Hočąk Text — The Story of the Thunder Names

narrated by Sam Blowsnake


English Translation


 

p. 300 —

Uáñgᴇra djop‘íwi māⁿᵋúṇa ë́dja huwagigíra
Wą́gera jopíwi Mą’úna éja huwagigíra
Men four Earthmaker here he sent

 


 

ᵋuañgếdja hahúirega ë́p‘a hoixgốⁿṇa djagú
wągéja hahúirega é’pa hoixgǫ́na jagú
from above [as having come,] [after that] they came what

 


 

ᵋúiṇejê hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ jêế rajᴇra erérënᴀⁿ.
’úineže[,] haną́čįxjį žeé ražera eréreną.
they did, all [these] names [there were].

 


 

Higû́ⁿ haⁿp dêế wak‘andjára hoixgôñxgốṇa
Higų́ hąp teé Wakąjára hoixgǫxgóna
Thus, day [this] the Thunderbirds the characteristics

 


 

djagu ᵋúnañgᴇrê hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ jếê rajᴇra
jagu ’únągere haną́čįxjį žée ražera
[what] [which they did,] all these the names

 


 

ererếnᴀⁿ djádjiga hîñgénᴀⁿ. Uáñgᴇra djop‘íwi
eréreną, jájiga hįgéną. Wą́gera jopíwi
[there were], my father he told me. Men four

 


 

uáñgᴇrêgi hahúirera jêê rajíjaⁿ herë́nᴀⁿ
wą́geregi hahúirera žee ražížą heréną,
from above [the coming of them] [this] a name there is,

 


 

Uañgêdjáhuga; ëgi hínû́ñgᴇra hijérêgi rajᴇra
Wągejáhuga; egi hínųgera hižéregi ražera
"He Who Comes from Above"; and the women [having them] the name

 


 

Uañgêdjahúwîñga. Ëgi uáñgᴇra djop‘íwi ᵋuáñgᴇrêgi
Wągejahúwįga. Egi wą́gera jopíwi wą́geregi
"She Who Comes from Above". And the men four from above

 


 

māⁿᵋúṇa huwagigíra waxop‘íni hik‘ískê hahúirega
Mą’úna huwagigíra waxopíni hikíske hahúirega
Earthmaker the ones he sent down, spirits like since they came,

 


 

ëskê rajíjaⁿ jêérenᴀⁿ, Uañgwáxop‘iniga; ëgi
eske ražížą žeéreną, Wągwáxopiniga; egi
[therefore] a name [this] there is, "Spirit Man"; and

 


 

hínûñgᴇra hijérêgi hinûñg Wáxop‘iniwîñga.
hínųgera hižéregi hinųg Wáxopiniwįga.
the women [having them] [female] "Spirit Woman".

 


 

Ëgi uáñgᴇra djop‘íwi ᵋuáñgᴇrêgi māⁿᵋúṇa
Egi wą́gera jopíwi wą́geregi Mą’úna
And the men four from above Earthmaker

 


 

ëdja huwagigíra nijuxotcgura xi hahúirejê
eja huwagigíra nižuxočgura xi hahúireže,
[there] [the ones he sent down,] the drizzling fog when they came,

 


 

ë́skê rajíjaⁿ jêérenᴀⁿ Ximánîñga, Xigúga;
éske ražížą žeéreną Ximánįga, Xigúga;
so [a name] [this there is] "Walking in Mist," "Comes in Mist";

 


 

ëgi hinûñgᴇra Nijuxotcgêwîñga airanā́nᴀⁿ. Ëgi
egi hinųgera Nižuxočgewįga airanáną. Egi
and the women "Drizzling Rain Woman" they would call. And

 


 

p. 301 —

tcëkdjinᴀ derôk airêgi ëdja djidjérêgi
čekjina Terok airegi eja jijéregi
the first Térok [as it is said,] [there] when they came,

 


 

xoxawaídja hadjidjérejê gadjaⁿ hanốⁿzogirèjê, jếê
xoxawaíja hajijéreže gają hanǫ́zogirèže, žée
upon bushes they alit, and they bent them down, this

 


 

rajíjaⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Xaⁿwiánôⁿzogewîñga. Ë́gi jigê
ražížą heréną, Xąwiánǫzogewįga. Egi žige
a name there is, "She Who Bends the Bushes". [And] [again]

 


 

tcacgêgúijᴀⁿ ëdjádjegi ak‘aratcgếdja hadjidjéregadjaⁿ ak‘áratcgèra
čašgegúižą ejájegi ak’arečgéja hajijéregają ak’áračgèra
an oak tree that stood there on the limb when they alit, the limb

 


 

hanôⁿzógirejê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Náⁿnazógêwîñga; ëgi
hanǫzógireže, ražížą heréną, Nąnazógewįga; egi
they bent down, a name there was, "She Who Bends the Branches Down"; and

 


 

jigế náⁿdjega ëdja hadjidjérenᴀⁿ ë́skê
žigé ną́jega eja hajijéreną, éske
[again] on a tree [there] they alit, [so]

 


 

rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Náⁿdjidjega, Naⁿdjidjêwîñga; ëgi
ražížą heréną, Ną́jijega, Nąjijewįga; egi
a name there was, "He Who Alights on a Tree," "She Who Alights on a Tree"; and

 


 

náⁿdjega rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Tcacgêgúwîñga. Airanấnᴀⁿ.
ną́jega ražížą heréną, Čašgegúwįga. Airanáną.
[the tree] a name there was, "Oak Woman". Thus, they would say.

 


 

Náⁿdjega tcacgëgúijᴀⁿ heregế ë́skê  ë́gi
Ną́jega čašgegúižą heregé éske égi
The tree an oak [because it was,] [so] [here]

 


 

maíndja hidjérejê maiⁿdjidjérega jêế rajíjᴀⁿ
maíja hijéreže maįjijérega žeé ražížą
on the ground they stepped, from their being on the ground, [this] a name

 


 

herénᴀⁿ, Maiⁿdjidjéga, ëgi híjûñgᴇra Maiⁿdjidjêwîñga
heréną, Maįjijéga, egi hínųgera Maįjijewįga
there was, "He Who Alights on the Ground"; and the woman "She Who Alights on the Ground"

 


 

wigairesᵋā́jê. Ëgi jigế wak‘ándja wak‘íju
wigaires’áže. Egi žigé waką́ja wakížu
they would call her. And [again] Thunderbirds with

 


 

hadjírega jêế rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Wak‘andjága,
hajírega žeé ražížą heréną, Wakąjága;
since they came, [this] a name there was, "Thunderbird";

 


 

ëgi jigế hínûñgᴇra Wak‘andjáwîñga; ëgi
egi žigé hínųgera Wakąjáwįga; egi
and [again] the woman "Thunderbird Woman"; and

 


 

jigế Wak‘andjáskaga hinûñgera, Wak‘andjaskáwîñga; ë́gi
žigé Wakąjáskaga; hínųgera Wakąjaskáwįga; égi
[again] "White Thunderbird"; the woman "White Thunderbird Woman"; and

 


 

jigế Wak‘andjásepga, hínûñgᴇra Wak‘andjásebîñga; ëgi
žigé Wakąjásepga;* hínųgera Wakąjásebįga; égi
[again] "Black Thunderbird"; the woman "Black Thunderbird Woman"; and

*this should be Wakąjásepka.

 


 

jigế wak‘andjánañgrê kᵋónañk‘ê, jêê rajíjᴀⁿ
žigé wakąjánągre kónąke žee ražížą
[again] the Thunderbirds since they thunder, this a name

 


 

herénᴀⁿ, Kᵋónihéga, ëgi hinûñgᴇra Kᵋonihéwîñga;
heréną, Kónihéga, égi hinųgera Konihéwįga;
there is, "He Who Thunders," and for women, "She Who Thunders";

 


 

ëgi jigế kᵋoírega tcîⁿwîⁿhírañk‘ê Tciⁿwîⁿdjik‘erêhiga,
egi žigé koírega čįwįhírąke Čįwįjikerehiga,
and [again] [as they thunder], they make the noise čįwį, He Who Makes Čįwį,

 


 

airesᵋā́jê ëgi jigê hodá. Tciⁿwîñgúga
aires’áže, egi žigé hotá, Čįwįgúga
[they would say,] and [again] some, He Who Comes Making Čįwį

*this word mistakenly has a period after it.

 


 

rajᴇra airesᵋā́jê, wak‘andjára hagúirega tcíⁿwîⁿañgùañk‘ê.
ražera aires’áže, wakąjára hagúirega čį́wįągùnąke.
the name they would call, the Thunderbirds when they come they come making the sound čįwį.

 


 

Ëgi jigế wak‘andjánᴀñgᴇrê nijú manínañk‘ê
Egi žigé wakąjánągere nižú manínąke
And [again] the Thunderbirds rain accompanies them when they walk,

 


 

rajíjᴀⁿ je-érenᴀⁿ Nijumániga, hinûñgᴇra Nijumaníwîñga
ražížą že-éreną, Nižumániga, hinųgera Nižumaníwįga
a name [this] there is, "He Who Walks with Rain," the women "She Who Walks with Rain"

 


 

wigaíresᵋajê; ëgi wak‘andjánoñk‘a mani-añgúirêgi, jêế
wigaires’áže, egi wakąjánǫka mani-ągúiregi, žeé
they would call her, and the Thunderbirds since they came walking, this

 


 

rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Wak‘andjámanîñga; ë́gi jigê
ražížą heréną, Wakąjámanįga; égi žigé
a name there is, "Walking Thunder"; and [again]

 


 

wak‘andjára mani-añgúirêgi maⁿcdjáⁿ mani-añgúirêgi rajíjᴀⁿ
wakąjára mani-ągúiregi, mąšją́ mani-ągúiregi, ražížą
the Thunderbirds [since they came walking,] [mighty] [since they came walking,] a name

 


 

herénᴀⁿ, Maⁿcdjaⁿmánîñga, hínûñgᴇra
heréną, Mąšjąmánįga, hínųgera
there is, "He Who Comes with a Mighty Tread," the women

 


 

Maⁿcdjaⁿmaníwîñga wigairesᵋájê; ëgi jigê
Mąšjąmaníwįga wigaires’áže; egi žigé
"She Who Comes with a Mighty Tread" [they would call them]; [and] [again]

 


 

wak‘andjára maⁿni-añgúirega maⁿṇá giksûntc hagúnôñk‘a
wakąjára mąniągúirega mąná giksunč hagúnǫka
the Thunderbirds when they come walking, the earth to shake [coming],

 


 

rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Mañgíksûntcga, hínûñgᴇra
ražížą heréną, Mągíksųčga, hínųgera
a name there is, "He Who Shakes the Earth by Force," the women,

 


 

p. 302 —

Mañgiksûntcwîñga. Wigaíresᵋajê. Ë́gi wak‘andjára
Mągiksųčwįga. Wigaíres’aže.* Égi wakąjára
"She Who Shakes the Earth by Force," they are called. And the Thunderbirds

*this is not a sentence, but the last word of the previous sentence, sic, Mągiksunčwįga, wigaíres’aže.

 


 

hagúirega maⁿṇa nañksû́ntc hagúiresᵋàjê gíji
hagúirega mąna nąksų́č hagúires’àže gíži
when they came, the earth to shake [they would come,] and thus,

 


 

jêê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Maⁿnañksûntcga hínûñgᴇra
žee ražížą heréną, Mąnąksųčka* hínųgera
[this] a name there is, "He Who Shakes the Earth by Walking," the women,

*the text has in error, Mąnąksunčga.

 


 

Maⁿnañksûndjêwîñga; ë́gi jigế wak‘andjára hagúirega
Mąnąksųjewįga; égi žigé wakąjára hagúirega
"She Who Shakes the Earth by Walking," and [again] the Thunderbirds when they come,

 


 

maⁿᵋé hagúirecᴀnùnᴀⁿ jếê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ
mą’é hagúirešanùną žée ražížą heréną,
wind and hail they always come, [this] a name there is,

 


 

Maⁿᵋêmanîñga. Ë́gi jigê wak‘andjánañk‘i hijáⁿ
Mą’emanįga. Égi žigé wakąjánąki hižą́
"He Who Comes with Wind and Hail".* And [again] Thunderbirds one of them

*this is normally translated as, "Storms as He Walks".

 


 

tconi djéjê hagúirega ë́skê jêế rajíjᴀⁿ
čoni jéže hagúirega éske žeé ražížą
first [he stood] since he came, [so] [this] name

 


 

herénᴀⁿ  Tconimániñga; wak‘andjánañk‘a hijᴀ́ⁿ
heréną, Čonimánįga; wakąjánąka hižą́
there is, "He Who Walks First"; [the Thunderbirds] one of them

 


 

tconídjega hawáᵋûⁿ jigế jêê rajíjAⁿ
čoníjega hawá’ų žigé žee ražížą
first since, [again] [this] a name

 


 

herénᴀⁿ, Wak‘andjátconîñga, hinûñgᴇra Wák‘andjatconìwîñga.
heréną, Wakąjáčonįga,* hinųgera Wákąjačonìwįga.*
there is, "Thunderbird Leader," the women "Thunderbird Female Leader".

*in the text, neither name is capitalized nor italicized.

 


 

Wak‘andjánañgrê djáⁿbirega wákcañkcaⁿ djirêhínañgrê jêê
Wakąjánągre ją́birega wákšąkšą jirehínągre žee
[These] Thunderbirds since they flash, in every direction [these point], [this]

 


 

rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Djaⁿbwakcáñkcañga, ëgi hinû́ñk
ražížą heréną, Jąbwakšą́kšąga, egi hinų́k
a name there is, "Flashes in Every Direction," and woman

 


 

rájᴇra. Wak‘andjánañgrê hañk‘ế hiwadjáwini-ā̀nañga
rážera. Wakąjánągre hąké hiwajáwini-ànąga
the name.* [These] Thunderbirds not we do not see, but

*the female counterpart is not given by the narrator.

 


 

djaⁿbᴇra-cᴀnᴀⁿtcsⁿtᵋî́ⁿnañk‘ê jêê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, hinûñk
jąbera-šanąčąt’į́nąke žée ražížą heréną, hinų́k
we see only their flashes, [this] a name there is, woman

 


 

rajíjᴀⁿ Djaⁿᴇrácᴀnᴀⁿ-tcaⁿtᵋîⁿwîñga; ë́gi wak‘andjánañgrê djaⁿp
ražížą Jąberášanąčąt’įwįga; égi wakąjánągre jąp
a name "Only a Flash of Lightning Woman"; and [these] Thunderbirds lightning

 


 

djicêhínañk‘a rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Djaⁿpdjirêhíga; ë́gi
jišehínąka ražížą heréną Jąpjirehíga; égi
the streaks, a name there is, "Streak of Lightning"; and

 


 

jigế wak‘andjánañgrê mañxíwi manínañkcᴀnᴀⁿ mañxiwíxdjîñgàcᴀnᴀⁿ
žigé wakąjánągre mąxíwi manínąkšaną mąxiwíxjįgàšaną
[again] [these] Thunderbirds clouds walking, cloudiness

 


 

ë́dja máni-añgunàñkcᴀnᴀⁿ, jêê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ
éja máni-ągunạ̀kšaną, žee ražížą heréną
[there] it is caused by walking, [this] a name there is,

 


 

Mañxíwimànîñga; ë́gi jigế wak‘andjánañgrê ahúra seretcinâñkcᴀnᴀⁿ
Mąxíwimànįga; égi žigé wakąjánągre ahúra serečiną́kšaną
"He Who Walks in the Clouds"; now [these] Thunderbirds wings they are long

 


 

jêê rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Ahúseretcga; ë́gi
žee ražížą heréną Ahúserečka;* égi
[this] a name there is, "He Who has Long Wings". And,

*the text has Ahúserečga in error.

 


 

jigê wak‘andjánañgrê djáⁿbirega naⁿṇa hijᴀ́ⁿ
žigé wakąjánągre ją́birega nąna hižą́
again, [these] Thunderbirds since they flash the tree one of them

 


 

ë́dja djidjêhíranânᴀⁿ ë́skê rajíjᴀⁿ jeérenᴀⁿ
éja jijehírananą éske ražížą žeéreną*
[there] they will strike, [so] a name [this there is]

*< žee-hereną.

 


 

Nodjôⁿpga; ë́gi jigê wak‘andjándjánañgrê naⁿnijodjíṇega
Nojǫpka; égi žigé wakąjánągre nąnižojínega
"He Who Strikes a Tree"; and, again, [these] Thunderbirds for the action of hitting a tree,

 

 


 

naⁿhodjínôñk‘a rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ Nódjîñga, ë́gi jigê
nąhojínǫka ražížą heréną Nójįga,* égi žigé
[this striking of trees] a name there is, "He Who Hits a Tree"; now

*this name is not put in italics in the text.

 


 

 
hinûñgᴇra Nodjíwîñga. Wigaíresᵋājê, aírera. Ë́gi jigế
hinųgera Nojíwįga. Wigaíres’aže, aírera. Égi žigé
the women "She Who Hits a Tree". They would say it, so it is said. Now

 


 

wak‘andjánañgrê hagúirega rudjáxᴇra rok‘ốnô waᵋúiṇenᴀⁿ
wakąjánągre hagúirega rujáxera rokóno wa’úineną
[these] Thunderbirds when they come thunder crashes [many] [they do it]

 


 

aírecᴀnùnᴀⁿ; uañkcî́gᴇra djā́nañga maⁿṇégi-añk‘i é
aírešanùną; wąkšígera jánąga mąnégi-ąki é
[they would say]; the people as many as there are on the earth [they]

 


 

jêê hererā́nᴀñga djā́nañga wani-oítcgera maⁿnégi-añk‘i
žee hereránąga jánąga wani-oíčgera mąnégi-ąki
[these] there are, and as many as there are the animals on the earth

 


 

here-ā́nᴀñga xawinanấnᴀⁿ djānañgā́k‘a hanā́ⁿtcîñxdjîⁿ niju
hereánąga xawinanáną janągáka haną́čįxjį nižu
there are, and the plants as many as there are everything rain

 


 

p. 303 —

hirā́nᴀñga wak‘andjánañgrê  máⁿnañgrê é jêê
hiránąga wakąjánągre mą́nągre é žee
[they cause, and] [these] Thunderbirds the earth they [this]

 


 

wárudjaxᴇnàñkcᴀnᴀⁿ ë́skê wánañkcᴀnᴀⁿ warudjáxega ā́nañgrê
wárujaxenạ̀kšaną éske wánąkšaną warujáxega ánągre
thunder crashes, [so] [they say it] the thunder crashes [they say]

 


 

rajíjᴀⁿ herénᴀⁿ, Warudjáxega.
ražížą heréną, Warujáxega.*
a name there is, ["Crashing Thunder".]†

*this is left untranslated in the text, but a footnote to it reads, "This is the narrator's name. It signifies 'terrible thunder-crash'." The narrator was Sam Blowsnake. This name was originally that of his brother, Jasper Blowsnake.
†this is the translation of the name that came to be conventional.

 


Source:

Paul Radin, "Personal Reminiscences of a Winnebago Indian," Journal of American Folk-Lore, 26, #102 (1913): 293-318 [300-303]. Informant: Sam Blowsnake, Thunderbird Clan.