Hočąk Text — First Contact

interlinear text by Richard L. Dieterle


Winnebago V, #17:14


English Translation


Stylistic Features

hapaxlegomena: 'ųnigigi, "to land"; hawašu, "to pour on something"; hehere, "he was" (emphatic reduplication of the first syllable ?); skara, "the whites" used to denote white people; waruwuč, "to pour (rub ?) on someone" (cf. the stem wu, to apply pressure); wawanąk, "to be victorious"; wonąk, "to shake"; wošgara, "honors".

rare words: hokisa, "battle", attested only by Jipson; kipahi, "to be sharp"; ta, "to ask for", attested only by Marino; warujox, "to make something explode" (attested only in Seboek); wogita, wogit'a, "to ask, tell, them".

frequent use of -ke, "often".

the use of a very odd construction: kanąknįžą, "a not-to-marry" ("not having made a marriage"); similarly, hiruxurukižą, "an obtainer".

use of reduplication for emphasis: hehere, "he emphatically was"; hok'ųk'ų, "to give abundantly".

a strong preference for the full -kjanaheną over the contracted -kjaneną.

the use of hajire, "it is come (down)", in reference to a tradition.

the use of Mą'ųra rather than Mą’ųna for Earthmaker.



Words in brackets are those not found in the loose translation of Paul Radin (see below).


 

p. 1 —

Ao ttA KLe K * liAi ni (?). w Kdi K [...]L ‡ de e. mo K doAotto ‡‡
H?očąkre g[i]-pi[ni]† wąkšik[-į]ra žee Mogašuč
[The Hočągara] they liked (?) living (?) [these] Red Banks
* after the letter /K/ there is a dash followed slightly above the line by "#17". To the right of this is a large spot of ink, which may or may not cover further characters.
† this may be K[...] w K[o] liAi ni, "... spirits".
‡ some syllables from the second line of this story are partly occluded due to ink spots and other damage to the top right corner of the manuscript.
‡‡ there is a large superscripted "1" written to the right of the syllable /mo/.

 


 

ay Le Ki di e tt. Ao ttAK wi Ky Le Ki di. w KdiKi i ne de.
airegiži, éja Hočąk wigairegiži, wąkšik-įneže.
[as they say,] [there] ["Hočąk"] [as they called them,] [they lived.]

 


 

A Ke dKe. wi Lo Ko w d A ni L ni de.
Hąké ške wirókų wažą haniranįže.
Not [also] tool anything they did not have.

 


 

m L. m ttoKo L. e Ki di Ke. leAe tti o.
Mąra mąčgúra égi žigé peji'ų
Arrows bows and [again] fire-starter

 


 

leAette t e Ai L n. de de Ko Ki L.
peč tae hiraną. Žežegų kira
[fire] [to light] they had. [Thus] [only]

 


 

Ai Le de. Ai Ke. mr wi Lo Ko de rKe
hireže. Hįké mąz wirókų žesge
[they did.] Not iron [tools] [that kind]

 


 

w d A ni L ni de. i ni L. Ai d. mr
wažą haniranįže. Inira hižą mąz
[things] they did not have. Stones [one of them] iron

 


 

ni rKe. A tty Le deKe w K ttAK deAe ay L n K.
nisge hajaire ške wakąčąkše, airánąga
like they saw [even] it was holy, they say, and

 


 

p. 2 —
t ni Ao Ki do Ai L n de. t ni L. di Ke
tani hokižu hiranaže. Taníra žigé
tobacco [with it] [it was.] Tobacco [again]

 


 

de e A ni w KidiKi i ne de. e w d
žee hanį́ wąkšik-įneže. E wažą
that to have [they lived.] It [something]

 


 

ttAo ni L. Ai Ki Le Le de. e Ki. A t Ki ntt tti L n K. w K ttA Ki Le de.
čonira higirereže. Égi hataginąčiranąga wakąčąkireže.
from the beginning [it came to them.] And [they dreamt, and] they were holy.

 


 

e Ki. wo dK L. Ai d. xeAe te Ki di. wK w doAo deAe L
Égi wošgara hižą xetegiži, wąkwašošera
And honors [one of them] it was great, a brave man

 


 

Ae Le de. e rKe. Ki r L dA n oyi Le de.
hereže. Ésge kisara šana 'ųireže.
it was. [For that reason] [fighting] only they did.

 


 

tt tt n Ki di. Aoyi diAili Ki r K L Kttl nK ra de. Al lK
Jająnągiži, hoišip, kisak karakjąpnąks'aže. Hąpak
Always, at all times, [killing] they were always prepared. [Every day]

 


 

p. 3 —
Ai K K. w di tt Ai L. Ai d K L Kttl li L ni de. e Ki. di Ke.
hįkaga wažįjahįra hižą karakjąpiranįže. Égi žigé
[never] [anything else] [one] [they were not prepared.] [And] [again]

 


 

e dA n. Lo xoAo LoKo n i nK deAe. Ai d. to ttA n K.
ešana ruxuruk na'įnąkše. Hižą točąnąga
[it alone] [to accomplish] [they tried.] One he went on the warpath, and

 


 

Lo A tee Ai Ktte de rKe Lo Ko nK ra de. e Ki.
rohą t'ehikje, žesge rokonąks'aže. Égi
many he would kill, [this way] [he would be great.] [And]

 


 

Ai d. A t Ki ntt Ki di. Lo A xitti n Ki di. Al Lo A xitti Ai Ke
hižą hataginąčgiži, rohąxjįnagiži, hąp rohąxjį hiké
[one] [if he dreamt,] [if he did much,] day very many not

 


 

w Lo ttiniy n K. e Ki. t ni wo Ki do Ke Ki di. w xoAo liAi ni
waručnįanąga égi tani wogižukegiži, waxopį́nį
he did not eat, and [then] tobacco if he offered it often, spirits

 


 

p. 4 —
w L tt[i] Le. n tto tty Le Ki di. de e. Ao Ki ry tt. Ai Ke
waráj[i]re nąjojaįgiži, žee hokisaija hįké
[the various ones] if they blessed him, [this one] in battle not

 


 

tee Ai Ai Le A liAini n Ki. Ai leAe Le ri Le Ke. de de rKe Ai L.
t'ehihire hapinįnąki, hiperezirege. Žežesge hira,
they kill him [it would not be easy ?], they knew it. This sort they did,

 


 

Lo K n w oyi Le ra de. di Ke. w Ki Ko Ke Ai Le de.
rokana wa'ųires'aže. Žigé wagigoke hireže.
[much] [they would do it.] [Again] to give feasts often they did.

 


 

Ai d w Ki Ko Ki di. w xoAo liAi ni w L tti Le. t ni
Hižą wagigogiži, waxopį́nį warajire tani
[One] if he gave feasts, spirits [the various ones] tobacco

 


 

Ao Ki do Ki di. rA ni Ki. w lA Ai L. Ki lA Ai Ktte t nK dAe.
hokižugiži, sanįki wapahira kipahikje tanąkše.
if he offers, [one side] their weapons they will be sharp they asked for.

 


 

p. 5 —
rA ni Ki w tee Ai Ktte w K nK deAe. e rKe w Ki Ko Ke L
Sanįki wat'ehikje wakanąkše. Ésge wagigokera
[One side] [they will kill them] [they meant.] That is why to give feasts often

 


 

Lo K n Ai Le ra de. Ki r L. w w n Kette a n K
rokana hires'aže. Kisara wawanąkje, ánąga
many they would do. [Fighting] they will be victorious, [and]

 


 

w o nK n de. w Ki Ko n Ki. w xoAo liAi ni. w L tti Le. t ni
wa'ųnąknąže. Wigigonągi, waxopį́nį warajire tani
[they would do it.] [If they give feasts,] [spirits] [the various ones] [tobacco]

 


 

Ao Ki do n K. wo n xi Le Ai Lo K n L. wi K nK deAe. de e
hokižunąga Wonaǧire Hirukąnąra wiganąkše. Žee
[they offered, and] War [the Controllers] [they would call upon.] [That]

 


 

p. 6 —
e tt de rKe Ao Koo Ai Le Ki di. Lo Ko n K de rKe
éja žesge hok’ųhiregiži, rokonąka žesge
[there] [that kind] [after they gave it,] [the great ones] [this way]

 


 

Ao Koo Ai Le Ktt n Ae Ke w o nK dAe. w Ki Ko n KLe.
hok'ųhirekjanahege, wa'ųnąkše, [wagigonąkre.]
if they would bless, [they did it,] [the feasts.]

 

 


 

At this point in the story the narrator inserted the Tobacco Origin Myth, Version 1 (q.v.). It is omitted here. For the Hočąk text, see Hočąk Syllabic Text — Tobacco Origins Myth, Version 1.

 


 

p. 14 —

e Ki. A Ko Leyi d. te n tte tt w di d. A tti
Égi hagoreižą, teną́jeja wažį́žą haji
Then [in the course of time,] in the middle of the lake something to come

 


 

A xele deAe. Green Bay * te e tt. Ai ttAe tte tt
haxepše. Green Bay te eja hičejeja
it appeared. Green Bay lake there on the edge
* written in Latin cursive.

 


 

ttAi w o nK deAe. e tt tteAe Kitti w xoAo liAi ni L.
či wa'ųnąkše. Éja čekjį waxopinira
[lodge] [it was it.] [There] [the first time] [the spirits]

 


 

wi Li tti Le de. m Ai xAe te L. e Ki. A Ko Ley d. a deKe
wirijireže, Mąhixetera. Égi hagoreižą, aške
[they came,] [the Big Knives.] [Then] [finally,] near

 


 

p. 15 —
A tti Le de w Kidi Kn KeLe. t ni A ni L n K. e Ki.
hajíreže. Wąkšiknągere tani haniranąga égi
they came. [The men] tobacco they had, and [then]

 


 

n li Lo x ttL. ttA A rK. A ni L n K. te Ai tteAe tte tt
nąpiruxáčra čahaska haniranąga te hičejeja
the offerings white deerskins [they had, and] lake on the edge

 


 

A Ai n di ne de. e Ki. A o ni xitti Ai Ko Lo Ao
hahi nąžįneže. Égi ha'ųnixjį hikorohó
to go they stood. [Then] about to land to get ready

 


 

Ai Le K tt. Ai do KL. w Ke tt A lA Ai w Lo tto xi Le de.
hiregają, hižugra wągéja hapahi warujoxireže.
when they were, guns above towards [they made them explode.]

 


 

w Kdi Kn KLe w wi K L Ki w oyi Le de. no ni Ke. w KidiKi n KeLe.
Wąkšiknągere wawikaragi wa'ųireže, nųnįgé Wąkšiknągere
The Indians to salute they were doing it, but the Indians

 


 

p. 16 —
wy Le de. Ao Ao. w K tt w o nK dA n ay Le de.
waíreže, "Hohó, Wakąja wa'ųnąkšaną," aíreže.
they said, ["Hohó,] Thunderbirds they are," [they said.]

 


 

Ai K K. Ai do Koo w n xoKo ni n Ki di. e rKe. w K tt
Hįkaga hižuk'ų wanaxguninagžiž, ésge Wakąja
Never the report of a gun they had not heard before, that is why Thunderbirds

 


 

wi L n i ne de. w ttL o ni Ki Ki Le Ki di. n lL. w Ki w A
wirana'įneže. Wačra 'ųnigigiregiži, nąpra wagiwahą
they thought they were. Their boats after they had landed, hands to extend

 


 

Ai Le Ki di t ni Ai tt wo Ki do Ai Le ra de.
hiregiži, tani hija wogižu hires'aže.
after they did, tobacco there to put [they would do.]

 


 

n lL. wo nK n i w o nK no ni Ke.
Nąpra wonąk ną'į wa'ųnąk, nųnįgé
Hands to shake to want they did it, but

 


 

Ai deKe. w Le ni K. A ni n K deKe Ai Ke
hišgé warenį́ka haninąka, ške hįké
[indeed] [whiteman] [as he held it,] [also] not

 


 

p. 17 —
de rKe Ai leAe Le rini tte Ke. tt Ko o Ktte ni reKe de. Ai Ko
žesge hipereznįjege, jagú 'ųkjenisgeže. Higų
that they did not know what he should do with it. [Yet]

 


 

Ao t deKe. w w Ki oy Le de. ttA lo ni A L. t ni w Lo wotto tti Le de.
hotašgé wawaki'ųireže, čabónihára tani waruwujireže.
some they put it on them, the top of their heads tobacco they poured it on them.

 


 

wo n xi Le w Ki t w o nK deAe. w Le ni K. wo Ki ta *
Wonąǧire wagita wa'ųnąkše. Warenį́ka wogit'a
War to ask they did it. [The whitemen] to tell
* the terminal letter looks more like an /n/, but if it were, the spelling would not be coherent.

 


 

n i K dKe. A Ke Le dKe w d de rK n ni de.
ną'įkaške, hąké rešge wažą žesganąnįže.
[they tried repeatedly,] not [even] [anything] [they could not do.]

 


 

A Ai. w d L. ttAo doKo ni w o nK L. w wi lAe Le ri Le Ki di.
Hahi wažąra čųšguni wa'ųnąkra, wawipereziregiži,
After awhile [the things] [perhaps to have] [they were it,] [they knew about them, and]

 


 

p. 18 —
mr wi o w Ki Ko ri Le de. w n K wy Le de deKe.
mąz wi'ų wagigųzireže. Wanąkawaireže, ške
ax to use them they taught them. They were afraid of them, [even]

 


 

e Ki. w K ttAK wi L n i n Ke. di Ke. Ai do Ki Le Ki
égi wakąčąk wiraną'įnąke. Žigé hižukiregi
[then] holy as they thought. Again guns

 


 

dKe. Ai o L. w Ki Ko ri Le de. te e ttA w K ttA Ki Le d[e]
ške hi'ųra wagigųzireže. Teečą wakąčąkirež[e],
[also] to use they taught them. [These indeed] they were holy,

 


 

a nK deAe. e tt. Ai dKe w Le n[i] K. w o de.
anąkše. Éja hišgé waren[i]ka wa'ųže,
[they said.] [There] [also] [the whiteman] [he did it,]

 


 

w Kono ni Ki d. t n[i] Ai Ki di. ni A w doAo de.
wąknunįkižą tan[i] higiži, ni hawašuže.
an old man to smoke as he did, water he poured on him.

 


 

p. 19 —
ta e nK deAe e Ke. tti ni. Ai Ke t ni Ai
Taenąkše, ege ji ni, hįké tanihi
It burned, [as he thought,] [to come] [water,] [not] [he was smoking]

 


 

Ai leAe Le ri L ni de e tt. Ke ni t ni L. Ai leAe Le ri L ni de
hipereziranįže. Éja keni taníra hipereziranįže.
they did not know. [There] [before] [smoking] [before they knew.]

 


 

e Ki. A Ai o nK Koo w o mK ni rKe
Égi hahi 'ųnąnk'ų wa'ųmąk niLge
[Then] after awhile, [finally,] accustomed to them [like]

 


 

Ai Le de. A Ai. Ai do Kn K. w wi o L. w wi lAe Le ri Le de.
hireže. Hahi hižuknąka wawi'ųra wawiperezireže.
[they were.] After awhile, the guns [the use of them] [they knew about them.]

 


 

mr n K deKe. e tt. di Ke. w d
Mąznąka šge éja žigé wažą
AxeL [alLo] [there] [again] [thingL]

 


 

p. 20 —
w wi Ki Lo ttA Ai Le de. w A. de rKe w wi Ki Lo ttA
wawíkiručą́ hireže. Wahá žesge wawíkiručą́
to trade they did. Furs [that kind] to trade

 


 

Ai Le de. Ai do KL. m rL. m Ai L. no ni Ke.
hireže, hižukra, mązra, mąhira, nųnįgé
they did, guns, axes, knives, but

 


 

Ai Ko w K ttA Ki Le de Ai L nK dAe. e Ki. A Ko Ley d.
higų wakąčąkireže, hiranąkše. Égi hagoreižą,
still they were holy, [they thought.] [Then] [in time,]

 


 

Ai do Kn K. w wi o L. Ai leAe Le ri Le Ki di. m dtt Ki liAi Le de.
hižuknąka wawi'ųra hipereziregiži, mąšją gipireže.
the guns the use they learned, and very much they liked.

 


 

e tt. w o nK deAe. A Ae Le Ki deKe. leAe tto too Ai L n K.
Éja wa'ųnąkše. Hąhéregi ške pejot'ųhiranąga
[There] [they did it.] At night [also] they woud build fires, and

 


 

p. 21 —
e tt Ai do Ki o tt Ai Le de. A Ke Ay ni A leAe Ai L ni de.
éja hižuki'ųja hireže. Hąké haíni hapé hiranįže.
there to try their guns out they did. Not morning to wait they could not.

 


 

rii xitti Ai L n i ne de. Ay ni Ki A leAe L. e tt.
S'ixjį hiraną'įneže. Hainigi hapera éja,
[For a long time] [they thought about it.] [When morning] [that they waited for] [there,]

 


 

Ai do KL w Lo de n Ai Le Ki di. A ttiy K Ly Le de. di Ke
hižukra waružena hiregiži, hajiakaraireže. Žigé
[guns] [taking them apart] [after they were,] [they went home.] Again

 


 

A tti Le Ktt n Ae de. w wi Ky Le de. Ai Ko K tt K. wi Ko Ko rL
hajirekjanaheže. Wawigaireže, higų gająga, wigųgųsra
they would come. [They said to them,] by this time making signs

 


 

dKe. tt Ko e w o Ai Le K. w wi Ki leAe Le leAe Lere wi de.
ške jagú e wa'ųhirega, wawigipereperezwiže.
[also] [how] [it] [as they did it,] they learned to make themselves understood.

 


 

p. 22 —
e Ki. e tt. Ai no l A L. A tti Le Ki di. w d L.
Égi éj hinųpáhąra hajíregiži, wažąra
[And] there the second time when they went, [the things]

 


 

A ntt. A ni A tti Le de. e tt dKe.
haną́č hanį́ hajireže. Éja ške
all possessing [they came.] There [also]

 


 

w Lo ttA KL. w Ki Ko ri Le de. mr wi o L dKe.
waručakra wagigųzireže. Mąz wi'ųra, ške
sewing they taught them. Ax how to use it, and

 


 

m Ai wi o L dKe. e tt. Ae Le de.
mąhi wi'ųra ške éja hereže.
knife how to use it, and [there] [they did.]

 


Source:

Paul Radin, "Winnebago Contact with the French," Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3897 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago V, #17, 1-6, 14-22. A loose translation is found in Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 17-19.