Hočąk Text — The Osage Massacre

narrated by John Hazen Hill (Xetenišaraga)


Near the upper left of this document is a large handwritten "15". In the upper right corner, written vertically from bottom to top, is "Story no 5.". The title is centered about 3 inches from the top in two typewritten lines as indicated below. The document is a typescript, and therefore has excellent legibility. However, there are virtually no diacritical marks whatever. Those found in the text presented here have been supplied where the lexical material justified it. The orthography is strikingly similar to that of the 1903 Bible, which suggests that the material was among the earliest that Radin processed, since he quickly abandoned this form of orthography. Some of its unusual features are tabulated below:

g
gk
j
jh
ph
sh
sr
xh
g or k
uncertain
j or č
č
p
š or ž
s’a
ǧ

That /sr/ = /s’a/ is very unusual and is found elsewhere only in the 1903 Bible. Missing altogether is the stop (’). In repairing these deficiencies, I have adopted the late Radin orthography. The English lines are handwritten in pencil by an unidentified translator. As interlinear translations, they are more sentence by sentence than word for word.

Whether due to dialect or to inaccurate phonetic interpretation, there is a systematic shift from the standard /š/ in many words to an /s/: Waraš > Waras, šge > sge, mąšją > mąsją, hąkerešge > hąkeresge; on the other hand, we have wakišara for wakisara. Also hąké, hąkaga, hąkeresge, hąkaga’ų, are de-aspirated: ąké, ąkaga, ąkeresge, ąkaga’ų. We also have the common use of the extremely rare, ariea-, "to say".


English Translation


 

Title —
Worak . . . .
Te . . . .
E . . . .
[Story]
[this]
[it]

 

Xeteiš[a]ragka . . . .
E . . . .
Horakš[a]na
[Wren]
[he]
[he told it]

 


 

p. 1 —
Égi
Seseke Nišnągeja
Hočągra
mįnąk
hireregi,
[And]
on the Turkey River
the Hočągara
they lived
when they did,

 


 

hotá
hiromą́hąja
hisgé
nąkíkara
hararegiže.
some
up the river
also
to hunt
when they were living there.

 


 

Éja
hahí
činąk’ų,
hagorežą
wąkra
There
they went
[while from the village,]
one day
the men

 


 

wažóni
harahiregają,
egixjį
hotojahižą
wawirajiže.
on a hunt
when they were,
when
a warparty
they came upon them.

 


 

Warasra
wa’ųhahireže.
Janąga
wąkšik
xetenigra
Osages
they were.
All
people
the old ones

 


 

hijakiže,
égi
hinukrasge
haną́č
t’ewahireže.
that were there,
and
the women also
all of them
they killed.

 


 

Égi
hijihakarahieže.
Wąkwažonira
’ųnąk’ų
haga
Then
they went away.
The hunters
[finally]
[in time]

 


 

hakiri
hiregają,
tee
mahojawahireže.
they returned home
when they did,
[these]
they were all killed.

 


 

Ésge
wąknąka
wa’ųhireže.
Janąga
t’ehirega
So
[these men]
[they did it.]
[As many as]
their dead

 


 

haną́č
rokíkewé
wagigihiranąga
égi
pįhiwakžu
all
to paint their faces
[they did and]
then
to lay them away

 


 

hireže.
Égi
žejąga
waruxé
harareže.
[they did.]
And
then
to take up the trail
[they went ?].

 


 

Ûhanihahireže.
Égi
’ųnąk’ų
hagorežą
tee
They kept on.
[And]
finally
[in time]
them

 


 

éja
hakarahahireže.
Hočįnčįn
hižą
hijahorok
[there]
they were going on.*
Young man
a
with them
*the translation has, "they sighted them going on in front of them".

 


 

ųgiže.
Joweja
honųwąkše.
Wąkra
higusagre
[he was.]
Ahead
he ran.
The men
they were fleet of foot

 


 

hiranagųnį.
Žegų
wawirušarač
maníže.
Žegųhijahahi,
[he must have done.]
But
he ran right away from them
[as they went.]
[As he went,]

 


 

xawaniže.
Tee
hijahahiregają,
wąkra
wakišara.†
he disappeared.*
They
when they got there,
the man
he was fighting them.
*the translation adds, "into the distance".
†more commonly, wakisara, or wakizara.

 


 

’Ûxjįže.
Že
žegųhahi,
wawoǧaranąga
t’ewahiježe.
[He did much.]
[This one]
[as he went along,]
he would catch up to them and
he would kill one.

 


 

Mąsją*
wąkra
rokanaže,
ųke†
higisge pinįže.
[Mighty]
[the man]
he was great,
not
not to be equalled.
*more commonly, mąšją.
†for hąke.

 


 

Nuwąknaįna
gáske,
hahiwoǧaranąga
nasurawamajes’aže.
They (tried to) run
when,
he would catch up to them and
he would scalp them.*
*since maje is used in the Gospel of Luke to mean "circumcise," a more literal translation of nasurawamajes’aže would seem to be, "he would circumcise their heads," which might also mean that he decapitated them, although the imagery is consistent with scalping as well.

 


 

Ûkeresge*
wąkwawirana įježe.
Rohaxjį
t’ehiregi,
[Never]
he did not consider them to be men.
Many of them
when they had been killed,
*for hąkerešge.

 


 

wagirusją
hireže,
arieagają,
ešana
žegųtowe
to stop
[they did,]
they decided, but
[he alone]
he kept right on

 


 

ųraheže.
Ésge
rokaragiǧiregają,
mąsjąwogitekše.
[he did.]
So
they told him to stop but
he got [mighty] angry.

 


 

Wawagéže,
"Hojišáną
jaguwašąnik?
Hiwahíwira
He said to them,
"[Just]
[how can you say that?]
Our relatives

 


 

t’ewahirege
jeniege,
haną́č
t’ehiwahiwije,
hišawihare
they killed,
so
all of them
we must kill,
you said.

 


 

Jagú’ų
égi
wanihekwiže?"
wawigéže,
[How]
[then]
you relent?"
He said to them,

 


 

"Teeži
ųke*
wagitusjąnįjeneną,"*
anąga
žigé
["But]
not
I will not stop,"
he said, and
again
*for hąké. This word is run together with its successor.

 


 

wat’ųbgają,
žigé
rogiǧireže.
Ésge,
éja
he rushed for them, but
again
they pleaded with him.
Therefore,
[there]

 


 

wąknįkra*
xakanąga
exjį
t’ekįže.
Hočįnčįn†
[the young man]
he wept and
himself
he killed himself.
The young man
*this word is followed by three dots, which is normally a sign of a diaeresis, but in this case may simply be a typographical error.
†this word is conjoined with the previous one (by mistake).

 


 

tee
wąk
rokana*
hižą
h[irenu]nige†
this
man
great
a
he was, but
*the text reads, te ewangrokana.
†the bracket letters reflect an area of the typescript that is obliterated from running ink due, apparently, to water damage.

 


 

p. 2 —
wa[k]ik’ųže.*
Ček
wonaǧire’ųgają,
éja
wakik’ųže.†
he did thus.
First
he did this in battle, and
there
[he did thus.]
*the ink has run in the typescript, obliterating the letter in brackets; wa[k]i and k’ųže are separated by a space as if they were two words.
†again written as waki k’ųže, as if it were two words.

 


 

Wąkra
woinįkižą*
hočįnčįn
tee,
égi
The man
a great loss
young man
[this,]
and
*written as woinigkiže.

 


 

Sinįhogiwega
higahireže.
Wąknunįk
hižą
Wakąjaxetega*
Goes Where It is Cold
it was his name.
Old man
a
Big Thunder
*written as Wakanžaxe tega.

 


 

higahiregiži,
e
hinik
hižą,*
Sinįhogiwega,
he is called,
he
son
[a,]
Goes Where It is Cold,
*this and the previous word are conjoined as hiniǧishe.

 


 

e
Čapósgaga
higahiregi,
e
hiąč
he
Čapósgaga*
[is called,]
he
father
*this name is never translated, but it means "White Breast".

 


 

hižą
arieašųnųną.
Ésge
Wakąjaxetejega
exjį
[a]
they say.
[So]
Big Thunder
himself

 


 

Čapósgaga
nąč hojaže.*
Ésge,
wakąjąkše,†
arieną.
Čapósgaga
he had blessed.
Therefore,
he was holy,
it is said.
*these words were written as, žaposgaganaž hožashe.
†this was written as, waka n žakshe.

 


 

Wąkšik
te
točąhahirare,
žee
hižą
People
these
the one who led them on the warpath,
[that one]
one

 


 

wačožuhigižą
wąkwašošehižą
herenagųnį.
Égi
wosgana
leader [they had]
a brave man
he was.
But
the rituals
*the typescript ends this word in /e/.

 


 

ųké*
égi
pįhinige.
Ésge
éja
not
[here]
he did not do well.
Therefore
there
*for hąké.

 


 

t’ehireže.
Huhikere
hogiži,
weže,
"Égi
he was killed.
To come (toward)
when he was ready,
he had said,
["And]

 


 

nįkjąknįkwanira
hižą
higi
t’era,*
ésge
wa’ųtejeneną,"
my children
one
[for me]
they have killed,
that is why
I am going,"
*the last three words are run together as hishahigitera.

 


 

éže.
Žee
wažąhižą
gušigixjį
howaji
he said.
That
a thing
[over there]
[to come]

 


 

wąkšik xetenįkra
roǧixjį
hireną.
Te
Waras
the old people
to forbid very much
they did.
[This]
Osage

 


 

wąkwašošenąka
wéže,
"Nįkjąknįk
hanira
Hočąk
the brave (warrior)
he said,
"Child
my*
Winnebago
*the translation has, "my child's grave".

 


 

nasura
hižą
hija
wawagikereje
hihéra.
[head]*
a
[there]
it would be put
I said.
*translated as "scalp".

 


 

Ésge
wa’ųteną,"
éže.*
Ésge,
že
That is why
I am going,"
he said.
[Therefore,]
that
*run together with the last word thus: wautenaeshe.

 


 

hawa’ų́
t’ehirega*
wa’ųhireže,
arieašųnųną.
that is why
they killed him†
[they did it,]
it is said.
*run together with the previous word, thus: hawautehirega.
†the translation has, "that is what killed him".

 


 

Žee
wažąhižą
Hočągra
ųkaga’ų*
hiranįže,
That
a thing
the Hočągara
they never did
they did not,
*for hąkaga’ų.

 


 

arieną.
Wąkšik
wowąkhiranunige
hagahira
wažąra
it is said.
[People]
they were bad, but
sometimes
some things

 


 

hižąži
nąkewe
hires’aže.
Égi
wonąǧire
[at least one]
afraid
they would be.
[And]
to war

 


 

’ųra
gipihiregejeni.*
Wonąǧireja
wanąǧi
haehira
to do
they liked.
At war
the dead
to speak of
*these two words are rendered as uragiphi hiregeženi.

 


 

roǧireną.
Žee
wažąhižą
tee
égi
it was forbidden.
That
[a thing]
this
[here]

 


 

Waras
wąkwašoše
hižą
exjį
wokigaweže.
Osage
brave
[a]
himself
he might as well have given himself over.

 


 

Ésge
t’ešišik
’ųže.
Žee
nįkjąknįk
That was why
he died a bad death
[he did.]
[That one]
children

 


 

hižą
git’eki
ųké*
žežesge
epinigają,
one
(because) he died
not
[that way]
[it was not better, and]
*for hąké.

 


 

wéže.
Hosge
Wonąǧire Hirukanara
žeže[s]ge
higirege,
he said it.
[Truly]
the One in Charge of Wars
thus
so he thought,

 


 

žeže[s]ge
howegają
hirewahigają
teže[s]ge
howahires’agi.
thus
he fared and
[so it seems and]
thus
[it should have fared.]

 


 

Ésge,
wąkra
hižą
točą
wačožujega
Therefore,
man
a
warpath
[the leader]

 


 

kewesiwixjį
hiranąga
égi
jagu
marač*
taking notice of all these things
[he does and]
then
[how]
he plans
*run together with the previous word, thus: žagumaraž.

 


 

hirejega
’ųhires’aže.
Wąkšik xetenįkra
ariašųnųną.
Hižą
[he does]
it is usually (done).
The old people
so they say.
One

 


 

wowewira
pįga,
hoišib
hopi
howes’aže.
to have thinking qualities
if it is good,
always
well
he always fares.

 


 

Aireną (?)*
Wąkšigra
hokíkų
hajirare.
Égi
Thus they said,
the Indians
in their advise to one another
[who came.]
[And]
*this is written aržirena.

 


 

ženąga
kira
nąxgųna*
worak
tee.
the end
about
all [I know]
story
this.
*this is run together with the previous word thus, kiranaxguna.

 


Source:

John Hazen Hill (Xetenicaraga), Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, ca. 1908) Notebook 66, Story 5, 1-2.