Hočąk Text — The Shell Anklets Origin Myth, Verson 1a

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake


               
Winnebago II, #6: 10   Winnebago III, #1: 11   Winnebago II, #1: 20   Winnebago III, #12: 13   Winnebago II, #5: 22

English Translation


Hočąk Text to Version 1b


As is the case with a number of other Radin interlinear MSS, this text contains abbreviations for common word terminations.

β ɜ λ ρ ϕ - /
éja -šaną žesge -ánąga hąké -(ᵋ)ra -nąk -ną

 


In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of The Road of Life and Death (see Source). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].

Key —

First Row "raw" interlinear text from Paul Radin, Winnebago II, #6: 10-15.
Second Row revised text from Paul Radin, Winnebago II, #5: 21-29, & The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves, 68.1-69.36a.
Third Row text in current orthography.
Fourth Row English translation based on Winnebago II, #5: 21-29, & in part on that of The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves, 73.1-74.41.

 




Winnebago II, #6: 10 = Winn. II, #1: 20 = Winn. III, #12: 13 = Winn. II, #5: 21 = CW: 68.1
gīḗgī* hotcintcĭ́nigra noⁿpíwi haⁿdĕ k‘iⁿrēgī jĕ́e hiū́nīhī́rĕgī naⁿtcgĕ́dēk
ä́gi hotcιntcίnιñgεra nɔⁿp‘íwi haⁿdέ kíⁿṇegi jεέ hi’unihírεgi naⁿtcgέdek‘
Ge égi hočįčį́nįgᵋra nųpíwi hąté kįrégi žee: hi’unihíregi nąčgétek
And then boys two to dream they did this: their mother heart sick**

* Winn. 2.20 has, gĕ égī giégi. Following this word in Winn. 2.6.10 is, hinuⁿdjḗgaⁿ haⁿdḗgīji ("the woman dreamt"), which has been lined out. In CW it is restored in brackets.
** Winn. 2.6.10 has, "heart sore".


 

        Winn. II.5.22    
hī́regī ḗgī moⁿkaⁿnī xĕdĕrā wāsgēokĕ́rĕra djopī́wīgī hinuⁿk‘djegā‡
hírεgī ä́gi mañk‘áⁿni xέdεra wasgέ hok‘érera djop‘íwigi.† Hinύñk‘djega
híregi. Égi mąką́ni** xétera wasgé hokérera jopíwigi, hinų́kjega
she was made.* And medicine men big dish places four of them, the women

* Winn. 2.6.10, CW.73.1a have, "they made".
** CW 68.2 has wąką́ni, a misprint.
† the text ends the sentence here, but -gi usually terminates a clause, and in this context should be translated as, "there having been four of them," or "while there were four of them," etc.
‡ written above an orignal /p/ is /k/. The translation of Winn. II.6.10 has, "the second woman".


 

Winn. II.1.21 Winn. II.6.11          
ī́jaⁿ hik‘ā́na hī́gi** ḗjē t’ēgī́ji ḗgī hīnuⁿk‘djēgā‡‡
ë́jαⁿ hik‘ánαhigi,   ë́jε t’egíji. Ä́gi hinύⁿk‘djega
éžą* hikána, hígi† éže, t’egíži. Égi hinų́kjega
one of them, her husband, [he went] [he said,]‡ when he was dead. And the woman

* < é-hižą.
** the orignial text of Winn. II.6.11 has hik‘ā́na|hī́gi, indicating two words. Winn. II.5.22 has hikánahigi, which is translated as "her husband".
† the expression in the line above, hik‘ánαhigi, was analysed in CW 68.3 as hikó nahigi, neither word of which is found in our extensive Lexcon.
‡ in place of "she said".
‡‡ again, written above an orignal /p/ is /k/.


 

hatcuⁿgĕ́rĕ* hik‘ā́nōnā t’ḗgā x̣ā́gĕrā hīrōhēg|enī́sgĕgā́djaⁿ
hatcυñgérε hik’ā́naṇa** t’éga γágέra hirohégεnisgέgadja
hačągére hikánara t’éga ǧágᵋra, hirohégᵋnisgégają.
she hardly stopped her husband that he was dead the crying, just then, it had become a little better.

* in Winn. II.6.11, ha is written above the crossout in the orignial tcuⁿgĕ́rĕ. Also crossed out in the translation is an original, "his younger sister". The translation given is written above the Hočąk text.
** CW 68.3 has hikó‧nara.


 

ēgi haⁿhḗgadjaⁿ hīnŭⁿk’djēgā haⁿhḗ kīsāgerēgī hāguādjī́reje gīji
Ä́gi haⁿhégadja hinύñk‘djega haⁿhé k‘isáⁿgεrεgi hagŭadjírejε, giji
Égi hąhégają, hinų́kjega hąhé kiságᵋregi haguajíreže, giži
And the night, the woman night in the middle of they came after. [.]

 


 

hīnŭⁿk‘djēga rēcgū́nījĕ ḗgī hīgā́djāⁿ gixaī́dja hānīaⁿ-gī́rējĕ gī́ji ḗgi
hinύñkdjega rëcgúnijε. Ä́gi higádja gixaídja hani-añgírejε giji, ä́gi
Hinų́kjega rešgúniže. Égi higáją gixaíja hani-ągíreže, gíži. Égi
The woman she went. Then she got to outside they took her [.] And

 


 

edja minā́gĕrĕ higaíregī edja mīnaⁿkcgū́nī ēgi wāgāīrējĕ
ë́dja minάⁿgεrε higaírεgi. ë́dja minαⁿkcgúni. Ä́gi wagaírejε
éja miną́gere higaíregi, éja minąkšgúni. Égi wagaíreže,
there sit down they told her, then there she sat down. And they said,

 


 

kūrūhiⁿdjérĕcguni ḗgi wagāīrējĕ hīkānaⁿrā́ga t’ḗgī
k‘iruhίntc hirecgúni. Ä́gi wagírejε, "Hik‘ânaⁿṇága t’égi
k’iruhį́č hirešgúni, égi wagaíreže, "Hikąnąrága* t’égi
a greeting they made her, [then] they said, "Your husband when he died,

* CW 68.9 has, hikó‧naraga.


 

naⁿtcgĕ́ranĭⁿ-dḗkce hīgāīrēcgū́nī ḗgi wḗjĕ haⁿhaⁿaⁿ ḗje ḗgī
naⁿtcgéra nιⁿdë́kcε," higairecgúni. Ä́gi wë́jε, "Haⁿháⁿa," ë́jε, "Ä́gi
nąčgéra nįtékše," higairešgúni. Égi wéže, "Hąhą́’ą," éže. "Égi
heart you were sore," they said to her. So she said, "Yes," she said. "Indeed

 


 

naⁿtcgĕ́ra niⁿdēgēră hik‘ánārā́gā wōcgŏ́ⁿnā hīrākā́rāpĕ́rēz’dēnaⁿ ḗgī
naⁿtcgéra nίⁿdégεra. Hik‘ấ́naⁿraga wocgɔ́ⁿṇa hirak‘áraperεzdènaⁿ. Ä́gi
nąčgéra nįtégᵋra. Hikánąraga wošgǫ́na* hirakárapereztèną.** Égi
heart you were sore. Your husband his way you will know. Then

* CW 68.11: hikó‧nąraga wošgą́na.
** CW 68.11: hirakáraperes‧dèna (a misprint).


 

rohī́rā hōrāk‘iⁿmīⁿcge* higāī́rējĕ gījī ḗgī hijáⁿ tcowḗdjā nāⁿkī wḗjĕ
rohíra horak‘ίⁿmιⁿcgε," higaírejε. Giji† ä́gi hijá tcowë́dja nαⁿk‘í wéjε.
rohíra horakį́mįšge," higaíreže, giži. Égi hižą́ čowéja nąki wéže,
your body lay it down," they said [.] Then one the first sitting he said,

* this word is circled. CW 68.11a has horakimį́cge.
† Winn. II.5.22 treats giji as the initial word of the next sentence, translating it as "thus."


 

ēgīcgĕ́ hīnuⁿbḗdjānúⁿga hīcgĕ́ djāgū́igḗga hīcgē jēesgīgādjīrēcgū́nī
Ä́́gicgε hinυⁿbέdjanαⁿga hicgέ djagú higéga -* jë́sgε, higadjirecgúni,
égišge, hinųbéjanąga hišgé jagú higéga, hišge žeesge** higádjirešgùni,
and indeed, the second one also what he said to her, [also] that they commenced

* hicge is omitted by Winn. II.5.22 and CW 68.12.
** CW 68.12: jé‧sge.


 

  Winn. II.6.12     Winn. II.5.23†    
gī́jī ḗgī hīdenī́nā hĭcgĕ́ djāgū́ ā́naⁿka jeesge higā́|djīrēcgū́nī higūícgē
gíji. Ä́gi hidaníṇa hicgέ djágu ấnañk‘a, jë́sgε* higadjirëcgúni. Higύⁿ hicgέ
gíži. Égi hitanína hišgé jagú ánąka, žeésge** higádjirešgùni. Higų́išge
[.] Then the third also what he said, that way they commenced. Then also

* the first /e/ of jeesge in Winn. II.6.12 is omitted here. However, the form žeéšge (< žeé-šge) is attested elsewhere.
** CW 68.13: jé‧sge.
† at the top of the page is written: hopį hocicik wagiweną = I had bad luck".


 

tcōnīnoⁿp‘íwī hĭt’at’ā́wiga djagu aīrắnīhḗgā hicgĕ́ jesgĕsdjĭⁿ
tconinυⁿp‘íwi hit’at’áwiga; djágu airanihéga hicgέ jέsgέxdjιⁿ
čoninųpíwi hit’at’áwiga; jagú aíranihèga hišgé žesgéxjį
the first two they talked; what they had said also that very thing

 


 

    Winn. II.1.22        
higĕ́cguni gījī hīnŭ́ⁿgĕnaⁿka ḗgī wecgū́ni t’aⁿp kīrīkā́rā́naⁿga
higécguni giji hinύñgεnαⁿk‘a ä́gi wēcgúni t’aⁿp‘ k‘irik‘aránαⁿga
higéšguni, giži.* Hinų́gᵋnąka** égi wešgúni t’ąp kírikarànąga
he said to her. [.] The woman then speaking to get up she did immediately, and

* omitted in CW 68.14.
** CW 68.15 has, hinų́k‧naka, a probable misprint.


 

jĕgŭáⁿkĕ yakā́rapĕ́rezenikdjēgĕ ḗsgĕ jēsgĕ wawḗgādjaⁿ
jegύⁿ, hañk‘έ* yak‘arap‘érεzεnιñk‘djε, ä́sgε jếsgε wawégadjáⁿ‡
    yakarapérezᵋnįkje, ésge žésge wawégają́,"
"Then not I will not know of it,† thus that kind [it is bothersome,"]‡‡

* the text capitalizes the /h/ of this word.
** CW 68.15 has, jégų, "hąké.
† Winn. II.6.12: "not I will know"; Winn. II.5.23: "not I care to hear of it"; CW 73.15: "I will not listen (know) to you".
‡ this word is underlined.
‡‡ Winn. II.6.12: "(I go through?)"; Winn. II.5.23: "if it is my misfortune way" (the last word being written in pencil above the line); CW 73.15: "if I have to endure (my loss), so be it". Wawe means, "to be burdensome, annoying" (Marino).


 

ēgī́jī higuāⁿnā x̣āgĕrīwāaⁿjē egi wakuruhiⁿtc hākīrīānuga
egíjι. Higŭä́ⁿṇa γágεra hiwáaⁿjε, ä́gi wak‘úruhintc hak‘iⁿriάnαⁿga
egíži. Higuą́na* ǧágᵋra hiwá’ąže, égi wakúruhįč hakiriánąga
she said. Now the crying it started, then greeting passing around, and

* CW 68.15-16 has, egíje. higuó‧na.


 

ḗgī gīcgŭnījĕ ḗgī x̣āgĕrā hatcaⁿgḗrĕ hīrōhḗkĕ hinĭⁿgŭahirā
ä́gi gicgúnijε. Ä́gi γagεrá hatcañgérε hirohë́k‘ε. Hiniⁿgwahíra
égi gišgúniže. Égi ǧagᵋrá hačągére hirohéke. Hínįgwahìra
then she went home. And crying hardly a little better. Her sons

 


 

gīpiⁿnáⁿgĕrē jīgĕ́ x̣agera djasgādjēgī tcṓni jesgḗ djirecgū́nī
gip‘ιⁿnágerε jigέ γágεra djasgadjegi Tcóni jë́sgε djirecgúni
gip’įnágᵋre žigé ǧágᵋra jasgájegi. Čóni žésge jirešgúni
they were glad again the crying it stopped. At first that way she began

 


 

gījī hinī́ⁿgwāhī́rā higiuaⁿx̣īrecgū́ni ḗgi haⁿkĕ́ jē|nī́sgānī́nādjḗrā
giji hinιgwahíra higiwáñγ-irëcgúni, "Ä́gi hañkέjε nisgέ haníṇadjéra,
giži. Hínigwahìra higiwą́ǧirešgùni, "Égi hąké ženisgé* hanírajèra,
[.] Her sons they asked her., "And it was not like that you were,

* CW 68.19a has, hąkéje nisgé.


 

  Winn. 3.12.14      
waⁿkcĭ́gĕrā hījáⁿ wajīⁿnĭ-gḗgunī ḗgī hōkārākcgū́ni
wañkcίgεra hijá wajá hinιⁿgέguní. Ä́gi hok‘aracgúni
wąkšígᵋra hižą́ wažą́* hinįgégunì."** Égi hokarašgúni
men one something he must have said." Then she told them

* CW 68.19a has, wágą, a misprint.
** CW 68.19a has, hinįgécguni. Both -guni and -šguni are attested and are of the same meaning.


 

  Winn. II.6.13        
jĕesgḗ ĭⁿrāī́rēna** dḗ hiⁿk’anōṇā t’ḗgā wāgā́nūgā
jέεsgε hiⁿṇaíṇana hiñk‘ä́naṇa t’éga wagάnαⁿga,
žéesge* hįraíreną Te hįkánana t’éga,† wagánąga,
that way they thought. This husband when he was dead,‡ he said, and,

* CW 68.20 has, jé‧sge.
** the initial /h/ was lost through external sandhi.
CW 68.20a has, "hįkó‧nara tʔégaʔ.
‡ more appropriately, "because he was dead".


 

hītcakṓrōwāhīrā jĕ́ĕ waīgāīrēnā haⁿhḗkīsāgĕrēgī gixaīdjā
"Hitcak‘ä́rowahíra jέε waigaírena haⁿhek‘isagεrεgi, gixaídja
"Hičakórowahìra žée waigaíreną. hąhékiságᵋregi gixaíja
"His friends this they said to me in the middle of the night outside

 


 

      Winn. II.5.24  
hīⁿ|gŭádjīrā́nŭgā ḗgī wāīgāírēna woc’gŏ́nna* yakā́rāpĕrḗzdĕ
hιñgŭádjirάnαⁿga. Ä́gi waigaírena wocgɔ́ⁿṇa yak‘arap‘erέzdε.
hįguájirànąga égi waigaíreną wošgǫ́na yakaraperézte.
they came after me, and [then] they said to me the affair I will know.

* this should have been written, woc’gŏ́ⁿṇa. CW 68.21a has, wacgą́ra.


 

hĭⁿgāī́rēna rōhī́rā wak’ī́ⁿmĭ́ⁿcdje hĭⁿgāī́rē hĭnk‘ĕāúnīnā
Hiñgaírenaⁿ, 'rohíra wak‘ιⁿmιⁿcgε,' hιñgaírε. Hιñk‘έ ha‘ú-inínaⁿ;
Hįgaíreną, 'Rohíra wakįmį́šge,'* hįgaíre.** Hįké ha’ų́iníną;
They told me, 'Body lay it down,' they told me. Not I did not do it;

* CW 6821a has, wakimį́cge.
** correcting the bad grammar of the original, CW 68.21a has, hįgáireną.


 

haⁿkĕapĕ́rĕzĕnĭ́ⁿkdjēgĕ jḗesgĕgādjāⁿ jēgŭⁿ
hañk‘έ hap‘erεzεnίⁿk‘djegε. Jέεsgέgadja jëgύⁿ,
hąké hapérezᵋnį́kjege.* Žéesgégają† žégų,
not I would take no cognizance of it.** That kind it was then,

* CW 68.22 has, yapéreznįkdjège, which may be better grammar.
** this translation is from CW 73.22.Winn. II.6.13 has, "not I will know"; and Winn. II.5.24 has, "not I will know care to hear of it".
CW 68.22a has, je‧sgégadją.


 

  Winn. II.1.23      
kĕyāpĕ́rĕzĕnĭ́ⁿkdjēnāⁿ ḗgī wakuruhiⁿtc hā́kīrīā́nuga
'Hañk‘έ   yap‘erεzεnιⁿk‘djénaⁿ.'* Ä́gi wak‘úruhιntc hak‘iri-άnαⁿga
'Hąké yapérezᵋnįkjèną.' Égi wakúruhịč hakiriánąga
'Not [I would take no cognizance of it.]** And greeting passing around, and

* in the penultimate syllable, an original /i/ was replaced with /é/.
** this line (22a) in the translation is omitted from CW 73.Winn. II.6.13 has, "not I will know"; and Winn. II.5.24 has, "not I will know care to hear of it".


 

ḗgī k‘ū́nā ḗpā jēgĕ́ x̣ā́gĕrā djaīsgā́djĕrā djḗsgādjīⁿrḗnāⁿ.
ä́gi k‘únαⁿ ë́p‘a jigέ γágεra djaisgádjera, djesgadjirénαⁿ.["]
égi kúną épa* žigé ǧágᵋra jaisájᵋra, jésgajirèną."
and I came back thus again crying as I was, that way I began."

* CW 68.23 has, epá.


 

ḗgī hinīⁿguahī́rā wairēcgū́nī haⁿhaⁿ nanī́ hīrākā́rāpĕ́rĕzdḗnā
Ä́gi hinιñgwahíra wairecgúni, "Haⁿháⁿ, naní, hirak‘árap‘erεzdènαⁿ.
Égi hínįgwahìra wairešgúni "Hąhą́, naní, hirakárapereztèną.
And her sons they said, "Indeed, mother, you will know something.

 


 

haⁿkĕ́ ḗcana jĕsgḗpĕ́rĕzhirānī́nā ḗgi hiūnihīrērā
Hañkέ ë́cαnαⁿ jë́sgέ p‘erεzhiranínαⁿ." Ä́gi hi’unihírera
Hąké éšana žésge pereziraníną." Égi hi’unihírera
Not only that kind they do not know." And their mother

 


 

tcṓkĕra|kḗrērā́nūgā ḗgī aⁿdjĕ́djā p‘ĭksī́gūdjā
tcok‘εrak‘érera ánαⁿgá. Ä́gi aⁿdjέdja p‘iksίgudja
čokéra kérerànąga égi ąjéja piksíguja
[leading along] they accompanied her, and [then] away from the water a Jack Oak brush

 


 

          Winn. II.6.14
aīrēs’ā́gī ēdja wītcī́hūdjā nĭⁿgĕ́ mī́naⁿk‘iji ḗdja īniⁿxĕdḗjaⁿ
aíres’ajε, ë́dja witcíhudja nιⁿgέ minαⁿk‘iji, ë́dja inιñxεdéjaⁿ
aires’áže, éja wičíhuja nįgé miną́kiži, éja inįxetéžą
they call  it, there a growth of reeds some they lay, and there a big stone

 


 

mīnā́ⁿkijī edja hiū́nīhī́rērā hakā́rakā́naⁿk hirā́nūgā ḗgī xēnaⁿkā
minαⁿk‘iji. ë́dja* hi-unihírera hak‘arak‘ánαⁿk‘ hiránαⁿga Ä́gi xénαⁿk‘i**
miną́kiži. Éja hi’únihìrera hakarakónąk hiránąga égi xénąka
it lay. There their mother they placed her they did, and [then] the hill

* this word should have been capitalized.
** this is for xé-nāⁿk-gi, also followed in CW 68.26 as "xénąki (xénąk-gi ?)", where -gi means "if, when, while," which in the present context makes no sense. It therefore appears to have been a copying error from the original text's xēnaⁿkā, where nąka means, "the, this, that (in the sitting position)."


 

hōgī́giⁿx naⁿgādjīārāī́rējĕ hāhī́ūnáⁿk’uⁿ xḗnāⁿki
hogígιñx nañgadji-araírejε, hahí ’únañk’ûⁿ xénañk‘i
hogígįx ną́gajiaraìreže.* Hahí ’ų́nąk’ų, xénąki
around they began to run. Finally they did it, the hill

* < nąk-haji-haraireže.


 

tcīⁿwī́djīrḗjĕ gī́ji ḗgī jēwitcīⁿhudjānúga* hogī́giⁿx
tcιⁿwídjirejε, giji. Ä́gi witcíⁿhudjánαⁿga hogigίñx
čįwíjireže, gíži. Égi že wičị́hujạ̀nąka** hogígįx
it rumbled [.] [Then] this the growth of reeds around

* -núga is undoubtably a mistranscription of -náⁿka.
** CW 68.27 has, wítcịhu-djà-anąga; however, it should be analysed as wičị́hu-jạ̀-nąka.


 

          Winn. II.5.27*
hakī́rī naⁿk hādjīārāī́recgū́ni gī́jī witcíⁿhūdjā́nañka
hak‘írι. Nαⁿk‘ hadji-araírecguni, giji witcίⁿ† hudjánαga
hakíri nąk hajiaraírešgùni, giži. Wičị́hujạ̀nąka‡
they came back** running they began about [.] The growth of reeds

* at the top of the page is written, "carax = rattle".
** circled and connected by a line to the last word in this phrase is, "Insert pp. 25-26 here". Actually, nothing on page 25 is inserted here, and page 26 overlaps a bit with the last line of this page, as shown above.
† Winn. II.2.24 ends with this word. Pages 25-26 is our Version 1b. At the bottom of the page it says, "[continuedon page 27]". The narrative of Version 1a resumes on page 27.
CW 68.27 has, witcị́ hudjá-anąga. I can find no such word as hujá, and -anąga attaches to the end of a clause to indication conjunction ("and"). Witcị refers to the reed or cattail plant, hu means "stem"; djạ is an auxiliary verb indicating the standing position; and nąka is an indexical, "this, that, these, those, the." The original reading of Winn. II.5.26-27 is essentially corect.


 

CW 69.27              
hāxdjāhiōt’uⁿreji* ḗgī dḗdjinaⁿkce** gī́ji hōgī́giⁿx naⁿgĕnāⁿkā
haxdjáhi hot’ύṇegiji ä́gi dedjinάⁿkcε Giji† hogígιnx nañgεnαⁿk‘a
haxjáhi hot’ų́negiži égi te jiną́kše, giži. Hogígįx nągᵋnąka
upside down it turned, and and lake it became [.] Around their running

* as expressed in other texts, -gi- has been omitted prior to -ji.
** this is written as, d(t)ḗdjinaⁿkce.
† in Winn. II.5.27, this word is interpreted as starting a sentence and is translated as "so."


 

sīkā|c’ogĕdja hīp‘ā́ waxoxgĕ́rā jedjaiⁿxdjiⁿ p‘ā́ hināⁿcā́rāxīrĕjĕ
sik‘áⁿ—c’ogέdja hip‘á waxoxgéra jεdjaíñxdjιⁿ p‘a hinaⁿcaraγírejε
sikáš’ogèja hipá waxoxgéra žejaị́xjįpa hinąšáraǧirèže,
[bunched] on their ankles as far as the shells [that far] they rattled*

* CW 74.28 translates this as, ""They, however, kept on running and (waded into the water) as far as their ankles, making a sound like that heard when one steps on shells." In a note at Winn. II.6.13 verso, Radin says, "c’arax = noise made in stepping over shells, rattling".


 

gī́jī ḗgi hāhā|nānī́ wajáⁿgānīxdjiⁿ rāgī́-ázēgĕ
giji. Ä́gi "Haⁿháⁿ, naní, wajaⁿgánιxdjιⁿ ra|gi-ázgε.
giži. Égi. "Hąhą́, naní, wažą́ganìxjį ragi’ázᵋge
[.]* And, "Yes mother, no matter what happens don't run away

 


 

hidedjḗwa’waⁿdjĕ rāx̣ākcānā ḗgī hinúⁿgenaⁿkā nĭⁿkdjaⁿk
Hidadjέ wa’ŭáⁿdjε, raγákcαnαⁿ." Ä́gi hinυñgenαⁿk‘a nίkdjɔ́ñk‘
hitajé wa’ųą́je,* raǧákšaną." Égi hinų́gᵋnąka nị́kjǫk**
very much do it, you cried." And that woman her children

* CW 69.29 has, waʔųádje. Given the well attested alternance áje ~ ą́je, the original reading seems preferable.
** CW 69.30 has, nị́kjąk.


 

hīnāⁿkārawaⁿ mīnáⁿkcᴇ āírēnā ḗgī dḗēnaⁿkā wājōⁿkīnā́djĕrā
hinαⁿk‘árawaⁿ, minαⁿkcε aírenαⁿ; ä́gi dέεnañk‘a wajok‘irádjεra
hinąkárawą miną́kše, aíreną.* Égi teénąka wažokirájᵋra
she is singing she sat [they say.] And the lake different things

* CW 69.30 has, áirena, presumably a misprint.


 

      Winn. II.6.15
hīnāⁿhă|djīdjiⁿp hī́rējĕ* naⁿgīⁿrĕ́gĭ dĕḗrēgū́nī**
hináⁿha djidjίⁿp‘hiréjε. "Nañgirέgi dεéreguni,"
hiną́hą jijįp híreže. "Nągirégi teéreguni,"
floating up [to appear suddenly] they did. "Next one this one it was,"

* this word is followed by two parallel lines: //.
** dĕḗ is followed by he which is inserted above the line. It is meant to show that dĕḗrēgū́nī comes from dĕḗ-herēgū́nī, the he having been absorbed by internal sandhi.


 

hīrēgā́cgĕ haⁿkĕ jĕsgānīgē wanoītcge|hōkīrā́djērā hīnāⁿhă
hiregácgε, "hañk‘έ jësgánίⁿgε." Wani-oίtcgε -* hináⁿha
hiregášge, "Hąké žesgánįge." Wani-oíčge hokirájᵋra hiną́hą
she thought, "Not this one." Animals different floating up

* omitted from Winn. II.2.27 and CW 69.32, but not from CW 74.32 ("all kinds of different").


 

djīdjiⁿp hirḗjĕ wak‘aⁿ xĕ́dērācgĕ hḗrējĕ gī́jī
djidjίⁿp hirejε; wak‘á xεderácgε hérejε. Giji*
jijįp hiréže; waką́ xeterášge héreže, giži.
[suddenly appeared] [they did;] snake large there was [.]

* Giji is again interpreted as beginning a sentence, and is translated as "so." This is not followed in CW 69.32.


 

ēgī dḗnaⁿkā gisĕ́wĕjē nī́nāhādā́kdjiⁿ kīridjēgā́djaⁿ ḗgī
ä́gi dénañk‘a gisέwejε, niṇa hadák‘djιⁿ k‘iiridjégadjaⁿ; ä́gi
Égi ténąka giséweže, nina hatákjį kirijégają; égi
And the lake it was quiet the water very calm it became; and

 


 

hŭⁿgĕ sgāredjĭ́ⁿja ḗgi haⁿbĕrā wahīrāx̣ĕ́pcᴇ gī́jī ā́x̣ūkĕā́ki
hυñgέ sgaxdjίⁿjαⁿ. Ä́gi háⁿbεra hiraγέpcê giji áγuk‘ε-ák‘i
hųgé sgąjį́žą égi hą́bᵋra hiraǧépše, gíži. Áǧukeáki
[Chief]* a very white one and light it appeared [.] The armpits

* Winn. II.6.15 has, "dragon (water-spirit)"; CW 74.33: "a sacred one (waterspirit)".


 

        Winn. II.1.27
cū́djmīnaⁿgīrējĕ gisdiⁿ´* waŭmīⁿnaⁿgirḗjĕ ḗgī hotcintcinigenaⁿka
cudj minάⁿgirejε, gisdίⁿ wa’uminάⁿgirejε ä́gi hotcιⁿtcιⁿnιñgεnañk‘a
šuj miną́gireže, gistị́ wa’ųminą́gireže. Égi hočįčị́nįgᵋnạ̀ka
red they were, very round they were. And the boys

* gisdji occurs prior to this word, and a /t/ is written under the /d/.


 

wāūínējĕ t’ĕhīrā́nūgā ḗgī ḗdjā wīrṓk‘ŭⁿ rúzirējĕ ḗp‘ā
wa-’ú-iṇejε t’ehiránαⁿga. ä́gi ë́dja wirók’υⁿ rúzirejε ép‘a.
wa’úįneže. T’ehiránąga égi éja wirók’ų rúzireže. Épa
they made. They killed him, and then there tools they took. From this time on*

* Winn. II.6.15 has, "as far". Winn. II.5.27 makes ép‘a the last word of the sentence. This is the translation given in CW 74.36.


 

hōnīhājĕĕ hīŭaⁿhū́reje* wīrūhĭⁿtc hīŭaⁿdjirējĕ
Honihá jεέ hi’ŭaⁿhú-irεgi, wiruhίntc hi’ŭaⁿdjírejε,
honihá žeé hi’ųahúiregi, wiruhị́č hi’ųajíreže,
songs that they commenced to use, the ceremonial greetings they began to use,

* this form is inconsistent with the other texts.


 

Winn. 2.5.28        
déjĕsgĕ c’ā́gīwāhīwira* aírĕnā dḗjēsgĕ hōkīrā́gādjī́rējĕ.
déjësgε c’agiwahíwira aírenαⁿ, déjësgε hok‘irágadjirejε.
téžesge š’ágiwahìwira, aíreną. Téžesge hokirágajireže.
[in this way] our ancestors, it is said. Thus they told one another.

* c’agiuahi occurs before this word.


None of the songs that follow occur in Winnebago II, #5, or in CW.

Winn. II.6.15

Songs (nawā́ⁿrā) Sung by leaders of band giving the dance.
                                  They are supposed to be the songs sung by
woman mentioned in text relating to her children.
The song refers to the story. The woman sings in a


Winn. II.6.16

different language (in Sauk & Fox) or in Iowa &
Winnebago. The songs can be given in any order. Three sets of songs
were sung when Blowsnake was initiated.


 

    I –    gū́sē he he he gūse dāwīna* (Sauk)
guse he he he guse dawīna  
guse he he he guse dawina  
guse he he he guse dawina  
    guse he he he guse dawina  
    hiawē he he he nō ho hō hō hïau?ñ  
    guse he he he guse dawina (four times)
    nĭⁿ güisē he he he  

* the first letter of dāwīna is written so as to look like a capital script /L/. Therefore, its interpretation as a /d/ is doubtful.


 

    32 (For Phonograph.)
  Last line of page 7 and first 5 of page 8 are here repeated.

 


 

ḗgī haⁿkĕ nḗcana hĭⁿc’ū́nīkdjānḗna djā́năga c’ā́giwāhiwīrā
Égi hąké néšana hįš’únįkjanéną. Jánąga š’ágiwahiwira
And not I alone you will (not) use me. How many our ancestors

 


 

djānaⁿgā́gēre jenuga jĕjḗnuⁿgā c’āgwārākdjanḗna noⁿga
janągágere ženąga žežénąga š’ágwarakjanéną, nąga
as many as there are all of them that many they will be your leaders, and

 


 

ḗgi degī wahānā́ⁿgeré ḗgī haⁿke dĕējī c’ā́gīwāhī́wīrā
égi tegi wahánągere égi hąké teeži š’ágiwahíwira
then as for me [I myself am saying it]* and not [but us] our ancestors

* the translation has, "I am speaking".


 

hiⁿwī́rākĭkū́rūxĕ—kdjānēhī́rē jēĕ́ ḗjiḗji
hįwírakikúruxekjanehíre, žée éžiéži.
we are to follow, [this] then.

 


In the form of an extended comment, further details are given of the Waterspirit episode.

Key —

First Row "raw" interlinear text from Paul Radin, Winnebago III, #1: 14-16.
Second Row revised text from Paul Radin, Winnebago II, #5: 29, & The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves, 69.37-42.
Third Row text in current orthography.
Fourth Row English translation based on Winnebago II, #5: 29, & in part on that of The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves, 74.37-42.

 


 

Winn. III.1.14* = Winn. II.5.29 = Winn. II.1.23 = CW 69.37
wirók‘una hináⁿ ruziregí [β] hicgê jêê horúzirejê. maⁿṇá
wirók‘uṇa hiná ruzirεgí ë́dja hicgέ jεέ horúzirejε máⁿṇa
Wirókųna hiną́ ruziregí, éja hišgé žeé horúzireže, mą́na
Material enough when they got, there also that they took, the shell**

* as a title, Winn. II.1 has at the top of page 14, decốrok waktcexi. The second word means, "Waterspirit." The word preceding it should probably have been detcốrok, an odd blend of De Čo, "Green Lake," and De Rok, "Within Lake," both names for Green Bay, Wisconsin.
** Winn. III.1.14 has "the earth", but above the line, it reads, "shell - arrow -".


 

wi’úiṇekdjera sikã́c’ogêdjip‘ā hinacárajᴇ̑náñka maⁿṇá
wi’u-inék‘djεra sik‘áⁿc’ogεdjip‘a hiṇacárajεnαⁿk‘a máⁿṇa
wi’ų́irekjèra. Siką́š’ogèjipa hinašáražᵋnąka mą́na
that they might use. Up to their ankles to rattle with the foot the shell

 


 

wawi’úiṇekdje[-] jêê [β´] warúzirejê mañkáⁿni
wawi’ú-iṇek‘djεra Jεέ ë́dja warúzirejε mañk‘áⁿni
wawi’ų́irekjèra. Žeé éja warúzireže. Mąką́ni
they use it. That there they took. The Medicine Men

 


 

[β] maⁿscốcôx hinaⁿcóγᴇnañká. higûⁿ
ë́dja maⁿscɔ́cɔx hinaⁿcɔ́γεnαⁿk‘a higύⁿ
éja mąsšóšox hinąšóǧᵋnąka higų́
there bells that they might shuffle with their feet, then

* jigế is omitted by Winn. II.5.29.


 

jigế jêế [β] horuziré[/] wa’ú[⨪][ɜ] maⁿswagudjê*
-* jεέ ë́dja horuzirénαⁿ wa’únαⁿkcαnαⁿ maⁿzŭαgudjέ
žigé žeé éja horuziréną wa’ų́nąkšaną. Mązwáguje
[again] that there they took they do it. Iron shoes

* at the bottom of the page is written: "maⁿswagudjê = an ornament made of metal put on moccasins, and was a sign that a man could poison but wouldn't be poisoned". Above the word "ornament" is written, "diamond shape".


 

ā́nañka higûⁿ ếre[/] jigigû́ⁿ higû́ⁿjigigûⁿ éjorúzire[/]
άnαⁿk‘a higυⁿ érenαⁿ. Jigέ higύⁿ -** ë́dja horúzirejε.†
ánąka higų éreną.* Žigigų́ higų́žigigų éja horúzireną.
that they call then it is. Again [yet again] there they took.

* the initial /h/ has been dropped from external sandhi. CW 69.38a has, higų́s‧eréna.
** Winn. II.5.29 has here, Jigέ higύ higū́ⁿ jigế higû́ⁿ.
† in the line above, the special symbol [/] indicates -naⁿ rather than -je.


 

wok‘áⁿwaⁿγañgêrế tconínê [ϕ] [λ] tcunína ep‘ā
Wok‘áⁿwañγañgεrε tconínε hañk‘έ jë́sgε tcunínαⁿ. ép‘a
Waką́wąǧạ̀gere čoníne hąké žésge čuníną. Épa,
This poisoning before not that kind there was any. From that time on,

 


 

kik‘áⁿwañx tc‘û́ⁿna hijaⁿ naⁿtcgé dêgwáhiga t’ehir[ρ´]
k‘ik‘áⁿwañx tcúnαⁿ hijάⁿ naⁿtcgέ degwáhiga t’ehiránαⁿga.
kiką́wąx čúną. Hižą́ nąčgé tegwáhiga* t’ehiránąga
to poison one another there was. One heart to cause to be sore they killed, and

* CW 69.41 has, nątcgédek‧wahìga.


 

hijáⁿ wajáⁿnihijáⁿ hixiraírëcgê k‘aⁿwaⁿγir[ρ´] t’anâna
Hijάⁿ wajáⁿnijαⁿ hixiraírëcgε k‘aⁿwañγiránαⁿga t’anấnαⁿ
hižą́ wažą́nižą hixiraírešge ką́wąǧirànąga t’anáną.*
one something if they are selfish and ill-natured they poisoned, and he would die.

* CW 69.41 has, t’anó‧ną. This form is attested only once.


 

ep‘ā jê[λ] tcúⁿna jenûga.
ép‘a jësgε tcúⁿnαⁿ, jë́nυⁿga.*
Épa, žéžesge čų́ną. Žénųga.
From that time on, that kind there was. This is all.

* at the bottom of the page is written:

dani, 3
___, tobacco

ecaną kikép‘ewį = selfish

mą = arrow (shell)
mą = earth

woragiguną = to be envious


Source:

For the original interlinear MS, see Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #6: 10-15, and Winnebago III, #1: 11-14; Winnebago II, #1: 20-23 (a handwritten phonetic text). Winnebago III, #12: 13-16 (typewritten text, phonetic only); Winnebago II, #5: 21-29 (typewritten phonetic text with a typewritten interlinear translation). A loose English translation is to be found in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 89-91. A text with an English translation is found in Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves, International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoirs, 3 (1950): 68.1-69.36a, 73.1-74.41.