable of all the chiefs, able, discreet, wise, and moderate, and always sincerely friendly to the whites." E. B. Washburne, "Col. Henry Gratiot — a Pioneer of Wisconsin," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, X (1888): 235-260 [253]. In a brawl he had one side of his nose sliced off. He outlived his son and resisted exile from Wisconsin successfully, since we are told that he died at White Creek, Adams County, ca. 1882. Note by Lyman C. Draper in General Robert Anderson, "Reminiscences of the Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Historical Collections, X (1888): 167-212 [186].
3 Blackhawk has, "The Man of Earth." Moįjawąkšika is from mą, mo, "earth"; eja (> ija), "at, on, in"; wąkšik, "man"; -ka, a personal name suffix.
4 Čarawasgawįga can be analyzed as, ča-ra, "the deer"; wa-hasga (> wasga); -wį, a female gender suffix; and -ga, a personal name suffix.
5 Manit’epega can be analyzed as, mani, "winter"; t’e, "this"; pe, "to wait, to be ready"; -ga, a personal name suffix. This name is doubtful.
6 A very famous chief, whose other name was Nąga, had this name, but he was encountered at the Middle Baraboo Village. The other named Nąga Keramąnįga was the elder's nephew. See McKinney-Hall and the Commentary to Kinzie's Wau Bun; Nancy Oestreich Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Journal of the Wisconsin Indians Research Institute, 2, #1 (June, 1966): 50-73 [##2-4, p. 53). Since this Keramąnįga isn't further identified with the clan name Nąga, he could be any member of the extended family that went by this de facto surname.
7 This is not the same person as the Black Wolf whose village is at Black Wolf Point (see Black Wolf's Village above). Cited as a Wolf Clan name by Foster and Lurie. "Black Wolf" is also used as a warrior name.
8 Listed as a Bear Clan name by both Foster and Dorsey. A person of this name became a chief at the Fox Lake Village by 1838 [Map 19], and was remembered by Spoon Decorah ("Narrative of Spoon Decorah," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 448-462 [460]).
9 The name Wągerúčge literally means, "Man-Eater," but refers to a mythological race of Giants.
10 This name is listed in those of the Thunderbird Clan by Radin and Sam Blowsnake, and as a Buffalo Clan name by Dorsey. This same name appears at the Middle Baraboo Village. One of these two was, according to Moses Pauquette, also known as "Keramąnį the Younger," for whom see Augustin Grignon, "Seventy-two Years' Recollections of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, III (1857): 197-295 [287]; John T. Kingston, "Early Western Days," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 297-344 [332]; Moses Pauquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebagoes," Wisconsin Historical Collections XII (1887): 399-433 [408, 427]. This seems doubtful, since both villages have someone named Keramąnį coexisting with Mągíksųčka.
11 Listed as a Bear Clan name by Foster, Radin, and McKern. Radin says that the name refers to a bear hugging a tree in order to climb it; McKern says that it refers to how bears take up things in their arms.
12 List by both Foster and Dorsey as a Bear Clan name. They translate ži as, "yellowish red," although its standard translation elsewhere is "brown."
13 Translated specifically as "war eagle" by Dorsey.
14 Listed as a Wolf Clan name by Foster and Dorsey.
15 The name has a double diminutive, and would be better translated as, "Little Young Chief (or Priest)." This is probably the elder Little Priest's son. In any case, someone described as "Young Prophet, son of Prophet," signed the Treaty of 1865. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 73, #130.
16 Foster records this name as belonging to the Snake Clan. 
17 The name contains the causative -hi-, so that it might be better translated as, "She is Made to Smoke."
18 Čaščąka, "Wave," an abbreviated version of this name, is listed as a Waterspirit Clan name by Foster and Lurie. He signed the Treaty of 1832, where he is said to be the son of "Clear Sky." Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (68, #91) states, "Clan uncertain since 'Big Wave' should be of the Water Spirit Clan, but the name 'Clear Sky' is not." This is probably not true, since Waterspirits are strongly associated with clear skies in contradistinction to Thunderbirds, their mortal enemies, who appear only in dark clouded skies. Therefore, it is entirely possible that "Clear Sky" is a Waterspirit name, even if it does not appear on contemporary lists of that clan. In 1832, Wave, along with Good Thunder and Lights the Waters, took the Sauk Blackhawk in custody. In the same source, we are told that Wave was half Sauk, and since "Clear Sky" is a frequent rendering of the name of the Winnebago Prophet, it would seem that his Sauk blood originates from him. Walking Cloud, "The Narrative of Walking Cloud," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 463-467 [465].
19 This same name, translated as "Day Walker," is listed by Dorsey as a Bear Clan name. This individual signed the Treaty of 1829. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (haŋpimanigǝ, 58, #30) translates the names as "Walks by Day."
20 Mąčgúnąšéška is recorded by Foster as a Bear Clan name. 
21 Apparently, Blackhawk interpreted this as Wakjéwaixewega, where wakje means, "victory"; waixéwe is a gift given in honor of a feat in war. However, wa’i means, "blood," giving the meaning, "Blood of Victory," which, although closer to the original transcription, does not make much sense.
22 Nąčiožuga is from: , "wood"; či, "lodge"; hožú, "to fill, to place"; -ga, a personal name suffix — "He Who Fills the Lodge with Wood."
23 He signed the Treaty of 1832 as a member of the Rock River band. Lurie records him as a member of the Bear Clan. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 69, #99.
24 The only part of this name that could mean "fish" is the first syllable, ho. The rest is obscure.



10. Village of Little Lake

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

There are currently 7 lakes having the name "Little Lake" in Wisconsin. Of those falling within Hočąk territory, we have: 43.64602170, -89.58466510 (Marquette Co.), 9.5 miles NW of Portage; and 43.81231170, -89.70828330 (Adams County), 20.5 miles NW of Portage. Neither of these belongs to the drainage of the Rock River.



TLCDMC @ TripAdvisor
Lake Mendota (Te Wąkšigomįgᵋra)

Heads of Families and Individuals
11. Four Lakes, No. 1 (Lake Mendota)
43.105348, -89.4816541
[Map 31]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Wau-kaun-kaw Wakąga Snake [pic] [Snake]2 X 2 5 4 11 40.56
Nau-say-nay-hay-kaw Nąsąnehíga He Who Effaces the Trees [Bear]3 X 4 4 3 11 40.56
Hoonk-kaw Hųka Leader4   X 3 4 4 11 40.56
Ish-tshah-tshoop-ee-kaw Iščájopiga [Made to Have] Four Faces5 [Wolf ?] X 1 1 2 4 14.75
Mauntsh-koo-nah-shisk Mąčgúnąšéška He Breaks the Bow [Bear]6 X 5 5 4 14 51.63
Tshah-see-ray-wau-kaw Časírawéga He Who Carries Off the Deer Foot [Wolf]7   4 4 2 10  
Tshah-waug-ay-nik Čawągᵋnįka [Young Buck]8   X 2 1 3 6 22.13
Hay-zhunk-kee-kaw Hežąkiga9 One Horn [Upper Moiety ?] X 2 4 2 8 29.50
Khay-ray-tshunk-kaw Keracąka Big Turtle10   X 2 4 4 10 36.87
Ish-och-wau-ho-pee-nee-kaw [Išoč]waxopiniga [(...) Spirits]   X 4 2 3 9 33.19
Waish-kee-shay     (a Sauk name) X 6 3 3 12 44.25
Wau-say-oo-man-nee-kaw Wasuhimąnįga One Who Walks with Hail Stones [Upper Moiety]11 X 2 3 2 7 25.81
Maunk-skaw-kaw Mą́kskaga White Breast [Bear]12 X 6 3 5 14 51.63
He-shoog-rah Hižuka Gun   X 1 4 4 9 33.19
Wau-kaun-tshah-skaw-kaw Wakąjáskaga White Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird]13 X 3 1 4 8 29.50
Hah-gaw-skaw-kaw Hagaskaga White Third Son   X 5 4 12 21 77.44

1 "... on the north shore of Fourth, — east of where Pheasant Branch now is, — we found a few Winnebago Indians located." Morgan Martin, "The Narrative of Morgan L. Martin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XI (1888): 385-415 [401]. Here the lakes are being counted south to north, whereas Kinzie has them numbered from north to south. See the 1890 map for Middleton Township, Pheasant Branch, Black Earth Creek, Section 1.
2 A well-known War Chief, who died in 1838. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Wakáŋgǝ, 60, #38) places him in the Snake Clan. See the extensive biography in McKinney-Hall, 107-112 where it is said: "Wakawn was in the battle of Tippecanoe, where he was slightly wounded, and is said to have borne himself bravely on that occasion. He was occasionally on the war-path during the remainder of the war, at the close of which he buried the hatchet, and has since been uniformly friendly to the American people. ... Believing in the existence, and the superiority of the true God, he could not sever the tie that bound him to the ideal deities of his people. He continued to join his tribe in their religious feasts and dances, and usually presided at the exercises. He probably had the faculty of veneration strongly developed, for his grave and solemn demeanor, on such occasions, is said to have rendered them interesting, and to have given an imposing effect to the ceremonies."
3 This is the same name noted at Muddy Lake (above). As noted there, Radin translates the name as "Makes a Tree Whitish by Scratching off the Bark," and McKern as "White Tree Trunks." In both cases it refers to the ursine habit of scratching the bark off trees.
4 As we saw above on the index page, the chief of this village was Old Turtle, whose name does not appear on this role. The reason for this is that he has probably presented himself under another of his names, in this case his has simply designated himself as "the Chief" (cf. above). Snake, as mentioned above, is the War Chief, whereas Old Turtle is the Peace Chief, the one usually who bears the title of simply "the chief."
5 Iščájopiga can be analyzed as, iščá, "face"; jop, "four"; hi, "to make, to cause, to be"; -ga, a personal name suffix. It might also have been analyzed as, Iščá-jop-pį-ga, "Four Good Faces," where means, "good," except that is usually expressed by peen in the original transcriptions. Lurie mentions the similar name Hisjajobǝgǝ [Iščájobiga], "Four Faces," who signed the Treaty of 1846. It is possibly a Wolf Clan name. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 70, #107.
6 Listed as a Bear Clan name by Foster. This name has been encountered before: see above, and at Fox Lake, and Koshkonong.
7 Listed as a Wolf Clan name by Foster, Dorsey, and Lurie. He signed the Treaty of 1832 (Tshahsheerahwaukaw) as a member of the Prairie du Chien band. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Casirawégǝ, 65, #75), translates the name as "Carries Deer's Hoof in Mouth."
8 From ča, "deer"; wąk, "male"; nįk, "little, small, young"; and -ka, a personal name suffix.
9 Jipson says of him, "His village, in Blue Earth country, was 18 miles southeast of the agency building, and was on the Lesueur River. He died July 7, 1896, leaving one son, Benjamin Horn." One Horn was later appointed chief by the government. Norton William Jipson, The Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society [unpublished], 1924) 263-264. Hežąkiga signed the Treaties of 1855 and 1859. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 72, #123. Lurie remarks, "Clan uncertain; name suggests Elk, Deer or Buffalo, but recent individuals bearing this name belonged to the Warrior (Hawk) and other Bird Clans." Dorsey also says that this name is found in several clans. It should be pointed out that Hežąkiga is one of the names of the demigod Redhorn in his capacity as Chief of the Heroka, who are diminutive hunting spirits.
10 The name Kečąka, "Big Turtle," is attested as a possible Waterspirit Clan name by Dorsey; however, in the name Keracąka as given, the -ra-, the definite article, is somewhat anomalous and does not match the -ray- of the original transcription. The word kerečų or, kerejų, is well attested, and means "hawk." However, Kinzie lists in the introductory section, Old Turtle as head of the Mendota village, so the name Keracąka is doubtless correct.
11 This name, which does not well match the transcription, is listed by Radin as being a name in the Bird Clan. He translates it as, "Walking Hail."
12 This name occurs at a number of places: Lower Barribault [Baraboo] Village, No. 3, Nah-hoo-rah-roo-hah-ray Village, and the village at the Mouth of Sugar Creek. These last two sites are known to be under the authority of the well-known War Chief of that name, but the remaining sites probably reflect nothing more than the popularity of the name "White Breast."
13 Listed by Sam Blowsnake as a Thunderbird Clan name. It is also found at Turtle Creek.



Emily Mills, CC License
Lake Monona (Te Čiábokíǧakéxetera) as Seen from the Yahara

Heads of Families and Individuals
12. Four Lakes, No. 2 (Lake Monona)
43.051740, -89.3391141
[Map 32]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Tshay-to-she-nee-kaw Četožᵋnįka Little Buffalo Calf [Buffalo]2 X 3 2 7 12 44.25
Mau-ee-tah-tshay-hee-mau-nee-kaw Mąįtajehimąnįga [Walking Wind] [Thunderbird ?] X 2 1 2 5 18.64
Hauk-tshah-koo-kaw Hakčaguga One Who Returns   X 1 2 4 7 25.81
Nau-hee-kaw Naxíga Fourth of Family   X 2 3 3 8 29.50
No-tshee-ween-kaw Nočiwįga [Female Tree Dweller]3     5 2 3 10  
Hay-sah-sutsh-kaw Hesasačka [Antlers]4   X 0 5 6 11 40.56
Hee-nah-kay-kaw Hinąkéga Fourth Born Girl   X - 2 6 8 29.50
Tshee-o-kit-to-nay-wee-kaw Čiokit’ųrewįga [She Who Thrusts Herself within a Lodge] [Bear]5 X - 6 2 8 29.50
Pay-tshoan-ween-kaw Pečawįga Crane Woman [Upper Moiety]6 X 4 4 6 14 51.63
Zee-nee-kaw Zinįka Little Yellow   X 3 8 2 13 47.94
Pash-kee-nah-nik Pašginanįka ? The name of a tribe   X 3 4 9 16 59.00
Maush-ko-tau-nah Mąšgotaníga [Three Notches]7 [Bear] X 3 4 1 8 29.50
Wau-ko-ho-no-nik-(ka) Wakąxųnųnįka Little Snake [Snake]8 X 3 3 4 10 36.87
Ho-pheeng-kaw Hopįga Good Voice [Bear]9 X - - - - -
Wau-kaun-tshah-ween-kaw Wakąjáwįga Thunder[bird] Woman [Thunderbird]10 X 3 2 3 8 28.50
Khay-o-meen-kaw Xeomįka [He who Dwells in a Hill] [Wolf]11 X 3 4 3 10 36.87
Wee-rah-pey-kaw Wírapéga Sentinel12   X 3 2 1 6 22.13
Shoantsh-ay-mau-nee-kaw Šojᵋmąnįga [Walking Smoke] [Upper Moiety]13 X 4 2 3 9 29.50

1 "On the south shore of the Third Lake [Monona] ... we found a few Winnebago Indians located." Morgan Martin, "The Narrative of Morgan L. Martin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XI (1888): 385-415 [401]. Here the lakes are being counted south to north, whereas Kinzie has them numbered from north to south. Brown, Antiquities, 309.
2 Helmbrecht-Lehmann gives both čétoš and čétos as variants meaning "buffalo bull." Četošnįka is listed by Dorsey as a Buffalo Clan name, and translated by him as, "Young Buffalo Bull." Foster and Radin give Četošnįka and Četoženįka, "Buffalo Yearling," as Buffalo Clan personal names.
3 Blackhawk has "Woman Who Strikes a Tree," but či means, "to dwell." Noči, "Tree Dweller," is what Wood Spirits are called, and the name can therefore be translated as, "Woodspirit Woman," although this is probably not the sense intended, since Wood Spirits are so dangerous that even thinking or dreaming about them can lead to personal harm.
4 Blackhawk has "Slender Horns," but Jipson has in his own word list, hesasajra, "antlers," which implies the form he-sasač, "antler." Cf. zazač, "branching" (Susman).
5 Mentioned as a Bear Clan name in "Bear Clan Origins, Version 7." Čiokit’ųrewįga can be analyzed as, či, "lodge"; hokit’ųre, "to become trapped, to get oneself into something" (Helmbrecht-Lehmann); -wį, a female gender suffix; -ga, a personal name suffix.
6 Listed as a Bird Clan name by Radin.
7 Blackhawk has, "Name of a tribe"; however, no tribal names known at present approximate the transcribed name. On the other hand, the name "Three Notches," listed as a Bear Clan name by both Foster and Dorsey, is a fairly good match.
8 Listed as a Snake Clan name by Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (57, #27). He signed the Treaty of 1827.
9 Listed as a Bird Clan name by Radin. However, Jipson says, "Ho-pee-kaw [was] a leading member of the bear clan, whose descendant are the Ravens of Nebraska and Broad Face." Norton William Jipson, The Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society [unpublished], 1924) 263.
10 Among the Thunderbird Clan names given by Sam Blowsnake.
11 Xeomįka derives from xe, "hill"; homįk, "to lie"; -ka, a personal name suffix. A more literal translation would be, "Reclines upon a Hill." Listed as a Wolf Clan name by Radin.
12 This name occurs in two other villages as well: Fond du Lac and Grand Bourbier.
13 This is probably an Upper Moiety name, given that Šojega [for Šoč-ka] is listed as a Bird Clan name by Dorsey.



postcard
Lake Waubesa (Te Sahuxetera)

Heads of Families and Individuals
13. Four Lakes, No. 3 (Waubesa)
43.009911, -89.3014131
[Map 33]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Mau-ah-kee-o-tshump-kaw Mąagiočąpka2 One Who Flashes on the Ends of the Earth [Thunderbird] X 5 5 2 12 44.25
Nee-shun-nuk-ka Nišánaka Little Creek [Stream]3 [pic] [Waterspirit] X 4 5 2 11 40.56
Tshay-hoon-kaw Čehųka Buffalo Leader [Buffalo] X 3 3 3 9 33.19
Wau-ho-pee-nee-ween-kaw Waxopį́nįwįga French Woman4   X 5 5 1 9 33.19
Tsho-nah-kay-ween-kaw Čonąkewįga [Blue Back Woman]5 [Bear, Wolf] X 0 5 0 5 18.44
Maugh-kaw-kaw Mąǧᵋkaga or Mąkaxka [Tiller or] Earth Man6 [Waterspirit] X 6 8 10 24 88.50
Hay-nu[z/x ?]-[?]e-ka Heną́ga ? Second Boy Who is Born7     3 3 2 8 [28.50]
Saug-ay-nosh-ee-kaw Zaganąšiga [Englishman]8   X 3 2 2 5 18.44
Heen-tsho-kaw Hįčoga Green [or Blue] Hair [Wolf]9 X 3 3 4 10 36.87

1 This site is shown below on Chandler's Map as #33. That map, however, mistakes Murphy's Creek for the Catfish (Yahara). The village was situated where the road to Green Bay, now Highway 51, runs tangential to the lake at its SE corner. Here we find a rise in the ground with Indian mounds in the immediate vicinity. This site is mentioned under "Madison Township" by Brown, Antiquities, 309.
2 From Mą-hagi-ho-čąp-ka: , "earth"; hagi, "there in the distance"; ho-, "the place where"; čąp, "lightning"; and -ka, a personal name suffix — "Lightning in the Distant Earth." A person with this name is also found on Garlic Island. This is the clan name given to Spotted Arm, elsewhere corrupted as Man-ahkee-tsthump-kaw, which is identified as a name of Spotted Arm, "the most prominent sage and counselor." He also had the name Hojinažiga, "He Stands to Strike." [pic] Lawson, Winnebago Tribe, 155. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (maɁakihojǝŋpgǝ, 59, #32) identifies him as a member of the Thunder Clan. Parkinson says that in 1832, "Spotted Arm had the appearance of a man of sixty, ... was stoop-shouldered and ill-shaped; but possessed a mild and agreeable temperament." Peter Parkinson, "Notes on the Black Hawk War," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, X (1888): 184-212 [189-190]. He, along with others, was briefly detained as a hostage to secure the good behavior of the Hočągara during the Black Hawk War. Moses M. Strong, "The Indian Wars of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VIII (1879 [1910]): 241-286 [272, 276].
3 Blackhawk translates this as, "Little Creek," but there is no diminutive. Nišának means, "river, stream, creek, brook." It is identified as a Waterspirit Clan name by Foster and Radin.
4 This could also mean, "Spirit Woman." Waxopį́nįwįga happens to have been the name of the wife of the eldest Winneshiek (Mąwáruga). She was the sister of the Winnebago Prophet. Norton William Jipson, The Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society [unpublished], 1924) 210.
5 Blackhawk has, "She Who Always Leads." Čoną́ke, "Blue Backs," was the ancient name of the Bear Clan, but we also have the name, Čonąkečówįga, "Foremost Blue Back," in the friendship clan of the Bear Clan, the Wolf Clan.
6 Blackhawk has, "Earth Man," but it seems that the name could also be analyzed into mąx, "field, tract, garden" (Helmbrecht-Lehmann); ka, "to cut open" (Marino); and -ga, a personal name suffix. However, Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (54, #7) has maŋkaxgǝ, "earth," and records the version Makamka as a signatory of the Treaty of 1816. Monk-kaw-kaw is one of the Hočąk delegation who met to arrange the settlement of the New York Indians in Wisconsin in 1830. "McCall's Journal of a Visit to Wisconsin in 1830," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII (1892): 170-205 [192].
7 Blackhawk's translation would imply that the name is Heną́ga, but the transcription has an added syllable before -ga.
8 From French, Les Anglaise, "the English," passed on through the lens of neighboring people. Could this be Speaks English, a well known signatory of the Treaty of 1829?
9 Hįčoga can also be translated, "Blue Fur," since čo denotes colors ranging from green through blue. This is the name of one of the four Spirit Wolves who founded the Wolf Clan. This same name is found at Butte des Morts.



WisconsinGuides.net
Lake Kegonsa (Te Nąsąkučitᵋra)

Heads of Families and Individuals
14. Four Lakes, No. 4 (Lake Kegonsa)
a. 42.988953, -89.272866, b. 42.976133, -89.235139, c. 42.962470, -89.2161631
[Map 35]
See Lake Kegonsa Map

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Tau-nee-hoo-kaw Tanį́huga Pipe   X 3 2 2 7 25.81
Mau-ju-hee-mau-nee-kah Mająhimąnįga [He Walks to See the Earth]2   X 1 1 1 3 11.06
Waung-ee-kaw-rup Wagikarápka [He is Counted among Them]3   X 3 5 5 13 47.94
Naugh-heigh-ho-ho-nik Nąxīxų́nųga Fifth Born Son4   X 2 3 2 7 25.81
Tshy-tshoap-ay-kaw Čajopka Four Deer5 [Thunderbird] X 2 3 3 8 29.50
Wau-kaun-tshah-hay-way-ree-kaw Wakąjahewerika ? Thunder[bird] Who is Applauded6 [Thunderbird ?] X 4 8 5 17 62.69
Hoo-nah-kay-way-saip-kaw Hunakewesepka Black Fore Legs7 [Lower Moiety] X 5 3 5 13 47.94
Haump-o-ko-nee-nay-kaw Hą́bogųmįnạ̀ka [He Who Sits Where the Day Comes]8 [Lower Moiety] X 4 3 1 8 29.50
Wauk-tshey-hee-kaw Wakčexiga Waterspirit [Waterspirit]9 X 3 3 6 12 44.25
Ah-tshah-tshey-hee-wee-kaw Hačačĕ́xiwįga She Who is Difficult to See [Bear]10 X 4 3 4 11 40.56
Ah-nau-sau-waik-tshay-ween-kaw Hanąsekjewįga She Cuts Off in Revenge11   X 3 3 4 10 36.87

Ee-hai-rah-ray-kaw Ixiriraga ? Sore Mouth12   X 5 6 6 17 62.69


 
wavetrainSUP  
The Iron Bridge to the Dyerson Site  

1 McLachlan says, "Winnebago villages were located on Sugar Bush Point, and near the east shore of the lake, just south of the outlet. The sites of several other, perhaps earlier, villages and camps are described elsewhere in this report. Abundant evidences of another early village are found on the Fichten (old Alexander) and Dersten farm at the "iron bridge", south of  Mud Lake. Mud Lake was formerly known as the 'wide-spread'." W. G. McLachlan, "The Lake Kegonsa Region," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 4 ns, #4 (November, 1925): 181-206 [189].

a. In the late 1840s, a corduroy bridge used to span the Catfish (now Yahara) River, but was replaced by another structure commonly referred to as "the Iron Bridge" (pictured at the left). The northernmost of the larger Hočąk villages in the Lake Kegonsa area was located on the land of Ole Dyerson, whom McLachlan incorrectly refers to as "Derson." J. P. Fichten's place cannot be found until the 1931 map of Dunn Township, where his 66 acres spans both Sections 11 and 14, being situated where expected on the west side of the Iron Bridge. The 1873 map shows Ole Dyerson's property on the east side of the bridge. McLachlan's map places the village on Dyerson's property.

b. One of the major Hočąk villages on Lake Kegonsa was precisely located on the old Stendahl farm, but neither the 1890 map nor the 1873 map shows that parcel of land, as it had been apparently sold off at an early date. The area, now taken up by Lake Kegonsa State Park, used to be know as "Sugar Bush," and what is now called "Williams' Point," after the farmer who ended up with Stendahl's land, used to be known as "Sugar Bush Point." Lake Kegonsa State Park Master Plan. Concept Element. (Madison: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2.22.1984) 5, §2. The map compiled by McLachlan shows a village in the same section, located in the northern part of fractional Section 19 (at 42.976133, -89.235139). The "sugar bush" was the hard maple whose sap was a source of maple sugar. The whole lake was called after this resource, Nąsą́kučatᵋra or Nąsą́kučitᵋra, whose stem nąsą́k, means, "hard maple." 

c. McLachlan's map locates the third village just above the southern line of Section 20, which on the 1873 map of Pleasant Point Township, is on the land of E. Larson, located at 42.962470, -89.216163.
2 Mąjahimąnįga can be analyzed as, mą, "earth"; ja, "to see"; himąnį, "he walks"; -ga, a personal name suffix.
3 From wa, "them"; gikaráp, "to count amongst (consider)" (Helmbrecht-Lehmann); -ka, a personal name suffix.
4 Blackhawk has, "Younger Fourth Born Son," which is close to being literal. This is the name for the fifth son, meaning literally "Little Fourth Son," from xųnų, "little, young" (Dorsey).
5 A man named "Four Deer," who claimed to be over 90 years old in 1887, is mentioned as living then in Adams County.  Moses Pauquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebagoes," Wisconsin Historical Collections XII (1887): 399-433 [430]. In June, 1887, he was in a deputation from the tribe to secure from the state government an agent for their people, a mission that failed. "Narrative of Spoon Decorah," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 448-462 [462 nt. 4]. He was one of the Decorahs, and three of his youngest sons, Moses, Charlie, and Henry, along with others, continued to live in the Koshkonong Village as late as 1895. From the same source we learn that Four Deer himself was born in Portage. Condition of Indian Affairs in Wisconsin: Hearings before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, [61st congress, 2d session], on Senate resolution, Issue 263 (1910): 1163-1164.
6 See the name at Upper Barribault [Baraboo] Village, No. 3 that receives the same translation.
7 Thomas J. George says of the word hunakewe in 1880, "Poymette [Pauquette] says shin," so the name might mean, "Black Shins."
8 Blackhawk has, "Dawn of Day," but this would be just Hąbógu(ga). If we take /n/ as in error for /m/, then we have the name Hą́bogųminạ̀ka, which is used as a definite description of one of the Island Weights in the Medicine Rite: hą́bogųminạ̀gᵋra, "he who sits where the day comes." Hą́bogųminạ̀ka comes from hą́p, "sun, day. light"; hogú, "to grow"; minạ̀k, "to sit"; -ka, a personal name suffix — "He Who Sits Where the Day Comes." Since the Thunderbirds are residents of the west, the name should belong to one or more clans of the Lower Moiety.
9 Foster says that this is a name in the Waterspirit Clan. Blackhawk has "Mystic Animal." There can be little doubt that this is the chief known in 1815 in the Four Lakes area as "Old Spirit."
10 Recorded as a Bear Clan name, "She Who is Hard to See," by McKern.
11 Blackhawk has "Woman of Warfare." Hanąsekjewįga derives from, hanąsé, "to cut someone off (Helmbrecht-Lehmann), to shut off from doing something, to lock something or someone in, to cover something" (Miner); kje, "revenge" (Lipkind, Miner); -wį, a feminine gender suffix; -ga, a personal name suffix.
12 "Sore Mouth," would be Ixiriga, but xiri bears little resemblance to hai-rah-ray. This entry in the roll is set off by horizontal lines above and below it.



TheCatalyst31
The Mouth of the Catfish (Yahara) at Rock River

15. Catfish Village
42.790299, -89.1216211
[Map 40, Map 23]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 Brown mentions this village in connection with a trail: "A trail from 'Caramanee,' an early 'paper city' located south of the mouth of the Catfish River at Fulton (42.808132, -89.127350), ran westward across Rock County to the Sugar River at Livingston. It continued on to Monroe. ... There was a ford across the Catfish at the village and one across the Rock a short distance below the mouth of the Catfish at the location of the later highway bridge. The Catfish was the canoe route from the Four Lakes at present Madison to the Rock. It was a stopping point for Indians passing down the Rock from the Indian villages on the shores of Lake Koshkonong by canoe or by trail. Tradition and history appear to indicate that the Winnebago occupied this site for at least a hundred years before the first white settlers arrived in this region. The Winnebago name, or one of their names, for the site was Howinch [Howį́x], "Catfish" The chief of the Catfish Village was Little Priest (Little Chief), whose Indian name is given as Hounk-kono-nik-ka [Hųgᵋxų́nųnįka]. His knife and its sheath are preserved in the State Historical Museum." Charles E. and Theodore T. Brown, "Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin," Wisconsin Archeologist, 9, #1 (Oct., 1929): 7-18 [12, 44-45]. There may have been more than one person with this name. The name of the "paper" village makes it clear that at one time it was under the charge of a member of the Keramąnį family. The Catfish River is now called the "Yahara River."



Hedberg Public Library
The Round Rock, Įnį́ Poroporo

16. Round Rock Village
ca. 42.669975, -89.0298001
[Map 42, Lower Rock River Map 42]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 For the location of Round Rock, Įnį́poroporo, see Jipson, 128. This landmark is classified as a "pillar," called "big rock" by the settlers, having a height of 761 ft (232 m). The round rock whence the village takes its name can be precisely located at 42.669975, -89.029800 (see the 1873 Map of the old village of Monterey, later absorbed by Janesville, where it is indicated just east of the Centre Ave. bridge on the north side of the Rock River). The old village must have been nearby this promontory. Brown and Brown say that this village greatly increased in population after Kinzie's 1829 census.



postcard
Yost Park, the Site of Standing Post Village

17. Standing Post Village
42.561145, -89.0392491
[Map 43, Map 73]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 "Standing Post" is a translation of Hoboza Činągᵋra (Ho-bo-sa-che-nug-ra). This is from ho-, "the place where, the time when, in"; and bozá, "to set up as a post." It's located about two miles north of Beloit on the east side of the river. Robert E. Gard, The Romance of Wisconsin Place Names, 2d ed. (Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2015) 148. The Browns place it in "Yost Park," which judging from the 1873 Map of Beloit Township, was Section 11 on the property of William S. Yost, who is now commemorated by Yost Street in Crestview, a suburb of Turtle, Wisconsin. C. E. Brown and Theodore T. Brown, "Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin," The Wisconsin Archeologist, 9, #1 (October, 1929): 6.



John Porcellino
The Confluence of Turtle Creek with Rock River

Heads of Families and Individuals
18. Turtle Creek Village
42.494524, -89.0408931
[Map 44], Map 82]
See Turtle Creek Antiquities

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan2 Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
[Wau-kaun-wee-kaw] Wakąjawįxka3 Whirling Thunder[bird] [pic] Thunderbird X 4 4 5 13 47.94
Kau-ree-kau-say-kaw Kaǧíosą̀ga White Crow4 Bear X 6 7 11 24 88.50
Ho-tshin-tshin-nee-kaw Hočįčįnįka Boy   X 5 5 3 13 47.94
Hoantsh-khat-tay-kaw Hųjᵋxetega Big Bear5 [pic] [Bear] X 4 5 1 10 36.87
Woank-paw-kaw Wągᵋpaga Man Head   X 2 4 3 9 33.19
Ah-hoo-sootsh-kaw Ahušučka Red Wing6 [Upper Moiety ?] X 4 5 7 16 59.00
Soatsh-ay-kaw Šųjega [He Arrives] Red7   X 2 2 - 4 14.75
Shoank-skaw-kaw Šųgᵋsgaga White Dog8 Wolf X 5 4 7 16 59.00
Kee-num-hee-kaw Kinųpiga [He is a Brother]9   X - 3 3 6 22.13
Ee-naik-ee-nuzh-ee-kaw Inekinąžįga One Who Stands Alone   X 2 8 2 12 44.25
Noo-waun-koo-noo-kaw Nowak’únuka [He Saws Off the Wood]10 [Thunder ?] X 5 5 7 17 62.69
Kau-ree-kaw Kaǧíga Crow [Bear ?] X 3 3 5 11 40.56
Woang-ee-sootsh-kaw-ween-kaw Wągisučkawįga ?     X          
Ho-cheeng-kaw Hojį́ga Strikes One   X 5 9 4 18 66.37
Wau-nik-tshoo-wee-kaw Wanįgᵋčowįga Blue Bird Woman Upper Moiety   2 6 7 10  
Me-nah-nau-kaw11 Manáǧoga ? [Scratches the Earth] [Bear Clan] X 4 3 3 10 36.87
Keesh-ko Kišgo, Kiška12 Winnebago name of a people   X 3 4 3 10 36.87
Wau-soo-ee-ee-mau-nik-ka Wasuhuhimąnįga Walks With [Hail] [Upper Moiety] X 3 5 4 12 44.25
Wau-kaun-kaw Wakąga The Snake13 Snake X 1 2 1 4 14.75
Ho-sheep-shee-kaw Hošípšiga [He Always Commands]14   X 3 2 1 6 22.13
Tshah-hat-tay-kaw Čaxetega Big Deer [Deer] X 1 4 - 5 18.44
Wee-rah-koash-kee-kat-tah Wiragošgexetega Big Star [Morning Star]   X 2 2 - 4 14.75
Phay-tshun-ho-no-nik-kaw Peją́xųnųnį́ka Little Crane [Upper Moiety] X 2 1 1 4 14.75
Wee-tshee-nush-een-kaw Wičinąžįga [Standing Reed]15   X 4 5 1 10 40.56
Phay-tshun-ah-roo-heen-kaw Peją́ruhiga [Crane Rib]16 [Upper Moiety] X 1 5 3 9 33.19
No-tshump-kaw Nojąpka17 Lightning Strikes Tree [Thunderbird] X 1 1 - 2 7.37
Haump-mau-nee-kaw Hąbᵋmąnįga Walking Day [Bear]18 X 2 2 1 5 18.44
Woank-shik-khat-tay Wąkšikxetega Large Man   X 5 4 2 11 40.56
Ho-tshunk-kit-tay-ween-kaw Hočąkit’ewįga She Who Speaks Winnebago   X 3 4 5 12 44.25
Hee-hoatsh-kaw Hixočka [Gray Tooth]     2 2 1 5  
Hoo-wais-kaw-(ka) Hųwąskaga White Elk Elk19 X 1 2 2 5 18.44
Hoonk-ho-no-kaw Hųgᵋxų́nųga Young Chief [Little Priest]20 [Bear] X 2 1 1 5 18.44
Hah-gau-shu-rah-gaw Haga Žurága21 The Third Boy of Money or Silver   X 4 4 4 12 44.25
Wau-kaun-tshun-noo-kaw Wakąjąnųga ?22 [Lost Thunderbird ?] [Thunderbird ?] X 1 1 2 4 14.75
Phay-tsunk-kaw Pejąga23 Crane [pic] [Upper Moiety] X 4 4 - 8 29.50
Haump-tshay-kaw Hąbᵋčeka Bright Day [New Day] [Upper Moiety]24 X 3 2 1 6 22.13
Mau-nah-pay-kaw Mąnąpega Soldier Bear X 2 4 3 9 33.10
Wau-kaun-tshah-skaw-skaw Wakąjáskaga White Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird]25 X 1 2 3 6 22.13
Wau-nig-no-o-kun-ik Wanįgxųnųnįka ? Little Bird [Upper Moiety]   2 2 4 8  
Woyk-tshah-ray-kaw Woikšąrega One Who is Ridiculed26   X 1 2 3 6 22.13
Hay-noamp-kaw Henųpka27 Two Horns Buffalo ? X 2 4 5 11 40.56
Wau-kay-nah-say-kaw Wąkanąsega [Pens Up a Man]28 [Bear] X 1 2 3 6 22.13
Baptiste Le Sellier29 [pic]     [French-Hočąk] X 6 3 2 10 40.56
Wau-mau-nee-kaw Wamą́nįga Walks on Snow [Bear]30 X 4 3 2 9 33.19
Wau-nik-oo-mau-tshay-tshee-kaw Wanįkomąčĕčĭga The Edge of the Bird's Nest [Upper Moiety ?] X 2 3 5 10 36.87
Hoontsh-paw-kaw Hųjᵋpaga Bear Head [Bear ?] X 1 2   3 11.06
Mauntsh-tshay-ka Mąčéga Cuts Off a Piece   X 2 6 4 12 44.25
Hou-tshah-noo-kaw Hočą́noga31 Youth   X 1 1 2 4 14.75
Tshah-hah-wan-skaw-ween-kaw Čahawaskawįga [Snow White Deerskin Woman]32   X 1 3 2 6 22.13
Hee-noo-hoap-kaw Hínų Hoápwįga Oldest Girl, Fish Fins33 [Fish ?] X 1 1 5 7 25.81
Ho-ko-tshay-kaw Hųkočeka ? [New Chief]34 ? X 1 4 3 8 29.50
Ish-tshah-kay-ray-tshunk-kaw Iščákerexjąka Tattooed Face   X 1 2 1 4 14.75
Shee-kah-wauk-see-kaw Šikawąksika     X 1 2 2 5 18.44
Tshee-wy-shee-kaw Čiwaišípka One Who Seizes a Lodge35   X 3 3 - 6 22.13
Wau-shoank-tshah-tshay-kaw Wašąkčašega36 ? [Bear Neck ?] [Bear ?]   1 2 - 3 11.06
Wee-haun-zee-kaw Wíhą Ziwįka Second Born Yellow Woman   X 1 5 5 11 40.56
Tshee-nee-mau-nee-kaw Čonimą́nįga One Who Walks in the Lead [Thunderbird]37            
Oo-zhee-kee-taun-tay-kaw ’Ųšit’at’aga [He Talks to Give Orders]38   X 2 1 1 4 11.06
Hoontsh-shee-shik-kaw Hųčšišika Bad Bear [Bear ?] X 2 1 2 5 18.44
Ish-tshah-noamp-kaw Iščánųpka Two Face   X 4 4 1 9 33.19
Tshay-paw-noamp-kaw Čepanųpka Two Buffalo Heads [Buffalo ?] X 5 1 - 6 22.13
Hah-paw-kwee-see-kaw Hąpakwesįka [Observes the Daylight]39   X 4 4 4 12 44.25
Wau-pau-zee-ray-hee-kaw Mąpezirehíga ? [Throws up Yellow Earth ?] [Bear ?] X 3 2 1 6 22.13
Shoank-tshunk-skaw-kaw Šųkčąkskaga White Wolf [Wolf] X 1 3 4 8 29.50
Wau-kee-yun-skaw Waki’ųga One Who Did It to Them   X 2 5 12 19 70.06
Er-tshuh-wau-shay-mee-kaw ?       1 2 4 7  
Hoang-ee-nee-kaw Hųgᵋnįka Little Chieftain   X 1 1 2 4 14.75
Mau-nee-khat-tah-(ka) Mąnį́xetega40 Big Walker   X 2 2 3 7 25.81
Woank-shik-ee-skay-tshah-kaw Wąkšikískeča Aged Man   X 2 3 3 8 29.50
Hee-nah-nah-kay-kaw Hīnąkĕ́ga41 Fourth Born Woman   X 5 4 10 19 70.06
Nee-ay-tshah-hoo-kaw Niéjahúga He Who is from Water [Wolf]42 X 2 3 3 8 29.50
Hahk-tshah-hoo-tsheen-kwaik-kaw Hakčahučįčįwįga43 One Who Returns with a Roar   X 1 2 2 5 18.44
Maunk-skaw-nik-kaw Mąkskanįka Young White Breast [Bear]44 X 2 3 4 9 33.19
Hay-shay-ray-kay-kaw Wašerekéka45 The Fox     3 4 0 7  
Roo-nee-kun Ronįk’ųga [He Makes His Body Small (Invisible)]46     2 4 1 7  
Wau-kaun-tshah-kaw-pay-ree-kaw Wakąjagaperiga47 Thunder Who is Awaited [Thunderbird ?] X 2 2 11 15 55.31
Kau-ree-tsho-kaw Kaǧičoga Blue Raven [Bear ?] X 5 3 3 11 40.56
Nee-tshu-kaw Nįžúga Rain48   X 3 3 2 8 29.50
Shik-o-kee-muk Žigogimąka49 ? One Who Nestles Again   X 1 3 7 11 40.56
Tshah-wau-shay-ween-kaw Čawaxšebᵋwįga Eagle Woman [Eagle ?] X - 3 4 7 25.81
To-shun-nuk Tošąnąka Otter [Waterspirit]50 X 3 4 9 16 59.00

1 In G. W. Harrison's Interior Field Notes for March, 1834, the sketch map for T1N R12E shows the exact location of Turtle Village. "There was a council house and garden beds at Beloit. The garden beds were situated on the bank of the Rock River, near where the Northwestern depot formerly stood. The first settlers raised their first vegetables on the spot where the garden beds had been. There were corn fields on the bottom of Turtle Creek, near where the athletic grounds are at present. A council house built of bark, forty feet square, with poles in the center supporting the roof, stood near Turtle Creek, where the road to Shopiere crosses the creek with wigwams around it. There were trails which led to Rockton and to Janesville, on each side of the river, and another leading across the prairie toward Delavan Lake. One of these crosses the campus through the group of mounds." Steven D. Peet, Prehistoric America, 2 vols. (Chicago: American Antiquarian Office, 1896) 2:391.
2 Clan names supplied by Nancy Oestreich Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Journal of the Wisconsin Indians Research Institute, 2, #1 (June, 1966): 50-73.
3 This is the name as attested elsewhere. It actually means, "Whirling Thunderbird" (Wakąwįxka would literally mean, "Whirling Snake"). He signed the Treaty of 1829 (Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Wakaŋjágiwiŋxgǝ, 62, #51). General Anderson says, "Whirling Thunder and Little Priest appeared to be about thirty-five years of age, I can say but little of either, save that Whirling Thunder was morose and sullen in his appearance, and had the reputation of being cruel. He was short and thick-set, not more than five feet, eight inches in height." General Robert Anderson, "Reminiscences of the Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Historical Collections, X (1888): 167-212 [191]. However, Washburne says, "Whirling Thunder was a man of great repute for his sagacity and wisdom in council." E. B. Washburne, "Col. Henry Gratiot — a Pioneer of Wisconsin," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, X (1888): 235-260 [253]. Col. Dodge briefly detained Whirling Thunder and two other chiefs as security for the good behavior of the tribe during the Black Hawk War. Moses M. Strong, "The Indian Wars of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VIII (1879 [1910]): 241-286 [272]. However, probably due to the fact that his son Mą́zᵋmąnį́ga (Iron Walker) killed Pierre Paquette, "Whirling Thunder had fallen into disgrace with the other chiefs, as he did not live in the country with the Nation; but lived in the Mines, pitching his wigwam near the dwelling of a man by the name of Doherty, who had taken Thunder's daughter's for his wife; and as Pauquette, Doherty thought, stood in his way of influence with the Nation, as well as trade, it was believed he felt it in his interest to prejudice the chief and his son against Pauquette, and the son got so wrought up that he determined to make way with him." Henry Merrell, "Pioneer Life in Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 366-402 [388-389].
4 It can be seen that this large village still operated under the dual chief system, with Whirling Thunder the Thunderbird or Peace Chief, and White Crow the War Chief. This form of his name, Kaǧíosạ̀ga, is attested by J. O. Dorsey. The kaǧí is the Northern Crow or Raven. Ska is the usual word for "white," whereas sạ means, "pale, whitish." Parkinson tells us, "White Crow appeared to be about fifty years of age. He was about five feet, ten inches in stature, straight and erect; and of a mild and pleasant countenance for a savage. He was a fine and fluent speaker, and the spokesman of his band on all important occasions." Peter Parkinson, "Notes on the Black Hawk War, Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, X (1888): 184-212 [190]. For more on White Crow, see the Commentary to Mrs. Kinzie's Wau Bun. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (58, #28) says that in 1832, when he signed the treaty of that date, he was a member of the Rock River Band. There they mentioned that he was blind. "[The] term 'the blind' refers to his having one eye. Bear Clan." Concerning his grave, Lyman C. Draper says,

These Indians, during a short halt, with solemn ceremonies, paid their accustomed devotions to the last remains of their departed chief White Crow. The place of interment of that celebrated chief is at a point near the foot of a bluff, twenty-five feet or more west from the line of said military road, and about one hundred and fifty yards southward from a spring near the easterly side of said road, the waters from which flow northward and join a larger stream [Black Earth Creek] which finds its way through Black Earth Valley to Wisconsin river at Arena [via Blue Mounds Creek, 43.191703, -89.886854]. That this was the grave of that chief, I was at the time informed by Whirling Thunder himself. The grave may probably still be found, unless obliterated by vandal hands in the improvement of the village of Cross Plains (43.114563, -89.648792), in or near which it is so located, where, should the project be deemed of sufficient consequence, the citizens of that village could erect a monument, commemorative of the good or evil deeds of the once renowned White Crow, among whose praiseworthy acts was his rewarded participation in the rescue and restoration of the Hall girls; and among the possible evil deeds was his suspected duplicity in acting as a guide of our forces in pursuit of Black Hawk near Koshkonong. White Crow, or The Blind, as he was frequently called, joined the army at First lake, with about thirty Winnebago warriors, with the promise of pointing out the trail of the retreating Sauks. All the historical accounts of the period unite in casting strong suspicions on White Crow's fidelity; and his threats at the Blue Mounds go far towards corroborating this view of his conduct. It should be added, that his son, White Pawnee, fought bravely and openly beside Pierre Poquette at the battle of Wisconsin Heights. Lyman C. Draper, "Additions and Corrections. White Crow, or The Blind," Wisconsin Historical Collections, X (1888): 495-496.

Since neither a spring nor the course of the old military road can be found on maps of this vicinity, it is not possible to locate the site of the grave with the precision given in the description. See the 1907 topographical map. See also the original plat map of 1835 predating the military road and the village, and the 1873 plat map in which the area now the center of Cross Plains was called "Christina." However, on topographic maps, the relevant bluff can be located and the grave can be put very roughly at 43.110518, -89.646004. This is located near the center of Section 3, Township 7N, Range 7E.
5 He signed the Treaties of 1855 and 1859. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 72, #122. Jipson says that Big Bear signed the Treaty of 1859 as a representative of the "Winnebago" Prophet (q.v.). Later he adds, "His village was on Maple River, near the center of section 11 [actually 12], Town of Rapidan (44.087567, -94.015328). Big Bear died in Winnebago, Nebraska, September 12, 1890, at the age of 80." Norton William Jipson, The Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society [unpublished], 1924) 245, 263.
6 He signed the Treaty of 1837. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 70, #105. Walking Cloud makes reference to an incident in which Red Wing participated: "Our people, who were named in this call [to fight against Black Hawk], did not want to go to war. But the messenger, after we had all arrived in Prairie du Chien, picked out Winnebago Black Hawk (my father), and my brother, and they went up the Wisconsin River with a party of white soldiers and officers from Fort Crawford. They met a number of Sacs coming down on a raft made of canoes tied together. The Winnebagoes and the whites killed most of the Sacs in this party." "Narrative of Walking Cloud," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 463-467 [464]. Thwaites says in a footnote to this passage: "During this interview, an old Winnebago named Red Wing was present. He said that he took part in this affair, and killed four Sacs. In the recital of his alleged achievement, be seemed to take a lively satisfaction. See reference to this butchery, in Wis. Hist. Colls., xii., pp. 254, 255."
7 Red would be Šųčka. If we take the transcription literally, it could be derived from šųč-he-ga, where he means, "he arrives" (Dorsey). The idea would be that he returns from the warpath with the blood of the enemy upon him.
8 Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (56, #21) identifies this name as belonging to the Wolf Clan. He signed the Treaties of 1827, 1828, and 1846. This might be the same White Dog mentioned in a frontier incident, but if so, assuming that he was born ca. 1744, he would have been 85 years of age.

About 1788, one Ace, called by the Indians L'Espaniard, indicative of his nationality, was trading at the old trading-house, about a mile and a half up Fond du Lac river, at the head of Lake Winnebago. Several Winnebagoes, belonging to the White Dog's band, residing on Rock river, and regarded as the outlaws of the nation, came to Ace's trading establishment. One of the Indians approached, and told Ace's engagé, that there were some ducks a little distance off, and suggested that he should go and shoot them; and he went, and while on the look-out for game, was shot down, by one of the concealed party. An Indian now ran to Mr. Ace and told him his man was killed, when he went out to see, and was himself shot down by Pakan, who seemed to be the leader of the Indians. Mrs. Ace, with the help of a gun, kept the enemy at bay, and preserved herself and children, until some friendly chiefs of the neighboring village, located where Taycheedah now is, came to her relief, and drove off Pakan and party.

Augustin Grignon, "Seventy-two Years' Recollections of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, III (1857): 197-295 [263-264].
9 Possibly from kinųp-hi-ga: kinųp, "brother"; and hi, "to be, make, become."
10 This may be from no-wak’únuk-ka: no, "wood, tree"; wak’únuk, "to break off with a saw" (Lipkind); and -ka, a suffix indicting a personal name. This may memorialize the power of lightning to sheer off tree limbs.
11 This seems to be the same name as Mennekau who signed the Treaty of 1829. These names form an alternant: Mąnaǧoga ~ Mąnanaǧoga, from , "earth, ground"; naǧo, "to scratch with a paw" (na-naǧo being the emphatic); and -ga, a personal name suffix. The treaty entry has the translation, "the bear that scratches," which, given that the name is thought to belong to the Bear Clan, is in good conformity with the interpretation given here. Lurie's informants, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," (64, #64) offer the Bear Clan name, Maŋbεzirehigǝ, which is rather far removed from the original transcriptions.
12 Cf. wakišgǫ, "to associate (with someone)"; kiš’ų, "to go about with"; kiške, "with." This set of words suggests that the name may mean something like "Ally."
13 This person has the same name as the Snake who lived at Lake Mendota and who had a village of his own on the Mississippi by 1832. However, the more famous Snake died in 1838, so the Snake mentioned here is likely the one who signed the Treaty of 1859. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 73, #126.
14 This appears to be hoišip, "always"; and ši, "to tell, to order, to command."
15 Blackhawk has, "One Who Stands and Tries," which is difficult to rationalize. Wičinąžįga is from, wiči, "reed, cattail"; nąžį, "to stand," -ga, a personal name suffix.
16 Blackhawk has, "Crane Body." Cf. Radin's P’ečąruhiga, "Crane Rib."
17 This is also the name of a Thunderbird in a Twins story.
18 Listed as a Bear Clan name by J. O. Dorsey.
19 The text has "Elk, Deer, and/or Thunderbird." However, Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," has only "Elk."
20 "Little Priest" is the more common rendering. This is not the famous Little Priest who was said to have been born and raised in the Koshkonong Village.
21 Haga(ga) is a birth order name for the third male born to a family. John Kinzie himself was known as Shaw-nee-aw-kee, the Ojibwe for "Silver-man," which translated into Hočąk is Žurága. One of the two brothers of Good Thunder, also known as "White Goose," was said to have been called Shaw-nee-aw-kee (see below).
22 We might consider this to be a misperception of the name Wakąja-gu-ga, "Coming Thunder," the name of the second Winneshiek, except that it is to be doubted that his father or he himself was in Turtle Village.
23 He signed the Treaty of 1829 (Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 63, #58).
24 This is from Hąp-ček-ka: hąp, "day"; ček, "new"; and -ka, a suffix indicating a personal name. This name is found in Radin's list of Bird Clan (Upper Moiety) names.
25 Listed as a name in the Thunderbird Clan by Sam Blowsnake.
26 Woikšą means "ashamed." Re can mean either "penis," or "to start going, to go outside, to proceed, to go somewhere to do something" (Helmbrecht-Lehmann). It is very difficult to believe that someone carries a disgraceful name or would tolerate going by such an appellation. "Ashamed to Proceed," might have been a name contrived for this occasion.
27 He signed the Treaty of 1832 as a member of the Rock River Band. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 68, #96.
28 Cf. the female Bear Clan name Wąkanąsewįga,"Pens up a Male," attested by Foster and Dorsey. This is from wąk, "man, male"; and hanąsé, "to shut off from doing something, to lock something or someone in, to cover something" (Miner).
29 He signed the treaties of 1846, 1855, and 1859. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 71, #117.
30 Attested as a Bear Clan name by both Dorsey and McKern.
31 This is attested only in John Kinzie's own word list.
32 Blackhawk's translation has, "White Black Woman," which does not make sense, nor can its elements be found in any word list. The word can be analyzed as, ča, "deer"; ha, "skin, hide"; wa, "snow"; ska, "white"; -wį, female suffix; -ga, personal name suffix. The name probably alludes to the white deerskin used in sacrificial offerings.
33 Blackhawk has "Lady of Fish Fins," but "lady" would be Hinųk, yielding, Hinųkoapka. Hínų is the first born daughter in a family. Hoáp means, "Fish Fin," which is obviously likely to be a name in the Fish Clan.
34 From Hųk-ho-ček-ka: hųk, "chief"; ho-, a spatial or temporal marker; ček, "new, beginning, fresh"; -ka, personal name suffix.
35 Jasper Blowsnake renders waišíp as, "to knock down."
36 This name is from Wašąk-čaše-ga: wašąk, "a two year old bear"; čaše, "neck"; -ga, personal name suffix.
37 Attested by Radin and Sam Blowsnake as a Thunderbird Clan name.
38 From, ’ųši, "to order, direct"; hit’at’a, "to talk"; and -ga, a personal name suffix.
39 From hąpąk, "daylight, evening"; wesį, "to observe"; and -ga, a personal name suffix. Lurie's informants ("A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 61, #48) give what is very likely the same name, Hahpaukooseekaw (Treaty of 1829) as, "Hapaxkuzigǝ – meaning no longer known, but known to be of the Water Spirit Clan."
40 Big Walker was a signatory of the 1829 Treaty. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Manixǝtεgǝ, 65, #72.
41 The problem with this interpretation is that it is missing a syllable -na- given in the original transcription of the name.
42
This name is attested by Foster and Dorsey as being from the Wolf Clan. This might be the same person also known as Nįhuga (Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 60, #42).
43 From hakča, "back"; hu, "to return"; čįwį, "roar"; -ka, a personal name suffix.
44 Mąkskaga, "White Breast," is a Bear Clan name.
45 Heserekeka would be what answers to the phonetic transcription, but this form is unattested.
46 Rónįk k’í means, "to make oneself small of body," a way of saying "invisible"; in this case the reflexive k’i combined with the causative hi (k’i < k’i-hi), is dropped, and is replaced with a near synonym of hi’ų. Concealment is a virtue in hunting and war.
47 The name can be analyzed as Wakąja-ga-pe-ri-ga: Wakąja, "Thunderbird"; ga, "far off" ?; pe, "to wait"; ri, [unknown meaning]; -ga, personal name suffix.
48 Another man of this same name is found at the Upper Baraboo Village.
49 This name seems to be Žige-hogi-mąk-ka: žige, "again"; hogi, "around"; mąk, "chest"; -ka, a personal name suffix — "Again Around the Chest." This name is found elsewhere.
50 The names Tošąnąkskága, "White Otter," and Tošanakxonunįka, "Little Otter" are Waterspirit Clan names (Foster and Lurie).



Miles Paddled
The Confluence of the Sugar and Pecatonica Rivers

19. Village at the Mouth of Sugar Creek
42.435270, -89.1965151
[Map 46]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 The mouth of Sugar Creek is where it joins the Pecatonica River. White Breast's other village on Sugar Creek is quite some ways upstream. See the map in the Commentary to Jipson, The Winnebagoes of Rock River.



James T., Illinois Paddle
The Kishwaukee River Near the Confluence with the Rock River

Heads of Families and Individuals
[20.] Nąpasą1 Village = ? Sycamore Village
42.185251, -89.1372602
[Map 49]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Shai-ro-kaw Šaraga ? [Bald ?]   X 4 2 1 7 25.81
Ho-hay-tsho-kaw Hohečoga Blue Horns [Waterspirit ?] X 4 4 6 14 51.63
Koo-mee-kaw Kumįka [He Who Leans ?]3   X 2 4 2 8 29.50
Wau-shay-ray-kay-kaw Wašerekéga Fox [Wolf ?] X 2 3 5 10 36.87
Kau-ree-shun-kaw Kaǧíosą́ga [Pale] Raven4   X 1 - - 1 3.69
Poo-rash-khat-tay-kaw Purašxetega Large Nose Ring5   X 5 2 2 9 33.19
So-koo-roas-pee-ka Sikuruspįga Acceptance of Moccasins6 [Thunderbird] X 4 3 - 7 25.81
Hoan-kee-taik-it Hokit’ekit’ega He Who Really Talks7     3 3 [1]8 7  
Hee-wees-kaw Hįwiskaga [White Tail Feather] [Upper Moiety] X 2 2 1 5 18.44
Wau-kaun-tshah-sootsh-ka Wakąjašučka Red Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird]   3 3 3 9  
Hoong-oo-nik-shunk-kaw [Hųgᵋnįkjąka] [Chief's Child] [Thunderbird ?]9 X 5 6 2 13 47.94
Wau-kaun-tshah-nik-ka Wakąjanįka Small Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird] X 4 6 4 14 51.63
See-kee-sootsh-kaw Sikišučka10 Red Feet   X 6 6 6 18 66.37
   
  Mike Cagill, OST
  A Sycamore Tree

1 This village is not mentioned under this name in the introductory summary list. Nąpasą is not found in the site's word list, but is translated parenthetically as "Locust (Tree)," apparently by Jipson. Marino lists nąpasą as a tree of unknown species. We can analyze nąpasą to show that it is a tree () with pale () "heads" (pa), where the latter are presumably flowers. However, the matter is complicated by an alternant, ną-paša-kanąk, where paša means, "bald," which is essentially the same (in this context) as pasą, "pale head." Kanąk means, "to bear fruit." The expanded version, nąpasąkanąk, denotes the honey locust and the Kentucky coffee trees, whose northernmost range includes the Rock River in Illinois. They do have white flowers, and bear edible bean pods. This leaves us wondering whether there were non-fruit-bearing nąpasąra/nąpašara. The matter is further complicated by another alternant to nąpasą. What appears to be the same word, rendered namṗósa by McKern, is said by his informants to be, "a forked pole made of white oak upon which scalps and the warbundle are hung at the return of a warparty. The post is placed at the east side of the feast lodge." In the word list at this site, there is no word for sycamore. The fact that Sycamore Village has no match in the table of contents for the rolls, and that Nąpasą Village has no match among the full roll of villages, suggests that these two are a match, and that Kinzie himself believed that nąpasą meant "sycamore." The Hočągara were late comers to the Rock River area. Both the sycamore and the locust trees are not native to Wisconsin, but do extend tenuously along the banks of the Rock and Kishwaukee Rivers. The word kishwaukee itself is often said to have come from Potawatomi, but it in fact appears to be Sauk, where the word kîshowâhkwi means, "sycamore." Gordon Whittaker, A Concise Dictionary of the Sauk Language (Stroud, Oklahoma: The Sac and Fox National Public Library, 2005) 57, s.v. The river banks are often lined with sycamores, partly attested by the fact that the river originates in the town of Sycamore. How could a word meaning "pale head tree," or "bald tree" apply to the sycamore? This tree, in fact, rather aptly satisfies this definition as can be seen from the picture at the right, where the lower trunk of the tree has rough brown bark, but the higher reaches of the tree are pale or "bald." So it is quite plausible that nąpasą/nąpaša was coined for the sycamore, and nąpasąkanąk was used for the locust or Kentucky coffee tree.
2 Given the name "Indian Hill" which occurs at the confluence of the Rock and Kishwaukee Rivers, it is highly probable that this is the site of the Hočąk village. Indian Hill is now a forest preserve.
3 Blackhawk has "Lying in a Hill," but to get this result, koo would have to be interpreted as xe, a word to which it bears little phonetic resemblance. Kumįk, on the other hand, at least has a meaning, although "He Who Leans," is obscure in its own right.
4 Kaǧí-o-są̀-ga, a popular name, is more commonly translated as "White Crow." Dorsey translates it as, "Whitish or Pale Crow." It is from kaǧí, "crow, raven"; ho-, a prefix used to nominalize verbs; są́, "to be white, pale"; -ga, a personal name suffix.
5 To derive such a translation, poo would have to be interpreted as pa, leaving raš to mean "ring" despite the fact that no such meaning is attested anywhere.
6 This name is also found in Walking Cloud's narrative as Seeorouspinka, corrected to Secorouspinka in the Index volume (Wisconsin Historical Collections, XX (1915): 478, s. nom.). Sikuruspįga is si-kurus-pį-ga, where si means, "foot"; kurus can mean, "to accept"; here would mean, "he likes"; and -ga is a personal name suffix. So the name more literally translated would be, "He Likes to Accept that which is for the Foot." "That which is for the foot," refers to moccasins. The name alludes to the practice of women admirers or kin bringing out moccasins to those who were about to depart on the warpath. To say that he likes to accept these means that he is a lover of the warpath. We learn from Walking Cloud (Mąxíwimą̀nįga) Sikuruspįga's next of kin: "During the Black Hawk War, my father had his lodge near La Crosse. I did not go to the war; I was too young. But my brother did. His name was Seeoroouspinka. General Dodge sent a messenger down to Prairie du Chien, and said he wanted the Winnebagoes to go into the war and help the Great Father punish the Sacs. Our people, who were named in this call, did not want to go to war. But the messenger, after we had all arrived in Prairie du Chien, picked out Winnebago Black Hawk (my father), and my brother, and they went up the Wisconsin River with a party of white soldiers and officers from Fort Crawford. They met a number of Sacs coming down on a raft made of canoes tied together. The Winnebagoes and the white killed most of the Sacs in this party. Winnebago Black Hawk was the guide of this expedition." "Narrative of Walking Cloud," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 463-467 [463-464].
7 This name would appear to be an emphatic from, hokit’é-kit’é, an emphatic reduplication from hokit’é, "to talk to"; and -ga, a personal name suffix. This is probably a nickname rather than a clan name.
8 The typescript has "0", but this does not add up to 7, which implies that if the other two numbers are correct, then this should have been "1".
9 Normally, the child of a chief would be expected to be of the Thunderbird Clan, but there are two relevant considerations here: 1) each clan has its own chief, which would make "Chief's Son" possibly a name in any clan; 2) it could be a clan name in the Waterspirit Clan, since a name frequently used for the famous Waterspirit Traveler was "Chief's Son."
10 From si, "foot"; ki, "he makes his own"; šuč, "red"; and -ka, a personal name suffix. The name should be translated as, "He Makes His Own Foot Red."



Theresa Jansen
The Monument to the Winnebago Prophet
Near the Site of Prophetstown

21. Sugar Camp Village (Prophetstown)
41.672328, -89.9256351
[Map 52]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 The table asserts that the distance from Ft. Winnebago (Portage) to Sugar Camp is 120 miles. We know that Sugar Camp is located on the Rock River, and is clearly far below any other site mentioned. Since Prophetstown is a major village, mainly Sauk and Fox, down the Rock River, it is an obvious candidate. The straight line distance from Portage to Prophetstown is on today's maps calculated to be 131 miles, conformable to the 120 estimated from the 1829 (or earlier) maps. The case is made once we realize that the Winnebago Prophet after whom the town takes its name, is Wabokieshiek, more correctly in Sauk, Wāpakīshik, usually translated from Sauk as "White Sky," or from Hočąk as "White Cloud." This identity is confirmed in Jipson's remarks upon Sugar Camp:

(135) ... we will briefly notice the Prophet's Village, called by Kinzie, Sugar Camp, and the so-called Winnebago Prophet—White Sky, White Cloud, Fair Sky being some of the names by which he was known to the early Indian officials. In 1829, Kinzie gives the village a population of ninety-eight with six lodges. James P. Dixon (in his affidavit) states that in the winter of 1832 he stayed in the Prophet's village two days and one night. His estimate of the population was about one hundred warriors, making the number of villagers between three and four hundred. He says he did not stay at the village, but about four or five miles below at their hunting ground. (136) The population of the Prophet's village was made up of half-breed and mongrel Winnebago, with a liberal admixture of other half-breed Indians. That the Indians at Prophet's village were by the Winnebago considered a bad lot, is evidenced by a letter from General Joseph M. Street, Indian Agent at Prairie du Chien, to General William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis, under date of July 6, 1831. He said: "The Winnebago now desire me to ask their Great Father to break up this town on Rock River, as they are apprehensive that renegade Winnebago, with other bad Indians, may do mischief, and the whole Winnebago nation have to suffer for it." On July 7, 1831, John Reynolds, Governor of Illinois, wrote to the Secretary of War. "There is a village of bad Indians on Rock River about thirty miles from its mouth which I will recommend you to have moved to the west side of the river. This may save a great deal of trouble." (20th Cong. 1st Sess., II. H. Doc. 117.) To a certain extent, the lower end of Rock River appears to have been a melting pot for various tribes of Indians. Prior to 1823, it is doubtful if there were any villages of pure blooded Winnebago below Turtle Village. As we have seen, both Forsyth and Keating tell us that Kishwaukee village was made up of Indians of various tribes, and Keating makes the definite statement that the Pecatonica Indians were a mixture of Potawatomi, Sac, Fox, Menominee, Winnebago, etc. Jipson, Winnebagoes of Rock River, 135-136.



Wisconsin River Trips
The Baraboo River Where it Joins the Wisconsin River

Heads of Families and Individuals
22. Lower Barribault [Baraboo] Village, No. 1
43.528053, -89.5723601
[Map 21]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Day-kau-ray   Decorah [Thunderbird]2 X 5 5 9 19 70.06
(6 6 10 22)3
Kay-rah-tsho-kaw Keračoga [Blue] Sky [Wolf]4 X 5 5 11 21 77.44
Rootsh-kay-shaw-skaw Ručgeskaga White Pigeon5 [Thunderbird] X 2 6 8 16 59.00
Kau-kau-saw-kaw Kąkąsạ̀ga ? [White Ponka]6 [Upper Moiety] X 1 2 4 7 25.81
Shoang-ay-kaw-hay-kaw Šųgᵋka’ega The Dog7 [Wolf ?] X 3 6 1 10 36.87
Tshee-onush-ee-kaw Čiónąžįga [Stands in the House] [Bear]8 X 1 2 2 5 18.44
Wee-tsee-waw-kaw-skaw Wičiwakaska ?     X 1 2 3 6 22.13
Hay-saush-ay-kaw Hesasačka Mighty Horns9 [Waterspirit ?] X 2 3 4 9 33.19
Wau-way-to-heen-kaw Mąwet’ųhįka ? Cries for Arrows10   X 4 3 7 14 51.63
Hay-gaw-gay-nik Hegaǧenįka ? [Little Shouting Hawk] "(Petit Noir)"11   X 3 2 3 8 29.50
Talk English12       X 2 2 3 7 25.81
Hah-paw-kee-see-kaw Hąpagisiga [Bows to the Day]13   X 3 4 4 11 40.51
Paw-nee-rah Panira [Slave,] Pawnee, [Pania Blanc]14   X 2 2 2 6 22.13
Wau-ho-pee-nee-skaw-skaw Waxopį́nįskága White Frenchman15   X 1 2 8 11 40.56
Tshah-ee-zhun-kaw-kaw Čahižugąka [Shoots Deer from the Prone]16   X 1 2 2 5 18.44
Sho-mee-nuh-kaw Čominąka ? [Sits Blue] [Bear or Bird]17 X 2 5 1 8 29.50
Mo-nee-kaw Monįga18 One Who Seeks Arrows   X 4 2 1 7 25.81
Tshah-tshee-ro-hay-ween-kaw Čáčiruxéwįga She who Pursues the Wind] [Elk]19 X 2 3 3 8 29.50
Hee-nook-ho-peen-kaw Hinųk Hopįga Woman with a Good Voice   X 1 4 2 7 25.81
Mau-shoo-tsho-ween-kaw Mąšųčowįga Blue Feather Woman [Upper Moiety]20 X 1 1 5 7 25.81
Mo-ra-tshaun-way-kaw Morajawįga Travelling Woman [Buffalo or Bear] X 2 4 2 8 29.50
Wau-kaun-tshah-koo-kaw Wakąjaguga Coming Thunder[bird]21 [Thunderbird] X 3 2 5 10 36.87
Maz-roo-kun-nuk Mązᵋrukąnąka One Who Cuts22   X 1 1 3 5 18.44
Wee-pum-ah-rah-ween-kaw Wipamąrawįga Rainbow Woman [Upper Moiety ?] X - 1 2 3 11.06
Naugh-hay-zee-kaw Nąǧiziga [Yellow Spectre]23   X 3 2 3 8 29.50
Kaw-ree-kaw Kaǧiga Raven [Bear ?] X 2 1 1 4 14.75
Kaugh-hah-way-kaw Kaxawuka Seagull   X 5 3 6 14 51.63
Nay-tshoo-zee-kaw Nasuzika Yellow Hair24   X 2 3 2 8 25.81
Wau-nik-sootsh-ee-ween-kaw Wanįgᵋšujᵋwįga Red Bird [Woman]   X 1 3 3 7 25.81
Nau-tay-sau-kaw Nątísaka Rapid Climber [Bear]25 X 1 1 4 6 22.13
Wo-roo-shik-skay-tshah-ween-kaw Worušikskečawįga Real Wampum   X 3 4 3 10 36.87
Wau-ray-tshah-wau-ween-kaw Warečawawįga One of Twin Women   X - 2 2 4 14.75
Soatsh-ay-kway-kaw Sojᵋkweka [Competes to Smoke]26   X 4 3 5 12 44.25
Tshah-sau-kaw Časąga White Deer   X 3 3 6 12 44.25
Wau-kaun-tshah-kee-ween-kaw Wakąčąkįwįga [She Makes Herself Holy]27   X 3 1 3 7 25.81
Hoang-ah-tshah-kee-ween-kaw Hųgᵋčgąkįwįga She Who Risks for the Chief28   X 3 2 4 9 33.19
Koo-noo-haun Kųnų́ga ? [First Born Male ?]   X 3 3 3 9 33.19
Ko-koo-kaw (woman) Koguwįga [Coming to Make a Place for Someone]29   On border of document 9  
 

1 "The locality now known as the Caffrey place, in the town of Caledonia, at the foot of the bluff, between the Wisconsin and Baraboo Rivers [was the site of Old Decorah's village]. The school house of district number five, now occupies the spot where the old chief died. De-kau-ry's town contained over one hundred lodges, and was the largest of the Winnebago villages." John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [356].  The P. Caffrey place is found on the 1873 plat map of Caledonia Township, Columbia County, where School House 5 is clearly marked in the SE ¼ of the SW ¼ of Section 8, Township 12N, Range 08E, within a couple hundred feet at most of 43.528053, -89.572360. On the 1878 map of Columbia County, Section 8, the school house is actually drawn in [see inset]. As to the village as a whole, John Brinks' original plat map of 1845 shows a group of square dots, usually indicative of habitations, in the SE ¼ of Section 8 at the foot of bluffs whose topology does not seem to have been very accurately depicted. It seems likely that the site of School House 5 fell within the limits of this village, as we might expect.
2 The Decorah family is perhaps the most famous lineage of chiefs, descending from Sabrevoir de Carrie, a French officer and trader, and Glory of the Morning, the daughter of the chief, and chief in her own right. De la Ronde says this about the death of White Eagle, more popularly known as "Old Gray-headed Decorah":

(355) In 1836, the Indians had the misfortune of losing the best of (356) their chiefs, Scha-chip-ka-ka [Čaxšépsgaga], or De-kau-ry. His death occurred April 20, at the age of ninety, at his village ... Before he died, De-kau-ry called the Catholic priest, Mr. Vanderbrook, who was at the Portage at the time, by whom he was baptised, according to Catholic rites, the day of his death, and was buried in their cemetery near the present Court House in Portage City; and since the abandonment of that burial ground, the old chief's resting place cannot be identified. He was succeeded by his son, called by the whites Little De-kau-ry, whose Indian name was Cha-ge-ka-ka; and he did not long survive, dying six months after his father. He was succeeded by his brother, Ho-pe-ne-scha-ka [Xopį́nįskága], or White French.

John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [355-356]. 
3 These revised numbers were inserted in pencil.
4 "Blue Sky" is the name of the first born son in the Wolf Clan. It refers to the day, and the fur of the first wolf. However, Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (kerácogǝ, 60, #37) has assigned him to the Thunderbird Clan. He signed the Treaties of 1828 and 1829.
5 Better known as "Black Decorah," he was the brother of the chief of this village, Old Gray-headed Decorah. Augustin Grignon, "Seventy-two Years’ Recollections of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, III (1857/1904): 197-295 [286]; John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [347]. His name looks as if it would place him in the Pigeon Clan, but since he was the son of Ladle, he must have been in the same clan as his father, the Thunderbird Clan.
6 Kąką, the only known name for the Ponka tribe, comes from Gatschet. Lurie's informants suggested ("A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 57, #23), Kaŋzesagǝ or Kaŋzepǝgǝ, "An old name with involved esoteric connotations mentioned in the medicine lodge rite. Bird Clan."
7 If our transliteration is correct, this name is more properly "That Dog." Šųgᵋka’ega is analyzed thus: šųk, "dog"; ka’e, "that"; and -ga a personal name suffix.
8 Listed as a name in the Bear Clan by J. O. Dorsey. He signed the Treaty of 1829 and 1832, at the latter of which he is entered as "Sheeonuzheekaw, War chief, Karraymaunee." This treaty entry also lists him as belonging to the Prairie du Chien band. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (63, #63) says, "Ordinarily Keramani family affiliations would imply Bird Clan, but the name is of the Bear Clan. Keramani kinship may be through the maternal side.
9 Only in Jipson's word list do we find hesasač meaning, "antlers." It is not clear how Blackhawk derived "Mighty" (mąšją) as a component to the name.
10 In order to derive this result, the first syllable would have to be Mau rather than the given Wau. It is also not clear where "Cry" comes from.
11 Petit Noir means, "Black Boy." Hegaǧenįka would mean "Little Shouting Hawk": hek, "hawk, buzzard"; haǧe, "to shout"; nįk, "little"; and -ka a personal name suffix. However, characterizing the call of a hawk or buzzard as a "shout" seem implausible.
12 Talk English was a prominent person of the day. Mrs. Kinzie gives an account of how he got this name.
13 From Hąp-pagisi-ga: hąp, "light, day"; pagisi, "to bow"; and -ga, a personal name suffix. This name does not occur on any list of clan names.
14 Pani is a loan word from Algonquian languages that means "slave." It is also the term for a Pawnee. This individual, however, was a person of note, the son of White Crow, whose name is variously rendered as Pania Blanc, Pawnee, Paneewasaka, "Pony Blaw," Vane Blanc, and "White Pawnee." After recounting how the nephew of Four Legs was quite the dandy, Mrs. Kinzie tells us, "This devotion to dress and appearance seemed not altogether out of place in a youthful dandy; but we had likewise an old one of the same stamp. Pawnee Blanc, or the White Pawnee, surpassed his younger competitor, if possible, in attention to his personal attractions. Upon the present occasion he appeared in all his finery, and went through the customary salutations with an air of solemn dignity, then walked, as did the others, into the parlor (for I had received them in the hall), where they all seated themselves upon the floor. ... (83) Pawnee was among the happy number remembered in the distribution; so, donning at once his new costume, and tying a few additional bunches of gay-colored ribbons to a long spear, that was always his baton of ceremony, he came at once, followed by an admiring train, chiefly of women, to pay me a visit of state. The solemn gravity of his countenance, as he motioned away those who would approach too near and finger his newly-received finery — the dignity with which he strutted along, edging this way and that to avoid any possible contact from homely, every-day wardrobes — augured well for a continuance of propriety and self-respect, and a due consideration of the good opinion of all around." For more on Pania Blanc, see the Commentary to Juliette Kinzie's Wau Bun.
15 The brother of Little Decorah who succeeded him as chief after his death. Little Decorah died just six months after his father, Old Gray-headed Decorah, who is listed above as chief of this village at the time that this roll was composed. It was Little French who arrested Mą́zᵋmąnį́ga after he shot Pauquette (q.v.). John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [358]. 
16 Čahižugąka can be analyzed as: ča, "deer"; hižuk, "to shoot (a gun)"; ąk, "to be in a lying or horizontal position"; and -ka a personal name suffix.
17 Radin records the name Čoraminąk’a, "Sits [in the] Blue," as being found in both the Bear Clan and in the Upper Moiety ("Bird Clan"). The transliteration proposed here drops the definite article (ra), but differs from the original transcription of the name in rendering Sho as Čo, a reasonable revision given the frequent confusion of /š/ and /č/.
18 From Mą-honį-ga.
19 This name is listed by both Foster and Radin as belonging to the Elk Clan.
20 Listed by Radin as an "Bird Clan" name.
21 There seem to be two individuals with the name "Coming Thunderbird" – see the note above and below. One of these is the elder Winneshiek (the son of Mąwáruga) [pic], but it is difficult to say which one. However, Jipson points out that Coming Thunder was born ca. 1812 probably at Portage, which is very near this village, so the Lower Baraboo Village seems to be the most likely site of his habitation. Norton William Jipson, The Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society [unpublished], 1924) 211. Hexom also has much on the Winneshieks (q.v.). However, one of the brothers of the chief of this village was said to be Wau-kon-ga-ko, which is within the range of variation for Wakąjagu(ga), "Coming Thunder." The translation given by de la Ronde was "Thunder Hearer," which should be Wakąjanąxgųga. John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [347]. So it also seems plausible that another one of the chief's brothers, also known as "Coming Thunderbird," was living in his village.
22 "Master of Iron," would seem more appropriate. Mązᵋrukąnąka is from mąs, "iron"; rukąną, "to manage."
23 Blackhawk translates this as "Yellow Fourth Woman," although there is nothing here to indicate that it is a woman. Also the word nąǧi also means, "ghost, spirit," so that it seems rather more likely that the name isn't just a birth-order name with the word -zi, "yellow" attached.
24 Also known by his French name, Tête Jaune, and by the variant, "Yellow Head," since nasu means, "scalp, head." It is likely he who is mentioned in a letter from Col. Robert Dickson to Lt.. John Lawe in 1814. "Dickson and Grignon Papers — 1812-1815," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XI (1888): [285], in which he is promised certain trade goods.
25 This is listed as a Bear Clan name by McKern.
26 Sojᵋkweka is from soč, "to smoke"; kwek, "to contest, to win"; and -ka a personal name suffix.
27 Blackhawk has "Thunder Woman," but that would be Wakąjáwįga. A better match is Wakąčąkįwįga, from wakąčąk, "holy, sacred"; , "to make oneself"; , female gender suffix; and -ga a personal name suffix.
28 Hųgᵋčgąkįwįga can be analyzed as: hųk, "chief"; čgą, "to take a chance at something"; , "to make oneself"; , female gender suffix; and -ga a personal name suffix.
29 From ko, "to make a place (for someone); gu, "coming"; , female gender suffix; and -ga a personal name suffix. This name is also found written on the back of an envelope with the annotation, "woman."



WorldWind Explorer
The Reticle Marks the Site of the Middle Baraboo Village
Where Baxter Forded the River

Heads of Families and Individuals
23. Middle Barribault [Baraboo] Village, No. 2
43.466102, -89.7422901
[Map 23]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
[Sarrochau]2 [Čáračų́ga, Tanixiga] Old Smoker   X 7 6 9 22 81.13
Kaish-kay-pee-way   (Sauk name)3 [Upper Moiety] X 5 5 16 26 95.87
  4 6 12 22  
Naigh-kee-tee-pee-kaw Naxi Tipįga ? [Fourth Born, Good Moving]     1 1 5 7  
Mon-ay-toos Mąnégųska ? [Eternal]   X 2 5 2 9 33.19
Wau-sunk-kaw Wazų́ka Fisher4   X 4 4 5 13 47.94
Ro-kik-hay-way-kaw Rokíkewéga He Who Paints Himself   X 4 3 1 8 29.50
Mau-kick-sotsh-kaw Mągiksųčka He Who Shakes the Earth [Thunderbird, Buffalo]5 X 1 1 5 7 25.91
Waun-kay-tshah-o-kee-way-kaw Wakąjaokiwega Thunderbird Passing By6 [pic]   X 4 5 1 10 36.87
Mau-tshonee-kaw Mąčónįka Little Grizzly Bear [Bear ?] X 1 2 4 7 25.81
Hoo-wau-nee-kaw Hųwąnįka [pic] Little Elk [Thunderbird]7 X 4 5 8 17 62.69
Wee-tsho-kaw Wijuka Cat   X 5 5 6 16 59.00
Tshah-nik-kee-nun-kaw Čanįkinąka8 [Sitting Fawn] [Deer ?] X 2 4 2 8 29.50
Hoong-rah-tshee-ray-kaw Hųgᵋrajirega9 Chosen Chief   X 1 3 7 11 40.56
Kar-ray-mau-nee Keramąnįga Walking Turtle10 [Thunderbird] X 3 2 - 5 18.44
Mau-nah-pay-ho-nik Mąnąpexųnųnįka11 Little Soldier [Bear] X 3 2 3 8 29.50
Hay-wau-sheep-kaw Hewašípka Grind Horn12   X 4 2 5 11 40.56
Wau-kaun-tshah-kaw Wakąjága Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird] X 2 2 4 8 29.50
Tshee-kaw-kway Čigakweka ? [Conquers the Lodge ?]13   X 4 5 7 16 59.00
Wee-o-kee-ween-kaw Wi’ókįwįga14 Woman with Accuracy   X 4 5 7 16 59.00
O-mee-nunk-a-mee-kaw (woman) Homįnąkonįga [Seeking a Resting Place] [Bear]15 X 3 6 6 15 55.31
Mau-nee-khat-tay-kaw Mąnįxetega  Big Walker   X 3 2 6 11 40.56
Kaun-say-pau-kaw Kšékepaga Rattlesnake Head   X 5 6 7 18 66.37
Toak-hay-nee-kaw Tókenįka Dear Old Woman   X - 1 - 1 3.69
Moy-a-tah-tshey-hee-kaw Moatačehira16 One Who Illuminates the Earth   X 2 5 5 12  
Wau-kaun-tshah-saip-kaw Wakąjásepga Black Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird]17 X 1 1 3 5 18.44
Tshey-nik-see-kaw Čenįksiga Calf [Buffalo]18 X 3 4 8 15 55.31
Pay-hay-kaw Pahíga Sharp   X - 1 - 1 3.69

 
Milwaukee Lithographing & Engraving Co.
Maxwell's Dam, 1886  

1 Charles O. Baxter in his account of his travels through the area in 1839 says that, "The trail led us directly to the Baraboo river, at the place where Maxwell's mill dam now stands (43.466818, -89.742304). Here we forded the river and entered the Indian Chief Caliminee's, village, where we were very warmly and hospitably received." William H. Canfield, Sketches of Sauk County (Baraboo, Wis.: A. N. Kellogg, Printer, 1861) 57. This gives us an exact location for this village in the year 1839. Col. Maxwell's dam is still seen on the 1906 East Baraboo map, in original plat numbers 7 and 8. The mill is shown in the 1878 Baraboo map (cf. Snyder, Van, Vetchem & Co. map of 1878), and the dam can be made out at the terminus of Vine St.
2 See the footnote under the list of villages and the Commentary to Kinzie's Wau Bun.
3 This is the Kaish-kee-paw listed above, and the Kaish-kee-pay-kau whose name appears on the Treaty of 1829. The name is Sauk. Kaish-kee-pay-kau was a signatory to the Treaty of 1829, but no translation of his name was given there either. In the Treaty of 1837, his name was entered as Keeshkeepakah. Charles J. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. 2, Treaties (Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904) 2:302. Lurie's informants said, "Gišgipegǝ [is a] name supposedly of Potawatomi origin, it was recalled as belonging to a member of the Keramąnį family in the treaty period and that the person belonged to the Bird Clan."
4 This refers to the marten-like animal known as the "fisher."
5 Sam Blowsnake and Paul Radin list this name as Thunderbird, but Dorsey records it as also being in the Buffalo Clan. This same name occurs at Koshkonong Village.
6 Blackhawk has "On Way of the Thunder"; however, Wakąjaokiwega can be analyzed as: Wakąja, "Thunderbird"; hokíwé, "he goes by"; and -ga a personal name suffix. He was painted twice by Charles Deas in 1842.
7 A well known orator. See the Commentary to Kinzie's Wau Bun, and McKinney-Hall. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (56, #19) says, "Huŋwaniŋgǝ – little elk. Although the name suggests the Elk Clan, this is a Thunder Clan name and the particular individual is recalled as belonging to the Thunder Clan."
8 Čanįkinąka is from ča, "deer"; nįk, "little"; hinąk; "sitting up"; and -ka a personal name suffix.
9 From hųk, "chief"; -ra, "the"; jire, "appointed"; and -ga a personal name suffix.
10 There are a number of people named Keramąnįga, which is a warrior's name, and a name assumed by members of a certain linage. Two of whom were additionally named Nąga as well as Keramąnįga, signed the Treaty of 1829. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 53, ##2-4). This village, where we see one of the Keramąnįga living in 1829, became his village by at least 1839, according to Baxter's account. For the most prominent Keramąnįga, see McKinney-Hall and the Commentary to Kinzie's Wau Bun. According to Capt. Powell, this village eventually became that of the famous Nąga Keramąnįga, inasmuch as he was known as the "Counselor of the Baraboo." William Powell, "William Powell's Recollections, In an Interview with Lyman C. Draper," Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin for 1912, 3-178 [152-153].
11 This is not the better known Little Soldier, who lived in the next village up the Baraboo (the next entry).
12 Since wašíp means, "to knock down by pressure or pushing away from the body" (Lipkind, Miner), the name might be better rendered as, "Butting Horn."
13 Possibly from či, "lodge"; -ga, a definite article suffix; kwek, "to contend for, win"; and -ka, a personal name suffix.
14 From wa-, indefinite object prefix ("it, them"); hi’ó, to hit the mark or target; , "to pose, to act like, to make oneself something, to become"; -ga, a personal name suffix.
15 One of the rare female names lacking the penultimate female gender suffix, -wį-. McKern records the name as Hominąk Hónika, "Looking for a Place to Sit Down (or Seeking a Resting Place), a personal name in the Bear Clan for the third born female."
16 To this name, compare the word mą́tačehíra, "the wind," recorded by both Hayden and Dorsey. I cannot find hatačehi meaning "illuminate."
17 Listed by Sam Blowsnake as a Thunderbird Clan name.
18 Recorded by both Foster and Radin as a Buffalo Clan name.



About-Bicycles
The Baraboo North of Reedsburg in the Vicinity of the Third Village

Heads of Families and Individuals
24. Upper Barribault [Baraboo] Village, No. 3
43.543068, -90.0313761
[Map 24]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
To-shun-nuk-saip-kaw Tošonogᵋsepka Black Otter   X 4 3 4 11 40.56
May-nah-pey-nee-kaw Mąnąpénįka2 [Little] Soldier [pic] [Bear ?] X 5 6 10 21 77.44
Maunk-skaw-kaw Mą́kskaga White Breast3 [Bear ?] X 5 3 6 14 51.63
Hsang-ay-ray-kaw       X 3 2 5 10 36.87
Wau-kaun-tshah-hay-ray-kaw Wakąjahereka ? Thunder[bird] Who is Applauded4 [Thunderbird ?] X 2 2 4 8 29.50
Woank-shik-ho-nee-kaw Wąkšigonįga He Who Seeks the Enemy5   X 5 5 7 17 62.69
Nah-soo-rah-ray-skaw Nasurarixka ? [Coils His Head]6 [Snake] X 3 3 - 6 22.15
(Said to have been a white man who lived among the Winnebagoes.)
Tshey-na-ka Čenąka Sitting Buffalo [Buffalo ?] X 2 2 3 7 25.81
Hay-nun-nee-kaw Henąnįka [Little] Second Born Boy7   X 1 3 3 7 25.81
Kee-ree-ah-shah-mee-nunk Kiriašamįnąka ? [Sits ...]   X 3 3 7 13 49.94
Nau-kay-kaw Naxíga Fourth Born [Male]8   X 4 6 9 19 70.06
Wee-zoan-kay-kaw Wizǫ́kega9 Virgin   X 2 4 4 10 36.87
-add 1-2-1
Wau-kaun-tshah-ho-no-kaw Wakąjaxųnųga10 Young Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird] X 1 1 4 6 22.13
Rascal Day-kay-ray11 Nąhasą́čiga [Goes Beyond the Trees] [Thunderbird] X 1 3 - 4 14.75
May-say-ray-kaw Mąsereka [He Cuts Through the Earth]12   X 2 5 3 10 36.87
Haun-heigh-mau-nee-kaw Hąhemąnįga Night Walker [Bear]13 X 2 2 5 9 33.19
Day-kaw-ray's Mother   [Flight of Geese]14 [Thunderbird] X 1 2 3 6 22.13
Heetah-kaw (woman) hiták’e old woman   X - 1 3 4 14.75
Wau-kaun-tshah-koo-ga Wakąjaguga15 Coming Thunderbird [Thunderbird] X 1 2 3 6 22.13
Mauntsh-koo-wau-sheen-kaw Mąčguwašiška One Who Broke the Bow16 [Bear] X 2 3 5 10 36.87
Hee-noo-goo-nik-kaw Hinųgonįga One Who Sought the Women   X 1 4 5 10 36.87
Kay-tshun-kaw Kecąka Turtle   X 1 5 4 10 36.87
Nau-kik-say-hee-ree-kaw Nąxiksehiriga17 One Who Was Alarmed   X 1 1 1 3 11.96
Nee-shoo-kaw Nižuga Rain18 [Upper Moiety] X 2 4 3 9 33.19
Maun-kaun-o-zhoo-kaw Makąhožuga One Who Planted Medicine   X 6 3 5 14 51.63
Wo-shee-ween-kaw Wojįwįga Woman Who Strikes [Them]              

1 Said to be ¾ of a mile up from Reedsburg: "From there [Devil's Lake], I went to a Winnebago town, called the Little Sioux's village, perhaps three-fourths of a mile above the present village of Reedsburg." John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [351]. This would put it in Section 4 (see the 1906 Reedsburg Township Section Map, and the contemporary GIS Section Map). Little Sioux, or Petit Sioux, has apparently been listed here under another, probably clan, name.
2 "Dandy," the son of Black Wolf, had the name "Little Soldier." [pic] (7, W. H. C., 346). In 1836 he was chief of a village five or six miles above the present city of Baraboo, which is near the site of this village. (5, Wisconsin Archeologist, 378) "He was a small thin man, and the only Winnebago who after the breaking up of the tribal relations in 1848, was generally respected as a chief of the tribe. He went to Washington in 1828, with War Eagle [Old Decorah] and others to see the President." Lawson, The Winnebago Tribe, 148. The village 5 or 6 miles above Baraboo would be the Upper Baraboo village, which is this village. He is said by Lurie to have had the name Wakajáxeriga, "Roaring Thunder," although it appears to be a Thunderbird Clan name. He signed the Treaty of 1829 as "Four Legs," being identified then as the nephew of Chief Four Legs (q.v.). "Wakaŋjáxerigǝ ... was the name of "Dandy" known to have been Four Leg's nephew and who later became famous as the leader of the Wisconsin enclave of the tribe. He apparently had still other names since he is believed to have signed the treaty of 1837, but no name can be identified with him." Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (66-67, #85). She then identifies him as a member of the Thunderbird Clan, which is incompatible with his being the nephew (sister's son) of Four Legs, himself a member of the Thunderbird Clan, since marriage was between different moieties. The missing name for the 1837 Treaty is found in Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 's #86 and #88 (p. 67). The first is the signatory of the Treaty of 1832 (Fort Winnebago band), "Maunapeykaw – Soldier, Black Wolf's son," whom she correctly assigns to the Bear Clan. Then at #88, we have "Manapaykah – Little Soldier. ... The use of the diminutive may imply that he is the son of one of the above, but more likely it is the Fox-Wisconsin person who is meant, since he and Dandy together expressed disapproval of the treaty of 1837 as forced upon the delegation." In fact the diminutive was dropped from his name both at #86 (1832) and #88 (1837), but in the latter preserved in translation. So we have Dandy signing the Treaty of 1829 as Four Legs, but the Treaties of 1832 and 1837 as (Little) Soldier.
3 Mą́kskaga, "White Breast," as previously noted, is a Bear Clan name. The famous War Chief of that name is known to have had two villages on the Sugar River (1, 2). This alone shows that more than one village could have the same War Chief. However, this is the only village in which someone of this name was said to have been paid. This may have been the village where he actually resided in 1829. There is some reason to believe this since his eldest son was named Mąčguwąšiška, "Breaks the Bow with the Force of His Feet." This name also occurs on this roll at this site. See the note below.
4 I can find no word to correspond to "applaud." Also that there is an /h/ following Wakąja that is not dropped from sandhi is anomalous.
5 Wąkšik means "men" rather than "enemies," although the men whom he seeks are obviously enemies. It should be translated, "Hunter of Men."
6 Blackhawk has "Head with Streak," but no word re or reska can be found meaning "streak." However, this same individual signed the Treaty of 1828, where his name was given as Nausoorayriskkaw, perhaps for Nasurarixka, from nasu, "head"; -ra, "the"; rix, "to coil something"; and -ka, a suffix indicating a personal name. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (59, #35) says, "nasu refers to the head, and the name nasurariskagǝ is known but the meaning is not clear any more. Snake Clan."
7 The normal birth order name for the second born boy would be Henąga, but this name adds -nįk, meaning "small, little."
8 Blackhawk has, inexplicably, "Fourth Born Woman." However, see the next note.
9 To Kinzie's wizǫ́ke, compare George, wizųka; Dorsey, wižáñkera; all meaning, "girl, maid, virgin." The entry of "woman" in the line above (see the previous footnote) may have been meant to apply to this line.
10 Signed the Treaties of 1829, 1837, 1846, 1855. In the first two treaties he used the synonymous name Wakajanįka (nįk and xųnų generally mean the same thing: "small, young"). Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (64, #69).
11 For Rascal Decorah, see La Ronde, Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 347; Lawson, Winnebago Tribe, 138; Hexom, 22; He was the fourth son of Spoon Decorah, and his Hočąk name was transcribed as Nah-ha-sauch-e-ka (Nąhasą́čiga, "Goes Beyond the Trees"). The Decorahs were all members of the Thunderbird Clan.
12 From , "earth"; serek, "to cut through"; and -ka, a personal name suffix. The name seems to refer to digging, which wolves and bears do when they shape their dens. Therefore, it may be a Wolf or Bear Clan name.
13 Recorded as a Bear Clan name by McKern.
14 She was the daughter of Nąga (Keramąnįga), and wife of Spoon Decorah. See La Ronde, Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 347; Lawson, Winnebago Tribe, 138; Hexom, 22.
15 The second Winneshiek [pic], the son of Mąwáruga, the eldest Winneshiek of the line who died in 1835, had this name. However, the name occurs twice more, including the large village just down the river (see above). See the extensive material in Hexom on the Winneshieks (q.v.). See also Norton William Jipson, The Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society [unpublished], 1924) 21.
16 This is the name of the eldest son of the famous White Breast. (Linda M. Waggoner, "Neither White Men Nor Indians": Affidavits from the Winnebago Mixed-blood Claim Commissions, Prairie Du Chien, Wisconsin, 1838-1839 (Roseville, MN: Park Genealogical Books, 2002) 22b. Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923) 234-235. This is an unpublished typescript.) That this is the identity of this person is made highly likely by the fact that the name "White Breast" occurs at this same site. See the note above.
17 Cf. the Upper Moiety name, Nąxiksewahiga, "He Who Scares Someone."
18 Another man with this same name is found at Turtle Creek Village.



Aaron, Wisconsin River Trips
The Mouth of the Pine River as it Empties into the Wisconsin

25. Pine River Village
ca. 43.210370, -90.3040121
[Map 25]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 There are a number of Pine Creeks or Rivers in Hočąk territory. One of these is interesting for having not only its mouth located at the Middle Baraboo Village, but having the chief of the Pine River Village, Čiónąžįga, listed on the roll from the Lower Baraboo Village. However, since Čiónąžįga was counted in with one of the Baraboo villages, it is not entirely implausible that he was somewhere up the creek from that village. Yet the more distant Middle Baraboo village is only 10 miles from Ft. Winnebago, and even the headwaters of this Pine Creek (43.418441, -89.826022) are only about 20 miles from Ft. Winnebago. Against this, however, is the fact that Pine Creek is said to be 45 miles from the fort, and to be a tributary of the Wisconsin River. However, there is a Pine River that measures 48 miles from Portage that does empty into the Wisconsin River. Its mouth is 7 miles from Muscoda where a village of Sarcel (Teal) was encountered in 1827. B. W. Brisbois, "Recollections of Prairie du Chien," Wisconsin Historical Collections, IX (1882/1909): 282-302 [300]; Charles E. Brown, "A Record of Wisconsin Antiquities," Wisconsin Archeologist 5, ##3-4 (April-October 1906): 199-429 [327]; Lawson, Winnebago Tribe, 153. This must be the village sited on the Pine River. It is clear that Sarcel moved on by the time these rolls were recorded in 1829, since he is listed (under one of his other names, "Dog Head") as the chief of the village on Green Lake, so it may have been that Čiónąžįga had taken over, except of course, for the odd fact that he is listed with the Lower Baraboo Village (his village of origin ?).



Heads of Families and Individuals
26. Little Calf Village1

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
  [Hočą́gᵋxetega] Big Winnebago   X 5 3 6 14 51.63
Hoantsh-se-nee-kaw Hųjᵋsinįka Little Bear Foot [Bear] X 1 2 4 7 25.81

1 A village by this name does not seem to be attested. However, there was a prominent person whose name is rendered as Chickhonsic, Chichonsic, "Buffalo Calf," "Little Bœuf," or "Little Steer." The first two of these appear to be a corruption of Čenįksiga, "Calf." He was involved in the Gagnier affair of 1827, and along with Wiga and Redbird, was convicted of murder and sentenced to death. All three were pardoned by President J. Q. Adams, 3 Nov. 1828. It may be that Little Calf Village had been Čenįksiga's, but he was removed as chief after his arrest and detention. See the notes by Draper, Wisconsin Historical Collections, III (1857/1904): 336, IV (1859/1906): 174; and see also, Moses M. Strong, "Indian Wars of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VIII (1879/1908): 241-286 [254-256]; Col. John Shaw, "Sketches of Indians Chiefs and Pioneers of the North-west," Wisconsin Historical Collections, X (1888): 213-222 [216].



DriftlessWI
The Mississippi River at De Soto

27. Wakąhaga's Village1
43.426632, -91.1773942
[Map 4]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 Wakąhaga, "Snake Skin," was one of the Decorahs, and therefore a member of the Thunderbird Clan. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (wakaŋhagǝ #12) records him as being a signatory of the Treaties of 1825, 1828, 1829, 1832, and 1837. His identity as a Decorah is indicated in the 1832 treaty where his name is recorded as Wakaunhaka Daykanray. Wakąhaga was a nickname later acquired by its bearer on account of his habitually wearing a snake's skin band on his head, as may be seen in his painting. Because he was called "Wakan Decorah," he is sometimes confused with Wakąga, "Snake" [pic]. Both Charles Bird King and J. O. Lewis had separate paintings of Snake and Snakeskin, all of which were done in 1829. Snake Skin was a tall man, a member of the Thunderbird Clan, who died in 1868; whereas Snake was a short man of the Snake Clan who died in 1838. Charles H. Saunders, who lived with the Wakąhaga family for years, says, "At times of feasts or medicine dances Wa-Kun-ha-ga wore on his head a cap made of yellow rattlesnake skins." Charles Philip Hexom, Indian History of Winneshiek County (Decorah, Iowa: A. K. Bailey & Son, Inc.) 39. By virtue of having gone to Washington a number of times to sign treaties, he was also called "Washington Decorah." Col. B. W. Brisbois said of him, "... the old Winnebago chief, Wakon-Hawkaw, or Snake-Skin, sometimes called Waukon De Carrie ... was a large, handsome man, who evidently had French blood in him and when young was very strong." "Additions," Wisconsin Historical Collections, X (1888): 491-509 [502]. He was also a noted orator. He died at the Blue Earth Agency in 1868, and according to Oliver LaMère, he was around 90 years old. Lyman C. Draper, Note to David McBride, "Capture of Black Hawk," Wisconsin Historical Collections, V (1907): 293-297 [297]. Hexom, Indian History of Winneshiek County, 45. Once the tribe had moved to Minnesota, Saunders notes, "Wakun-ha-ga, and his band, also had a village at or near Waukon, Ia., where they went in the summer, and raised corn and squash, and picked berries for winter use." LaMère also stated, "Waukon and Waukon Junction [Iowa] have their names from Waukon Decorah." Hexom, Indian History of Winneshiek County, 37-44.
2 "Waukoncauhaga (Snake Skin), whom the whites called Washington Decorah, had a village in early times, at the head waters of De Soto Creek, below La Crosse." "Narrative of Spoon Decorah," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 448-462 [460]. The creek (unnamed) is traced in its three branches on the Wisconsin DNR Map. The longest branch is in the north, terminating at the center of T11N R07W Section 14 at the coördinates given above. In later times, he had a village about 30 miles north of Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi, although Burnett places it about 60 miles above the Prairie. Lyman C Draper, note to Lewis Cass, "The Winnebago Outbreak," Wisconsin Historical Collections, V (1907): 156-157 [156]. Thomas P. Burnett, "Memoir of Thomas Pendleton Burnett," Wisconsin Historical Collections, II (1903): 233-325 [260]. The site on De Soto Creek just is 30 miles north of Prairie du Chien. La Crosse itself is about 60 miles north of the Prairie. The village indicated on Map 4 is the De Soto site.



Trip Advisor
Lake Puckaway

Heads of Families and Individuals
28. Lake Puckaway
43.748974, -89.1362091
[Map 14]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Mau-huay-shah-kaw Mąxiskaga ? [White Cloud ?]   X 4 4 3 11 40.56

1 Reference to this village was made by Alexis Clermont: "On the south side of Like Puckaway was an Indian village, where now is the white village of Marquette; a man named Gleason had a trading post there." Reference to Gleason's place (43.749305, -89.133171) was made on the original plat map for Township 15N, Range 11E in Section 36 (and just slightly north of it, labeled "2"). A diagonal line passing through the SE ¼ of Section 36 is labeled, "Old Indian Boundary." This line is also shown on the old Sketch Map of 1833 on which the plat map was based.  Luther Gleason, originally from Vermont, established his trading post in 1829. The village occupied the site of what is now Marquette, Wisconsin (see the 1901 map). It was originally the site of a Mascouten village, visited by Marquette and Joliet in 1673. However, this tribe was driven off by the French and their allies, and by 1779 were living on the Wabash. Alexis Clermont, "Narrative of Alexis Clermont," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XV (1900): 452-457 [455]. Robert E. Gard, The Romance of Wisconsin Place Names (Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, 2015) 202, ss. vv. "Marquette and Marquette County." Gleason married the adopted daughter of Four Legs, having set up his store at Ft. Winnebago. He died in 1838 and was survived by his wife and four children. Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]) 259.



Rent by Owner
Little Green Lake

29. Little Green Lake
43.735449, -88.9729211
[Map 15]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 This location is specified by Brown, "Village or camp site on the east shore of Little Green Lake, just north of the outlet, Sec. 29." C. E. Brown, "A Record of Wisconsin Antiquities," Wisconsin Archeologist, 5, ##3-4 (April-Oct., 1906): 333. This arm of Little Green Lake is known as "Lakeview Bay," and the place indicated for the village was for a time called "Pleasant Point," as shown on the 1923 map of the area. Pleasant Point lies just within Section 29, just a little north of the outlet of the creek into Little Green Lake. As it happens, precisely this point is shown in a 1906 postcard, as seen below.



Maplewood
Green Lake

Heads of Families and Individuals
30. Big Green Lake
43.813354, -88.9340921
[Map 13]
See Green Lake Map

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Wau-coo-skoo-kaw Wagųsguga One Who Comes with Council   X 3 3 3 9 33.19
Mau-ay-kaw Mą’éga Tornado [Thunderbird ?] X 1 1 1 3 11.06
Wau-kaun-ho-no-nik-ka Wakąxųnųnįka Small Snake2 [Snake] X 4 3 2 9 33.19
Ah-rah-mee-kaw Aramįka He Who Lays on His Arms   X 5 3 4 12 44.25
Wau-kaun-tshah-koo-kaw Wakąjaguga Coming Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird]3 X 6 6 11 23 84.81
Koo-way-skaw-kaw Hųwąskaga White Elk [Elk ?] X 2 5 5 12 44.25
Wau-kaun-tsha-kaw Wakąjaga [pic] Thunder[bird] Thunderbird4 X 2 3 3 8 29.50
Hau-hee-ho-hat-tay-kaw Hahihoxetega [A Big Voice Over There]5   X 6 6 9 21 77.44
Shoank-ay-paw Šųgᵋpaga Dog Head [pic] Eagle6 X 3 5 6 14 51.63
Khau-ree-kaw Kaǧiga Raven [Bear ?] X 4 4 5 13 47.94
Mau-shoo-pee-wee-kaw Mąšųpįwįga Good Feather Woman Thunderbird7 X 2 1 1 4 14.75
Wau-rah-shee-ween-kaw Warašįwįga [Fat Osage Woman]8   X 2 2 4 10 36.87

1 This is the northernmost spot numbered 15 on C. E. Brown's map. It's in Section 34 (see the 1901 map).
2 This name can be translated as, "Little Snake," "Small Snake," or "Young Snake." Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Wakáŋxonuniŋkǝ, 58, #27) records that he was a member of the Snake Clan who signed the Treaties of 1832 and 1837. In 1832 he was living in the Rock River area. Small Snake was the son of the Warleader Smoke Walker who was killed at the Battle of Tippecanoe. Small Snake was given a special medicine by Dog Head after his father's death. See Great Walker's Medicine and The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara.
3 Although the it is the name of the second Winneshiek, the member of a line of very prominent chiefs, this person does not seem to have been of that lineage. The name occurs elsewhere twice (1, 2).
4 Listed as a Thunderbird Clan name by Sam Blowsnake.
5 Hahihoxetega can be analyzed as: hahi, "over there"; ho, "voice"; xete, "big"; and -ga a personal name suffix.
6 A well known warrior and Warbundle Maker who fought at Tippecanoe and elsewhere. Augustin Grignon, "Seventy-two Years' Recollections of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, 3 (1857) 197-295 [269, 271, 276]. At Tippecanoe, he was accompanied by Small Snake, who also appears on this roll. See Great Walker's Medicine, The Warbundle Maker, The Shawnee Prophet — What He Told the Hočągara. The story The Warbundle Maker mentions that he was a member of the Eagle Clan, which means that Šųgᵋpaga is not a clan name. Lurie records ("A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," šuŋǵepǝgǝ #9) that he was a signatory of the Treaties of 1816 and 1825. He was also known by his Eagle Clan name, Wįxka, "Teal," or "Little Duck," and by the name Sarcel, French for "Teal." Merrell relates the incredible hospitality shown him by Little Duck when he stopped in his village for the night. Henry Merrell, "Pioneer Life in Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 366-402 [398-399]. As to his village, Grignon says, "Sar-cel, or The Teal, resided at the Winnebago village at Green Lake, in Marquette county; in his younger days his reputation was not good, but he afterwards became a very good Indian. I have already adverted to his war services. I think he died at Green Lake, before the emigration of his people west of the Mississippi." Grignon, "Seventy-two Years' Recollections of Wisconsin," 288. "One of the Carimaunee family of Winnebagoes was known as Tête de Chien, or Dog's Head. He lived in 1827, at English Prairie, now Muscoda. He was a prominent man, of considerable good sense, and very honest. The Indians cultivated some fields there, and lived there as one of their changeable localities." B. W. Brisbois, "Recollections of Prairie du Chien," Wisconsin Historical Collections, IX (1882/1909): 282-302 [300].
7 Listed by Radin as a Thunderbird Clan name.
8 Blackhawk has "Woman Who Repels," apparently thinking that Wau-rah-shee is for warašą́ną, which means "to insult, to misspeak, etc." This should have yielded, Warašą́nąwįga, which is rather removed from the transcribed name. However, Waraš by itself means "Osage." Warašįwįga, which is a close rendering of Wau-rah-shee-ween-kaw, would come from Waraš, "Osage"; šį, "fat"; -wį, a feminine gender suffix; and -ga, a personal name suffix. This is not an insulting name, since fat women were considered more desirable.



Vacation Idea
Rush Lake

31. Little Rush Lake
43.948980, -88.7723491
[Map 11, Map 57]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Recorded

1 Brown locates the village with some precision: "Winnebago village located about the present outlet of Rush Lake, near the center of Sec. 13. Village continued up to 1846. Cemetery on the David Lewellyn place on the south side of the highway and near the Outlet bridge." C. E. Brown, "A Record of Wisconsin Antiquities," Wisconsin Archeologist, 5, ##3-4 (April-Oct., 1906): 416. Lawson says, "OUTLET VILLAGE SITE.—Up to as late as the year 1846 there was according to Hon. James G. Pickett, a Winnebago village numbering from one to two hundred Indians, located about the present outlet of Rush lake near the center of section 13, of this town. The cemetery belonging thereto was located on the farm of Mr David Lewellyn on the south side of the present highway and about 40 rods east of the outlet bridge." Publius V. Lawson, "Summary of the Archeology of Winnebago County, Wisconsin," Wisconsin Archeologist, 2, ##2-3 (Jan.-April, 1903): 78. See the 1887 Sectional Map of the Rush Lake area. The creek that runs through the village area still bears its Hočąk name, "Waukau Creek," from Waką́ Nįšą́nąk, "Snake Creek." According to Powell, this village was under the authority of the elder and famous Nąga Keramąnįga in 1830 and for sometime before. William Powell, "William Powell's Recollections, In an Interview with Lyman C. Draper," Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin for 1912, 3-178 [152-153].



Ghostly Wisconsin
Butte des Morts Lake

Heads of Families and Individuals
32. Butte des Morts and Village
Perhaps Near 44.093606, -88.631631 ?1
[Map 6]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Hee-tsho-kaw Hįčoga Green Hair [Wolf]2 X 4 6 6 16 59.00
Wau-nah-kee-shee-kaw Wanakisega Shakes the Earth [Hunter]3   X 2 5 7 14 51.63
Sau-ray-mau-nee Sąremąnįga Walking Mat4   X 5 2 - 7 25.81
Mau-nah-sootsh-ee-rauke Mąnasučiraga ?     X 4 4 3 11 40.56
Nau-heigh-nee-kaw Naxínįka Young Fourth5   X 1 3 5 9 33.19
Mau-shee-kaw-kaw Mąžikąga Stubby Pine [Iron Sinews]6   X 3 4 4 11 40.56
Wau-soo-se-mau-nee Wasuhimąnįga Walks with Hail [pic] Thunderbird7 X 2 3 4 9 33.19
Wau-kaun-tshah-see-kaw Wakąjaziga Yellow Thunder[bird] [pic] [Thunderbird]8 X 2 3 4 9 33.19
Sau-say-mau-nee-kaw Sąsąmąnįga [Shaking Walker]   X 4 5 3 129 44.25
Woan-kay-tshah-how-kaw Wągejáhuga Comes from Above [Thunderbird]10 X 1 2 5 8 29.50
Roo-tshoo-shun-kee-kaw Ruhižąkiga One Rib11 Thunderbird X 1 3 - 4 14.75
Auk-tshah-kou-kaw Hakčaguga Returning One   X 2 6 2 10 36.87

1 There were numerous villages of Sauk, Fox, and Menomini around Big Butte des Morts Lake, but the location of a Hočąk village there has not been found. The coördinates given are for the tradiing post of Augustin Grignon and Jacques Porlier at the mouth of Daggett's Creek. Edward Noyes, "The Grignon Hotel at Butte des Morts, Wisconsin: an Essay in Historic Preservation," Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts anad Letters, 68 (1980): 11-21 [12].
2 Hįčoga, more usually translated as "Blue Fur," is one of the four Spirit Wolves who founded the Wolf Clan. This name is also found at Lake Waubesa.
3 This seems like a dubious translation. It is more likely that this is a corruption of the name Wanakisega, which means "Hunter." The nearest name to the phonetic rendering that means "Shakes the Earth" is Mąnąksųčka, or Mągíksųčga.
4 This name occurs above, as he is the chief of this village. See the note there. No attempt was made there to translate the name. In both occurrences of the name, the first two syllables are rendered Sau-ray, but to get "Walking Mat," this part of the name would have to be Sau-rah (Sara). However, if it should be Saramąnįga, then, given that Sara also means "Warbundle," it seems more likely that he would be called "Walking Warbundle." Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (57, #25) "sahamanigǝ – mat to walk on; saremanigǝ – translation no longer certain but sa may have reference to cover on war-bundle. Name known to have also belonged to a person in Nebraska who was of the Bird, probably Thunder Clan."
5 The fourth born male is called Naxi, so the fifth born is called "Little Naxi," which is ordinarily Naxíxųnųga. Nįk and xųnų are nearly synonymous, meaning, "little, young," so Naxinįka, which thus also means, "Little Naxi," ought to be another designation for the Fifth Son. Since this is a birth order name, nothing can be said about the clan affiliation of its bearer.
6 In order to get "Stubby Pine" from this transcription, it would have to have been Wazi-kąk-ka, where wazi is "pine"; and kąk means, "bent to the side" (Susman). Mąžikąga, on the other hand, matches the transcription, with mąz meaning, "iron," and hiką meaning, "sinew."
7 Listed by Radin as a name in the Bird Clan. However, since Wasuhimąnįga was the brother of Yellow Thunder, we know that they belonged to the same clan, the Thunderbird Clan.
8 A famous chief in later times and a member of the Thunderbird Clan. He signed the Treaty of 1829 (Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 64, #65). Jipson says the following of him:

This chieftain ... lived on the Fox River about five miles below Berlin at the Yellow Banks. He was said to have been a man of great responsibility among his people and an able counselor to all their public affairs. In company with his wife, who was a daughter of White Crow, and later called the 'Washington Woman,' he made a visit with several numbers of his tribe to New York and Washington in 1828. He signed the treaty of 1829. In 1837, in company with several young men, he was persuaded to visit Washington and induced to sign the treaty made in that year. But he found that the terms of the treaty compelled him to go west of the Mississippi, he declared he would not go. But in 1840, in company with Black Wolf, he was invited into Fort Winnebago ostensibly to hold a council. When the gates were shut on them they were seized and conveyed beyond the Mississippi.

But Yellow Thunder soon returned, and visiting the land office at Mineral Point, he asked if Indians would be permitted to enter land. In receiving an affirmative answer, he entered forty acres on the west bank of the Wisconsin River. He is said to have built two log huts, and to have cultivated five acres of this land, raising corn, beans and potatoes. During his feasts about 1500 Indians usually gathered in his vicinity. In 1840, he was said to have had a summer village sixteen miles up the river from Portage.

He sold his land before his death which occurred in 1874. It is said that when he paid his taxes he placed in his pouch a kernel of corn for every dollar paid, and when he sold his land he demanded a dollar for every kernel. As he had been a devout Catholic his funeral services were conducted according to the rites of that church. He was buried near his homestead and near the grave of the Washington Woman and several other members of his family. Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]), 252.

He was the brother of Wasuhimąnįga, "Walking Hail" [pic]. These two stories in our collection mention him Yellow Thunder: Yellow Thunder and the Lore of Lost Canyon, The Hills of La Crosse.
9 Written in pencil below the line: "(Lie only 9 in all)". The name (Sasamani, Sausaymanee, Sausaumauneekaw) is found on the Treaties of 1825, 1827, 1832. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (p. 54, #13) says that the name is zazamanigǝ, "he who walks naked," "a very old name no longer used; implies a sense of perspective or person walking in the distance. Bird Clan." Her informant may have been thinking of zazék, "to disappear in the distance." Za or zaza meaning "naked" is unattested. Sąsąmąnįga was a noted orator and gave speeches to the British at Mackinaw in 1815, for which see "Papers of T. G. Anderson, British Indian Agent," Wisconsin Historical Collections, X (1888): 142-149 [142-145]. Grignon compares him with Four Legs: "Another active chief was Sau-sa-mau-nee, and his elder brother Ne-o-kau-tah, or The Four Legs, who live at Four Legs' village, on Doty's Island, aat the mouth of Winnebaago Lake; both served under the British in the war of 1812-15. Four Legs was a very worthy Indian, but Sau-sa-mau-nee was less respected; when in liquor, he was troublesome and given to pilfering. They both died before the migration of their people over the Mississippi." Augustin Grignon, "Seventy-two Years' Recollections of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, 3 (1857) 197-295 [288].
10 Listed by Radin and Sam Blowsnake as a Thunderbird Clan name.
11 This is somewhat questionable due to the absence of -hi- as the second syllable. Ruhižąkiga (< Ruhi-ižąki-ga) can be analyzed as: ruhi, "rib"; ižąki, "one"; and -.ga, personal name suffix.



Zillow
Black Wolf Point

Heads of Families and Individuals
33. Black Wolf's Village
43.926941, -88.472196
[Map 10]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Shoank-tshunk-saip-kaw Šųkjągᵋsépka Black Wolf1 [pic] [Bear Clan] X 5 1 11 22 81.13
Ho-tshunk-ay-ween-kaw Hočągᵋwįga Winnebago Woman   X 2 2 5 9 33.19
Mau-koos Mągųska [Arrow Maker]   X 2 3 5 10 36.87
Ah-gah-shee-ah Agašia2 ?     X 5 5 3 13 47.94
Puk-ee-rah-pay-kaw Pąkirapega ?                
Tshaike-ay-waik Čekeweka [He Defeats Buffaloes]   X 3 3 2 7 25.81
Es-tshun-nuk-wy-ee-kaw ? One Who Suffers Them to Cry3   X 2 2 2 6 22.13
Wau-kaun-tsho-peen-kaw Wakąčópįga The Good Green Snake4 [Snake ?] X 4 2 4 10 36.87
Nau-tshoo-sootsh-kaw Nąčúšučka Red Hair [Bear ?]5 X 3 6 5 14 51.63
Wau-nik-tshaun-wee-kaw Wanįgᵋčąwįga [Changing Bird Woman]6 [Upper Moiety] X 2 4 2 8 29.50
Wee-awn-tsun-kay-wee-kaw-nee-no Wihą Šųgᵋwįga,
Nįną
Second Born Girl,
Dog Woman of Neenah7
[Wolf Clan] X 2 3 2 7 25.82
Hoantsh-ay-sau-nay-kee-kaw Hųčásąnikiga One Armed Bear8 [Bear] X 4 3 7 14 51.63
Ah-o-kee-zhee-nee-wee-kaw Ahogišįnįwįga Bright Wing Woman9 [Upper Moiety] X 6 11 13 30 110.62
Ah-hah-see-kaw Ahąziga ? Altar ? [Shadow Arm ?]10   X 1 1 4 6 22.13
Kay-ree-kat-tay-kaw Keraxetega [Great Cloud] [Upper Moiety ?] X 3 2 5 10 36.87
Mau-wau-wau-ray-kaw Mąwawarega Mud11   X 4 5 4 13 47.94
Pay-tshun-sau-kaw Pečasąga Light Crane12 [Upper Moiety] X 6 5 7 18 66.37
Hay-shee-shee-kaw Hešišika Bad Horns   X 2 3 - 5 18.44

1 For Black Wolf, see the Commentary to Kinzie's Wau Bun; and Lawson, Winnebago Tribe, 146-147. Black Wolf was actually a War Chief. Under the traditional order, the village chief, the Peace Chief, would have been from the Thunderbird Clan. Lurie remarks ("A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 57, #22), "Although the name may also be found in the Wolf Clan, this individual is recalled as a member of the Bear Clan." Proof of this may be seen in the name of his son, Mąną́pĕnįka, "Little Soldier," soldiers being the mąną́pĕ or police, whose office was the exclusive function of the Bear Clan. The Wolf and Bear were friendship clans. Lawson says, "Chief Black Wolf himself, whose Indian name was "Shounk Tchunk Shep," was a character of some importance. He was a large man and much respected by his people." Publius V. Lawson, “Summary of the Archeology of Winnebago County, Wisconsin,” Wisconsin Archeologist, 2, #2-3 (January, April, 1902): 66.
2 Blackhawk has "Third Son," for his translation, but this would be Hagaga, which only remotely resembles the phonetically rendered name.
3 It is not clear from what this translation derives nor even how to transliterate the phonetic rendering.
4 Wakąčó, "green snake" or "blue snake," refers to the blue racer (Coluber constrictor foxii), or the smooth green snake (Opheodrys vernalis), also known as the "grass snake." One would, of course, expect this to be a name in the Snake Clan.
5 Cf. Nąčúžiwįga, "Yellowish Red Hair," a Bear Clan personal name recorded by Foster and Dorsey.
6 Blackhawk treats the tshaun of the transcription as if it were for čąk, "great," giving us the translation "Mighty Bird Woman"; however, čą is a more exact rendering, and the name Wanįkčąwįga is recorded by Radin as a "Bird Clan" name.
7 Blackhawk translates this as "Second Born in Family," although we know of no birth order names that are independent of gender. It seems reasonable to render Wee-awn as Wihą, which means "Second Born Daughter." The wee-kaw appears to be the female name ending, wįga, leaving the somewhat anomalous tsun-kay as Šųgᵋ, "Dog." The remaining nee-no would be an acceptable rendering of Nįna/Nįną, the Hočąk original for Neenah, Wisconsin. Neenah lies at the mouth of the Fox River where it empties into Lake Winnebago, about 24 miles north of Black Wolf Point, the location of Black Wolf's village on this same lake. So it would be worth mentioning that she was from Neenah, inasmuch as Neenah is not one of the villages recorded by Kinzie.
8 This would be better rendered as, "One-Sided Bear," a reference to the alleged left-handedness of bears. This notion arises from the fact that the biggest toe is on the outside of each foot, so that the right hand of a bear looks more like that of the left hand in most other mammals. The name is listed as a Bear Clan name by McKern.
9 Ahogišįnįwįga may be analyzed as, ahu, "wing"; hogi, "around it"; šį́nį, "to fall in sparks or flames; shining"; -wį, the female gender suffix; -ga, personal name suffix. The name can be translated as, "She Who Sheds Sparks Around Her Wings," a reference to lightning.
10 So far nothing has turned up meaning "altar" for a word similar to ahasi. However, A-hahązi-ga (> Ahąziga) would mean, "Shadow Arm," perhaps a reference to clouds.
11 The Bear Clan name Mąwáruga, "Muddy," bears some resemblance to the phonetic transcription, but differs enough to make the translation "Mud" doubtful. A Mauwauruck, "Muddy," at the time a member of the Prairie du Chien band, signed the Treaty of 1832. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 66, #80. Another candidate is Mąwawerega, where mąwawe means, "to travel"; and re means, "to start going."
12 means, "pale, white." The white crane is probably the egret. Crane names are Upper Moiety.



Lance Busse, Wisconsin Fishing Reports
Garlic Island

Heads of Families and Individuals
34. Garlic Island1
44.088681, -88.481693
[Map 7, Map 17]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Wee-tshan-naw-see-kah Wičąwąhįšeka Wild Cat [Pesheu]2   X 6 4 8 18 66.37
Tschaump-kwau-shunk-shin Jąbwakšą́kšąga ? Flashing Lightning [Upper Moiety] X 1 4 7 12 44.25
Mau-noo-sau-kay-nee-nunk-ka Mąnusąkiminąka One Who Sits on Bare Ground Bear3 X 4 5 6 15 55.31
No-tschump-kaw Nočąpka Lightning Strikes a Tree Upper Moiety4 X 2 4 2 8 29.50
Nee-aump-po-kaw Nį’ą́buga5 Coming Alive     (Dead)
Pah-nee-nank-kaw Panįnąka [The Pawnee]6   X 3 3 5 11 40.58
Tshah-wau-koo-ka Čawaguga Coming to It7   X 1 5 2 8 22.13
Mau-ah-kee-o-tshump-kaw Mąagiočąpka8 Flashing at the Ends of the Earth [Upper Moiety] X 2 2 3 7 25.81
Sau-kau-mau-neek Sakamąnį́ga9 Walking Rapidly   X 2 1 4 7 25.81

1 "It is a beautiful island, a few rods only from the mainland, round in form, with a small crescent-shaped bay on the land side. There are no large trees upon it, but a thrifty growth of young saplings as thick as they can grow, surrounding a cleared space of about an acre in the centre, forming a complete windbreak and shelter from every storm. It is the completest camp-ground I ever stepped on. There is a heavy growth of long tangled grass, as soft and yielding as a feather bed. I wish I might avail myself of it tonight, but we must leave this paradise of camps and push on to Big Butte des Morts." John Wallace Arndt, "Pioneers and Durham Boats on Fox River," Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 60 (1912): 180-220 [207].
2 The name Pesheu is Menominee for Wildcat. See the Commentaries in Kinzie's Wau Bun to "Garlic Island" and "Pesheu".
3 Radin records this name as Mąnusąk’-himinąk’a, "Sits as the Earth Alone." It is a Bear Clan name.
4 Recorded as a "Bird Clan" (Upper Moiety) name by Radin, and translated as "Lightning in the Tree."
5 Nį’ą́buga is from: nį’ą́p, "life, alive"; hu, "to come hither"; -ga, personal name suffix.
6 Better known as Pani Blanc, "White Pawnee," but also known by a half dozen other versions of the name: Pania Blanc, Paneewahsaka, Pawnee, Pony Blaw, Vane Blanc. He is mentioned in Charles Bracken, "The Black Hawk War," Wisconsin Historical Collections, II (1855/1903): 410; John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [350, 360, 390]; "Additions and Corrections – Col. Gratiot's Captivity," Wisconsin Historical Collections, X (1888): 493-495 [496]; Moses Paquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebago," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, XII (1892): 399-443 [431-432]; "Narrative of Spoon Decorah," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 448-462 [453].
7 In Blackhawk's translation, Čawaguga is being analyzed as čawa, "towards"; gu, "coming"; -ga, personal name suffix. However, if it were analyzed as, čawąk, "buck"; gu, "coming"; we get Čawąkuga, "Buck Coming."
8 Mąagiočąpka can be analyzed as, , "earth"; hagi, "there in the distance"; ho-, "the place where"; čąp, "lightning." This would give us, "Lightning in the Distant Earth." A person with this same name is found at the village on Lake Waubesa.
9 Sakamąnį́ga can be analyzed as: sak, "rapid, quick"; hamąnį́, "to walk"; -.ga, personal name suffix. Hamąnį́ may have a more subtle meaning as suggested by Helmbrecht-Lehmann: "to come upon something while walking; to walk on top of something, to walk over something (as a carpet or a can), to run over (as in a vehicle), to ride over." So the name might mean something more like, "He Quickly Overruns."



Four Legs' Village on Doty Island, 1830

Heads of Families and Individuals
35. Winnebago Rapids Village [Doty Island]
44.191051, -88.4431341
[Map 5, Map 9]

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Nee-sootsh-kay Nįšučka Red Water [Waterspirit ?] X 3 3 10 16 59.00
Tshay-pau-kaw Čepaga Buffalo Head [Buffalo ?] X 3 6 14 23 84.81
Bow Legs [Hugeška ?] -   X 4 2 4 10 36.87
Hoantsh-ho-no-nik Hųjᵋxųnųnįka Young Bear Bear2 X 4 7 6 17 62.19
Shok-ay-no-paw-kaw Šųgᵋnųpka Two Dogs [Wolf ?] X 7 6 9 22 81.13
Paw-shay-ray-kaw Pašaraga Bald Head     2 3 6 11 -
Widow Four Legs3 [pic]       X 1 2 3 6 22.13
Whean-kaw Wįxka Duck [or Teal] Eagle4 X 2 4 3 9 33.19
Nee-zhou-hoatsh-kay Nįžúxočkéga5 Mist Thunderbird X 2 3 5 10 36.87
Mo-wo-kee-nee-kaw Mąwokinįga Missile Seeker6   X 3 4 1 8 29.50
Nau-tshoo-pee-ween-kaw Nąsupįwįga Good Hair, [Good Head]7   X 2 2 5 9 33.19
Hah-paw-kwee-see-kay-kaw       X 3 3 4 10 36.87
Wo-nah-hay-rah-hoon-kaw Wonąǧirehųka Leader of Warfare Hawk8 X 3 3 1 7 25.81
Tsay-to-zha-nay-kaw Četožᵋnįka Buffalo Calf Buffalo9 X 1 1 3 5 18.44
Pau-see-wee-kaw Paziwįga Yellow Headed Woman10   X 2 4 9 15 55.31
Wee-jan-kaw Wiją́ga11 Goose [Upper Moiety ?] X 0 4 4 8 29.50
Tshee-o-kee-kaw-ree-wee-kaw Čiogikewewįga12 She Whose Lodge is Entered   X 6 6 9 21 77.44

1 "From the exact accounts of the location of the Winnebago village on Doty Island, we have identified the earth-mounds made by the heaping of this material against the palisade of stakes composing the fort, to hold the pickets erect. After these had rotted away, the earth embankment appears as mounds. The area enclosed was less than an acre. These stockade embankments are situated partly upon land of L. J. Pinkerton and William Striddie, at a distance of forty-seven rods east on Ninth Street, in the city of Neenah on Doty Island. This fort was burned in the French raid made by De Lignery in 1728. The peculiarity of a double enclosure indicates an enlargement of the earlier stockade. The northern side of the enclosure is two hundred feet in length, the southern side three hundred feet; and the extreme width one hundred and sixty-one feet. The embankment is now from 18 inches to 3 feet high. These embankment mounds correspond to the known location of the village, but may have been made for some other purpose." Publius V. Lawson, “Habitat of the Winnebago, 1632-1832,” Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1906: 144-156 [161-163]. For this village and its chief, Four Legs, see Publius V. Lawson, “Habitat of the Winnebago, 1632-1832,” Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1906: 144-156.
2 Almost the same name, Hųjxunúga, is attested as a Bear Clan name by Foster, Dorsey and Radin. The -nįk- added to the name given here, means "little."
3 This is a bit confusing, since Four Legs is mentioned above. The index page was composed in 1829, whereas the rolls confirming payment were completed in 1832, implying that Four Legs had died in the interim.
4 A shortened form of this name (Wįka) is recognized by Lurie as being a name in the Eagle Clan. It does not seem that this person was the same as Sarcel, also called "(Little) Duck," who was more famous and recorded as living at Green Lake, where he is listed under another of his names, "Dog Head."
5 Nįžú-xoč, "gray rain," is synonymous with xi, "smoke, fog, mist." The Thunderbird name, Xigúga, "Comes in the Mist," is a Thunderbird Clan name, so it is probable that Nįžúxočka is also of that clan.
6 , unfortunately, has a very wide range of meanings: "arrow, earth, ground, time, year; to strike."
7 Nąsu means "head," so that technically, the name ought to be translated, "Good Head Woman"; but just the same, the reference is likely to her hair.
8 Henry Roe Cloud was a member of the Warrior (Hawk) Clan, and had this very name himself as related in his "From Wigwam to Pulpit," 332.
9 Recorded as a Buffalo Clan name by both Foster and Radin.
10 She may be so called because she is actually blonde, as many Hočągara have yellow hair from their French ancestry. However, in mythology, the corn silk, which is yellow, is often homologized to yellow hair, making it as likely that it refers to the maize plant, which is under the planting and care of women.
11 He signed the Treaty of 1832 where he is said to be a member of the Rock River band. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," Wijǝŋgǝ, 68, #95.
12 Nothing matches the original transcription, but Čiogikewewįga is a rough approximation and can be analyzed thus: či, "lodge"; hogikewe, "to go in (somebody else’s house)" (Marino); -wi., female suffix; -ga, personal name suffix.



WisconsinRiverTrips.com
Forest Ave. Bridge, Fond du Lac River

Heads of Families and Individuals
36. Fond du Lac
43.776757, -88.455970 & 43.768832, -88.4644451
[Map 9]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Mau-nah-pey-kaw Mąnąpega [pic] Soldier2 [Bear] X 2 5 8 15 55.31
Wau-kaun-tshah-peen-kaw Wakąjapįga Good Thunder[bird] [Thunderbird]3 X 1 3 3 7 25.81
Maunk-sootsh-kay-kaw Mą́kšučka Red Breast   X 2 3 6 9 33.19
Wau-hootsh-kaw Waxóčka [Ioway]4   X 4 2 4 10 36.87
Wheang-ah-nah-saik-kaw Wįǧanąsega He Who Intercepts Ducks   X 3 3 5 11 40.56
Hoo-nuk-ah-saip-kaw Hunągᵋsepka5 Black Forelegs   X 4 3 4 11 40.56
Hoo-tshunt-tay-wan-kaw Hočąt’įwąka The Voice That Was Heard [Upper Moiety]6 X 4 4 9 17 62.69
Kay-rah-tshoan-saip-kaw Kerejųsepka Black Hawk [Hawk]7 X 3 4 5 12 44.25
Wee-zoan-saip-kaw Wijǫ́sepka [Black Goose] [Upper Moiety ?] X 2 5 7 14 51.63
Wau-tsho-zhoo-nush-ee-kaw Wačóžunąžįga One Who Arises to Lead [Deer ?]8 X 1 1 2 4 14.75
Wee-rah-pey-kaw Wírapéga Sentinel   X 1 1 3 5 18.44
Ho-ra-paw-kaw Xorapaga Condor (or Eagle) Head9 [Eagle ?] X 2 2 7 11 40.56
Mau-zay-sau-ween-kaw Mązᵋsąwįga [Whitish Metal Woman] [Bear]10 X 1 3 2 6 22.13
Tsahy-waush-ko_n-_e-kaw Čewašgunįga ? [Little ... Buffalo] [Buffalo ?] X 4 4 3 11 40.56
Wo-rah-kay-ree-kaw Woragᵋriga11 Messenger   X 1 - - 1 3.69
Ko-no-kaw Kųnųga12 First Son   X 2 2 6 10 36.87
Oh-kau-wauz-mau-nee-ween-kaw Hokawazimąnįwįga She Who Walks in the Dark   X 2 2 3 7 25.81
Shootsh-ay-kuay-kaw Sojᵋkweka [Competes to Smoke]13   X 3 3 4 10 36.87
Mah-ay-kaw Mą’ega Tornado14   X - 4 5 9 33.19
Kee-nah-tsho-ween-kaw Keračowįga [Blue] Sky Woman [Wolf ?]15 X 2 4 2 8 29.50
Tshoo-nah-peen-kaw Čonapįga16 Good Leader   X 3 2 2 7 25.81
Mau-tsho-nee-kaw Mąčonįka Little Grizzly Bear [Bear ?] X 1 1 4 6 22.13
Nee-ay-tshah-wau-nik-hay-ree-kaw Niejawanįkerega17 He Who Brings from the Water [Waterspirit ?] X 4 3 4 11 40.56
Haun-heigh-kee-paw-kaw Hąhekipaga18 He Who Meets Night [Upper Moiety] X - 3 4 7 25.81
Tshah-saip-kaw Časépka Black Deer [Deer]19 X 3 3 5 11 40.56
Tshah-muk-kaw Čamąka Deer-breast [Deer ?] X 3 3 5 11 40.56
Ah-kee-rah-pay-kaw Hakirapega20 Ready to Compete   X 1 1 3 5 18.44

1 "When the traders first came, the Winnebago tribe had two villages in the vicinity: one on the east branch of the river near the place where the malt house now stands, and one on the west branch just below the Forest Avenue Bridge." W. A. Titus, "Historic Spots in Wisconsin. II: The Fond du Lac Trading Post and Early Settlement," The Wisconsin Magazine of History, 3, #3 (March, 1920): 327-331 [327].
2 Inasmuch as chiefs are usually enterred in the roll near the top, it seems likely that this Soldier is the one portrayed in the Catlin painting and who signed the Treaty of 1832. However, on the roll of this treaty, he is said to have been a member of the Rock River band, which he could have assumed sometime between 1829 and 1832. Nevertheless, two other men named "Soldier" (1, 2) are found in the Rock River region.
3 Good Thunder signed the Treaties of 1846 and 1865. Lurie records him as a member of the Thunder Clan. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation," 71, #118. Jipson has this to say about Good Thunder:

According to Philip Long[tail], a grandson, Good Thunder was one of three brothers, the two brothers consisting of Ho-ra-pa-gaw, meaning, "Eagle Head" [note below] and Shaw-nee-aw-kee, meaning in the Sioux language, "White Goose." The family had Sioux blood. Good Thunder had a son called "Long Tail" who was the father of Philip Long[tail]. ... In 1850 Good Thunder's name was given in the census. His band [was] composed of 59 people, according to a statement made by by his son. Mr. Hall (to Thomas Hughes): Good Thunder's village in Blue Earth County stood on the present site of Good Thunder (44.001162, -94.064167), and consisted of about fifteen to twenty lodges made of bass wood or elm bark: most were (263) square in construction. There were about one hundred persons in the band. In the winter they lived in the timber by the river in smaller tepees [lodges] which were round and ten or twelve feet in diameter, covered with a sort of matting made of leaves of bull-rushes or cat-tails, which were sewed into a thick matting four a five feet wide. The leave were sewed together, one on top of the other with basswood bark fibre. The leaves in such a matting would stand edgewise to the tepee. Some times two layers were used. The tepees were round and matting wound around the poles and part of the end of the matting was used as a door to swing back and forth. In the spring, this tepee was taken down and preserved for the next winter. On the flat by the river, Good Thunder had corn fields. The corn was cured by laying the ears of green corn with husks on, on top of some stones under which was an excavation filled with dry wood. The wood was set on fire and covered the earth allowing it to smoulder for two or three days. Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]), 262.

"White Goose" in Sioux is Maġaska. As we have seen above, the name Shaw-nee-aw-kee was given to John Kinzie, and was Ojibwe for "Silver Man." However, there we learn that a third brother (Hagaga) had the same nickname, and is therefore almost certainly the man otherwise known as "White Goose." Good Thunder, along with Lighting the Waters and Wave, were the three Hočągara who took the surrender of the Sauk Blackhawk in 1832. Walking Cloud, "The Narrative of Walking Cloud," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 463-467 [465].
4 Blackhawk, who has "Osage," is in error here: Waxóč, "the Gray Ones," denotes the Ioway people.
5 Listed in an account book of 1825 of the Green Bay Company as owed $1. There his name is rendered, "le deau de la Jambe noir (onaquésepka)." Reuben G. Thwaites, "The Fur Trade in Wisconsin, 1812-1825," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XX (1911): 1-395 [394].
6 Hočąt’įwąka is from ho, "voice"; čąt’į, "audible"; wąk, a suffix indicating horizontal motion; and -ka a personal name suffix. The female counterpart to this name, Hočąt’įwįga, is listed as a "Bird Clan" name.
7 Listed by Radin as a name in the Bird Clan. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Kerεjúŋsεpgǝ, 61, #44), more specifically, lists him as a member of the Hawk Clan (Warrior Clan). Jipson recognizes him as one of the important chiefs of the Hočągara. Norton William Jipson, The Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: Chicago Historical Society [unpublished], 1924) 263. Moses Pauquette has this to say about Black Hawk:

The Winnebago Black Hawk was out one day, when he came across the Sac fugitive, and immediately returned to camp and notified his companions. There was a council as to who should go and take the Sac, the Indian agent at Prairie du Chien having given general instructions to all Winnebagoes to bring in the runaway. Winnebago Black Hawk declined to go himself, as he claimed to entertain a superstitious notion that he was not "called" by the Great Spirit to do that kind of work. So One-eyed Decorah took the task upon himself, went and found the Sac leader, and took him into Prairie du Chien.

"The Wisconsin Winnebagoes. An Interview with Moses Pauquette," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII (1892): 399-433 [430-431]. We learn from his son Walking Cloud (Mąxíwimą̀nįga):

During the Black Hawk War, my father had his lodge near La Crosse. I did not go to the war; I was too young. But my brother did. His name was Seeoroouspinka [Sikuruspįga]. General Dodge sent a messenger down to Prairie du Chien, and said he wanted the Winnebagoes to go into the war and help the Great Father punish the Sacs. Our people, who were named in this call, did not want to go to war. But the messenger, after we had all arrived in Prairie du Chien, picked out Winnebago Black Hawk (my father), and my brother, and they went up the Wisconsin River with a party of white soldiers and officers from Fort Crawford. They met a number of Sacs coming down on a raft made of canoes tied together. The Winnebagoes and the whites killed most of the Sacs in this party. Winnebago Black Hawk was the guide of this epedition.

"Narrative of Walking Cloud," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIII (1895): 463-467 [463-464].
8 Cf. the Deer Clan name listed by Radin: Wačóžumąnįga, "Walking Leader."
9 Dorsey records Xorap’aga as an Eagle Clan name. Xorapaga signed the 1832 Treaty where he was recorded as Horahpawkaw, "Eagle Head." Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Xorapǝgǝ, 65, #77). Given that xora means in particular "bald eagle," the name should be translated as "Head of the Bald Eagle." He was the brother of Good Thunder and White Goose. Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]), 262. See the note above.
10 Listed as a Bear Clan name by Foster and Dorsey.
11 What the syllable -ri- means in this word is unclear.
12 Also known as "Big Kųnų" (Kųnųxetega), he signed the Treaty of 1859 under that name. "He was also called 'John Cono.' While the Indians were in Minnesota, Cono kept a store, and for that reason was quite prominent. Oliver Lamere says that he lived near Rice Lake (46.895034, -92.180570), and the Winnebagoes always called this "Cono-hutta-kaw's Lake." This chief died in Nebraska and at his own request was not buried in the ground as the others were." Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923) 264.
13 This name has been encountered before with a slightly different orthography. Its analysis is subject to some doubt.
14 In the context of personal names, ma’e is usually translated as "storm."
15 The male version of this name is the name given to the first boy born in the Wolf Clan, however, the same is not known to be true for the first female. The blue sky is obviously associated with the Upper Moiety, but it is also especially associated with the Waterspirit Clan, on account of the fact that it is only on clear days that the Waterspirits can sun themselves without fear of attack from the Thunderbirds who inhabit the dark clouds.
16 This might also be Čonipįga.
17 Niejawanįkerega can be analyzed as, nį, "water"; eja, "at, from"; wa-, a prefix denoting an unspecified object ("it, them"); hanįkere, "to take home"; and -ga, a suffix indicating a personal name.
18 From hąhe-hikipa-ga, the third /h/ having been lost due to internal sandhi, and /ei/ resolving to /e/ and being assimilated to the previous /e/ of hąhe. He was a signatory of the Treaty of 1832 as a member of the Prairie du Chien band. Lurie, "A Check List of Treaty Signers by Clan Affiliation" (Haŋhekipagǝ, 66, #84) assigns him to the Bird Clan.
19 The black deer is the moose. Časépka is listed by Foster as a Deer Clan name.
20 This name comes from hakirá, "to compete against, to argue, to tease back, to somehow challenge, to compete with someone, to try to out-do someone, to talk back to someone" (Helmbrecht-Lehmann); and pe, "to wait, be ready" (Marino).



Villages Above Prairie du Chien
[Map 3]

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
No Data Collected

 



Grand Total

Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
 1077   1294   1525   3896   $14366.47 

 



Heads of Families and Individuals
(Miscellaneous)

Name
Claim
Amount
Therese Gagnier1 for her proportion for 1832 as pr. 5th art.
            Treaty P. du Chien, Aug. 1, 1829
41.67

1 Redbird and Wiga entered her cabin, killed her husband Registre, and Wiga scalped and cut the back of her baby Louisa's neck. Louisa [pic] survived to lead a full life. The government gave Therese compensation for this incident out of the funds reserved for the Hočągara. The treaty of 1829 stipulates, "to Therese Gagnier and her two children, Francois and Louise, two sections [of land, and] ... that the said United States shall pay to Therese Gagnier the sum of fifty dollars per annum, for fifteen years, to be deducted from the annuity to said Indians." Charles J. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. 2, Treaties (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904) 2:302.



Heads of Families and Individuals
(Miscellaneous Claims)

Entries in gray were inserted in pencil.
Name Claim Status Sig. Number in Family Amount
Men Women Child. Total
Elijah Epperson1 claim as pr. receipt herewith X         165.--
L. R. M. Morse's2 claim as pr. receipt herewith X         40.00
Pierre Paquette (Half breed)3 (Half Breed) ps. pr. reqt. X 1 - 2 3 110.06
Pierre Grignon, Snr.4 "   X 1 1 - 2 7.37
Pierre Grignon, Jr.5 "   X 1 - - 1 3.69
Therese Roy6 "   X 2 1 6 9 33.19
Agat Day-kaw-ray (Agathe Decorah)7 "              
Therese Manaigre8 "   X - 1 4 5 18.44
Marie Bellair9 "   X - 1 1 2 7.37
Catherine Mayotte10 " ps. pr. reqt. X - 2 2 4 114.75
Mah-nah-tee-see (Mąnąt’ísiwįga)11 "   X - 1 2 3 11.06
Josephe Amelle12     X - 1 4 5 18.00
Caroline Gleason13     X - 1 4 3 11.00
Benjamin Lecuyer14     X 1 - 5 6 22.00
Michel St. Cyr15 [pic]     X 2 2 - 4 14.75
Antoine Grignon16 X 1 1 - 2 7.00
Simon Lecuyer17 -2-1-3            
Broken Arm's Daughter18     X - 1 1 2 7.18
Jacob Lecuyer19       1 0 - 1  
Margaret Chalifoux20       0 1 3 4  
Josephine Paquette21       0 0 4 -  

Total 1086 1307 1554 1947 15000.00

We hereby certify that we were present at the payment of the above
mentioned annuities and saw the amounts paid to the several Indians
in specie, and that their signatures were affixed in our presence at
Fort Winnebago, this Eighth day of November, 1832.

                                                                     Henry Gratiot22 [pic]
                                                                             Sub. Indian Agent
                                                                      A. J. Hooe23
                         Joe Boyer                                     Lt. 5th Inft.
                                                                      John Dixon24 [pic]

                                                                     L. C. Kerchevale25


We the undersigned Chiefs of the Winnebego Tribe of Indians do
acknowledge correctness of the foregoing receipts.

      Witness                                     his  
    A. J. Hooe     Whirling X Thunder
        Lt. 7th Infty.     mark  
                 
              Kay-ray-mau-nee X


1 Elijah Epperson was an early settler in Bureau County, Illinois. While it is recorded that he fled during the Black Hawk War the year this roll was composed, it is not known what claim he had against the Hočągara.
2 L. R. M. Morse is recorded as having been a Midshipman in the U. S. Navy in 1820, but resigned the same year. He lived in Jo Daviess County, Illinois, where he became a member of the Masons. What his claim against the Hočągara may have been, was not stated. Thomas Holdup Stevens Hamersly, Complete Army and Navy Register of the United States of America, from 1776 to 1887 (New York: T. H. S. Hamersly, 1888) 513. The History of Jo Daviess County, Illinois (Chicago: H. F. Kett & Company, 1878).
3 For a sketch of Pierre (Peter) Paquette and other sources, see the Commentary to Kinzie's Wau Bun.
4 Brother of Augustin Grignon, and son of Pierre (d. 1797). The latter was the son of the Governor of Bretagne. The Pierre Grignon called "senior" here, was an early resident of Green Bay, and fought on the British side in the War of 1812 as a captain of volunteers. He later owned land on either side of the Fox River.
5 The origin of the claims by the two Grignons against the Hočągara was not discovered.
6 Née Thérèse Lecuyer, she was half Hočąk. It was said that, "at the Wisconsin Portage were located a Mr. L'Ecuyer, and a Mr. Roy; both of whom were engaged in Indian trade, and in hauling boats and goods across the portage." Her father was Jean L'Ecuyer, who settled in Portage in 1798, and who married the sister of Spoon Decorah. Thérèse married Francis Roy, son of Joseph Roy of Green Bay, and the couple settled at the site that was to become Fort Winnebago. The site was purchased by the government, and what was owed her may have to do with that acquisition. She later married Peter L. Grignon. Gen. Albert G. Ellis, "Fifty-Four Years' Recollections of Men and Events in Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 240. Linda M. Waggoner, "Neither White Men Nor Indians": Affidavits from the Winnebago Mixed-blood Claim Commissions, Prairie Du Chien, Wisconsin, 1838-1839 (Roseville, MN: Park Genealogical Books, 2002) #33, #44. Augustin Grignon, "Seventy-two Years' Recollections of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, 3 (1857) 197-295 [289]. John T. de la Ronde, "Personal Narrative," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 345-365 [346]."Fur-Trade on the Upper Lakes 1778-1815," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XIX (1910): 234-374 [396].
7 The daughter of "Rascal" Decorah. There is a good deal of material on Agathe Decorah in Mrs. Kinzie's Wau Bun, 362-364, Ch. XXXVII.
8 The family is known variously as Manaige, Manaigre, and even Managu. "Louis Menaige, a Canadian, served in the War of 1812. He was a resident of Portage and was living there in 1832. He married Margaret, daughter of Perrish Grignon and his wife, Es-chah-wan-kah, a sister of the Old Decorah. Their children were Peter, Josette, and two others." Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]), 260-261. It may be that Thérèse was one of these two other children whose names were not mentioned.
9 She filed a claim in 1839 under the name "Mary Bellaire." She was married to a Grignon, but her mother was Hočąk. Waggoner, Neither White Men Nor Indians, #26.
10 Half Hočąk, Catharine Mayotte (1790 - ca. 1875) lived with the tribe in the Galena region in Illinois. Catherine, who was "very popular with her tribe," was said to be related to White Crow. Her father was Nicholas Boilvin, a trader and Indian agent, and We-saw-ka-kaw. This may be for Hįsaságᵋwįga, "Coarse Haired One," a Bear Clan name (McKern). Catharine sold land to her friends Henry and Susan Gratiot between 1827, and remained steadfast friends with them until her departure in 1835. Jipson speaks of her at length: "the story of her early experiences reads like a romance. ... [She states that] 'I was born at Prairie du Chien where I now reside.' She further states that at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war she ... in endeavouring to escape to some place of safety, was captured by the Sauks and kept with them for three days, [and] that Mr. Gratiot and Mr. Cubbage, his clerk, would have been killed had it not been for her; that she stood on her feet for one whole day and night facing Black Hawk and his Prophet, Clear Sky [White Cloud]; she would have compelled them to kill her first, but if they had attempted it she would have told them she was the daughter of "Red Hat" (Boilvin's Indian name). After her release, she went to Rock Island. She was almost nude and Colonel Davenport clothed her with his wife's raiment. She then went by boat to Galena, but was called back to Rock Island to interpret. They wanted her to assist Colonel Dodge in the Hall girls case, and on her way there she was obliged to swim rivers and wade marshes." Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]), 254-255. Timothy R. Mahoney, Provincial Lives: Middle-Class Experience in the Antebellum Middle West (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999) 43, 56-57. Charles J. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Vol. 2, Treaties (Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904) 2:301 ("Myott").
11 Mąnąt’ísiwįga is from , "earth"; nąt’ís, "to be swollen, to swell up"; hi, "to cause"; -wį, a feminine gender suffix; -ga, a personal name suffix — "She Who Causes the Earth to Swell Up." A "Winnebago woman" said to have been married serially to Lecuyer, Grignon, and Payer. She was granted land along with her ten children in Rockford, Illinois, by the Treaty of 1829." Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, 2:301.
12 The standard form of this name is Armel, but is sometimes rendered as Arimel, Armell, or Emmel. The Treaty of 1829 grants land to Olivier Amelle and his two children. It is said of the two children of Olivier Armel that "evidently ... their mother was of that tribe [the Hočągara]." Their mother was Hínuga, "First Born Female," who married Olivier in 1823. In 1839, recorded as "half-bloods," are Christine, Oliver jr., Louis, Joseph, and Nancy. Since Joseph was born in 1833, the Josephe referred to here is more likely a brother to Olivier. Waggoner, Neither White Men Nor Indians, #40. James D. Butler, "Tay-Cho-Pe-Rah — The Four Lake Country — First White Footprints There," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, X (1888): 64-89 [69 nt. 2]. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, 2:301. Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]), 256-257.
13 The Treaty of 1829 grants land to Mary Gleason, daughter of Luther Gleason, but there is no mention of Caroline. However, in addition to Mary, Eliza, William, and Caroline are listed as children of Luther Gleason. Gleason, a trader from Vermont, had married the adopted daughter of Four Legs in 1826. At the time, they were living at Lake Apuckaway. They later moved to Ft. Winnebago, where Luther died in 1838. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, 2:302. Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]), 259.
14 He is one of the children of Mąnąt’ísiwįga granted land by the Treaty of 1829. He also made a claim in 1839 as a "half blood." Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, 2:302. Waggoner, Neither White Men Nor Indians, #31.
15 A notable person in Hočąk society. By virtue of being the son of a Hočąk woman, Hee-no-kau [Hīnū́gā], he was granted a tract of land by the Treaty of 1829. He was the son of Michel St. Cyr (b. ca. 1806) who was himself the son of Hyacinthe St. Cyr, a Canadian trader. Hinuga was the eldest daughter of Spanioraga, a chief and noted orator. Michel jr. was born in 1826, and died in St. Clair, Minnesota in 1898. Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes, 258. See also, Lyman Copeland Draper, "Michel St. Cyr, an Early Dane County Pioneer," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VI (1908): 397-400.
16 Antoine Grignon later received $2,000 from the Menomini Tribe in 1836. "Memoir of Charles Langlade," Wisconsin Historical Collections, VII (1876): 187 [178].
17 Possibly the person referred to as "Simeon" in the Treaty of 1829, the son of Mąnąt’ísiwįga. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, 2:302. However, there was a Simon Lecuyer who was an engagé, or servant, of John Kinzie. He may have been owed for services rendered to Kinzie as the sub-agent to the Hočągara. Later, in 1848, he took part in the removal of the remaining Hočągara from Wisconsin. Moses Paquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebago," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, XII (1892): 399-443 [407].
18 Broken Arm is a signatory of the Treaty of 1829, but no mention is made there of his daughter. Broken Arm was listed as the Chief of the Lake Monona Village, but is not listed by that name under "Four Lakes, Village No. 2." Jipson says that in 1832 "his daughter was paid an annuity for herself and her daughter." Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]), 253.
19 Jacob Lecuyer could not be found on any rolls, but he is probably related to Thérèse L’Ecuyer, perhaps her son, in which case he would be ¼ Hočąk.  
20 Margaret was the Hočąk wife of Charles Shellefous of Madison. They had a child named "William" (b. 1834). Margaret left her husband and child in 1836. In 1839, Satterlee Clark gave a deposition in which he stated, "That the mother of the said William is an abandoned woman, of very bad habits, and in the opinion of this deponent is wholly unfit and incompetent to take charge of and manage the said fund for said William." Waggoner, Neither White Men Nor Indians, #10.
21 Josephine was Thérèse J. Paquette's middle name. Born in Portage in 1826, she was the sister of Moses Paquette, and the daughter of Pierre Paquette (above). Both were given parcels of land in the Treaty of 1829 near Madison, and in 1832, parcels in what is now Fond du Lac. She was educated in the Yellow River school in Iowa. In 1864, she married Thomas Prescott, afterwards living in Caledonia, Wisconsin. Kappler, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, 2:302. Moses Paquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebago," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, XII (1892): 399-443 [400-401, 403-405].
22 A prominent citizen of the Galena lead mining region, he was on good terms with the Hočągara. In 1830, not long after this roll was compiled, he became a sub-agent to the Hočąk Nation. For more on Henry Gratiot, see the Commentary to Mrs. Kinzie's Wau Bun.
23 Nile's Register, page 192, Army Order #97, Oct. 1, 1833, under "Fifth Infantry," shows Alexander S. Hooe being promoted to First Lieutenant. Moses Paquette says, "My sister, Mrs. Prescott, says that she remembers as far back as Captain Hooe's time. Hooe married one of Joseph Rolette's daughters, and was more or less interested in the Indian trade." Moses Paquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebago," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, XII (1892): 399-443 [401]. A footnote to another work gives a short summary of his life: "Alexander Seymour Hooe, of Virginia, was a cadet from 1823 to 1827, when he entered the army as a Brevet Second Lieutenant. He became First Lieutenant in 1833; a Captain in 1838; Brevet Major, for gallant and distinguished conduct in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, May 9, 1846; lost an arm in August following; died at Baton Rouge, La., December 9, 1847." History of Columbia County, Wisconsin (Chicago: Western Historical Co., 1880) 395 note.
24 One of the pioneers of Bureau County, Illinois. He was known as Načusą, "White Hair," to the Hočągara. For John Dixon, see the Commentary to Jipson's "Winnebagoes of Rock River."
25 Col. Benjamin Berry Kercheval, Sr. (Apr. 9, 1793-Mar. 23, 1855), a Virginian by birth, in 1821 married Robert Forsyth's daughter Mary. In 1830, he became one of the first people to buy a lot in Chicago. In 1832, he became the Sutler at Ft. Howard. See the Commentary to Wau Bun. The "L. C." stands for "Lieutenant Colonel," his rank at the time.



Also the following names in pencil on margins and back of document:

Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan Number in Family Note
Men Women Child. Total
Ko-koo-kaw Koguwįga [Coming to Make a Place]1         9 woman
E-har-rati-ray-kaw Iharatirega [He Moves the Flap]2           at Turtle Creek
Hee-nah-ween-kaw Hinąwįga [Sufficient]3           at Kosh-ko-nong Village
Hee-no-nee-kaw Hinunįka [Little] First Born Girl     1 2 3  
Wanu-tshey-nee-sootsh-kaw Wanąčeresųčka ? [Wishes to End Them]4   3 3 6 12  
Wau-tsho-kee-nee-ween-kaw Wačogínįwįka Woman Who Leads [Them]5   0 1 4 5 at Green Lake
Kay-rah-tshe-a-ny-rah Keračoaniraga [One Who Holds the Blue Sky] [Bear ?]6 2 2 3 7  
Shoank-skaw-skaw Šųgᵋskaga White Dog [Wolf]7 1 1 3 5  

1 From ko, "to look out for, make a place for"; gu, "coming"; -wį, a female gender suffix; and -ga, a personal name suffix. This name is found at the Lower Baraboo Village.
2 From iha, "flap, lid"; -ra, "the"; tiré, "to move"; and -ga, a personal name suffix.
3 From hiną́, "enough" (Dorsey, Miner, et alia).
4 From wanąčere, "to desire"; sųč, "to finish, end"; -ka, a personal name suffix.
5 From wa-, "them"; čogínį, "to lead someone"; -wį, a female gender suffix; -ga, a personal name suffix.
6 From kera, "sky"; čo, "blue"; hani, "to have, hold, take"; -ra, "who"; -ga, a personal name suffix. Members of the Bear Clan in particular, were able to "hold" a day, that is keep the sky clear in order to hold a ceremony. The maximum time that a day could be held was four days.
7 Recognized as a Wolf Clan name by Lurie.


Memo. 109 Births and 44 Deaths, 16 of whom died of small pox.

                                 Increase 65 since Oct. 1, 1831.

                                                                              John H. Kinzie
                                                                                     Sub Agt. Indian Affairs


Also on the back of the document:


No. Hočąk Name Corrected
Orthography
Translation Clan
1. Hoank-mee-nun-kaw Hųgᵋmįnąka Sitting Chief  
2. Soog-o-nah-kow-ho-ray-see-nay-kaw Šųgᵋnąguharesiriga One Who Fouls on the Dog Path Wolf
3. Maw-say-nee-pay-kaw1 Mązᵋnąpįga [Iron Bracelet] [Upper Moiety]
4. Haron-haron-zee-kaa-koan-zee-ray-kaw      
5. Hay-nun-nee-kaw Henąnįka [Little] Second Boy  

6. Shik-o-kee-maun
(Wau-kee-yun-skaws,  son)
Žigogimąka ?
(Wákiaskága)
[Again Around the Chest]2
(his son, "Round White Shell")3
[Waterspirit]

1 The first letter of this name is unclear. Dorsey records it as a Bear Clan name, but it was probably a nickname. 'The son of White Goose was called Mas-naw-pi-kaw, meaning, 'He who wears metal around his neck'." His sister was Mrs. Addie Boucher. White Goose was the brother of Good Thunder. Norton William Jipson, Story of the Winnebagoes (Chicago: The Chicago Historical Society, 1923 [unpublished]), 262.
2 Blackhawk has "One Who Nestles Again." This same name is found at Turtle Village.
3 This name is listed by Foster as being a Waterspirit Clan name.



Gallery of People

MENTIONED IN THE ROLLS


         
   
R. A. Lewis   George Catlin   Charles Bird King
White Breast (Stone Man), 1866     Old Decorah, 1830     Wakąhaga (Snake Skin)
Nahura Rohare and Sugar Creek Villages   Lower Baraboo Village, No. 1   Wakąhaga's Village

         
   
J. O. Lewis   R. A. Lewis    
Black Wolf    Dandy (Little Soldier, Four Legs)    Crane
Black Wolf's Village   Middle Baraboo Village   Turtle, Map 51

       
   
J. O. Lewis   J. O. Lewis   J. E. Whitney
Four Legs (Hujopka)     The Widow of Four Legs     Winneshiek (Wakąjaguga)
Winnebago Rapids   Winnebago Rapids   Baraboo 1 or 3

         
   
Charles Bird King   J. O. Lewis   George Catlin
Nąga, "Wood,"
(Keramąnįga, "Walking Turtle")
    Wajᵋxetega,
"Big Canoe," 1825
    Wakąjaga,
"Thunderbird"
Little Green Lake   Above Prairie du Chien   Big Green Lake

     
 
George Catlin   Charles Bird King
Mąnąpega     Wakąga, "Snake"
Fond du Lac   Turtle Creek

             
   
James F. Bodtker   Jones   Joel Whitney
Walking Hail   Little Creek   Baptiste Le Sellier 
Butte des Morts   Waubesa   Turtle Creek

         
   
Charles Bird King       R. A. Lewis
Hųwąnįka, 1829     Yellow Thunder, ca. 1870     Whirling Thunder, 1866
Middle Baraboo Village, No. 2   Butte des Morts   Turtle Creek

         
   
J. O. Lewis   Charles Deas   R. M. Sully
Spotted Arm (Hojinažiga)     Thunderbirds Passing By     White Sky (Wabokieshiek)
Third Lake (Waubesa)   Middle Baraboo   Sugar Camp (Prophetstown)

       
   
J. O. Lewis   J. O. Lewis   H. H. Bennett
Little Duck (Sarcel, Teal, Dog's Head)     (Little) Otter     Big Bear
Green Lake   Scalp Lake   Turtle Creek

         
     
NAA        
Michel St. Cyr, 1886      John Dixon     Henry Gratiot
Heads of Families
and Individuals
  Signatories   Signatories

 
Louisa Gagnier
Miscellaneous

Location of Villages

MENTIONED IN THE ROLLS

A Greatly Modified Version of Paul Radin's Map of Wisconsin Hočąk Villages1

[The numbers on the map indicate the location of some of the Winnebago villages in Wisconsin.]

1. Big Hawk's Village at Pike Lake
2. Little Decorah's Village, 1827
3. Buzzard Decorah's Village, 1787
    Village of One-eyed Decorah (Big Boat), 1832
4. Village of Washington Decorah (Wakąhaga), 1832
5. Doty Island (Wisconsin Rapids) Village, 1634-18322
6. Big Butte des Morts Village (Exact Location Unknown)
7. Pesheu's Village on Garlic Island, 1797-1833
8. Smoker's Village 1816
9. Village of Sarrochau (Smoker), Fond du Lac, 1788
10. Black Wolf's Village, 1816
11. Rush Lake Village, Keramąnįga's Village, ca. 1830
12. Yellow Thunder's Village, 1828-1832
13. Village of Sarcel (Teal, Dog's Head), Green Lake, 1829
14. Old Gray-headed Decorah's Village, 1793
15. Nąga Keramąnįga's Village at Little Green Lake, 1829
16. Scalp Village, 1829
17. Grand Bourbier Village
18. Elk Village (Village of Big Fox), 1829
      White Breast's Village, 1830
19. Big Fox's Village, 1832
      Grizzly Bear's Village, 1838
20. Čugiga's Village,  1816
      White Ox's Village, 1832
      Whirling Thunder's Village, 18363
21. Old Gray-headed Decorah's Village, 1793-1836
22. Yellow Thunder's "Forty"
23. Keramąnį's Village, 1832-42
      Little Soldier's Village, 18364
24. Little Sioux's Village, 1829
25. Village of Sarcel (Teal, Dog's Head), at English Prairie (now Muscoda), near the mouth of Pine River, 18275
26. Wakąga's Village, 18376
      Village of Keramąnį the Younger (date uncertain)7
27. Mud Lake Village
28. Watertown (Grand Rapids) Village
29. Iron Walker's Village
30. White Crow's Village, 1832
31. Old Turtle's Village, Lake Mendota8
32. Broken Arm's Village, Lake Monona
33. Spotted Arm's Village, Lake Wabesa 
34. Dayton Village9
35. Mammoth's Village, Lake Kegonsa
36. Little Priest's Village, 1832
      Whirling Thunder's Village, after 1836
37. Village of People Eater (Wąkšígᵋručká), 183210
38. Burnt Village (White Crow), 183211
39. Spotted Arm's Village, Exeter, 1829
40. Catfish (Howį́x)Village
41. Nąhųra Rohara (Sturgeon's Spawn), Village of White Breast (Mą́kskaga), Sugar Creek
42. Round Rock Village, 1829
43. Standing Post, 1829
44. Turtle Creek, White Crow's Village, 1829
      Keramąnįga's Village, 1832

1 Modified from Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1923) 51.
2 A great and populous village last governed by Four Legs. It was this village that was run by Glory of the Morning, who with her husband Sabrevoir de Carrie, founded the Decorah clan.
3 "[Whirling Thunder] at the time [October, 1836] had a camp on the high land north of the city end of the present Wisconsin river bridge." Moses Pauquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebagoes," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII (1892): 399-433 [402].
4 Keramąnįga was the Peace Chief, and inasmuch as Dandy was the son of Black Wolf, he was the War Chief. He was eventually recognized as chief of the tribe by the U. S. Government, reflecting a breakdown of the old system.
5 "Dog's Head ... lived in 1827, at English Prairie, now Muscoda. ... The Indians cultivated some fields there, and lived there as one of their changeable localities." B. W. Brisbois, "Recollections of Prairie du Chien," Wisconsin Historical Collections, IX (1882/1909): 282-302 [300].
6 Radin identifies the village at the mouth of the Kickapoo River (43.085809, -90.876643) to be that of Snake (Wakąga) by 1837, although we see that in 1829 Wakąga was living in the Lake Mendota Village (another man of this name was living in Turtle Village). The town of Wauzeka located near the mouth of the Kickapoo River was once the site of a Fox village. B. W. Brisbois, "Recollections of Prairie du Chien," Wisconsin Historical Collections, 9 (1882): 282-302 [295]; C. E. Brown, "A Record of Wisconsin Antiquities," Wisconsin Archeologist, 5, ##3-4 (April-Oct., 1906): 300; cf. Virgil J. Vogel, Indian Names on Wisconsin's Map (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991) 161. As the Fox were displaced, the Hočągara moved into their former territory. Miner records that the Hočągara called this village, Waziga, "Pine," now called "Wauzeka." The name Waziga is from wazí, "pine"; and -ga, a personal name suffix. So the site was named after an individual called "Pine," Waziga being a clan name in the Upper Moiety whence the chiefs were drawn. So Snake's village was also Pine's village. The reason for this is, as McKinney tells us, that Snake was a Warleader. The War Chief could be drawn from any clan, whereas the Peace Chief was usually drawn from the Thunderbird Clan. Therefore, this village has a dual designation.
7 Moses Pauquette states that this was Keramąnįga's village "after he returned to Wisconsin." See Moses Paquette, "The Wisconsin Winnebagoes," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XII (1892): 399-433 [408].
8 This site was said by Reuben Gold Thwaites to be the village of White Crow (note 9): "Kaukishkaka (White Crow), a Winnebago chief, who had but one eye, and something of a reputation as an orator. His village, which comprised about 1,200 persons, housed in tepees covered with red-cedar bark, appears to have been situated about where is now the little village of Pheasant Branch, at the west end of Lake Mendota, Dane county." On the other hand, Radin identifies White Crow's village in 1832 as being at 30 on our map. It remains possible that this site, the Pheasant Branch site at 31, was White Crow's and the site at 30 was Old Turtle's village; or that 31 was White Crow's before 1832. In any case, Thwaites is the source of the idea that White Crow's village was at 30 (see note 2 below).
9 The township of Dayton is located at 42.8269474 -89.5131761 according to the U.S. Geological Survey, and is actually part of Exeter. Therefore, the Dayton Village may be the same as the Exeter Village, but in any case, the distance between them shown in Radin's map would not be correct.

S. D. Peet
Antiquities at Lake Koshkonong

10 This village is assigned to Wąkšígᵋručká in the Map in Tom Jones, Michael Schmudlach, Matthew Daniel Mason, Amy Lonetree, and George A. Greendeer, People of the Big Voice: Photographs of Ho-Chunk Families by Charles Van. Schaick, 1879–1942 (Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2011) 15. On the location of the Koshkonong villages, see Steven D. Peet, Prehistoric America, 2 vols. (Chicago: American Antiquarian Office, 1896) 2:241-242; the map above is from 240 verso.
11 Located within 200 feet of 42.906578, -88.770737. Described as being, "... Burnt Village — known, also, as the White Crow's town — was on the south side of what was then called the Whitewater River (now Bark River), at its most southerly point, on the north half of Section 12, in Township 5 north, of Range 14 east — town of Koshkonong — about two and one-half miles southeast of the present Fort Atkinson. This is the village generally, but incorrectly, stated to have been located upon the north side of Lake Koshkonong, some eight miles distant. When, on the 6th day of July, 1832, Gen. Atkinson, in pursuit of Black Hawk, reached the place, it was found deserted." A History of Jefferson County (Chicago: Western Historical Co., 1879) 322. For Section 12, see the 1919 plat map for Jefferson County, Koshkonong Township.

 
A Highly Redacted Version of Chandler's 1829 Map of the Lead Mining Region1

[The numbers on the map indicate the location of some of the Winnebago villages on Rock River and the Lead Mining Region. Some sites are duplicated from the map above.]

20. Čugiga's Village,  1816
      White Ox's Village, 1832
25. Village of Sarcel (Teal, Dog's Head), at English Prairie (now Muscoda), 1827
26. Wakąga's Village, 1837
30. White Crow's Village, 18322
31. Old Turtle's Village, Lake Mendota
32. Broken Arm's Village, Lake Monona
33. Spotted Arm's Village, Lake Wabesa
35. Mammoth's Village, Lake Kegonsa
     a. Dyerson Site
     b. Williamson Site
     c. Stendahl Site
36. Spotted Arm's Village, Exeter, 1829
37. Catfish (Howį́x) Village
41. Nąhųra Rohara (Sturgeon's Spawn), Village of White Breast (Mą́kskaga), Sugar Creek

42. Round Rock Village, 18293
43. Standing Post, 1829
44. Turtle Creek, White Crow's Village, 1829
      Keramąnįga's Village, 1832
45. The Village of the Elder Winneshiek (Mąwáruga) on the Pecatonica, 18294
46. White Breast's Village at the Mouth of Sugar Creek
47. The Village of People Eater (Wąkšígᵋručká), at the forks of the Rock River where they peel the bark, also called "Little Rapids of the Rock River," 18295
48. Village at Birds Grove, 18216
49. Sycamore Village at the Mouth of the Kishwaukee River, 18297
50. Jarrot's Village, before 18298
51. Village of Peją́ga (Crane), before 1829
52. Sugar Camp, the Village of Wabokieshiek, the Winnebago Prophet

1 Morgan Martin, "The Narrative of Morgan L. Martin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XI (1888): 385-415 [400 verso].
2 Said to be located near Fox Bluff (43.110204, -89.454071), but also near the mouth of the north branch of the Catfish (Yahara) River. This places it very close to Old Turtle's village just to the east of Pheasant Branch Creek. Fortunately, Chandler's map marks the place of this village with two tepees, locating it at Fox Bluff. See Reuben Gold Thwaites' note #2 in Morgan Martin, "The Narrative of Morgan L. Martin," Wisconsin Historical Collections, XI (1888): 385-415 [401].
3 Chandler's map is compressed north to south in this area and does not properly reflect the actual distances between the villages numbered 39-40.
4 this village was located near the present town of Freeport, Illinois (42.307292, -89.630589).
5 this is right at the end of the rapids (42.431635, -89.048842), called by Kinzie the "Little Rapids of Rock River." However, the village given this latter name is actually at the mouth of the Sugar River not far upstream from where these rapids begin.
6 The forest preserve within which this name is still retained, is named for Xųnųnį́ka (corrupted to Hononegah), the first born daughter of a chief. She married the trader Steven Mack. The exact location of Birds Grove is 42.436361, -89.046791.
7 called Kishkawaka on van Shaik's map.
8 For Jarrot, see Jerrot's Temperance Pledge — A Poem, Jarrot's Aborted Raid, Jarrot and His Friends Saved from Starvation, How Jarrot Got His Name.