1 Paul Radin, "Intcohorúcika," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook #14: 1-67.
2 on account of the sun's heat, according to the Locono and Akuriyo. Fabiola Jara, El Camino del Kumu. Ecología y Ritual entre los Akuriyó de Surinam (Utrecht: ISOR, 1990) 63. Yuri E.Berezkin, AMERINDIAN MYTHOLOGY with parallels in the Old World. Classification and Areal Distribution of Motifs. The Analytical Catalogue, 21. Red-haired Dwarfs Burned by the Sun.
3 Mary Carolyn Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago: An Analysis and Reference Grammar of the Radin Lexical File (Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December 14, 1968 [69-14,947]) 128, s. v. ’įtc-; 153, s. v. cik (3).
4 Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 ) 63.
5 This is according to Starry Night Software, set for Madison, Wisconsin.
6 George Lankford, "The Great Serpent in Eastern North America," in Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms: Interpretations of Mississippian Iconography, edd. F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007) 107-135 [128-132].
7 Distant Suns 2.0 (for the Mac).
8 Julius Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (Bern and Munich: Francke Verlag: 1959) 1:1051, s. v. *su̯esor-, "Schwester."
9 Thomas J. George, Winnebago Vocabulary, 4989 Winnebago (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, 1885) s. v. ną’ųstera, "fire wood"; Mary Carolyn Marino, A Dictionary of Winnebago: An Analysis and Reference Grammar of the Radin Lexical File (Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, December 14, 1968 [69-14,947]) ss. vv. nąųsteižą, "a fire stick, a big fire stick"; nąųstera, "embers"; Kenneth L. Miner, Winnebago Field Lexicon (Kansas City: University of Kansas, June 1984) nąúste, "partly burned piece of wood, used to transfer fire." The term nąpaji’ųna, "the wood to make fire," denotes the fire drill itself (George, s. v.).
10 Anthony F. Aveni, Skywatchers (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001) 37. L. Schele and D. Freidel, A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya (New York: William Morrow, 1990).
11 Starry Night Software, set for Madison, Wisconsin.
12 David Alderton, Foxes, Wolves and Wild Dogs of the World (New York: Facts On File, 1994) 71, 122.
13 In Wisconsin, 11% of all dens are of this character. Charles M. Pils and Mark A. Martin, "Population Dynamics, Predator-Prey Relationships and Management of the Red Fox in Wisconsin," Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Report, 105. David E. Samuel and Brad B. Nelson, "Foxes: Vulpes vulpes and Allies," in Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Economics, edd. Joseph A. Chapman and George A. Feldhamer (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982) 475-490 [479b].
14 Alderton, Foxes, Wolves and Wild Dogs of the World, 132. For the red fox it runs from December - March, and the for gray fox, January - April. The time varies according to lattitude, the farther north the later its onset. William G. Sheldon, "Reproductive Behavior of Foxes in New York State," Journal of Mammalogy, 30 (1949): 236-246; James N. Layne and Warren H. McKeon, "Some aspects of Red Fox and Gray Fox Reproduction in New York," New York Fish and Game Journal, 3 (1956): 44-74; Nelson, "Foxes: Vulpes vulpes and Allies," 476-477.
15 Alderton, Foxes, Wolves and Wild Dogs of the World, 122, 130; Sheldon, "Reproductive Behavior of Foxes in New York State," 236-246; Nelson, "Foxes: Vulpes vulpes and Allies," 481a.
16 Alderton, Foxes, Wolves and Wild Dogs of the World, 71, 122; Sheldon gives a gestation period of 51-54 days for the red fox, and 53 days for the gray fox. Sheldon, "Reproductive Behavior of Foxes in New York State," 236-246; Nelson, "Foxes: Vulpes vulpes and Allies," 477.
17 Fletcher says, "Red is a favorite color with the young, and green with the aged." Publius V. Lawson, "The Winnebago Tribe," The Wisconsin Archeologist 6, #3 (1907): 77-162 , quoting Jonathon E. Fletcher in Henry Schoolcraft, Information respecting the Historical Conditions and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States (J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1852-1854) 4:58-59.
18 The astronomical data is from the program Distant Suns 2.0 (for the Mac). Luminosity data are from Burnham, Burnham's Celestial Handbook, 1302-1306.
19 Edward Winslow Gifford, Culture Element Distributions, XII: Apache-Pueblo. University of California Anthropological Records, 4: 1. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1940) 53154 [155, no. 2266].
20 Evon Vogt, "Zinacanteco Astronomy," Mexicon 19, #6 (1997) 110-116 .
21 Leyenda de los Soles, 79:34-80:5, in John Bierhorst, History and Mythology of the Aztecs: the Codex Chimalpopoca (Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1992) 151-152.
22 Star Myths of the Greeks and Romans: A Sourcebook containing the Constellations of Pseudo-Eratosthenes, trs. and commentary by Theony Condos (Grand Rapids: Phanes Press, 1997) 99.
23 Robert Burnham, jr., Burnham's Celestial Handbook: An Observer's Guide to the Universe Beyond the Solar System. 3 vv. (New York: dover Publications, 1966, 1978) 1283.
24 Genesis 35:23-26, 37:1-36, 39:1-47:27.
25 Judges 15:4-8; Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend, Hamlet's Mill: an Essay on Myth and the Frame of Time (Boston: Godine, 1977) 166.
26 de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend, Hamlet's Mill, 175.
27 J. F. Stimson, The Legends of Maui and Tahaki, Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bulletin 127 (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1934) 51, 66.
28 Abraham Fornander, Fornander Collection of Hawaiian Antiquities and Folk-lore (Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1916-1920) 4:50f., 5:368.
29 Robert Eisler, Orpheus the Fisher: Comparative Studies in Orphic and Early Christian Cult Symbolism (London: Watkins, 1921) 25f.
30 Gustave Schlegel, "L’Uranographie Chinoise," Journal des savants, Acatémie des inscriptions & belles-lettres (France), Institut de France, 1875 (Reprint Taipei, 1967) 351-58, 365-70.
31 Antonio de la Calancha, Corónica moralizada del orden de San Avgvstin en el Perv, con svcesos egenplares [sic] vistos en esta monarqvia (Barcelona: Pedro Lacavalleria, 1638) Book III, 553.
32 Sir George Cornewall Lewis, An Historical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients (London: Parker and Bourn, 1862) 61 nt 230.
33 Carl Kerényi, The Gods of the Greeks (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1979 ) 202.
34 Kerényi, The Gods of the Greeks, 202.
35 Apollodorus, 1.4.3; Hyginus, Astronomica 2.34; Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catasterismoi, fr. 32; Parthenius Mythographius 20; scolium in Nicandri Theriaca 15; Kerényi, The Gods of the Greeks, 202.
36 Susan Milbrath, Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999) 251-253. Among the Siouan Mandans, the principal soul is thought to travel through the sky as a shooting star. Alfred W. Bowers, Mandan Social and Ceremonial Organization (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004 ) 97. The Pleiades star cluster is said in Peru to be the eyes of Viracacha, the god of thunder and creation. Anthony Aveni, Stairways to the Stars: Skywatching in Three Great Ancient Cultures (New York: J. Wiley, 1997) 153. For the "star eyes" of the Aztecs, see Eduard Seler, Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology (English Translations of German Papers from Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde), translated by Charles P. Bowditch & Frank E. Comparato; J. Eric S. Thompson and Francis B. Richardson, edd., 2d ed. (Lancaster, California: Labyrinthos, 1996) 2:186a-b, 2:188b, 2:217b, 2:225b, 3:108a, 3:112b, 3:136b-3:137a, 3:217b, 4:111a, 4:133b, 4:226a, 5:5b, 5:45a, 5: 319a-b. The star-denoting eyes were also called "night eyes" by the Aztecs — see Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis, 182a. Among the Mixtec, stars (tinoo dzinin) are eyes (tenuu). Jill Leslie Furst, Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus I: A Commentary. Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, State University of New York at Albany, Publication #4 (Albany: the Author, 1978) 13-14. This symbolism is widely distributed over Mesoamerica. Herbert H. Spinden, "A Study of Maya Art: Its Subject Matter and Historical Development," Memoirs of the Pebody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 6 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913) 209, Fig. 239; 214. Hermann Beyer, "Symbolic Ciphers in the Eyes of Maya Deities," Anthropos 23 (1928): 32-37; "El ojo en la simbología del México antiguo," El México Antiguo (Mexico City) 10 (1965): 488-493. Franz Termer, "Observaciones etnológicas acerca de los ojos entre los antiguos Mexicanos y los Mayos," El México Antiguo 9 (1961): 245-273 . Jean-Jacques Rivard, "Cascabeles y ojos del dios Maya Ah Puch," Estudios de Cultura Maya (Mexico City), 5 (1965): 75-91. Horst Hartung, "Astronomical Signs in the Codices Bodley and Selden," in Native American Astronomy, ed. Anthony F. Aveni (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977) 37-41 . Pettazzoni records the following:
As for the stars as eyes of the sky itself, this is a quite wide-spread notion. Among the ancient Mexicans it even found expression in art, in the so-called Codices of their picture-writing, which include some representations of the heavens as dotted with eyes. It still survives among the present-day inhabitants of Mexico, as the Cora and Huichol. Among the Wiyot or Wishosk of central California the stars are called "eyes of the sky." Among the Alacaluf of Tierra del Fuego they are the eyes of Xolas, their Supreme Being. Likewise among the Cashinawa (Western Amazon basin), the stars are the eyes of the sky-Being. Sometimes it is certain particular stars which are his eyes. Thus, among the eastern Pomo in California the stars in general are supposed to be eyes, but the polestar is the eye of Marumda, the Supreme Being. In ancient Peru the seven Pleiades were the eyes of Viracocha. In the central district of the island of Flores the stars are the eyes of Dua Nggae the Supreme Being, who is thought of as being the pair Heaven and Earth. Among the Masai, who are Nilotic Hamites, the stars are the eyes of Ngai, the chief sky-god, and a falling star is one of his eyes which is coming nearer the earth in order to see better.
Raffaele Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," Numen, 2, ##1-2 (Jan.-May, 1950): 1-27 . "Among the Cora of ... Mexico, Tetewan, goddess of he night sky and the lower world, has many "sights," presumably eyes, looking every way, and the same is said of Hatsikan, the Morning Star." Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," 19. A raconteur of a Shoshone story says that after the Cottontail brothers made the Moon out of the Sun's gall bladder, "They made stars out of some other part of the body — maybe the eyes." Annie Bealer, "Cottontail Shoots the Sun," in Anne M. Smith, Shoshone Tales (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1993 ) 100. The Greek Άργός Πἄνόπτης | Argós Panóptēs, "Bright All-Eyes," seems to have represented the night sky, with his hundred eyes being the stars, as when Ovid describes him as stellatus ... Argus, "starry Argos" (Metamorphoses 1.644).
Argos Panoptes had "many" or "a hundred" or "ten thousand" eyes, or, according to the Aigimios, four, presumably distributed between two faces, for we actually find him two-faced on some vases. In one he has in addition eyes all over his body, and that was how Kratinos conceived of his panoptai, that is the followers of a philosophic school of which he was making fun in the comedy with that title.
Pettazzoni, "On the Attributes of God," 18-19.
37 Scolium in Vergil, Aeneid 10.763; Hyginus, Astronomica 2.34; Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catasterismoi, fr. 32.
38 Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catasterismoi, fr. 32.
39 Kerényi, The Gods of the Greeks, 203-204.
40 Pindar, fragment 239; Hyginus, Astronomica 2.21; scolium on Aratus 254. Kerényi, The Gods of the Greeks, 161-162, 201.
41 Keith L. Bildstein, "Why White-Tailed Deer Flag Their Tails," The American Naturalist, 121, # 5 (May, 1983): 709-715.
42 Odyssey 5.121.
43 Radin, "Intcohorúcika," 67.
44 Aratus 638.
45 Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catasterismoi, fr. 32.
46 Lankford, "The Great Serpent in Eastern North America," 128-132.