Notes to the Introduction

1 Kathleen Danker and Felix White, Sr., The Hollow of Echoes (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978) 59. Informant: Felix White, Sr.
2 Estwick Evans, "A Pedestrous Tour, of Four-Thousand Miles, through Western Territories, during Winter and Spring of 1818, in Reuben Gold Thwaites (ed), Early Western Travels, 1748 - 1846 (Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark, 1904) 8:271. This description is echoed by Gatschet: "At one time they were the fiercest warriors in the country." Albert Samuel Gatschet, Linguistic and Ethnological Material on the Winnebago, Manuscript 1989-a (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, 1889, 1890-1891) 1 - 104.
3 James W. Springer and Stanley R. Witkowski, "Siouan Historical Linguistics and Oneota Archaeology," in Oneota Studies, ed. Guy Gibbon (1982); Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 2-3.
4 Springer and Witkowski, loc. cit.
5 Henry Schoolcraft, Information respecting the Historical Conditions and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States (J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1852-1854) 3:236; Thomas Foster, Foster's Indian Record and Historical Data (Washington, D. C.: 1876-1877) vol. 1, #1, p. 2, col. 2.
6 Publius V. Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," The Wisconsin Archeologist 6, #3 (1907): 77-162 (78-83).
7 Samuel Gardner Drake, The Book of the Indians of North America (Boston: Antiquarian Bookstore, 1833) V.130-132; The Aboriginal Races of North America, 15th ed (1880) 16, 637, 638, 639, 706 ("Winnebagoes").
8 Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix (1682-1761), History and General Description of New France, 6 vols. (New York, F. P. Harper, 1900) (1866 ed.) 6:225.
9 Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," 83-84.
10 James Owen Dorsey and Paul Radin, "Winnebago," Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30 (Totowa, N. J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1979) 2:958-961 (958, 961); from the manuscript of Chippewa (Ojibwe) words submitted by Gatschet to the Bureau of American Ethnology. Foster's Indian Record, vol. 1, #1, p. 2, col. 1.
11 Foster's Indian Record, vol. 1, #1, p. 2, col. 1.
12 Walter James Hoffman, The Menominee Indians, in the Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1892-1893 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1896) 14:205.
13 Dorsey and Radin, "Winnebago," 2:958.
14 John Tanner (1780?-1847), A Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures of John Tanner during Thirty Years Residence among the Indians in the Interior of North America (New York: G. & C. & H. Carvill, 1830) 316.
15 English-Potawatomi dictionary: online at http://www.ukans.edu/~kansite/pbp/books/dicto/dicto_en.html#e_w. Given as Winbiégųg in a manuscript of Potawatomi words submitted by Gatschet to the Bureau of American Ethnology.
16 Jesuit Relations (1858 edition) vol. 3, index; Emma Helen Blair, The Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and Region of the Great Lakes, 2 vols (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996 [1911])
17 Stephen Denison Peet, American Antiquities, 3 (1886): 304.
18 Peet, American Antiquities, 304.
19 Le Jeune, Jesuit Relations for 1640, 35.
20 Jesuit Relations (1858 edition) vol. 3, index.
21 John Gilmary Shea (1824-1892.), Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley, with the Original Narratives of Marquette, Allouez, Membre, Hennepin, and Anastase Douay; with a Facsimile of the Newly-Discovered Map of Marquette (New York, Redfield, 1853) xxiii.
22 Jesuit Relations for 1648 (1858 edition) 62.
23 Jesuit Relations for 1656 (edition?) 62; Pliny Warriner, "Legend of the Winnebagoes," Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin for the Year 1854 (Madison: State Historical Society, 1855) 1:86-93 (88-89). [Appendix 6]. Originally published in the Buffalo [New York] Journal, September 15, 1829. The informant was an unnamed Hočąk chief. This may also be an Oto tradition, as S. H. Long relates, "This great nation [the Chiwere], they [the Oto] say, originally resided somewhere to the northward of the great lakes ..." Edwin James, comp., Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains (an account of S. H. Long's Expedition, 1819 - 1820), in Reuben Gold Thwaites (ed), Early Western Travels, 1748 - 1846 (Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark, 1904) 15:131. See in particular, The Hočągara Migrate South.
24 Jesuit Relations for 1636 (edition of 1858), 92.
25 Vimont, Jesuit Relations for 1640, 35.
26 Jesuit Relations for 1646, 81.
27 Jesuit Relations for 1649, 27.
28 Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1, #1, p. 2, col. 2.
29 Albert Samuel Gatschet, Linguistic and Ethnological Material on the Winnebago, Manuscript 1989-a (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, 1889, 1890-1891) 1 - 104. Informants: Reuben David St. Cyr (b. 1864), and his father, John Michael St. Cyr.
30 so La Potherie says explicitly — Claude Charles Le Roy, Bacqueville de la Potherie, "History of the Savage Peoples who are Allies of New France," in Emma Helen Blair, The Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and Region of the Great Lakes, 2 vols (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996 [1911]) 1:275-372 [1:288-290].
31 Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," 84.
32 Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1, #1, p. 2, col. 1.
33 Jesuit Relations of 1659-60, p. 41.
34 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 169; Charles E. Brown, Wisconsin Indian Place Legends (Madison: Works Progress Administration, 1936) 4-5.
35 Publius V. Lawson, The Winnebago Tribe, Wisconsin Archeologist, 6 (1907), #3: 90, 93; Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 6-7.
36 Thus Fr. Allouez (Jesuit Relations of 1669-70) says of this spot, "The water of this Bay and its rivers is similar to that which stagnates in ditches." The Jesuit Relations of 1670-71 explain the name Baye des Puants this way: "It bears this name, which is the same that the savages give to those who dwell near the sea, perhaps because the odor of the marshes which surround this bay is something similar to the sea."
37 Kinsey, Juliette Augusta (Magill), 1806-1870. Wau-Bun: The "Early Day" in the North-West. (Chicago: R.R. Donnelley and Sons Co., 1932 [1867]) 63.
38 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 114.
39 "These Howchungerahs, or Winnebagoes, well deserve the name of 'Puans,' which the first French adventurers gave them. Establishing themselves where fish is plentiful, they never change the site of their wigwams, at the entrances to which they throw down the entrails and offal of their fish. They have thus become notorious amongst the other Indians for the filthy existence they lead." George W. Featherstonhaugh, A Canoe Voyage up the Minnay Sotor (London: Richard Bentley, 1847 [1970, reprint]) 2:102-103. See also, Capt. Don Saunders, When the Moon is a Silver Canoe. Legends of the Wisconsin Dells (Wisconsin Dells, Wisc.: Don Saunders, 1947) 42. Informant: Albert Yellow Thunder (1878-1951) of the Thunderbird Clan.
40 Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," ...
41 Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1, #1, p. 2, col. 4.
42 "Huron," Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30 (Totowa, N. J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1979) 1:585; Ernest Klein, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1971) 686, sv "Sioux."
43 Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1 #1, p. 1, col. 4.
44 Edward Duffield Neill, The History of Minnesota: From the Earliest French Explorations to the Present (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1858 [reprint, 1975]) page given as 190, but this could not be verified; Dorsey and Radin, "Winnebago," Handbook of North American Indians, 2:961.
45 John Long, Voyages and Travels of an Indian Interpreter and Trader (April 10, 1768 - Spring, 1782), in Reuben Gold Thwaites (ed), Early Western Travels, 1748 - 1846 (Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark, 1904) 2:186. Augustin Grignon, "Seventy-two Years' Recollections of Wisconsin," Wisconsin Historical Collections 3 (1857): 195-295 [285-286], from a Menominee source. Followed by Col. Thomas Loraine McKenney and James Hall, The Indian Tribes of North America, with Biographical Sketches and Anecdotes of the Principal Chiefs, ed.. Frederick Hodge and David Bushnell, 4 vols. (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1934 [1842]). . . See Origin of the Name "Winnebago" (Menominee).
46 Wisconsin Historical Collections, 16:360.
47 A manuscript of Wyandot words submitted by Gatschet to the Bureau of American Ethnology.
48 Mary H. Eastman, Chicóra and Other Regions of the Conquerors and the Conquered (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo, & Co., 1854) 21.
49 Charlevoix, History and General Description of New France, as quoted by Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1 #1, p. 2, col. 2. See Albert Gallatin, A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the United States East of the Rocky Mountains, and in the British and Russian Possessions in North America, in Archaeologia Americana, Transactions of the American Antiquarian Society (Cambridge, Mass.: 1836) 2:120.
50 Reverend James Owen Dorsey, Winnebago Vocabulary (unpublished manuscript, submitted to the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1878) sv Hočangara, "primitive language." Followed by McGee, Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (1897), 15:162 ("people of the parent speech"). Some attempt at parallel sense development is given by Gatschet — see Albert Samuel Gatschet, Linguistic and Ethnological Material on the Winnebago, Manuscript 1989-a (Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives, 1889, 1890-1891) 1 - 104.
51 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 5.
52 Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1 #1, p. 2, col. 2. He gives the name as Hočąg´era., misapprehending ga-ra for ge-ra.
53 The belief that the Hočągara are the original people is well attested: The Morning Star, A Winnebago Legend," collected by Louis L. Meeker, Nov. 22, 1896 (National Anthropological Archives, 1405 Winnebago, A.D.S.); "The Morning Star," in David Lee Smith, Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997) 105; David Lee Smith (Thunderbird Clan), "How the Valleys and Hills Came to Be," in David Lee Smith, Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997) 100; Emily L. Smith (Bear Clan), "Ma-ona and the Creation of the World," in David Lee Smith, Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997) 13-14. See the stories in The Creation of Man (vv. 2, 3, 4). Foster thinks that something of a pun is preserved in the Dakota name, Hotąnke, where tąnke means "big," but tąnké means "a man's elder sister." (Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1, #1, p. 2, col. 2).
54 "Every one of them that I conversed with stated the name of the nation to be Howchungerah, form howrah, fish, and wungerah, man; they being a fish-eating tribe of the great Nacotah nation, further to the west, a dialect of whose tongue they speak, and having separated from whom, they settled in a lake country abounding in fish, which thus became their principal diet." Featherstonhaugh, A Canoe Voyage up the Minnay Sotor, 1:168. "There are two possible interpretations of this name, one being 'Great Fish-people', and the other "'Great Voice-people'. The former is in all probability the correct meaning." Jasper Blowsnake and Paul Radin, "A Semi-Historical Account of the War of the Winnebago and the Foxes," Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1914) 193 nt 4. Told by Jasper Blowsnake in June, 1908.
55 Saunders, When the Moon is a Silver Canoe, 42. See the portrait of his grandfather Yellow Thunder.
56 Personal communication from B. W. Brisbois to Rueben G. Thwaites (1882), Wisconsin Historical Collections, 10 (1885): 500; Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," 83.
57 Francis LaFlesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 109 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932) 67, sv hótonga.
58 Maximilian, Prince of Weid, Travels in the Interior of North America, 1832-1834, in Reuben Gold Thwaites (ed), Early Western Travels, 1748 - 1846 (Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark, 1904) 24:313.
59 Gallatin, A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the United States, 2:120; followed by Schoolcraft, Information respecting the Indian Tribes of the United States, 3:277. Gallatin says, "The Winnebagoes, so called by the Algonkins, but called Puans and also Otchagras by the French, and Horoje ('Fish easters') by the Omahaws and other southern tribes, call themselves Hochungohrah, or 'Trout' nation."
60 Edwin James, comp., Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains (an account of S. H. Long's Expedition, 1819 - 1820), in Reuben Gold Thwaites (ed), Early Western Travels, 1748 - 1846 (Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark, 1904 [1823]) 15:131.
61 Schoolcraft, Information respecting the Indian Tribes of the United States, 3:277; followed by Jacob Piatt Dunn, True Indian Stories (Indianapolis: Sentinel, 1908) 317.
62 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 5.
63 Mary Carolyn Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago: An Analysis and Reference Grammar of the Radin Lexical File (Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December 14, 1968 [69-14,947]) 435, sv. xete.
64 This is from a list of animal names (ssvv "Turtle," "Snapping Turtle") given to me by Süle Shigley of the Hocąk Wazijaci Language & Culture Program.
65 LaFlesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, 289, 85, sv. kétǫnga.
66 LaFlesche, A Dictionary of the Osage Language, sv ke.
67 Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 184, sv čąk.
68 Felix White, Sr. (Wolf Clan), "Origin Story of the Winnebago Clans," in David Lee Smith, Folklore of the Winnebago Tribe (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997) 15.
69 Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 259, sv ho.
70 Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 423, sv wiho.
71 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 174.
72 Quoted from Stephen R. Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1890]) 151, sv ho; also followed by Buechel, Dictionary of Teton Dakota, 180, sv ho.
73 LaFlesche, Dictionary of Osage, 67, ssvv hu, hú-ca-gi, hótǫ; 63, sv. hó-ca-gi; Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1, #1, p. 2, coll. 2-3.
74 James H. Howard, The Ponca Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press: 1995 [1965]) 134.
75 Alice C. Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, The Omaha Tribe, 2 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press: 1992 [1911]) 102.
76 James Owen Dorsey and John R. Swinton, A Dictionary of the Biloxi and Ofo Languages, in Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 47 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1912) 323, sv hóhe.
77 Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1 #1, p. 1, col. 4.
[77.1] W. C. McKern, Winnebago Notebook (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1927) 88.
78 Rev. Eugene Buechel, A Dictionary of the Teton Dakota Sioux Language (Pine Ridge: Red Cloud Indian School, 1955?) 185, sv Ho´tąke; John P. Williamson, An English-Dakota Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1902]) 261, sv "Winnebago"; Stephen Return Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1992 [1890]) 155, sv Ho-tą́-ke; Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1 #1, p. 2, col. 2 (Hotąnk´e); Paul WarCloud, Dakotah Sioux Indian Dictionary (Sisseton: Tekakwitha Fine Arts Center, 1971) 180, sv Ho-TÔ-keh; Alexander H. Ramsey in Rep. Ind. Aff. for 1849 (1850) 88; compare the Otonkah of Schoolcraft, Information respecting the Indian Tribes of the United States, 3:277.
79 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, sv. tą́-ka.
80 Buechel, A Dictionary of the Teton Dakota Sioux Languag, 185, sv. ho´tąke; Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 155, sv. ho´-tą-ke; Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1 #1, p. 2, col. 2.
81 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 151, sv. ho.
82 Riggs, A Dakota-English Dictionary, 151, sv. ho; Williamson, An English-Dakota Dictionary, sv. "fish"; Buechel, A Dictionary of the Teton Dakota Sioux Language, 180, sv. hoǧą́.
83 Rev. James Owen Dorsey, "The Social Organization of the Siouan Tribes," The Journal of American Folk-Lore, 4 (1896): 331-342.
84 Howard, The Ponca Tribe, 134.
85 Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1, #1, p. 2, col. 2-3.
86 Fletcher and La Flesche, The Omaha Tribe, 102.
87 Fletcher and La Flesche, The Omaha Tribe, 66; LaFlesche, Dictionary of Osage, 29, sv. "good."
88 Fletcher and La Flesche, The Omaha Tribe, 63, sv. Hó-ca-zhį-e.
89 LaFlesche, Dictionary of Osage, 67, sv. hu.
90 LaFlesche, Dictionary of Osage, 67, sv. hú-ca-gi; 29, sv. ca-gi.
91 LaFlesche, Dictionary of Osage, 63, sv. hó-ca-gi.
92 LaFlesche, Dictionary of Osage, 67, sv. hótǫ.
93 LaFlesche, Dictionary of Osage, 68, ssvv.
94 LaFlesche, Dictionary of Osage, 67, sv Hótǫga, 356, sv "Winnebago Tribe"; 68, sv Hútǫga.
95 LaFlesche, Dictionary of Osage, 68, sv Hútǫga ïe; 356, sv "Winnebago Language."
96 http://www.ho-chunk.com/
97 Dorsey and Radin, "Winnebago," 2:961, sv. O.tan.gan. See Thomas Forsyth, "Memoirs of the Sauk and Foxes," in Emma Helen Blair, The Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi Valley and Region of the Great Lakes, 2 vols (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996 [1911]) 2:139-245 [199 nt 73].
98 Foster, Indian Record, vol. 1, #1, p. 2, col. 2.
99 Radin, The Winnebago Tribe, 11.
100 Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 349, sv nųk, "ear."
101 Fletcher and La Flesche, The Omaha Tribe, 1: . . .
102 Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 265, sv hųk.
103 Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago, 66-68, and 317, sv. mą.
104 In addition to the primary work of footnote [1], see the following works by Paul Radin: Crashing Thunder: The Autobiography of an American Indian (New York and London: Appleton and Co., 1926); The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic. Bollingen Foundation, Special Publications, 3 (1954): 1-99; 5 (1956): 103-148; "The Hare Cycle of the Winnebago Indians," in Studies in North American Mythology, Vol. 1, Part 1 (Santa Fe, New Mexico: New Mexican Printing Co., 1915); "Literary Aspects of Winnebago Mythology," Journal of American Folklore, 39 (1926): 18-52; Monotheism among Primitive Peoples (London: George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., 1924); Primitive Man as Philosopher (New York: D. Appleton Co., 1927); "The Thunderbird Warclub: A Winnebago Tale," Journal of American Folklore 44 (1931): 143-65; Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Publications in Anthropology and Linguistics, Memoir 1, 1948), Republished in the International Journal of American Linguistics Memoir 1 Supplement to International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 14, #3; "Winnebago Myth Cycles," Primitive Culture 1 (1926): 8-86; "The Winnebago Myth of the Twins," Papers of the Southwestern Anthropological Society 1 (1915): 1-56; "Winnebago Tales," Journal of American Folklore, 22 (1909): 288-313; "Winnebago Text," in Handbook of American Indian Languages, ed Franz Boas (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 40, 1911), 1: 959-65.