Hočąk Text — Otter Comes to the Medicine Rite

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake


       

Winnebago II, #6: 166                        Winnebago III, #6: 357


English Translation


As is the case with a number of other Radin interlinear MSS, this text is full of abbreviations for common word terminations.

α β ε ρ τ ϕ T W ɕ 9
égi éja -gają -ánąga -giži hąké wąkšigo’į Wašjįgéga -nạkše -(i)žą



In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of The Road of Life and Death (see Source). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].

Key —

First Row "raw" interlinear text from Paul Radin, Winnebago II, #6: 166-169.
Second Row revised text from Paul Radin, Winnebago III, #6: 357.65-361.86.
Third Row text in contemporary orthography.
Fourth Row English translation based in part on that of The Road of Life and Death.


Winnebago II, #6: 166 = Winnebago III, #6: 357.66 —

dōcŏ́nōgī́jaⁿ [M] wauⁿjĕ́ sā́nĭⁿk yax̜ep‘ūrḗgī
66    docŏ́nŏgìją mą’úṇa wa’ų́jĕ sánįk‘ yáγĕp‘urĕ̀gi
Tošónogìžą Mą’úna wa’ų́že. Sánįk yáǧep’urègi,
An otter Earthmaker he made it. [In the direction of] in the east,

 


 

dēdjáⁿnādjḗdjā tcī́rā haⁿbĕrā́ higikŏ́nŏk’cĕ [τ]
dedją́nadjedja tcira hąbĕra higikónąkcĕ giji.
Teją́najeja čira hąbera higikónąkše, giži.
in the middle of the ocean house life* he placed† [.]

*the MS has, "made so that no death could enter it."
†the MS adds, "for me."


 

[M] wanáⁿĭáⁿdjīdjĕ́hījĕ [τ] hipĕrĕ́zdjī[ɕ] docŏ́nogēgā
67   mą’úṇa wanąĭą́djidjĕhìjĕ giji hipérĕsdjinạ̀kcĕ dócŏ́nogéga
Mą’úna wanąĭą́jijehìže, giži. Hipéresjinạ̀kše, Tóšonogéga
Earthmaker he centered his mind on it [.] She came to know it, Otter

 


 

Winnebago III, #6: 358.67 —

hīdōkĕ́rā [M] wājīⁿṇḗṇā [W] hidĕ́geniⁿkwahira
hidok‘éra mą’úṇa wajįṇéną wacdjiŋgéga hidégĕnįkwahìra
hitokéra. "Mą’úna wažįnéną, Wašjįgéga hitégenikwahìra
the old woman. "Earthmaker he thought something, Hare his uncles

 


 

hiunī́niⁿkwahĭ́rā [T] wōgī́niⁿkdjanĕ́gi [β]
hi-úninįkwahìra waŋkcigo’íṇa wogínįkdjanègi; edja
hi-úninikwahìra wąkšigo’į́na woínįkjanègi. Éja
his aunts Life he is going to look for. [There]

 


 

tcā́wḗkdjānḗgī tcēkdjī́nā hihī́nop hī́k‘ŏrōhṓ[τ] pēdjītcetc
tcáwekdjanègi tcekdjíṇa hihínɔp hik‘ấrohogìji pedjitcétc
čáwekjanègi." Čekjína hihínąp hikárohogìži, pejičéč
[he will go towards."] [The first thing] he went out [when he got ready,] fireplace

 


 

hā́nīnā djobŏ́haⁿ ōkā́rāwā́hiᵐbī́jĕ* háᵐbera tcī́rā
hanina djobɔ́hą ok‘árawahįbìjĕ hąbĕra tcíra
hanina jobóhą okárawahįbìže. Hąbera číra
his four times he went around his own. Light and Life the lodge

*the initial /h/ has been dropped due to external sandhi.


 

ruk’īrīkī́rī jĕsgā́djiᵐbī́jĕ háᵐbĕra karapiĕsge kī́rīdjĕ́hījĕ
ruk‘írik‘ìri jesgádjįbijĕ hąbĕra k‘arap‘i-ésgĕ k‘iridjéhijĕ
ruk’írik’íri žegájibiže. Hąbera karapiésge kirijéhiže,
it glistened he made it. Light very good he made it,

 


 

noⁿga [α] hī́hīnáⁿberĕ́jĕ [τ] nīnṓt’aⁿpgījī
nąga. 68     ägi hihinąberejĕ giji niṇot’ąpgi*
nąga égi hihinąbereže, giži. Nįnot’ąpgiži,
[and] [then] he started to go out [.] He stepped in the water

*the /-ži/ has been dropped probably in error.


 

hōīdjĕ́ djōbŏ̀haⁿ* nīṇāmāⁿnī́jĕ [α]
hoidje djobŏ́hą niṇa mąníjĕ. 69      ägi
hoije jobóhą nina mąníže. Égi
steps four the water he walked. [Then]

*the text has, hōīdjĕ́|djōbŏ̀haⁿ.


 

[β] niĕ́djā hīwắmaⁿx hīrĕ[ε´] hagix̜ĕ́p k‘ĭnĭ́pgi*
édja ni-édja hiwámąx hiregádją hagiγĕ́pkinĭpgi
éja niéja hiwámąx hiregáją, hagiǧép kinipgi,
[there] in the water he dove [after he did,] when he came up,

*the text has, hagix̜ĕ́p|k‘ĭnĭ́pgi.


 

p‘ŭⁿzā́kērā hānīā́gīx̜ĕ́p kīnĭ́pce noⁿga [α]
p‘ųzákera hani-ágiγĕp k‘inípcĕ. 70      nąga ägi
pųzákera hani-ágiǧep kinípše, nąga égi
sand he brought up [he laid,] [and] [then]

 


 

[β] wītc[9´]* djīnoⁿgī́jĕ noⁿga [α]
édja witc djinągíjĕ. 71       nąga ä́gi
éja wičížą jinągíže, nąga égi
[there] an island it appeared, [and] [then]

*the presumed [9] (based on the translation) is illegible.


 

Winnebago II, #6: 167* —

[β] x‘ox‘ex‘ekīⁿ[ρ´] nīĕ́djā hīāmáⁿẋīrĕ́jĕ†
édja xoxéxehi-ànąga ni-édja hí-amaŋγirèjĕ
éja xoxéxehiànąga niéja híamąǧirèže.
[there] he strengthened himself with his power, and in the water he dived.

*there is a long vertical line running down the whole page (167), and connected by a line to it is this on the opposite page (166 v.):

Explain !
Explain !

Farther down the page he writes, "Explain. This is utterly confused in my book." See notes 12-23, p. 342 in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]).
†at the top of page 166 verso, Radin writes,

hakųwįk = to dive
hamąx – to go under


 

hāgīẋĕp kīnĭ́pgi hohuⁿgrā́ rawā́gīẋĕ́p kīnĭ́pce noⁿga
hágiγĕpk‘inìpgi hohųgrá rawagíγĕpk‘inìpcĕ. 72  nąga
Hágiǧep kinípgi hohųgrá rawagíǧep kinípše. Nąga
[He brought up] [he laid, and] kingfish he brought it up in his mouth.* [And]

*a line leads from this word to the left top of the page where "in mouth" is written.


 

[α] [wōxdjĭ́ⁿṇa]* ē wāsgĕrĕ́rekārāgīje. [α] rokĭsāgĕ́djā
ä́gi woxdjįṇa e wasgerérek‘aragìjĕ. 73    ägi rok‘ísagĕ̀dja
égi woxįira e wasgérekaragìže. Égi rokísagéja
[then] the seat [it] his plate he made it.† [Then] in the middle of the body

*placed in brackets in the text, but with a check mark above it. There is a line with an arrow tip leading up to the top middle of the page where there appears to be a parenthetical questions mark, "(?)." This word, which means "lair" is here being used to refer to the seat. See below.
†on the facing page, 166 v., Radin writes, "he used his seat as a dish i. e. as soon as he came out of the water, he used it began to eat.


 

Winnebago III, #6: 359.73 —

háᵐbĕrīwagā́xdjena[τ´]* hīdjōbŏ́hoⁿna ratcāīgū[ε´] haᵐberīraẋū́gīgū́jĕ†
hąberiwagáxdjenagìji hidjobŏ́hǫṇa ratcaígugàdją hą́beriraγùgigùjĕ.
hąberiwagáxjenagìži, hijobóhǫna račaígugàją, hą́beriraǧùgigùže.
imprinted with light, and‡ four times he bit it, he lengthened the Light and Life.

*on the facing page, 166 v., Radin writes, "rokisagedja habᴇriwagaxdjé[|] = he imprinted the daylight in the middle of his body, that is when he bit the fish the light would run into the gap made.
†on the same page, he says, "habᴇriraγigiguje = he bit into the intestines and stretched them. Perhaps the food that he drew forth, might be signified (nourishment). Below this, at an angle in larger writing is the following:

raγuk = to draw out
          life out of fish

‡ Radin writes on the facing page within a semicircle, "halfway on body caused life to be imprinted."

 

[α] hīnŭⁿkdjēgā hanĭⁿdjīnṓki hūcĕ́rēgrā sgāxdjĭ́ⁿ
74    ägi hinųkdjega hanįdjínąk‘i hucéregra sgáxdjį
Égi hinųkjega hanįjínąki hušéregra sgáxjį
[And] that woman* she took hold of bones white†

*the text adds, "Otter's wife."
†Radin draws a line from the facing page (166 v.) to this area and remarks: "contained bones free of flesh (white)."


 

hōjū́djējĕ́ wāsgḗrā haᵐberīrūt’ēt’ḗkdjena jēsgā́djējĕ́ [α]
hojúdjejĕ wasgéra hąberirut’et’ekdjéną jesgádjejĕ. 75  ägi
hožúježe. Wasgéra hąberirut’et’ekjéną, žesgáježe. Égi
[it was filled.] The plate it became imprinted with light,* [that's how it was.] [And]

*Radin's comment on the facing page (166 v.) probably applies to this passage: "That is the dish was marked with spots of food."


 

mānīaⁿrāiregi nīnā́ dēdjónna djasgĕ́xdjĭnōkī jesgĕ́xdjĭⁿ
mani-ąraíregi níṇa dedjǫ́ṇa djasgĕ́xdjinąk‘i jesgĕ́xdjį
mani-ąraíregi nína teją́na jasgéxjinąki žesgéxjį
they went out walking water ocean as big as [that much]

 


 

wā́sgĕxṓnūniⁿk hōjū́kĕrĕ́rĕnī́sgĕ-jēnī́nā [α] mā́nīhū́gī hadjīaūnī́jĕ
wásgĕxŏnùnįk‘ hojukerérenisgĕjenìną. 76    ägi manihúgi hadji-a-uníjĕ
wásgexonùnįk hožukerérenisgejenìną. Égi manihúgi, hajiauníže,
little plate it was like.* [And] he came walking, he came ashore

*On the facing page, 166 v., Radin says, "As they went, & as much as the ocean was, like in a small vessel it was, so quiet was the sea." Two lines below, he adds, "like water in a little plate it was." With a line from the lower right of this facing page to this part of the text, Radin remarks, "As they walked the water of the ocean became as calm as if it were in a plate."


 

[τ] [β] wonaⁿhéṇa kṓnŏkcĕ jigĕ́
giji edja wonąhéra kónǫkcĕ jigĕ
giži. Éja wonąhéra kónąkše. Žigé
[.] [There] the stopping point he placed. Once again

 


 

rōhī́rā x‘ṓx‘ĕ k‘iⁿdjirēgĕ [α] wāuⁿjĕ́
rohíra xoxĕ k‘įdjiréjĕ. 77    ägi wa’ų́jĕ
rohíra, xóxe kįjiréže. Égi wa’ų́že.
he got ready, [frail from holiness] he made himself. [Then] [he did it.]

 


 

niḗdjā hīwā́maⁿx hīrḗjĕ hīnū́gīrākī́rŭs [ε]
ni-édja hiwámąx hirejĕ hinų́girak‘ìrus gadją
Niéja hiwámąx hireže. Hinų́girakìrus gają
In the water he dove [he did.] With his woman [then]

 


 

hāgiẋĕ́p kĭnĭ́p‘īrē[ε´] hotcākḗnēdjā niⁿkdjóⁿgĕrā djopī́wī
hagíγĕp k‘inípiregàdją hotcakénedja nįkdjŏ́ŋgĕra djop‘íwi
hagíǧep kinípiregàją, hočakéneja nįkjągera jopíwi
to emerge [when they got to] in between them children four

 


 

tcaⁿt’ĭ́ⁿjĕ jĕ́ĕ jegúⁿ hī[ρ´] [α]
tcąt’į́jĕ jéé jégų hi-ànąga. 78       ägi
čat’į́že. Žée žégų hiánąga égi
[it was seen.] [This] [thus] [he did, and] [then]

 


 

waⁿkdjēga* nīĕ́dja hākdjā́ hīwāmáⁿẋīrējĕ́ hagīẋĕ́p
wáŋkdjega ni-édja hakdjá hiwamáγirejĕ hagíγĕp
wą́kjega niéja hakjá hiwamáǧireže. Hagíǧep
the male [in the water] [turning back] [something was scooped up.] To emerge

*for some unknown reason, /ī/ is written above the last letter.


 

kīnĭ́p‘[ε´] hṓhŭⁿgrā́ saⁿdjaⁿxdjī́ⁿjaⁿ rawā́gīẋ‘ĕ́p kīnĭ́pce
kinipgádją hóhŭŋgra sądjaŋxdjį́ją* rawagiγĕ́p k‘ínĭpcĕ.
kinipgáją, hóhųgra sąjąxjį́žą rawagiǧép kínįpše.
[when he got to] kingfish a gray one he had in his mouth [he laid out.]

*on page 359 verso is a copy of page 355 ruled out with nine vertical lines.


 

Winnebago III, #6: 360.79 —

[α] woxdjĭ́ⁿna ḗwāsgĕrḗrekara[τ´] waⁿk’djēgā́ hīdjā́djīr[ρ]
79   ägi woxdjį́ṇa ewasgerérek‘aragìji† wáŋkdjega hídjadjirànąga
Égi woxjį́ra e wasgerérekaragìži, wą́kjega híjajirànąga
[And] [lair]* [after they made plates,] the male he started for it, and

*Radin has, "?". Marino has under woxjį, "lair (of a bear)."  On the facing page, 166 v., Radin writes,

woxdjį́ = cradle, nest (bears)
otter used nest as plate

gàdja has been lined out and replaced with gìji in keeping with the value of [τ].


 

Winnebago II, #6: 168 —

rōkī́sāgĕ́djā haᵐbīrāt’ĕgīgū́jĕ* [α] hīdjōbŏ́hoⁿnā
rókisagĕ̀dja hą́birat’ègigùjĕ. 80   ägi hidjobóhǫṇa
rókisagèja hą́birat’ègigùže. Égi hijobóhǫna
[in the middle of his body] he smeared it with light. [And] the fourth time

*at the top right of the page, above this word, Radin has written,

"he smeared it
rīwat’ekgiguje
".


 

hānĭ́ⁿdjĭṇŏkā́djaⁿ haᵐberī́rāẋūgīgū́jĕ [α] hīnuⁿk‘djēgā niⁿgenóⁿkā
hanį́djinǫk‘àdją hą́beriraγugigùjĕ. 81   ägi hinųkdjéga nįgĕnǫk‘a
hanį́jinąkàją, hą́beriraǧugigùže. Égi hinųkjéga nįgenąka
he snatched it, and he lengthened the day. [Then] [the woman] [these children]

 


 

wakī́jū hānĭⁿdjīnoⁿkcĕ́ [τ´] haᵐbĕrā́ sgāxdjíⁿ wasgḗra*
wak‘íju hanįdjinǫ̀kcĕ giji hą́bĕra sgáxdjį wasgéra
wakížu hanįjiną́kše, giži. Hą́bera sgáxjį wasgéra
[with them] he took hold of [.] [The light] [very white] the plate

*the /a/ in this word has "(?)" written above it.


 

haⁿbērā́rūt’ĕ́t’ēkdjiⁿ jĕsgā́djḗjĕ [α] mānīáⁿkarăirĕgĭ́
hą́berirut’èt’èkdjį jesgádjejĕ. 82   ägi mániạ̀k‘araìregi
hą́berirut’èt’èkjį žesgáježe. Égi mániàkaraìregi,
he marked it distinctly with light [he made it thus.] [Then] they started out walking,

 


 

wōgŭ́ⁿzōtcī́rā tcāwarāírēgī hoī́dje djobŏ́haⁿ rūhāīdje[ε´]
wogų́zotcira tcáwararaìregi hoidje djobŏ́hą rúhaidjegàdją
Wogų́zočira čáwararaìregi hoije jobóhą rúhaijegàją.
the Creation Lodge that way they went step four he went.

 


 

[β] máⁿṇā hikāraī́tcgarehīje† waⁿgĕ́xdjíⁿniⁿgra‡ saⁿdjaⁿxdjíⁿjaⁿ
édja mą́ṇa hik‘araít[c]garehìjĕ† waŋgĕ́xdjinį̀gra sądjaŋxdjį́ją
Éja mą́na hikaraíčgarehìže. Wągéxjinį̀gra sąčą́xjį́žą
[There] his arrow* he tried. The tree a very large one

*an original "shell" was crossed out and "arrow" written above it, but that was later crossed out, and "shell" rewritten below both cross outs. The word literally means "arrow," but is here used to denote the shell that is shot during the Medicine Rite.
†in the MS text, /c/ was inserted by a caret after the /t/, but in the recopied text, the /c/ was dropped, leaving just the /t/. The latter has been corrected.
‡the initial /y/ was corrected to /w/. The version beginning with /y/ is attested elsewhere, but the word may derive from wągé, "above."


 

[β]dje[τ´] ēdjīgū́djĕrīhī́je hīdjā́hī[ε´] hōrūẋī́tcé* hōrūksūxdjīĕ́djā
édjadjegìji edjigúdjerihìjĕ hidjáhigadją horuγítccĕ horuksúxdji-èdja
éjajegìži, ejigújerihìže. Hijáhigàją, horuǧíčše, horuksúxjièja
that was there, he shot. When he got there, he saw, in the center of the core

*the /é/ looks rather more like [ε´], in which case the word should end in -gádją.


 

hāhīnōⁿkijī kāraīpĭⁿjĕ́ [α] jige [β]
hahinąk‘iji k‘araip‘į́je. 83    ägi jigĕ édja
hahinąkiži. Karaip’įže. Égi žigé éja
it was there. He was greatly pleased with himself. [And] [again] [there]

 


 

wauⁿjĕ́ jigĕ́ hīgītcgā́ rēhī́jĕ hīnŭⁿk
wa’ųjĕ́ jigĕ higítcga rehíjĕ hinųk
wa’ųžé. Žigé higíčga rehíže. Hinųk
[he did it.] [Again] he tried to do something [to send.] [Female]

 


 

Winnebago III, #6: 361.83 —

x‘opini saⁿdjaⁿxdjĭ́ⁿjaⁿ [β]nōkī́jī [β] hīgū́tcrēhī́jĕ
xópini sądjaŋxdjį́ją edjanok‘íji edja hígutcrehìjĕ
Xópini sąjąxjį́žą ejanąkíži, éja híguč rehíže.
[Spirit]* [a very large one] [there was, and] [there] [shot] [he sent.]

*translated as "stone," since stones collectively in the Medicine Rite are deemed to be the "Female Spirit."


 

hīdjā́hi[ε´] hokūrūẋī́tc[ε´] hōrūksŭ́xdjīĕ́djā hāhīnáⁿkcĕ [τ´]
hidjáhigadją hok‘uruγítcgadją hok‘urusáxdji-èdja* hahinąkcĕ giji
hijáhigàją, hokuruǧíčgàdją horuksúxjieja hahinąkše, giži.
[When he got there,] [he saw, and] in the heart, center [it went there] [.]

*the revised text has hok‘urusáxdji-èdja, which is unattested. The original MS reading seems to be correct: see horuksú(ra), "in the middle of a solid," attested four times.


 

kārāī́piⁿjĕ kū́rūz[ρ´] [β] jīgĕ́ hīkā́raītcgā́rēhījĕ maⁿxĭ́sgara
k‘araíp‘įjĕ k‘uruzánąga. 84  edja jigĕ hik‘áraítcgarehìjĕ maŋxísgara
karaíp’įže. Kuruzánąga éja žigé hikaraíčgarehìže. Mąxísgara
[He was pleased with it.] [He took, and] [there] again [he tried.] White clouds

 


 

hāwācĕ́wēkmīnaⁿkī́jī [β] hīgū́tcrehī́jĕ [τ´] hīdjā́
hawacĕ́wekminǫk‘ìji edja hígutcrehìjĕ giji hidja
hawašéwek minąkíži, éja hígučrehìže, giži. Hija
a protruding edge [there] he shot at it. [.] [There]

 


 

hī[ε´] horūksuxdjiedja hahīnáⁿkce [τ´] kārā́īpiⁿjĕ
higádją horuksúxdji-édja hahinąkcĕ giji k‘araíp‘įje.
higáją horuksúxjiéja hahinąkše, giži. Karaíp‘įže.
[he did it, and] right in the very center [it took hold] [.] [He was pleased with it.]

 


 

Winnebago II, #6: 169 —

[α] [β] wauⁿjĕ́ kū́rŭz[ρ´] [β]
85       ägi édja wa’ųjĕ k‘uruzánąga edja
Égi éja wa’ųže: kuruzanąga éja
[Then] [there] [he did it:] [he took it, and] [there]

 


 

hīdjobŏ́hoⁿna hikaraītcga rehī́jĕ woguⁿzotcíra
hidjobóhǫṇa hik‘áraitcga rehíjĕ wogųzotcíra
hijobóhǫna hikáraičga, rehíže. Wogųzočíra.
the fourth time when he tried, he sent. The Creation Lodge.

 


 

tcīṓkīsā́ghōnaⁿjĭ́ⁿna [ϕ] iⁿdjṓkīpā́hīp‘iⁿnī djḗgī
tci-ok‘ísak‘ honąjį́ṇa haŋkĕ́ įdjók‘ip‘ahip‘ìni djegi.
Čiokísagonąžį́na hąké įjókipahipìni jegi.
He who Stands at the Center of the Lodge [not] unopposable he was.

 


 

[β] hīgū́djĕrĕhī́jĕ hīdjā́hi[ε´] petckĭsakdjiĕ́dja
86   édja higúdjerehìjĕ hidjáhigàdją p‘etc k‘isákdji-èdja
Éja higújerehìže. Hijáhigàją, peč kisákjièja
[There] [he sent his shot.] When it got there, fire in the middle of

 


 

hāhī́naⁿkce kāraī́p‘iⁿjĕ
hahínąkcĕ k‘araíp‘įjĕ
hahínąkše. Karaíp’įže.
[it took hold.] [He was pleased with it.]

 


Source:

Jasper Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Freeman #3876, Winnebago II, #6: 166-169 (the original handwritten interlinear text); Freeman #3886, Winnebago III, #6: 357.65-361.86. For a loose English translation, see Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 255-257.