Hocąk Text — Waterspirit Bluehorn (Brave Man)

The MS has a very large "11." written just to the left of the title. Written vertically, just a little lower in the left margin, is "Story no 2.". The MS is written throughout in a very clear hand.

This MS is one of Radin's oldest. Its orthography is unlike anything that he used thereafter. I have converted the orthography of the MS into that used by Radin in his published works. The original MS is not a true interlinear, but a sentence by sentence running translation. It seems to have been based upon an earlier text, apparently written in a very sloppy fashion. In many cases /i/ and /e/ are switched (žige > žege, giži > giže), indicating substantial confusion between these letters, a phenomenon more likely in print than in speech. This conclusion can be reinforced from the occasional confusion of /g/ and /ž/ which is common in handwriting from this time and place. However, the sounds represented by these letters are respectively the hard /g/ and /j/, which have little in common and are almost never confused in speech; yet we find a number of instances in which /g/ and /j/ have been switched. Therefore, the confusion must have arisen in a written source. This source is also characterized by the frequent use of the letter /r/ after /a/ to express /ą/. Sometimes an /r/ is placed before an /n/ to better represent the true sound of the /n/. Both of these orthographies are commonly found in the work of the German missionary Jacob Stuki (see source [b-G] in the bibliography of the Hocąk Lexicon). There is some good probability, therefore, that the original transcriber (who may have been the raconteur) was educated in that missionary school or its tradition. Another oddity is that /r/ is used as if it were a vowel, and is used to stand for /’a/, e.g., /srže/ for /s’aže/.

Stylistically, the raconteur has a uniquely eccentric use of double conjunction made by suffixing the last word of the first clause with -(h)anąga, followed by égi, both meaning "and." He also uses de-e to mean, "and," an unheard of use of that word, which normally means, "this; this one." The rare word uñke is used more than once to mean "not" (for hañké).

In the following text, brackets, [...], indicate an insertion made by the editor (Richard L. Dieterle).

English Translation

Header —

Worag te-e Wakcexi Hecoga e Horagš[a]na
Story this Waterspirit Greenhorn* he told this
*the word co denotes that part of the spectrum embracing both blue and green ("bleen," "grue"). The deity to which the translator here refers to as "Greenhorn" is ever after called "Bluehorn" by Radin.



p. 1 —
Eja cinąg hižą nągše, airena.*
There village a was [= lay], it is said.
*written as ariena.



Egi Hocąk cinąg hižą hereže,
And Winnebago village a it was,



airena.* Egi Texete anąga hiroroku eja
it was said. And "Large Lake" called [some distance from it]
*written as ariena.



hañke harixjįni eja hereže. Žig[e?]
not far the place it was. [Again?]



wañgšik hoinagi* eja hañke hiroharexjįniže
people they originated where not [very] far
*spelled as hoinnagi.



wa’ųnągahe cinąg kanągnañka. Egi higų
it was village [it was erected]. And [yet]



mani hokahi mani serecį wagigora
winter every winter all through feasts



unągše. Eja hot’ųnųb hišak giže
they made. There two fireplaces [?] [?]



eja wañgšigra hakewe ciwiže. Wañgnunįkra
where people six lived. An old man



hicarwina hakarikešunąga egi hinųkhirera hikunara
his wife [lived together] and and their daughter her husband



harenąga egi hižą hinįknįk higeš?
[?] and and one little son [?]



egi hinųknañka hižą kinubgiše jejenaga
and the daughter's one brother this many (?)



ciwiže. Egi žegų ųnągše egi
lived. [And] thus they remained and



hocįcįnįk jega cowe wañgra wikisk[e]xjį
boy the nearly man [just like]*
*the translation has "as big as."



nųnįge hoišip hocįcįnįk xununįkra šgac* hirega
but whenever the boys [small] would play
*written as shgah.



p. 2 —
hižą wakižu* ųjes’aže.† Hanacixjį
one with them [they were doing it]. [All] the rest
*written as "wakisu."
†written unžesrshe.



wewicše nųnįge wa’ųžeže žegų. Wošgara waxjaniskše,
he was taller than but he did thus. His actions were rather funny,



žegų hañke wañgšig wa’ųnągre. Žesk[a]niže.
[so] not humans he was like. [He was done.]



Hahi, wañgra harnaj wewicšenųnįge wa’ųježe:
Finally, the men [all] he was taller than, but he did thus:



mąhipekunųg hižą hanegi že-e hakarenenaga
broken pointed knife a he always carried (?) [that one] he would use (?)



wakišga jega wagiųjes’aže. Egi
[to be with] [the standing one] arrows he would make. And



hagorežą wañgnunįknañka wešguni, "Egi hinikhaxjį,
one day the old man said, "Now my son,



egi hiwagigošuna* haregejni. Eske, nišna
[now] we always give a feast it is time. Therefore, [?]
*written as hiwagigoshunna.



hocįncįnci hicakoro* waraga kereponatanixjį†
boy friends relatives thirty
*written hišharšoro.
†written a kerepnna tanixži.



ragikarąhenaga egi honanųbhaxjį hahiraciwigi. E
you can invite and and two days travel you can go out. They



hocįncįna nakekaranąga e wanihižą pinikrahisga
the boys can hunt [and] they an animal of good flesh



t’ehirenanaguni, hirewahanagšuna," eže.* Wañgnunįknañka žeske
they might kill, I think is why I say this," [he said]. the old man thus
*spelled eže.



p. 3 —
egiži hinikhiranąga, "Howe!" Hicakoro* nahira
when he said the son said, "Ho!" Friends his
*written as hišharšora.



wagikarahanąga egi hicorohorenąga hanexjį hažikarareže.
he invited and and they got ready and early in the morning they started out.



Wañgnunįka hinikra e wacošuže. Namące
The old man's son he led them out. Warclub



raharanenąga egi hijnara* higuraxniǧiranąga
he carried and and the others kettles and
*spelled hižnnara.



wažąžežeskehareregi wakarakhinreže. Hagoraže, hahixawanenaže.
things of that kind carried. Finally, they disappeared in the distance.



Egi wañgwašošuga* hinųg carapra hinig higiže
Then the leader's sister [?] boy [she had ?]
*written as wangwažoshuga.



wakarageže. "Hiniǧaxjį, hitekragašge wanakesera hižą
[she carried ?].* "My son, with your uncle† the hunt one
*hinig higiže wakarageže, is translated as, "said to her boy ..."
†mother's brother.



nąnikše hižą girukawa nihe peranigagu,"
[little] wood a gather [to continue] [you should go along ?],"



higeže hiunina. Hocįncįn waxjanañga wagareže.
she said to him the mother. Boy funny she said to him.



"Egi waguni." "Egi hiunga, tejeguni,"
["Well,] go on." "Well mother, I will go,"



anąga. Mąhipekunukra šana* hakaninąga žegų
he said. His broken pointed knife only he took and [so]
*written defectively as shna.



waruxaže te-e. Hagoraža, wañgnañka hižą
he chased after them [this one]. Finally, of the men one



haj[a]nogają* te-e wañg hižą hižanakhuheže.
looked back [this one] man a coming on the run.
*written in the MS as hažnogažu.



p. 4 —
Te-e ask[e]jigagu wagoršuka hišųskera wa’ųgše.
[This one] when he got near the leader's nephew it was.



Egi wirajagi hitekra wešguni, "Egi
[And] when he reached them his uncle he said, "[Well]



epina rajira." Žegų egruhanehara’ų. Hagoreže,
it is good you came." [So] they went on. Finally,



eja hahinąže hionige pacot’ų hiranąga
there they used wood dry to build a fire [they did] and



hocįncįn jega žegų nąraroh[a]n[a]xjį ku-takhanąga*
boy the [thus] much wood he gathered and
*spelled ko-drkhanaga.



egi haįseraj* pajra woikawa’ųže. Eske,
and all night the fire he replenished.† Therefore,
*written as huseraž.
†the translation adds, "with wood."



hañke tasakheraniže.* Egi hanihenųbhagiže
not they did not get cold. Then the second morning
*written as drsakheranishe.



žege hagirkarareže egi hambsaraj
again they started on and all day



žege ųhanihara’ų. Hoxjanagiže žegų eja
[again] they traveled. It was evening [and so] there



žegųeja žejuñga* hiwuš[a]reže. Egi žegų
[at the end] [finished] they stopped. And [so]
*written as shežnga.



hicųskehirejega xawipacanąga cihižą* ųže. Egi
the nephew cut some grass and a lodge built. Then
*written as žhihishe.



nąrarohąna* kutakhanąga† žegų wažąna‡ harnaj
a lot of wood he gathered and [so] things all
*written as nararohn.
†written as kudrkhanaga.
‡written as washena.



hirušjąnahinąga* egi žegų wapanagu
ready and and [so] [he] waited
*written as hiružn hinaga.



tee. Hagoreže higu hokawas hirušjąnaxjįgajan*
[this one]. Finally [still] darkness [when they were ready]
*written as hiružnxžigažn.



hakariruhe. Carxatexjį hižą hanihakeriregi hikešreranąga
they returned. Big deer a they brought back [...] and



egi wohunaže uj[a]un haga hohųna
and they dressed it finally in time they boiled it



tuciregiže warucireže. Egi rujuregiže, mįǧ[i]reže
they got it cooked and ate it. And after they had eaten they lay down



egi hocįñgcįnjega hitekra e hakarikisu* mįgša.
and the boy uncle his [he was with him] he slept.
*for hakarakižu.



Hanaj nahiranųnįge hocįnciñga hañke
All to sleep but the boy not



naniñgše. Žegų hikimįg hanąga cirop
he was not asleep. [So] he lay awake and the door



wesiwiñgu te-e. Hagoraže, wañgšig hižą
he watched [this one]. Finally, man a



ciropra hajiruxunąga waworuxše. Egi hocįncįnañgre*
the door raised and peeped in at them. Then the boy
*written as hožinžinngre.



wanakawagše eske hitekra ruxįkhanąga wañǧižą
was frightened so his uncle he woke up but [a man]



hajaga hogiraknųnįge žegų wogitekhanąga žege
[he saw] [he told him] but [so] he got angry and again



žegų najireže. Higųžege hinųbhana haji
[therefore] went to sleep. Again the second time [he came]



wañgšig jega žege woruxše. Higų
person the again looked in at them. Immediately



žege hitekra ruxįk hanąga hogirakše.
again his uncle he woke up and told him.



p. 6 —
Žeskųnįge žege wogitekše. "Guwa, kora!
But even then [again] he got angry. "Ah!



hananaina te-e jaguhiš wa’ųgše?," e-že. Žegų
I try to sleep [this one] why does he do thus to me?," he said. [So]



žege nagireže. Žege hitanihare wañgšig
again he went off to sleep. Again the third time person



jaga jigiže žege hocįnciñga hitekra
the [when] he came again [the boy] his uncle



kuruxįk hanąga wageže, "Hitekhaxjį, težesgųnegi
he woke up and he said to him, "Uncle, this time



hiñgisgišna herejenena," higeže. Žeskanųnįge žege
nothing will do [to do it]," he said to him. [Thus he did] but again



nagireže* hitekhiraka. Žegų žege ciropra
started to sleep his uncle. So again the door
*this is written as nažireshe.



wesiwiñgu žege te-e. Wañgšigra nųbpiwi
he watched again [this one]. Persons two



haji hois’įnwiže.* Žegų higų hamb
came peeked in. [So] just before daylight
*written as hoisnwishe.



hikohoniskše. Eske žegų hocįncįna ineki
[?]. [Therefore] so the boy alone



gižikorohože. Mąhi pekunukra e-šaną hakarenihanąga
was going to flee. Knife blunt nothing but he took and



egi wiskanikše iñgiže. Žežegų hira
and a white blanket that he wore. [Again] these only



hakanihanąga žegų gisše ukirigajan te-e
he took and as he went along [he came back] [this one]
*written as ukirigajn.



nąxa pox hižą ejag giže
log hollow a there was [so]



eja žegų hokixajañke* hokeweže. Žegų
there [thus] feet first he went in. [So]
*written as hokixažnke.



p. 7 —
eja uñg’ų. Te-e hirarexjįgag’ų hambhakirigag’ų.
there he lay. And after a short time it became light.



Te-e hohobrire wañxguže. Te-e hambra
And whoops he heard. And the day



horoxgag’ų te-e wanwuhiježe egi wanakewegi
he looked out at and it was snowing and he was afraid



žege žegų horujipše. Hagoraže te-e
again so he got within. Finally here



žegų nųbpiwi kiruxa hahureže. Homįǧañka
[thus] two of them chasing one another they came. He lay



ejaxjį haji hižą gisakhiraže. Žesknųnįge
where [he came] one was killed. But



žegų gisawexjį mįǧa’ųže. Žegų xenag’ų.
[thus] very still he lay. [So] they made much noise.



Hagoreže, xapgunireše. Žesknųnįge žegų eja
Finally, they quieted down. But [thus] there



uñgše. Žejąga hakarareguni hiregi kika
he remained. Finally, they came away he thought [so ?]



wa’ųnąga hižą t’ehirega eja higają
[he did it ?] the one was killed where he went



te-e nasura cušgunigše te-e waira
and head he was without and blood



honįjąǧi hahihoroxjį. Žege žegų hog-hirenihega.
[he lay in it] much flowed from him. Again [thus] he looked at it.



Eja higają žegų wañgšig wakisu
There he went back to [so] the people he had been with



jinihera hanaj hoera nągše. Nasura
the camp all scattered about they were. Heads



cušguni wa’ųnągše. Howe hanaj woruxgają.
they were without [they were]. He went [all] he looked them over.



p. 8 —
Hitekra uñke nigehakjaniže. Žegų eja
His uncle [not] [he could not] find where. [So] there



nažihanąga wawewija’ų weže, "Kora! egi
he stood and [while] he was thinking he said, "Well! well



hitekhara xawąnigają hanihakarešguni, žegų
my uncle since he is not here they must have taken him along, so



watuxeje," eže. Hocirega eja hagiwajegiže,
I will chase after them," he said. The camp at [after traveling there],



wokihanąga warugše* egi rusjagiže žegų
he boiled for himself food and when he was through eating, [so]
*this should be warujše.



naguxete himb hiregiže eja hioježe
big trail [it lay] they had made there [he did]



waruxera. Žegų hamb sarag* uniheže. Hagoreže,
he followed. [So] all day he chased them.† Finally,
*this should be saraj (for serec).
†this probably means "he continued."



te-e wajare hižą te-e hotucuxetexjį
[this one] he saw one* and [very] big warparty
*wajare hižą is translated as "he saw them in the distance."



hižą wa’uñgše. Žegų wironag uniheže.
a it was. [So] he followed them he continued.



Hagahoxjanągi eja pejhot’ųhanąga* eja nahikuhoreže.
When it was evening there they built a fire and there went to sleep.
*written as pežhotuhranaga.



Te-e hocįnciñga hitekra heja rusgici
And the boy's uncle there bound



hanį unągše. Askenįk hahiwo’ųixnągše. Tasaknagnanunige,
they had [they did]. Near he sat watching them. Although he was cold,



uñki pejwaže hot’ųninągše. Egi hiperashirejinegeji
he did a fire he did not build. And as they would discover his presence



p. 9 —
gejine eske rokani’ųnągše. Te-e hirarexjegają
[that is why] therefore he was without it. Then after awhile



ara wagiruska hiranąga egi pexesoxsox
his hands the bindings they loosed and and gourd



hižą hanigigira nąga. Egi wa’ųǧini
a they gave him [they]. And [I was ašting]



kišireže egi wašinąga nawanra hiwa
they made him [then] Prisoner's Dance and* the song he started
*this is the Prisoner's Dance, but wašinąga means only "the dance."



añgają hicuxge hirenąñka hikšra rokarnaweže
he arose nephew [he did] laugh very much



jekgeją žeskenųnįge hahi hitekra nacokaragijage
on the start but finally the uncle he pitied him very much



hahi xikgiže. Jexgeją hicųxgehiranąñka tekgaga
after awhile he wept very much. On the start the nephew thought the uncle



wagigowajeske, wagigohaehinągra hiregają. Hahi wašihiguhi
he was giving a feast, they talked about a feast as they did. Finally, as he danced



wagjege hipereže. Eske najhogijaže. "Hijawawateje,"
[?] he knew. So he pitied him. "I will go over there,"



hiregaskežege uñke unis’aže.* Hahi, wawageže,
he would think [not] [he did do it].† Finally, he said to them,
*written as unisrže.
†uñke unis’aže has been translated as "but he would change his mind again."



"Nawinane." Wawigegają hiske nahireže. Žege
"Go to sleep." [After he said this to them] [some] they did go to sleep. [Again]



wigegają, žege hiske nahireže. Žege hitanihana
[having] said it to them, again some went to sleep. Again the third time



wigegają, žege cowe* hanaj† nahiranaže.
[having] said it to them, again nearly all of them went to sleep.
*written as žorwe.
†written as harnž.



p. 10 —
Žege hijobarhana wawigegają žejaga harnacixjį*
[Again] the fourth time [after] he said it to them this time all of them
*written as harnžžhixži.



nahireže. Egi žege higiže hija
went to sleep. Then [again] [when] he went over [there]



howareže hija higiže hitekra wageže,
he went there when he got there his uncle he said to him,



"Hajiną tekga," higiže. "Jagu egi
"I have come uncle," he said to him. "What [then]



šuraježe? Hojišna waragigo wažu rajes’are,"*
were you doing? [Hardly] feast [to put, place] [to eat],"†
*written as ražesrre.
†this last sentence was translated as, "were you giving a feast?".



higeže hitekra. "Uñkarža* wa’ųǧini wa’ųhijeną.
he said to him his uncle. "No! I was acting [the role ?].
*written as unkarsha, and standing for hañkaga, here exhibiting what appears to have been a confusiion between a /ž/ and a /g/ in an earlier version of the MS. See above.



Wonąǧireja warukoshirega žegų hiwagigirašununą,"
In war when one is taken prisoner [thus] they always make them do,"



higeže hicuskra. "Egi hicuxge higirusk[j]anane."
he said to him his nephew. "Now then nephew untie my bonds."



"Anųnįge kene* wažą wagurnąga, egi
"But wait until something I do to them, then
*probably for k’enį, "not yet."



nigeduskjena," higiže. Egi wañgnañka wapahi
I will untie you," he said. Then men's weapons



waniregiže harnacixjį* howewagiruže. "Higirusk[j]anane," hitekra.
he took all he went around. "Untie me," uncle.
*written as harnžžhixži.



Anagnųnįge žegų žege waįnasge wagujerasge
But instead [thus] [again] blankets, also moccasins, also



harnaj* sto wahihanąga hanaj* hirarujeja
all placed them together [he caused them to be] and all [to one side]
*written as harnž.



p. 11 —
wąsuže.* Egi žegųga, hitekra giruskeže.
[he piled them up]. And when he had done thus, his uncle he untied.
*hirarujeja wąsuže is translated as "carried them away."



Egi wagigože wañgnañka hiske hakiriregi
Then [the host] the man also [when] they went about



hisjasura wamąjojoxše. Žege hiske hakiriregi
their eyes he burst. [Again] also when they got back



žege žeke wagigiže. Egi tasakhiregižegų
[again] [?] he did it to them. And as they were cold [so]



hakirigi naženągi žegų harnaj* žege
[when they got back] as they stood around [so] all [again]
*written as harnž.



wagigiže. Egi nųbkira hotahiže. Nųbhajega
he did it to them. And two of them he spared. These two



nącawara* ixhura wamągijaže. Žegų wagigihanąga
their ears lips he cut off. Thus he did and
*written as nažjawara.



egi kerewagigiže. "Ragiwigi wažą jawiną,
and sent them home. "When you get home [something] you must do,*
*wažą jawiną is translated as "you must say".



'Wañgwašošega e hižą jawiną'," wigeže.
'Brave Man he the one he did it to us'," he said to them.



"Žegų hihanąga." Wagujera egi wapahira
"Thus you must say." Moccasins and weapons



wawokarakaže. Egi žejiga* kerewagigiže. Uñke
he gave them back to them. And [then] he let them go home. [Not ?]*
*apparently for žejuñga.
†interpreting this as "not" (for hañké) makes the sentence self-contradictory. It is not translated at all in the text.



nasura wamaxga hiranąga egi nąxununikra
heads they cut off [they did] and and small sticks



nųbpiwi eja wawirosǧa hiranąga egi
two there they tied them [they did] and and



p. 12 —
žejiga hająha karareže. Egi ųhanihara’ų
then they went home away. And they traveled on



hagoreže cinąg hokanaǧirega. Eja hagireže.
until finally village they reached. There they got back home.



Egi Wañgwašošiga jagungiže cinągnañka harnaj*
And Brave Man what he had done the villagers all
*written as harnž.



nuxguhireže. Egi žeskanųnįge žegų ųhanihareže.
they heard of it. And but [so] they remained there.



Žegų hąmbhokahi ųnągs’aže.* Hagoreže,
[So] every day arrows he would be making. Finally,
*written as unagsrshe.



egi, worakra jiže, "Hotucihiže cinąg
[then,] the report came, "A warparty village



hasenina wirajirena," aireže.* Žeskanųnįge te-e
[?] has come," they said. But [this one]
*written as arieashe.



cimą’ųna uxnągše. Žegų jajinaja rohąxjį
to make arrows [he did].* [So] even now many
*this is probably for ųnąkše. The translation has "he continued."



t’ehiragi niže, žeskanųnįge, higų mą’ųnagše.
were killed he continued, [however], still making arrows.



Wañgnąñka žege jajinaja worakra žegeže
A man again [now] a messenger [again]



žegųga hihinabhanąga hahi nącikereheregi* eja
[when he had done this] he went out and [he went] against a lodge pole there
*written as nashikereheregi.



hakikawaxik nažihanąga kisara woruxjeske. Ųja’ų,*
he leaned [he stood] and the battle he looked on at. Finally,
*while it is hard to read, it is apparently written as užiu.



p. 13 —
te-e wañg hižą naǧunaga Wañgwašošega
[this one] man a came running up Brave Man



hikšgunu.* Hikixwajkra† hirojįže. Nąnažikerejaga
he stood smiling. Metal pointed warclub he struck him [with an object]. Against the lodge pole
*hikša, to laugh, smile. This is written hikshgu u.
†This seems to be defective, as /xw/ and /jk/ almost never occur together.



eja hapagi hikixwajkra gekunik*
there he hit the club broke
*apparently for gikųnųk´, "to break something having length in two by striking, leaving a clean break."



rahiže.* Jobaha žege gigihireže. Egi žejiga†
[as it went by]. Four times thus they did it to him. [And] then
*apparently for rahéže, "as it went (by)."
†apparently for žéjuñga .



wogitekgi. Hohob hanąga wat’ųpše. Hižą rokanaga
he got angry. He gave a whoop and rushed for them. One the great



ruxanąga hahihoxeregi, hišjara wamąjojoxs’aže. Žegų
he would chase and when he caught them their eyes he would burst. Thus



wagi’ųjiregi. Wañgšig e waninigra t’ewahinągše
he began to do to them. People him [belonging to] they were being killed



ųja’ų. Hahi, harnaj* t’ewahireže. Te-e
they were. Finally, all were killed. Thus
*written as harnj.



keracohižą* wañgšig[e]ja wañgšig uñgiže. Tejege†
a blue sky to live among the humans he did. [In this way]
*written as kerajorhisha.
†this is written as dežege, and doubtless stands for téžesge, "in this way."



hije,* aireną.† Wañgšigsaknigra airašununą worak
[he did], they say. The old people say stories
*written as hiže, and likely stands for hižé, "he did."
†written as ariena.



te-e horakhirega.
[this] when they tell.



Paul Radin, "Wak’cexi Hecoga (Waterspirit Bluehorn)," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) #66, Story 2: 1-13.