Hočąk Text — First Contact

interlinear text by Richard L. Dieterle


Winnebago V, #17:14


English Translation


Stylistic Features

hapaxlegomena: 'ųnigigi, "to land"; hawašu, "to pour on something"; hehere, "he was" (emphatic reduplication of the first syllable ?); skara, "the whites" used to denote white people; waruwuč, "to pour (rub ?) on someone" (cf. the stem wu, to apply pressure); wawanąk, "to be victorious"; wonąk, "to shake"; wošgara, "honors".

rare words: hokisa, "battle", attested only by Jipson; kipahi, "to be sharp"; ta, "to ask for", attested only by Marino; warujox, "to make something explode" (attested only in Seboek); wogita, wogit'a, "to ask, tell, them".

frequent use of -ke, "often".

the use of a very odd construction: kanąknįžą, "a not-to-marry" ("not having made a marriage"); similarly, hiruxurukižą, "an obtainer".

use of reduplication for emphasis: hehere, "he emphatically was"; hok'ųk'ų, "to give abundantly".

a strong preference for the full -kjanaheną over the contracted -kjaneną.

the use of hajire, "it is come (down)", in reference to a tradition.

the use of Mą'ųra rather than Mą’ųna for Earthmaker.



Words in brackets are those not found in the loose translation of Paul Radin (see below).


 

p. 1 —

Ao ttA Kse K * liAi ni (?). w Kdi K [...]s ‡ de e. mo K doAotto ‡‡
H?očąkre
g[i]-pi[ni]†
wąkšik[-į]ra
žee
Mogašuč
[...]
they liked (?)
living (?)
[these]
Red Banks
*after the letter /K/ there is a dash followed slightly above the line by "#17". To the right of this is a large spot of ink, which may or may not cover further characters.
†this may be K[...] w K[o] liAi ni, "... spirits".
‡some syllables from the second line of this story are partly occluded due to ink spots and other damage to the top right corner of the manuscript.
‡‡there is a large superscripted "1" written to the right of the syllable /mo/.

 


 

ay se Ki di e tt. Ao ttAK wi Ky se Ki di. w KdiKi i ne de.
airegiži,
éja
Hočąk
wigairegiži,
wąkšik-įneže.
[as they say,]
[there]
["Hočąk"]
[as they called them,]
[they lived.]

 


 

A Ke dKe. wi so Ko w d A ni s ni de.
Hąké
ške
wirókų
wažą
haniranįže.
Not
[also]
tool
anything
they did not have.

 


 

m s. m ttoKo s. e Ki di Ke. leAe tti o.
Mąra
mąčgúra
égi
žigé
peji'ų
Arrows
bows
and
[again]
fire-starter

 


 

leAette t e Ai s n. de de Ko Ki s.
peč
tae
hiraną.
Žežegų
kira
[fire]
[to light]
they had.
[Thus]
[only]

 


 

Ai se de. Ai Ke. mr wi so Ko de rKe
hireže.
Hįké
mąz
wirókų
žesge
[they did.]
Not
iron
[tools]
[that kind]

 


 

w d A ni s ni de. i ni s. Ai d. mr
wažą
haniranįže.
Inira
hižą
mąz
[things]
they did not have.
Stones
[one of them]
iron

 


 

ni rKe. A tty se deKe w K ttAK deAe ay s n K.
nisge
hajaire
ške
wakąčąkše,
airánąga
like
they saw
[even]
it was holy,
they say, and

 


 

p. 2 —
t ni Ao Ki do Ai s n de. t ni s. di Ke
tani
hokižu
hiranaže.
Taníra
žigé
tobacco
[with it]
[it was.]
Tobacco
[again]

 


 

de e A ni w KidiKi i ne de. e w d
žee
hanį́
wąkšik-įneže.
E
wažą
that
to have
[they lived.]
It
[something]

 


 

ttAo ni s. Ai Ki se se de. e Ki. A t Ki ntt tti s n K. w K ttA Ki se de.
čonira
higirereže.
Égi
hataginąčiranąga
wakąčąkireže.
from the beginning
[it came to them.]
And
[they dreamt, and]
they were holy.

 


 

e Ki. wo dK s. Ai d. xeAe te Ki di. wK w doAo deAe s
Égi
wošgara
hižą
xetegiži,
wąkwašošera
And
honors
[one of them]
it was great,
a brave man

 


 

Ae se de. e rKe. Ki r s dA n oyi se de.
hereže.
Ésge
kisara
šana
'ųireže.
it was.
[For that reason]
[fighting]
only
they did.

 


 

tt tt n Ki di. Aoyi diAili Ki r K s Kttl nK ra de. Al lK
Jająnągiži,
hoišip,
kisak
karakjąpnąks'aže.
Hąpak
Always,
at all times,
[killing]
they were always prepared.
[Every day]

 


 

p. 3 —
Ai K K. w di tt Ai s. Ai d K s Kttl li s ni de. e Ki. di Ke.
hįkaga
wažįjahįra
hižą
karakjąpiranįže.
Égi
žigé
[never]
[anything else]
[one]
[they were not prepared.]
[And]
[again]

 


 

e dA n. so xoAo soKo n i nK deAe. Ai d. to ttA n K.
ešana
ruxuruk
na'įnąkše.
Hižą
točąnąga
[it alone]
[to accomplish]
[they tried.]
One
he went on the warpath, and

 


 

so A tee Ai Ktte de rKe so Ko nK ra de. e Ki.
rohą
t'ehikje,
žesge
rokonąks'aže.
Égi
many
he would kill,
[this way]
[he would be great.]
[And]

 


 

Ai d. A t Ki ntt Ki di. so A xitti n Ki di. Al so A xitti Ai Ke
hižą
hataginąčgiži,
rohąxjįnagiži,
hąp
rohąxjį
hiké
[one]
[if he dreamt,]
[if he did much,]
day
very many
not

 


 

w so ttiniy n K. e Ki. t ni wo Ki do Ke Ki di. w xoAo liAi ni
waručnįanąga
égi
tani
wogižukegiži,
waxopį́nį
he did not eat, and
[then]
tobacco
if he offered it often,
spirits

 


 

p. 4 —
w s tt[i] se. n tto tty se Ki di. de e. Ao Ki ry tt. Ai Ke
waráj[i]re
nąjojaįgiži,
žee
hokisaija
hįké
[the various ones]
if they blessed him,
[this one]
in battle
not

 


 

tee Ai Ai se A liAini n Ki. Ai leAe se ri se Ke. de de rKe Ai s.
t'ehihire
hapinįnąki,
hiperezirege.
Žežesge
hira,
they kill him
[it would not be easy ?],
they knew it.
This sort
they did,

 


 

so K n w oyi se ra de. di Ke. w Ki Ko Ke Ai se de.
rokana
wa'ųires'aže.
Žigé
wagigoke
hireže.
[much]
[they would do it.]
[Again]
to give feasts often
they did.

 


 

Ai d w Ki Ko Ki di. w xoAo liAi ni w s tti se. t ni
Hižą
wagigogiži,
waxopį́nį
warajire
tani
[One]
if he gave feasts,
spirits
[the various ones]
tobacco

 


 

Ao Ki do Ki di. rA ni Ki. w lA Ai s. Ki lA Ai Ktte t nK dAe.
hokižugiži,
sanįki
wapahira
kipahikje
tanąkše.
if he offers,
[one side]
their weapons
they will be sharp
they asked for.

 


 

p. 5 —
rA ni Ki w tee Ai Ktte w K nK deAe. e rKe w Ki Ko Ke s
Sanįki
wat'ehikje
wakanąkše.
Ésge
wagigokera
[One side]
[they will kill them]
[they meant.]
That is why
to give feasts often

 


 

so K n Ai se ra de. Ki r s. w w n Kette a n K
rokana
hires'aže.
Kisara
wawanąkje,
ánąga
many
they would do.
[Fighting]
they will be victorious,
[and]

 


 

w o nK n de. w Ki Ko n Ki. w xoAo liAi ni. w s tti se. t ni
wa'ųnąknąže.
Wigigonągi,
waxopį́nį
warajire
tani
[they would do it.]
[If they give feasts,]
[spirits]
[the various ones]
[tobacco]

 


 

Ao Ki do n K. wo n xi se Ai so K n s. wi K nK deAe. de e
hokižunąga
Wonaǧire
Hirukąnąra
wiganąkše.
Žee
[they offered, and]
War
[the Controllers]
[they would call upon.]
[That]

 


 

p. 6 —
e tt de rKe Ao Koo Ai se Ki di. so Ko n K de rKe
éja
žesge
hok’ųhiregiži,
rokonąka
žesge
[there]
[that kind]
[after they gave it,]
[the great ones]
[this way]

 


 

Ao Koo Ai se Ktt n Ae Ke w o nK dAe. w Ki Ko n Kse.
hok'ųhirekjanahege,
wa'ųnąkše,
[wagigonąkre.]
if they would bless,
[they did it,]
[the feasts.]

 

 


 

At this point in the story the narrator inserted the Tobacco Origin Myth, Version 1 (q.v.). It is omitted here. For the Hočąk text, see Hočąk Syllabic Text — Tobacco Origins Myth, Version 1.

 


 

p. 14 —

e Ki. A Ko seyi d. te n tte tt w di d. A tti
Égi
hagoreižą,
teną́jeja
wažį́žą
haji
Then
[in the course of time,]
in the middle of the lake
something
to come

 


 

A xele deAe. Green Bay * te e tt. Ai ttAe tte tt
haxepše.
Green Bay
te
eja
hičejeja
it appeared.
Green Bay
lake
there
on the edge
*written in Latin cursive.

 


 

ttAi w o nK deAe. e tt tteAe Kitti w xoAo liAi ni s.
či
wa'ųnąkše.
Éja
čekjį
waxopinira
[lodge]
[it was it.]
[There]
[the first time]
[the spirits]

 


 

wi si tti se de. m Ai xAe te s. e Ki. A Ko sey d. a deKe
wirijireže,
Mąhixetera.
Égi
hagoreižą,
aške
[they came,]
[the Big Knives.]
[Then]
[finally,]
near

 


 

p. 15 —
A tti se de w Kidi Kn Kese. t ni A ni s n K. e Ki.
hajíreže.
Wąkšiknągere
tani
haniranąga
égi
they came.
[The men]
tobacco
they had, and
[then]

 


 

n li so x tts. ttA A rK. A ni s n K. te Ai tteAe tte tt
nąpiruxáčra
čahaska
haniranąga
te
hičejeja
the offerings
white deerskins
[they had, and]
lake
on the edge

 


 

A Ai n di ne de. e Ki. A o ni xitti Ai Ko so Ao
hahi
nąžįneže.
Égi
ha'ųnixjį
hikorohó
to go
they stood.
[Then]
about to land
to get ready

 


 

Ai se K tt. Ai do Ks. w Ke tt A lA Ai w so tto xi se de.
hiregają,
hižugra
wągéja
hapahi
warujoxireže.
when they were,
guns
above
towards
[they made them explode.]

 


 

w Kdi Kn Kse w wi K s Ki w oyi se de. no ni Ke. w KidiKi n Kese.
Wąkšiknągere
wawikaragi
wa'ųireže,
nųnįgé
Wąkšiknągere
The Indians
to salute
they were doing it,
but
the Indians

 


 

p. 16 —
wy se de. Ao Ao. w K tt w o nK dA n ay se de.
waíreže,
"Hohó,
Wakąja
wa'ųnąkšaną,"
aíreže.
they said,
["Hohó,]
Thunderbirds
they are,"
[they said.]

 


 

Ai K K. Ai do Koo w n xoKo ni n Ki di. e rKe. w K tt
Hįkaga
hižuk'ų
wanaxguninagžiž,
ésge
Wakąja
Never
the report of a gun
they had not heard before,
that is why
Thunderbirds

 


 

wi s n i ne de. w tts o ni Ki Ki se Ki di. n ls. w Ki w A
wirana'įneže.
Wačra
'ųnigigiregiži,
nąpra
wagiwahą
they thought they were.
Their boats
after they had landed,
hands
to extend

 


 

Ai se Ki di t ni Ai tt wo Ki do Ai se ra de.
hiregiži,
tani
hija
wogižu
hires'aže.
after they did,
tobacco
there
to put
[they would do.]

 


 

n ls. wo nK n i w o nK no ni Ke.
Nąpra
wonąk
ną'į
wa'ųnąk,
nųnįgé
Hands
to shake
to want
they did it,
but

 


 

Ai deKe. w se ni K. A ni n K deKe Ai Ke
hišgé
warenį́ka
haninąka,
ške
hįké
[indeed]
[whiteman]
[as he held it,]
[also]
not

 


 

p. 17 —
de rKe Ai leAe se rini tte Ke. tt Ko o Ktte ni reKe de. Ai Ko
žesge
hipereznįjege,
jagú
'ųkjenisgeže.
Higų
that
they did not know
what
he should do with it.
[Yet]

 


 

Ao t deKe. w w Ki oy se de. ttA lo ni A s. t ni w so wotto tti se de.
hotašgé
wawaki'ųireže,
čabónihára
tani
waruwujireže.
some
they put it on them,
the top of their heads
tobacco
they poured it on them.

 


 

wo n xi se w Ki t w o nK deAe. w se ni K. wo Ki ta *
Wonąǧire
wagita
wa'ųnąkše.
Warenį́ka
wogit'a
War
to ask
they did it.
[The whitemen]
to tell
*the terminal letter looks more like an /n/, but if it were, the spelling would not be coherent.

 


 

n i K dKe. A Ke se dKe w d de rK n ni de.
ną'įkaške,
hąké
rešge
wažą
žesganąnįže.
[they tried repeatedly,]
not
[even]
[anything]
[they could not do.]

 


 

A Ai. w d s. ttAo doKo ni w o nK s. w wi lAe se ri se Ki di.
Hahi
wažąra
čųšguni
wa'ųnąkra,
wawipereziregiži,
After awhile
[the things]
[perhaps to have]
[they were it,]
[they knew about them, and]

 


 

p. 18 —
mr wi o w Ki Ko ri se de. w n K wy se de deKe.
mąz
wi'ų
wagigųzireže.
Wanąkawaireže,
ške
ax
to use them
they taught them.
They were afraid of them,
[even]

 


 

e Ki. w K ttAK wi s n i n Ke. di Ke. Ai do Ki se Ki
égi
wakąčąk
wiraną'įnąke.
Žigé
hižukiregi
[then]
holy
as they thought.
Again
guns

 


 

dKe.
Ai o s.
w Ki Ko ri se de.
te e ttA
w K ttA Ki se d[e]
ške
hi'ųra
wagigųzireže.
Teečą
wakąčąkirež[e],
[also]
to use
they taught them.
[These indeed]
they were holy,

 


 

a nK deAe. e tt. Ai dKe w se n[i] K. w o de.
anąkše.
Éja
hišgé
waren[i]ka
wa'ųže,
[they said.]
[There]
[also]
[the whiteman]
[he did it,]

 


 

w Kono ni Ki d. t n[i] Ai Ki di. ni A w doAo de.
wąknunįkižą
tan[i]
higiži,
ni
hawašuže.
an old man
to smoke
as he did,
water
he poured on him.

 


 

p. 19 —
ta e nK deAe
e Ke.
tti
ni.
Ai Ke
t ni Ai
Taenąkše,
ege
ji
ni,
hįké
tanihi
It burned,
[as he thought,]
[to come]
[water,]
[not]
[he was smoking]

 


 

Ai leAe se ri s ni de e tt. Ke ni t ni s. Ai leAe se ri s ni de
hipereziranįže.
Éja
keni
taníra
hipereziranįže.
they did not know.
[There]
[before]
[smoking]
[before they knew.]

 


 

e Ki. A Ai o nK Koo w o mK ni rKe
Égi
hahi
'ųnąnk'ų
wa'ųmąk
nisge
[Then]
after awhile,
[finally,]
accustomed to them
[like]

 


 

Ai se de.
A Ai.
Ai do Kn K.
w wi o s.
w wi lAe se ri se de.
hireže.
Hahi
hižuknąka
wawi'ųra
wawiperezireže.
[they were.]
After awhile,
the guns
[the use of them]
[they knew about them.]

 


 

mr n K deKe. e tt. di Ke. w d
Mąznąka
šge
éja
žigé
wažą
Axes
[also]
[there]
[again]
[things]

 


 

p. 20 —
w wi Ki so ttA Ai se de. w A. de rKe w wi Ki so ttA
wawíkiručą́
hireže.
Wahá
žesge
wawíkiručą́
to trade
they did.
Furs
[that kind]
to trade

 


 

Ai se de.
Ai do Ks.
m rs.
m Ai s.
no ni Ke.
hireže,
hižukra,
mązra,
mąhira,
nųnįgé
they did,
guns,
axes,
knives,
but

 


 

Ai Ko w K ttA Ki se de Ai s nK dAe. e Ki. A Ko sey d.
higų
wakąčąkireže,
hiranąkše.
Égi
hagoreižą,
still
they were holy,
[they thought.]
[Then]
[in time,]

 


 

Ai do Kn K. w wi o s. Ai leAe se ri se Ki di. m dtt Ki liAi se de.
hižuknąka
wawi'ųra
hipereziregiži,
mąšją
gipireže.
the guns
the use
they learned, and
very much
they liked.

 


 

e tt.
w o nK deAe.
A Ae se Ki
deKe.
leAe tto too Ai s n K.
Éja
wa'ųnąkše.
Hąhéregi
ške
pejot'ųhiranąga
[There]
[they did it.]
At night
[also]
they woud build fires, and

 


 

p. 21 —
e tt Ai do Ki o tt Ai se de. A Ke Ay ni A leAe Ai s ni de.
éja
hižuki'ųja
hireže.
Hąké
haíni
hapé
hiranįže.
there
to try their guns out
they did.
Not
morning
to wait
they could not.

 


 

rii xitti Ai s n i ne de. Ay ni Ki A leAe s. e tt.
S'ixjį
hiraną'įneže.
Hainigi
hapera
éja,
[For a long time]
[they thought about it.]
[When morning]
[that they waited for]
[there,]

 


 

Ai do Ks
w so de n Ai se Ki di. A ttiy K sy se de. di Ke
hižukra
waružena
hiregiži,
hajiakaraireže.
Žigé
[guns]
[taking them apart]
[after they were,]
[they went home.]
Again

 


 

A tti se Ktt n Ae de. w wi Ky se de. Ai Ko K tt K. wi Ko Ko rs
hajirekjanaheže.
Wawigaireže,
higų gająga,
wigųgųsra
they would come.
[They said to them,]
by this time
making signs

 


 

dKe. tt Ko e w o Ai se K. w wi Ki leAe se leAe sere wi de.
ške
jagú
e
wa'ųhirega,
wawigipereperezwiže.
[also]
[how]
[it]
[as they did it,]
they learned to make themselves understood.

 


 

p. 22 —
e Ki. e tt. Ai no l A s. A tti se Ki di. w d s.
Égi
éj
hinųpáhąra
hajíregiži,
wažąra
[And]
there
the second time
when they went,
[the things]

 


 

A ntt. A ni A tti se de. e tt dKe.
haną́č
hanį́
hajireže.
Éja
ške
all
possessing
[they came.]
There
[also]

 


 

w so ttA Ks. w Ki Ko ri se de. mr wi o s dKe.
waručakra
wagigųzireže.
Mąz
wi'ųra,
ške
sewing
they taught them.
Ax
how to use it,
and

 


 

m Ai wi o s dKe. e tt. Ae se de.
mąhi
wi'ųra
ške
éja
hereže.
knife
how to use it,
and
[there]
[they did.]

 


Source:

Paul Radin, "Winnebago Contact with the French," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago V, #17, 1-6, 14-22. A loose translation is found in Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 17-19.