Hočąk Text —The Messengers of Hare, Version 2b, Second Telling

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake


English Translation

The following are Greek letters used as morpheme abbreviations in Radin's text. Their values correspond (with the exception of γ) to those given in Radin's notebook Winnebago II, #6, on the interstitial page between 107/108:

α
β
γ
λ
ρ
ϕ
égi
éja
gíži
žesge
ánąga
hąké

ω
T
X
-
/
žigé
wąkšigo’ina
wąk
-ra
-ną
nįk(a), nįg(a)

·/
·/, ·/
>
ɕ
2
9
-kjéną
-kjaneną
-gáją
-xjį
-že, -ce
-žą

In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of The Road of Life and Death (see Source below). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].


The following is a revised text, superceding that of notebook Winnebago II, #7, 247, line 11 - 250, line 4. Here a heavy use of abbreviations is made, and the orthography changes from that of the earlier notebook. In his latest works, Radin returned to the orthography used in Winnebago II, so for this reason as well as consistency with what has gone before, I have changed the orthography of Winnebago III to that used above. Only about 8% of the words are translated in the revised version, so the translations of The Road of Life and Death and The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves were more heavily relied upon.

In The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves, Radin has used a dot (.) after the unvoiced terminal consonant of a stem to indicate its transformation into its voiced counterpart. Here that transformation has been directly expressed. I have not done this for such consonants preceeding a hyphen.


Key —
First Row
"raw" text from Paul Radin, Notebook Winnebago III, #4, 25-29
Second Row
analytic text from The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves
Third Row
revised text
Fourth Row
English translation based on those of The Road of Life and Death and The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves

 

p. 25 —
[α]
wa’ų[2´]
hąbamanína
sga[ɕ´][9]
heghwámǫké[-]
sądją[ɕ´][9]
égi
wa’ųjé.
hąp-hamaníra*
sgáxdjį-hiją
heghwá-mǫkèra
sądjąxdjį́-hiją
égi
wa’ųžé.
Hąbamanína
sgáxjį́žą,
heǧwámǫkéra,
sąjąxjįžą
[then]
[they did it.]
Walker on Light
a very white one,
the cackling swan,
a very awe inspiring one
*the text has hąp.hamaníra.

 


 

wąge[υ´]
dj[ρ´]
hąbamanína
hąbirukóno
wą́gregi
djanąga
hąp-hamaníra
hąp-hirukóno
wągerégi
jánąga
Hąbamanína
hąbirukóno
up above
[as many as there are]
the Walkers on Light
in control of life

 


 

mą’úna
wagųs
[γ´]
jeé
wamáni
re[·/, ·/][γ]
re[2´]*
mą’ų́ra
wagųs
gíji.
jée
wámáni
rekdjanegíji
rejé.
Mą’ų́na
wagųs
gíži.
Žée
wamáni
rekjanegíži,
režé.
Earthmaker
[he created him,]
[.]
[That]
to walk
[who would leave,]
he set out.
*after this word, "[α] hinųb[-]" has been crossed out.

 


 

[α]
djobóhą
tcirógogį́x[2]
hąb[-´]
hidjaíra
égi
djobóhą
tcíra-hogigįx´
hąbra
hidjáira
Égi
jobóhą
čirógogį́xce.
Hąberá
hijaíra
[Then]
four times
he made a circuit of the lodge.
The light
[increased]

 


 

p. 26 —
kinibí[2]
siwaígizá[-]
[ϕ]
nąkígąjeni
hąbinąt’ék
kinib-híje;*
siwáigizara
hąké
nąkigą́jni
hąp-hinąt’ék
kinibíže.
Siwaígizára
hąké
nąkígąženi
hąbinąt’ék
he made.
The toes on his feet
[not]
not uneven
he smeared with light
*the text has, kinip.híje.

 


 

hįbí[2]
pédjitcédjera
[α]
wa’úne[2]
[α]
hįp-híje
petc-hitc édjra
égi
wa’ų́reje.
égi
hįbíže,
péjičéjra.
égi
wa’úneže.
égi
[he put]
the fireplace.*
[Then]
[he did it.]
Then
*literally, "the edge of the fire".

 


 

[ω]
hinųb[-´]
widjirawaséwe
xédera
djobanągwíre
jigé
hinų́bra
witc-hirawaséwe
xedera
djop-hanąkwíre
žigé
hinųberá
Wijirawaséwe
xétera
jobanągwíre,
[again]
the second one
the Island Anchors
the great
who made the fourfold passage,

 


 

wamáni
re[·/][γ´]
kiniké[-]
hicdja
sga[ɕ´][9]
wamáni
rékdjanegìji.
kinikéra
hicdjá
sgaxdjį́-hiją
wamáni
rékjanegìži.
Kinikéra
hicjá
sgaxjį́žą
[to walk it]
[he will have set out.]
Wolf
face
a very white one*
*Radin has in the interlinear translatin, oddly enough, "a very blue-faced wolf". This is corrected in Winnebago Culture (p. 46, sentence 218).

 


 

hįtco[ɕ´][9]
tcirá
djobóhą
hogigį́x[2]
hą́bera
hįtcoxdjį́-hiją
tcira
djobóhą
hogigį́xje.
hąbra
hįčoxjį́žą
čirá
jobóhą
hogigį́xce.
Hą́bera
very blue hair
the lodge
four times
[he walked around.]
The light

 


 

hidjaíra
kiridjéhije
[α]
hohuhí-djobonągwíre
hidjáira
kiridjéhije.
égi
hohuhíra djobónągwire
hijaíra
kirijéhiže.
Égi
hohuhí-jobónągwíre
increasing
[he made it become.]
[Then]
[the one who made the fourfold circuit of the cardinal winds,]

 


 

wamáni[·/, ·/]
re[2´]
[α]
[ω]
hidanína
wamánikdjanèną
reje.
égi
jigé
hidanína
wamánikjanèną.
Režé.
Égi
žigé
hitanína,
[he will have walked it.]
[He started out.]
Then
[again]
the third,

 


 

mąk’úhąnegi
hųgé
dj[ρ´]
hąbirukóno
mąkúhąregi
hųgé
djąnága
hąp-hirukóno
mąkúhąregi
hųgé
jánąga
hąbirukóno
[under the earth]
chief
as much as there was
in control of light

 


 

gigigí
wamáni
nekdjonégi
hąpdjire[2´]
gigigí
wamáni
rekdjanégi
hąpdjiréje.
gigigí,
wamáni
rekjonégi,
hąpjiréže.
he had been made,*
[to walk it]
[when he would start to go,]
[day broke.]
*"having been made" would be better.

 


 

hį́cebra
watcekdjį́[9]
hincge
ságipirági[9]
pedjitcédj[-]
hį́cebra
watcekdjį́-hiją
hįcgé
sagipirák-hiją;
petc-hitcédjra
Hį́cebra
wačekjį́žą
hįšgé
ságipirágižą
pejičéjra
[The dark haired one]
a young one
basswood
a belt
the fireplace

 


 

djobóhą
howahįbí[2]
hą́be[-]
hidjaí[-]
djidjehí[2]
djobóhą
howa hįp-híje.
hąbra
hidjáira
djidjehíje.
jobóhą
howahįbíže.
Hą́bera
hijaíra
jijehíže.
four times
he walked around.
The light
[greater]
it became.

 


 

[α]
hihínąp
re[2´]
[γ´]
tconí[ɕ]
ránihé[-]
égi
hihínąp
réje
gíji.
tconíxdjį
ranihéra
Égi
hihínąp
režé
gíži.
Čoníxjį
ránihéra
[Then]
to go out
he started to go
[.]
The first one
that had left

 


 

p. 27 —
hakirioikéwe[2]
watcekdjį́[9]
ránihé[-]
wapára
nąnuhósdį́
hakíri hoikéweje.
watcekdjį-hiją*
ranihéra
wapára
ruhósdį
hakirioikéweže.
Wačekjį́žą
ránihéra
wapára
nąnuǧóstį
he started to come in.
A very young one
he had left
his head
[worn out]
*the text has watcekdjį́ją.

 


 

mącúna
carodjerá[-]
c’akdjį́
kiri[2´]
tcirógigįx
mącų́ra
córodjeràra
c’ákdjį
kirijé.
tcíra-hogigį̀x
mąšúna
corojerára
š’akjį́
kirižé.
Čirógigįx
his feathers
hair pulled out
very old
[he came back.]
He made a circuit of the lodge

 


 

hakiri[ρ´]
tciókiságedja
kiridjé[2]
wacdjįgé
hakiri-ánąga
tci-hokisák-edja
kiri-djéje.
"wacdjįgé,
hakiriánąga
čiókiságeja
kirijéže.
"Wašjįgé,
[he started and]
in the middle of the lodge
he stopped.
"Hare,

 


 

hidege[ὐ]wáraga
hiuni[etc]*
[X]o-į
worágenicónǫgra
hidégenįkwàraga
hi’unínįkwaraga
wąkcík-ho’į
worágnicanągra
hitegenįkwáraga
hi’unínįkwaraga
wąkšigo-į
worágenicanągra
[your nephews]
your nieces
life
that you are seeking for them
*the [etc] is et cetera.

 


 

hicgé
dejegų
hinádjiránihe[·/, ·/]
e[2´]
tcadjidjobíhike
hicgé
déjegų
hirádjiranihekdjanéną,"
éje.
-*
hišgé
téžegų
hirájiránihekjanéną,"
éže.
Čajijobíhike
[also]
this
they will call on me,"
he said.
The four winds
*this word is omitted in the text of The Culture of the Winnebago.

 


 

manágho
réhi[ρ´]
kísisintc[>]
kárapiésge
mąnágho
réhi-áną-ga
kísį́sįtcgadją,
kárapiésge
mąnáǧo
réhiánąga
kísį́sįčgają,
kárapiésge
he scratched up the ground
[pushing it away and]
when he shook himself,
[clean]

 


 

kiridjé[2]
watcekdjį
djasgáranihé[-]
[λ]
kiridjé[2]
kiridjéje
watcékdjį
djasge-háranihèra
jésge
kiridjeje.
kirijéže.
Wačékjį
jasgáranihéra
žésge
kirijéže.
[he returned.]
Young and handsome
as he had been
[that way]
[he returned.]

 


 

[α]
[ω]
hinųbrá
hakírioikéwe[2]
watcekdjį[9]
égi
jige
hínųbrá
hakíri hoikéweje
watcekdjį́-hiją
égi
žigé
hinųbrá
hakírioikéweže.
Wačekjįžą
Then
[again]
the second one
he started to enter.
[A very young one]

 


 

rainihé[-]
c’akdjį
[X]o-į́na
hi[ɕ´]
hakírioikéwe[2]
rainihéra
c’akdjį
wąkcik-ho’į́ra
hixdjį
hakíri hoikéweje.
rainihéra,
š’akjį
wąkšigo-į́na
hixjį́
hakírioikéweže.
he had left,
very old
life
[advanced in years]
[he began to enter.]

 


 

wap’ára
ną́nughosdį
xucáracára
nąkéra[ɜ´]
hi-ąwazáza
wapára
narughósdį
xucáracara
nąkéracaną
hį-ąwazáza
Wapára
nanuǧóstį
xušáracara
nąkéracaną
hį-ąwazáza
His head
[worn out]
bald
his back only
few hairs

 


 

honąkicigenísge
djasgiowánągre
honąkícignìsge.
djasge-howánągre*
honąkicigenísge.
Jasgiowánągre
the hair of his feet was almost gone.
How they went around the lodge
*the text has sjasge-.

 


 

p. 28 —
jegwogiwákirikar[ρ´]
tciókiság[β]
kiridjé[2]
[α]
we[2´]
jégų-hogiwàkiri-ànąga
tci-hokisák-edja
kiridjéje.
égi
wejé
žegwogiwákiriánąga
čiokiságeja
kirijéže.
Égi
wežé,
that way he went around and
at the center of the lodge
he stopped.
And
he said,

 


 

"Wacdjįge
[hidegenįkwáraga]*
[hiuniwaraga]*
[X]o-į́
woráginiconǫg[-´]
"wacdjį-gé,
hidégnįgwàraga
hi’unínįgwaraga
wąkcík-ho’į
worágnicànągrá
"Wacjįgé,
hitegenįkwáraga
hi’unínįkwaraga
wąkšigo-į́
woráginicànągrá
"Hare,
[your nephews]
[your nieces]
life
that you are seeking for them
*the text has "(hideg hiuni etc)".

 


 

hi[9´]
hoki’úna
p’į́higi
wewi[/]
p’į́higi
hiją́
hokių́ra
pį́higi
wewíną.
pį́higi
hižą́
hoki’ų́na
pį́higi
wewíną.
Pį́higi
anyone
ceremony
if they keep it properly
in their minds,
if they do it well

 


 

hicgé
dejegų
hinádjiránihe[·/, ·/]
[ϕ]
ruc’ágirenį́[·/, ·/]
hicgé
déjegų
hirádjiranihekdjanèną
hąké
ruc’ákiranįkdjąnèną,"
hišgé
téžegų
hirájiranihekjanèną,
hąké
ruš’ákirenįkjanèną,"
[also]
[this]
they will call on me,
not
they cannot fail,"

 


 

e[2´]
[α]
tciókiság[β]
tcadjídjobíhike
mąnágho
éje.
égi
tci-hokísak-èdja
tcadjí djobíhike*
mąnágho
éže.
Égi
čiókiságeja
čajíjobíhike
mąnáǧo
he said.
[And]
in the middle of the lodge
the four directions
he scratched up the ground
*the CW text has gadjí djobíhike. Čají means "winds".

 


 

réhi[ρ´]
hoho[ρ´]
kísisintc[>´]
kinikéra
réhi-ánąga
hoho-ánąga
kisį́sįtcgàdją
kinikéra
réhiánąga
hohoánąga
kisį́sįčgàją,
kinikéra
[pushing it away and]
he scratched and
when he shook himself,
the wolf

 


 

watcekedjį́[9]
djasgé
ránihe[-]
[λ]á kiridjé[2]
watcékdjį̀-hiją
djasgé
ranihéra,
jésge hakiridjéje.
wačekjį́žą
jasgé
ranihéra,
žesgákirijéže.
a very young one
how
he had left,
[this way he returned.]

 


 

[α]
[ω]
hidanína
ránihéra
hųdj[-´]
égi
jigé
hidanína
ranihéra,
hųdjra
Égi
žigé
hitanína
ranihéra,
hųjerá
[And]
now
the third one
returned,
[the bear]*
*in the Road of Life and Death, Radin translates this as "water spirit" perhaps under the mistaken interpretation of the next word. In the Culture of the Winnebago, he has "the wolf" which is simply wrong. Above, the third one to set out is said to be "the dark haired one", a reference to the bear, here made explicit.

 


 

watcekdjį́[9]
mąkúhąna
howaránihe[-]
hakirioikéwe[2]
watcekdjį́-hiją
mąkúhąra
howá ranihéra
hakíri hoikéweje
wačekjį́žą
mąkúhąna
howáranihéra
hakirioikéweže.
a very young one
below the earth
he returned
he started to enter.

 


 

c’akdjį
[X]o-įná
hítcąt’į́
hi[2´]
wapára
c’ákdjį
wąkcík-ho’įra
hítcąt’į́hijé.
-
wapára
Š’ákjį
wąkšigo-įná
híčąt’į́
hižé.
Wapára
Extreme old age
[the life]
it showed
it did.
His head

 


 

nanughósdį*
honąkícigenísge
x’úra
x’įx’į́
dje[2´]
narughósdį†
honąkícignísge
xúra
x’į́x’į
djeje.
nanuǧóstį
honąkíšigenísge
xúra
x’į́x’į
ježe.
bald
[like leggings]
[his skin]
wrinkled
it had become.
*the letter /h/ is written above the letter γ (here rendered by /gh/).
†the Culture of the Winnebago text follows this word with "(naruhósdį)".

 


 

tcírogigįx´
hakiri[ρ´]
tciókiság[β]
kiridjé[2]
wacdjįge
tcíra-hogigįx´
hakiri-ánąga
tci-hokísak-èdja
kiridjéje.
"wacdjįgé,
Čírogigįx´
hakiriánąga
čiókiságeja
kirijéže.
"Wašjįgé,
He walked around the lodge
[he started and]
in the center of the lodge
he stopped.
"Hare,

 


 

p. 29 —
[hidegenįkwáraga]*
[hiuniwaraga]*
[X]o-į́
woráginiconǫgrá
hidégnįkwàraga
hi’unínįkwàraga†
wąkcík-ho’į
worágnicànągrá
hitegenįkwáraga
hi’unínįkwàraga
wąkšigo’į́
woráginicànągrá
[your nephews]
[your nieces]
life
what you are searching for
*the text has "(hideg etc hiuni etc)".
†the CW text has, hi’unínikwàraga.

 


 

hi[9´]
p’į́higi
[ϕ]
dee
ruc’ágenį[·/, ·/]
hiją́
pįhígi,
hąké
dee
ruc’ágnikdjanèną.
hižą́
pį́higi,
hąké
tee
ruš’ágenįkjanèną.
one
if they do it well,
not
this
they cannot possibly fail.

 


 

hicgé
déjegų
hinádjire[·/, ·/]
e[2´]
[α]
hicge
déjegų
hirádjirekdjanèną,"
éje.
égi
Hišgé
téžegų
hirájirekjanèną,"
éže.
Égi
[Also]
[this]
let them call upon me,"
he said.
[And]

 


 

djadjidjobíhike
manágho
rehi[ρ´]
kisisintc[>´]
watcekdjį́[9]
djádji djobíhike
manágho
rehi-ánąga
kisį́sįtcgadją
watcekdjį́-hiją
jájijobíhike
manáǧo
rehiánąga
kisį́sįčgáją,
wačekjį́žą
[the father of all four of them]*
[from under the earth]*
[he made his return and]
he shook himself, and
[a very young one]
*"the father of all four of them from under the earth" is not found in any of Radin's translations, although the Hočąk words are found in both the interlinear text and that of the Culture of the Winnebago.

 


 

djasgé
ránihe[-]
[λ]dje[2]*
djasgé
ranihéra
jésgehadjèje.
jasgé
ranihéra
žésgehajèže.
[how]
[he left]
[he became this way.]
*this word is followed by the last word on the page: "(jenuga)", meaning, "it is ended". However, since it is in parentheses, it was supplied by Radin and was not part of the original text. The CW text concludes with jénųga.

 


Source

Jasper Blowsnake, Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3890 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago III, #4, 25-29. This was published as a Hočąk text with numbered sentences followed by an English translation in Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Descibed by Themselves. International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoirs, 3 (1950): 25-26, 45-46 (ss *213-*238). A free translation into English exists in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 307-309.