Hočąk Text —The Messengers of Hare, Version 2b, Second Telling

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake


English Translation


The following are Greek letters used as morpheme abbreviations in Radin's text. Their values correspond (with the exception of γ) to those given in Radin's notebook Winnebago II, #6, on the interstitial page between 107/108:

α β γ λ ρ ϕ
égi éja gíži žesge ánąga hąké

ω T X - /
žigé wąkšigo’ina wąk -ra -ną nįk(a), nįg(a)

·/ ·/, ·/ > ɕ 2 9
-kjéną -kjaneną -gáją -xjį -že, -ce -žą

In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of The Road of Life and Death (see Source below). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].


The following is a revised text, superceding that of notebook Winnebago II, #7, 247, line 11 - 250, line 4. Here a heavy use of abbreviations is made, and the orthography changes from that of the earlier notebook. In his latest works, Radin returned to the orthography used in Winnebago II, so for this reason as well as consistency with what has gone before, I have changed the orthography of Winnebago III to that used above. Only about 8% of the words are translated in the revised version, so the translations of The Road of Life and Death and The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves were more heavily relied upon.

In The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves, Radin has used a dot (.) after the unvoiced terminal consonant of a stem to indicate its transformation into its voiced counterpart. Here that transformation has been directly expressed. I have not done this for such consonants preceeding a hyphen.


Key —
First Row "raw" text from Paul Radin, Notebook Winnebago III, #4, 25-29
Second Row analytic text from The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves
Third Row revised text
Fourth Row English translation based on those of The Road of Life and Death and The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves

 

p. 25 —
[α] wa’ų[2´] hąbamanína sga[ɕ´][9] heghwámǫké[-] sądją[ɕ´][9]
égi wa’ųjé. hąp-hamaníra* sgáxdjį-hiją heghwá-mǫkèra sądjąxdjį́-hiją
égi wa’ųžé. Hąbamanína sgáxjį́žą, heǧwámǫkéra, sąjąxjįžą
[then] [they did it.] Walker on Light a very white one, the cackling swan, a very awe inspiring one
*the text has hąp.hamaníra.

 


 

wąge[υ´] dj[ρ´] hąbamanína hąbirukóno
wą́gregi djanąga hąp-hamaníra hąp-hirukóno
wągerégi jánąga Hąbamanína hąbirukóno
up above [as many as there are] the Walkers on Light in control of life

 


 

mą’úna wagųs [γ´] jeé wamáni re[·/, ·/][γ] re[2´]*
mą’ų́ra wagųs gíji. jée wámáni rekdjanegíji rejé.
Mą’ų́na wagųs gíži. Žée wamáni rekjanegíži, režé.
Earthmaker [he created him,] [.] [That] to walk [who would leave,] he set out.
*after this word, "[α] hinųb[-]" has been crossed out.

 


 

[α] djobóhą tcirógogį́x[2] hąb[-´] hidjaíra
égi djobóhą tcíra-hogigįx´ hąbra hidjáira
Égi jobóhą čirógogį́xce. Hąberá hijaíra
[Then] four times he made a circuit of the lodge. The light [increased]

 


 

p. 26 —
kinibí[2] siwaígizá[-] [ϕ] nąkígąjeni hąbinąt’ék
kinib-híje;* siwáigizara hąké nąkigą́jni hąp-hinąt’ék
kinibíže. Siwaígizára hąké nąkígąženi hąbinąt’ék
he made. The toes on his feet [not] not uneven he smeared with light
*the text has, kinip.híje.

 


 

hįbí[2] pédjitcédjera [α] wa’úne[2] [α]
hįp-híje petc-hitc édjra égi wa’ų́reje. égi
hįbíže, péjičéjra. égi wa’úneže. égi
[he put] the fireplace.* [Then] [he did it.] Then
*literally, "the edge of the fire".

 


 

[ω] hinųb[-´] widjirawaséwe xédera djobanągwíre
jigé hinų́bra witc-hirawaséwe xedera djop-hanąkwíre
žigé hinųberá Wijirawaséwe xétera jobanągwíre,
[again] the second one the Island Anchors the great who made the fourfold passage,

 


 

wamáni re[·/][γ´] kiniké[-] hicdja sga[ɕ´][9]
wamáni rékdjanegìji. kinikéra hicdjá sgaxdjį́-hiją
wamáni rékjanegìži. Kinikéra hicjá sgaxjį́žą
[to walk it] [he will have set out.] Wolf face a very white one*
*Radin has in the interlinear translatin, oddly enough, "a very blue-faced wolf". This is corrected in Winnebago Culture (p. 46, sentence 218).

 


 

hįtco[ɕ´][9] tcirá djobóhą hogigį́x[2] hą́bera
hįtcoxdjį́-hiją tcira djobóhą hogigį́xje. hąbra
hįčoxjį́žą čirá jobóhą hogigį́xce. Hą́bera
very blue hair the lodge four times [he walked around.] The light

 


 

hidjaíra kiridjéhije [α] hohuhí-djobonągwíre
hidjáira kiridjéhije. égi hohuhíra djobónągwire
hijaíra kirijéhiže. Égi hohuhí-jobónągwíre
increasing [he made it become.] [Then] [the one who made the fourfold circuit of the cardinal winds,]

 


 

wamáni[·/, ·/] re[2´] [α] [ω] hidanína
wamánikdjanèną reje. égi jigé hidanína
wamánikjanèną. Režé. Égi žigé hitanína,
[he will have walked it.] [He started out.] Then [again] the third,

 


 

mąk’úhąnegi hųgé dj[ρ´] hąbirukóno
mąkúhąregi hųgé djąnága hąp-hirukóno
mąkúhąregi hųgé jánąga hąbirukóno
[under the earth] chief as much as there was in control of light

 


 

gigigí wamáni nekdjonégi hąpdjire[2´]
gigigí wamáni rekdjanégi hąpdjiréje.
gigigí, wamáni rekjonégi, hąpjiréže.
he had been made,* [to walk it] [when he would start to go,] [day broke.]
*"having been made" would be better.

 


 

hį́cebra watcekdjį́[9] hincge ságipirági[9] pedjitcédj[-]
hį́cebra watcekdjį́-hiją hįcgé sagipirák-hiją; petc-hitcédjra
Hį́cebra wačekjį́žą hįšgé ságipirágižą pejičéjra
[The dark haired one] a young one basswood a belt the fireplace

 


 

djobóhą howahįbí[2] hą́be[-] hidjaí[-] djidjehí[2]
djobóhą howa hįp-híje. hąbra hidjáira djidjehíje.
jobóhą howahįbíže. Hą́bera hijaíra jijehíže.
four times he walked around. The light [greater] it became.

 


 

[α] hihínąp re[2´] [γ´] tconí[ɕ] ránihé[-]
égi hihínąp réje gíji. tconíxdjį ranihéra
Égi hihínąp režé gíži. Čoníxjį ránihéra
[Then] to go out he started to go [.] The first one that had left

 


 

p. 27 —
hakirioikéwe[2] watcekdjį́[9] ránihé[-] wapára nąnuhósdį́
hakíri hoikéweje. watcekdjį-hiją* ranihéra wapára ruhósdį
hakirioikéweže. Wačekjį́žą ránihéra wapára nąnuǧóstį
he started to come in. A very young one he had left his head [worn out]
*the text has watcekdjį́ją.

 


 

mącúna carodjerá[-] c’akdjį́ kiri[2´] tcirógigįx
mącų́ra córodjeràra c’ákdjį kirijé. tcíra-hogigį̀x
mąšúna corojerára š’akjį́ kirižé. Čirógigįx
his feathers hair pulled out very old [he came back.] He made a circuit of the lodge

 


 

hakiri[ρ´] tciókiságedja kiridjé[2] wacdjįgé
hakiri-ánąga tci-hokisák-edja kiri-djéje. "wacdjįgé,
hakiriánąga čiókiságeja kirijéže. "Wašjįgé,
[he started and] in the middle of the lodge he stopped. "Hare,

 


 

hidege[ὐ]wáraga hiuni[etc]* [X]o-į worágenicónǫgra
hidégenįkwàraga hi’unínįkwaraga wąkcík-ho’į worágnicanągra
hitegenįkwáraga hi’unínįkwaraga wąkšigo-į worágenicanągra
[your nephews] your nieces life that you are seeking for them
*the [etc] is et cetera.

 


 

hicgé dejegų hinádjiránihe[·/, ·/] e[2´] tcadjidjobíhike
hicgé déjegų hirádjiranihekdjanéną," éje. -*
hišgé téžegų hirájiránihekjanéną," éže. Čajijobíhike
[also] this they will call on me," he said. The four winds
*this word is omitted in the text of The Culture of the Winnebago.

 


 

manágho réhi[ρ´] kísisintc[>] kárapiésge
mąnágho réhi-áną-ga kísį́sįtcgadją, kárapiésge
mąnáǧo réhiánąga kísį́sįčgają, kárapiésge
he scratched up the ground [pushing it away and] when he shook himself, [clean]

 


 

kiridjé[2] watcekdjį djasgáranihé[-] [λ] kiridjé[2]
kiridjéje watcékdjį djasge-háranihèra jésge kiridjeje.
kirijéže. Wačékjį jasgáranihéra žésge kirijéže.
[he returned.] Young and handsome as he had been [that way] [he returned.]

 


 

[α] [ω] hinųbrá hakírioikéwe[2] watcekdjį[9]
égi jige hínųbrá hakíri hoikéweje watcekdjį́-hiją
égi žigé hinųbrá hakírioikéweže. Wačekjįžą
Then [again] the second one he started to enter. [A very young one]

 


 

rainihé[-] c’akdjį [X]o-į́na hi[ɕ´] hakírioikéwe[2]
rainihéra c’akdjį wąkcik-ho’į́ra hixdjį hakíri hoikéweje.
rainihéra, š’akjį wąkšigo-į́na hixjį́ hakírioikéweže.
he had left, very old life [advanced in years] [he began to enter.]

 


 

wap’ára ną́nughosdį xucáracára nąkéra[ɜ´] hi-ąwazáza
wapára narughósdį xucáracara nąkéracaną hį-ąwazáza
Wapára nanuǧóstį xušáracara nąkéracaną hį-ąwazáza
His head [worn out] bald his back only few hairs

 


 

honąkicigenísge djasgiowánągre
honąkícignìsge. djasge-howánągre*
honąkicigenísge. Jasgiowánągre
the hair of his feet was almost gone. How they went around the lodge
*the text has sjasge-.

 


 

p. 28 —
jegwogiwákirikar[ρ´] tciókiság[β] kiridjé[2] [α] we[2´]
jégų-hogiwàkiri-ànąga tci-hokisák-edja kiridjéje. égi wejé
žegwogiwákiriánąga čiokiságeja kirijéže. Égi wežé,
that way he went around and at the center of the lodge he stopped. And he said,

 


 

"Wacdjįge [hidegenįkwáraga]* [hiuniwaraga]* [X]o-į́ woráginiconǫg[-´]
"wacdjį-gé, hidégnįgwàraga hi’unínįgwaraga wąkcík-ho’į worágnicànągrá
"Wacjįgé, hitegenįkwáraga hi’unínįkwaraga wąkšigo-į́ woráginicànągrá
"Hare, [your nephews] [your nieces] life that you are seeking for them
*the text has "(hideg hiuni etc)".

 


 

hi[9´] hoki’úna p’į́higi wewi[/] p’į́higi
hiją́ hokių́ra pį́higi wewíną. pį́higi
hižą́ hoki’ų́na pį́higi wewíną. Pį́higi
anyone ceremony if they keep it properly in their minds, if they do it well

 


 

hicgé dejegų hinádjiránihe[·/, ·/] [ϕ] ruc’ágirenį́[·/, ·/]
hicgé déjegų hirádjiranihekdjanèną hąké ruc’ákiranįkdjąnèną,"
hišgé téžegų hirájiranihekjanèną, hąké ruš’ákirenįkjanèną,"
[also] [this] they will call on me, not they cannot fail,"

 


 

e[2´] [α] tciókiság[β] tcadjídjobíhike mąnágho
éje. égi tci-hokísak-èdja tcadjí djobíhike* mąnágho
éže. Égi čiókiságeja čajíjobíhike mąnáǧo
he said. [And] in the middle of the lodge the four directions he scratched up the ground
*the CW text has gadjí djobíhike. Čají means "winds".

 


 

réhi[ρ´] hoho[ρ´] kísisintc[>´] kinikéra
réhi-ánąga hoho-ánąga kisį́sįtcgàdją kinikéra
réhiánąga hohoánąga kisį́sįčgàją, kinikéra
[pushing it away and] he scratched and when he shook himself, the wolf

 


 

watcekedjį́[9] djasgé ránihe[-] [λ]á kiridjé[2]
watcékdjį̀-hiją djasgé ranihéra, jésge hakiridjéje.
wačekjį́žą jasgé ranihéra, žesgákirijéže.
a very young one how he had left, [this way he returned.]

 


 

[α] [ω] hidanína ránihéra hųdj[-´]
égi jigé hidanína ranihéra, hųdjra
Égi žigé hitanína ranihéra, hųjerá
[And] now the third one returned, [the bear]*
*in the Road of Life and Death, Radin translates this as "water spirit" perhaps under the mistaken interpretation of the next word. In the Culture of the Winnebago, he has "the wolf" which is simply wrong. Above, the third one to set out is said to be "the dark haired one", a reference to the bear, here made explicit.

 


 

watcekdjį́[9] mąkúhąna howaránihe[-] hakirioikéwe[2]
watcekdjį́-hiją mąkúhąra howá ranihéra hakíri hoikéweje
wačekjį́žą mąkúhąna howáranihéra hakirioikéweže.
a very young one below the earth he returned he started to enter.

 


 

c’akdjį [X]o-įná hítcąt’į́ hi[2´] wapára
c’ákdjį wąkcík-ho’įra hítcąt’į́hijé. - wapára
Š’ákjį wąkšigo-įná híčąt’į́ hižé. Wapára
Extreme old age [the life] it showed it did. His head

 


 

nanughósdį* honąkícigenísge x’úra x’įx’į́ dje[2´]
narughósdį† honąkícignísge xúra x’į́x’į djeje.
nanuǧóstį honąkíšigenísge xúra x’į́x’į ježe.
bald [like leggings] [his skin] wrinkled it had become.
*the letter /h/ is written above the letter γ (here rendered by /gh/).
†the Culture of the Winnebago text follows this word with "(naruhósdį)".

 


 

tcírogigįx´ hakiri[ρ´] tciókiság[β] kiridjé[2] wacdjįge
tcíra-hogigįx´ hakiri-ánąga tci-hokísak-èdja kiridjéje. "wacdjįgé,
Čírogigįx´ hakiriánąga čiókiságeja kirijéže. "Wašjįgé,
He walked around the lodge [he started and] in the center of the lodge he stopped. "Hare,

 


 

p. 29 —
[hidegenįkwáraga]* [hiuniwaraga]* [X]o-į́ woráginiconǫgrá
hidégnįkwàraga hi’unínįkwàraga† wąkcík-ho’į worágnicànągrá
hitegenįkwáraga hi’unínįkwàraga wąkšigo’į́ woráginicànągrá
[your nephews] [your nieces] life what you are searching for
*the text has "(hideg etc hiuni etc)".
†the CW text has, hi’unínikwàraga.

 


 

hi[9´] p’į́higi [ϕ] dee ruc’ágenį[·/, ·/]
hiją́ pįhígi, hąké dee ruc’ágnikdjanèną.
hižą́ pį́higi, hąké tee ruš’ágenįkjanèną.
one if they do it well, not this they cannot possibly fail.

 


 

hicgé déjegų hinádjire[·/, ·/] e[2´] [α]
hicge déjegų hirádjirekdjanèną," éje. égi
Hišgé téžegų hirájirekjanèną," éže. Égi
[Also] [this] let them call upon me," he said. [And]

 


 

djadjidjobíhike manágho rehi[ρ´] kisisintc[>´] watcekdjį́[9]
djádji djobíhike manágho rehi-ánąga kisį́sįtcgadją watcekdjį́-hiją
jájijobíhike manáǧo rehiánąga kisį́sįčgáją, wačekjį́žą
[the father of all four of them]* [from under the earth]* [he made his return and] he shook himself, and [a very young one]
*"the father of all four of them from under the earth" is not found in any of Radin's translations, although the Hočąk words are found in both the interlinear text and that of the Culture of the Winnebago.

 


 

djasgé ránihe[-] [λ]dje[2]*
djasgé ranihéra jésgehadjèje.
jasgé ranihéra žésgehajèže.
[how] [he left] [he became this way.]
*this word is followed by the last word on the page: "(jenuga)", meaning, "it is ended". However, since it is in parentheses, it was supplied by Radin and was not part of the original text. The CW text concludes with jénųga.

 


Source

Jasper Blowsnake, Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3890 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago III, #4, 25-29. This was published as a Hočąk text with numbered sentences followed by an English translation in Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Descibed by Themselves. International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoirs, 3 (1950): 25-26, 45-46 (ss *213-*238). A free translation into English exists in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 307-309.