Hočąk Text —The Messengers of Hare, Version 2a, First Telling

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake


English Translation


The following are Greek letters used as morpheme abbreviations in Radin's text. Their values correspond (with the exception of γ) to those given in Radin's notebook WinnebagoII, #6, on the interstitial page between 107/108:

α β γ δ θ ρ
égi éja gáją ženųga jánąga ánąga

τ ϕ ω T -
gíži hąké žegų -kjanéną wąkšigo-į -ra

In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of The Road of Life and Death (see Source below). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].


Key —

First Row "raw" text from Radin Notebook, Winnebago II, #7, 247-251
Second Row analytic text from The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves
Third Row revised text
Fourth Row English translation based on those of The Road of Life and Deathand The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves

 

p. 247 —
waxopíni sdohírekdjanégiji, [α] waųje hidcųcgé
waxopíni sdohírekdjanègiji, égi wa’ųjé hidcųcge
Waxopíni stohírekjanégiži, égi wa’ųžé. Hičųšgé
Spirits when they'll gather together, [then] [they did it.] Nephew

 


 

gikarádjirera wą́geregírera* wamáni rekdjéra ahúirasaíją
gikarátcirera -† wamáni rekdjéra ahúira sá-hiją‡
Gikarájirera wą́geregírera wamáni rekjéra, ahúirasaížą
He Whom they Call those above path that he may make, one with wings
*before this word, wągerégiréra witc’ogamino has been crossed out.
†omitted in The Culture of the Winnebago.
‡after this word, The Culture of the Winnebago carries on with sentences found elsewhere in the original MS. The story now jumps to a bracketed set of sentences beginning with sentence 218a.

 


 

p. 248 (= CW sentence 218a) —
watcekdjina tciókiságedja kíridjéje c’akdjį́ kírijé
-* tci-hokisák-edja† kíridjéje, c’ákdjį kirijé
wačekjina čiókiságeja kírijéže. Š’ákjį kirižé
[the very young one] to the middle of the lodge he came. Very old he came.
*at this spot in the narrative, a parenthetical text is inserted with /-a/ affixed after each sentence number in The Culture of the Winnebago, p. 24, ss. 216a-223a.
†this word begins sentence 218a in The Culture of the Winnebago, sentences 216a-217a are omitted in the original text.

 


 

kárapiesge ránihéra cáracára mącuna hózere
karapiésge ranihéra caracára mącu´ra hózere
Karapiésge ranihéra, šarašára mąšų́na hózere
He was nice he went, lacking hair in places the feathers worn out

 


 

waų́djeje* [τ´] kisįsįtc[ε´] djasgá ránihéra
wa’ų́djeje gíji. kisį́sįdjgadją djasgáranihère
waų́ježe gíži. Kisį́sįčgają jasgáránihéra
[it was] [.] Then he shook himself repeatedly as he went
*just before this word, hakírioikéweje has been crossed out.

 


 

jesgákiridjéje [α] wéje nicgé méjegų
jesge ákiri djeje égi wéje, "nícge méjegų
žesgákirijéže. Égi wéže, "Níšge méžegų
that way he made himself again. Then [he said to him,] ["You too] [thus]

 


 

hinadjiranihé[Ↄ] [hidegenįkwáraga]* [hiuniwaraga]* hiją́ hokiuna
hiradjiránihekdjanèną. hidégnįkwaraga hi’unínikwaraga hija hoki’úra
hirajiranihékjanèną. hitégnįkwaraga hi’unínikwaraga hižą́ hoki’úna
they'll mention me. [Your nephews]† [your nieces]† anyone [ceremony]
*the text has "(hideg hiuni etc)".
†the translations always have "your uncles and your aunts". However, the "little uncle" and the "little aunt" are nephews and nieces (maternal, in this case).

 


 

p’įhigí hiją́ wewiná p’įhigí [T]
pihígi hijá wewína pįhígi. wąkcígo’į
p’įhígi hižą́ wewína p’įhígi, wąkšígo-į
if it is good [one] he thinks of it [if it is good,] life

 


 

djasgee?įcdjáre [ϕ] rucágeniranį́[Ↄ] éje waįgínopce
djasgé hįcdjáre hąké rucágnirànikdjanèną," éje. waįgínąpce,
jasgé hįšjáre hąké rušágnirànikjanèną," éže. Waįgínąpše,
as you see it not they can't help but attain," he said. He thanked him for it,

 


 

hitcųcge gikarádjiréra* djį́ją jeé regigíreje
hitcųcgé gikarádjirera.† djį́-hiją jeé regígireje.
Hičųšge Gikarájiréra. Jį́žą žeé regigíreže.
Nephew He Whom They Call. Young [this one] they sent him.
*just before this word, hicara has been crossed out.
†in the CW text, this is the last word of sentence 233a, which concludes the inserted material that began with sentence 216a. With the succeeding word, the text jumps back to a place near the end of sentence 213 and continues on from there.

 


 

p. 249 —
hinųbrá wítc’ugaminógera wídjirawaisewexédera* wámaníkdjerá
hínųbra wítc-’úgaminą̀gra wídjhiráwaisewe xedera wámaníkdjera
hínųbra wíč’úgaminą̀gra Wíjirawaisewexétera wámaníkjera
The second one he who sits at the edge of the island the great Island Anchor he was to walk upon it
*/wai/ is inserted between /a/ and /s/.

 


 

regigírejé [α] jigé hįcebrá waságeréxdjįją
regigíreje. égi jigé hį́cebra waságerexdjį̀-hiją,
regigíreže. Égi žigé hį́šebra waságerexjį́žą
they sent him. [And] [again] the black furred one* a very fast one
*the text has "black-bear".

 


 

hįcgé sak hipirágije je[δ] re[τ´]
hįcgé sak hipirágije jejégų regíji.
hįšgé sak hipirágiže. Žežégų regíži,
basswood [dried] he had a bark belt. [Thus] when he returned,

 


 

hinųbrá hakirioikéwe[ε]* tciokiságedja
hinųbrá hakíri hoikéwegadją tci-hokisák-edja
hinųbrá hakirioikéwegają, čiokiságeja
the second one when he came in, in the middle of the lodge
*the words, hinųbrá hakirioikéwe[ε]are written above the following sentences which have been crossed out: tcekdjína ranihéra hakirioíkéje djasgowánągere jegowakírikar[ρ´] djobóhą nągúra howá hįbíje. These stricken words constitute (a version of) sentences 216a-217a in CW.

 


 

kíridjé[τ] djasgáranihéra [ϕ] jesgakíriníje
kíridjégiji. djasgeháranihèra hąké jesge-hakírinije.
kírijégiži. Jasgáranihéra hąké žesgakíriníže.
he came. As when he started, not he was not the same.

 


 

wap’ára noruhósdį honąkicigenísge nąkéracana hiąwązáza
wapára noruhósdį; honąkícignìsge nąkéracaną hiąwazáza;
Wapára noruhóstį honąkíšigenísge, nąkérašaną hiąwazáza,
The head bald [like leggings,]* back only he had a little hair there,
*the translation has, "like one without socks, bare-footed".

 


 

xúra x’įx’į́ jesgádjeje [T] híxdjį
xúra x’įx’į jesge-hádjeje. wąkcígo’į híxdjį
xúra x’įx’į žesgáježe. Wąkšígo-į híxjį
his skin wrinkled [that way it had become.] Life full

 


 

djéje [α] wéje Wacdjįgé nicgé
djéje. égi wéje, "wacdjįgé nicge
jéže. Égi wéže, "Wašjįgé nišgé
[he had become.] Then [he said to him,] "Hare, you too

 


 

méjegų́ hinádjiránihe[Ↄ] nųbíhiwire hiją́
méjegų hirádjiránihekdjanèną. nų́b-hihiwìre hiją́
méžegų hinájiránihekjanèną. Nųbíhiwire hižą́
[thus] they'll mention me, both* [anyone]
*above these words Radin adds, "male & female".

 


 

djásgįcdjáre p’įhigí [ϕ] rucágenį[Ↄ] [α]
djasge-hįcdjáre pįhígi, hąké rucágnikdjanèną." égi
jásgįšjáre pįhígi, hąké rušágenįkjanèną." Égi
as you see me if he does it right, not he cannot fail to obtain." Then

 


 

waįgínopce djobóhą hohuhidjobihike mąnágho
waįgínąpje. djobóhą hohuhí djobíhike mą-nágho
waįgínąpše. Jobóhą hohuhíjobíhike mąnáǧo
he thanked them for it. Four times the four places from where winds blow he scratched up the earth

 


 

rehi[ρ´] kísinsintcce [ε´] djasgá ranihéra
rehi-ánąga kisį́sįtcje gádją djasgé-haranihéra
rehiánąga kisį́sįčše. Gáją jasgáranihéra
[he pushed it and] he shook himself repeatedly. So that as he had been starting out

 


 

p. 250* —
jesgakiridjéje hidanína† ranihéra mąk’úhąnégi hųgé
jésge-hakíridjeje. hidanína‡ ranihéra. mąkúhąrégi hųgé
žesgakirijéže. Hitanína ranihéra. Mąkúhąrégi hųgé
he became (this way). The third one he went away. Under the earth [chief]
*on the interstitial page 249/250, Radin writes the following note: "haghǫghǫ = to long for, to be anxious about".
†the following, which occurs before this word, has been crossed out: "[α] hinųbrá ranihera".
CW begins the sentence with égi.

 


 

djanuga waxopinip’įná kijí [δ] hamaníkdjera
djánąga waxopíni pį́ra, kiji, djánąga* hamanį́kdjera
jánąga waxopínipį́na, kiží, ženųga hamanį́kjera
as many as the good spirits, [that is,] [the end] [he will walk]
*sic.

 


 

ranihéra hakírioikéweje djasgáranihéra [ϕ] jesgakíriníje
ranihéra hakíri hoikéweje djasgé-haranihèra hąké jesge-hákirinìje.
ranihéra. Hakírioikéweže. Jasgáranihéra hąké žesgakíriníže.
he went. He came back in. The way he started not he didn't come back the same.

 


 

c’akdjį́ wapára nánughosdį kírijé xúra
c’ákdjį wapára nanughósdi kírijé; xúra
Š’ákjį wapára nanuǧóstį kírižé. Xúra
Very old head worn out (bald)* [he returned.] The skin
*the parenthetical material is Radin's.

 


 

x’įx’į hónakícigenísge nąkéracana hią́wazáza hokírioikéweje [τ´]
x’įx’į honąkícignìsge nąkéracaną hiąwazáza hokíri hoikéweje gíji.
x’įx’į honąkíšigenísge nąkérašaną hiąwazáza, hokírioikéweže gíži.
[wrinkled] [like leggings] back only his hair was almost gone, he came in [.]

 


 

djasgeówanąka jegwogiwákirijé [τ] tciókiságedja kíridjéje
djasge-hówanąka jegų-hógiwakirije giji. tci-hoísag-edja kíridjéje
Jasgeówanąka žegwogiwákirižé giži. Čiókiságeja kírijéže.
As they all go that way he came in [.] To the center of the lodge he proceeded.

 


 

hohuhí djobíhiké mąnágho rehíje [ω]hí[ρ]
hohuhí djobíhike mąnágho rehíje. jegų hi-ánąga
Hohuhí jobíhike mąnáǧo rehíže. Žegųhíanąga
[Winds] [the four of them] scratching the ground [he pushed it towards.] [Thus he did and]

 


 

kisįsį́tce[ε´] djasgáranihéra jésgákíridjéje
kisį́sįtcgadją djasge-háranihèra jesge-hakíridjèje.
kisį́sįčegają. Jasgáranihéra žésgakírijéže.
he shook himself repeatedly. [The way he left] [that way he returned.]

 


 

[α] wéje wácdjįgé nicgé mejegų
égi wéje, "wácdjįgé, nicgé mejegų
Égi wéže, "Wášjįgé, nišgé mežegų
[And] [he said to him,] "Hare, [also] [in this way]

 


 

hinádjiránihe[Ↄ] [hidegenįkwáraga]* [hiuniwaraga]* hiją́ hokíuna
hirádjirànihekdjanèną; hidégnįkwàraga hi’unínįkwàraga hiją hoki’ų́ra
hirájiránihekjanéną. Hitégenįkwáraga hi’unínįkwáraga hižą́ hoki’ų́ra
[they will call on me.] [Your nephews,] [your nieces,] [anyone] [ceremony]
*the text has "(hideg etc hiuni etc)".

 


 

p’įhigí hiją́ wewína p’įhigí djásgįicdjáre
pįhigí hiją́ wewíną pįhigí djasge-hįcdjáre
p’įhigí hižą́ wewína p’įhigí jásgįšjáre
[if they keep it properly] [anyone] [in their minds,] [if they do it well] the way I have shown him

 


 

[ϕ] rucágiránį[Ↄ] je[δ] [ε´] sánįk [ϕ]
hąké rucágiranikdjaneną jéjenųga gadją." sánįk hąké
hąké rušágiránįkjanéną, žéženųga gają." Sánįk hąké
not they cannot fail to obtain, just this [.]" The place not

 


 

yówanídjąne sąnįk dée [θ] ahuírasára
yowanídjąre sąnįk dee djánąga ahúirasàra
yowaníjąne, sąnįk tee jánąga ahuírasára
the sun is not, place those all the winged ones

 


 

wągerégi waxopini p’į́ni kíji hére[ρ´]
wągrégi waxopíni ra kíji; here-ánąga
wągerégi waxopíni pįra kíži. Here-ánąga
from above spirits the good ones [.] [Also]

 


 

je[δ] hohuhí yoghép-huraginągeré hére[ρ´] wioc’gúninegi
jéjenųga hohuhí yoghép huraginą́gre; here-ánąga wiocgúniregi
žéženųga hohuhí yoǧép-huraginągeré, here-ánąga wiošgúniregi
just this the direction east, [also] [where the sun is not]
*this word is written above some crossed out words which appear to be "north east".

 


 

hohuhinogré je[ω] jee watcóju wioc’gúnina
hohuhinogré. jejégų jee watcóju wiocgúnina
hohuhinogré. Žežégų žee wačóžu wiowušgúnina
the direction Then those the leader the north

 


 

p. 251 —
hominógiréje [α] sánįgiowádjąne [θ] wanioítcge
hominą́gireje. Égi sánįg-wiowàdjąre djánąga waníóitcge
hominą́gireže. Égi sánįgiowájąne jánąga wanioíčge
[he is seated there.] Then the place where there is sun all animals

 


 

mąnégereáki [ω] mąkų́hanegí* jénuga sanįgiowádjąne
mą́regi hereáki; jégų mąkú-haregi, jénųga sánįg-wiowàdjąre
mąnégereáki; žégų mąkų́hanegí žénųga sanįgiowájąne
that are on the earth; then from under the earth all where the sun is
*Radin inserts after this word, "([θ]ki)".

 


 

tciroixdjį́ minógiréje tciókiságera wánąiąkere
tcira-hóixdjį miną́giréje. tci-hokiságra wáną’įákere
čiroixjį́ miną́giréže. Čiókiságera wáną’įákere
the lodge was completely filled [they sat.] The center of the lodge they concentrated their mind on it

 


 

minógirégi tciókiságere [γ] rukírikíri mį́kce.
miną́giréje. tci-hokiságre hą́bra rukírikiri mį́kje.
miną́girégi, Čiókiságere hą́bera rukírikíri mį́kše.
[as they sat there,] In the center of the lodge the light sparkling it lay there.

 


Source

Jasper Blowsnake, Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3887 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #7, 247-251; This was published as a Hočąk text with numbered sentences followed by an English translation in Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Descibed by Themselves. International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoirs, 3 (1950): 24-25 (ss 213-238). A free translation into English can be found in Radin, The Road of Life and Death, 307-309.