Hočąk Text — The Messengers of Hare, Version 1

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake


   
Winnebago III, #1: 5   Winnebago II, #5: 4

English Translation


Hapaxlegomena
jobihike, "the four"; hišge, "really"; hinįkewehi, "each in turn"; honąkišik, "stockings"; howaihįbi, "to go in, to seek ahead, to accomplish"; waragigųs, "to touch"; waračga, "to guess at with the mouth"; waxopįna, "spirits"; woručga, "to guess at with the hand"; wočexihi, "precious".

As is the case with a number of other Radin interlinear MSS, this text is full of abbreviations for common word terminations. The typescript revised text, Winnebago II, #5: 5-9, can be used as a kind of Rosetta Stone for interpreting their values:

α β γ ɜ λ ρ υ ϕ ω
égi eja -giži šaną žésge ánąga -regi hąké žigé


X 2 ɕ 9 > - / ÷ C• •|
wąk -že, -še -xjį -žą -gáją -(e)ra -ną -nąk waxopíni -kjane nįk(a), nįg(a)

Key —
First Row "raw" interlinear text from Paul Radin, Notebook, Winnebago III, #1: 3-7.
Second Row revised interlinear typescript from Paul Radin, Notebook, Winnebago II, #5: 5-9.
Third Row English translation.

 

Winnebago III, #1: 3 = Winnebago II, #5: 5 —
[α] hitcų́cgé gikarádjirera [C•] sdohí[•|´][γ]
Égi hičųšgé gikarájirera, waxopíni stohíkjanégiži
Now "Nephew" he whom we call, spirits when he went to gathering

 


 

wa’ų[2´] tcaháruzaį́[9] dánina hąbidaí’una [C•]
wa’ųžé, čaháruhaižą tanina hąbitaí’una waxopíni
he did, a tanned buckskin, tobacco, as an offering spirits

 


 

sdóhi hi’ų́[2] hitcųcgé gikarádjirera danína
stohi hi’ųžé. Hičųšgé gikarájirera, tanina
to gather he used. "Nephew" he whom we call, tobacco

 


 

djobíhi wakcap[2´] [α] haruc’į́djinógwahi[2] hąb[-´]
jobíhi wakšapšé. Égi haruš’į́jinągwahíže. Hąbera
in four parts he split. And he tied each up. Life

 


 

rusgitc[2´] [ρ] [α] ną́djokídją wací[•|´]gi
rusgičšé. Ánąga égi nąjokíją wašikjanégi.
he tied. And then pity he was going to ask from them.

 


 

Winnebago III, #1: 4 —
hiníñkéwehi haránąjį́ne[2] [C•] sdohí[-] tcekdjína
Hinįkéwehi haranąžížeže waxopíni stohirá. Čekjína
Each in turn they would go spirits assembled. The first

 


 

kinikéra watcekdjį́[9] hicdjásga[ɕ´][9] widjirawaséwe xedera
kinikéra wačekjį́žą hišjásgaxjįžą, Wijirawaséwe xetera
the wolf a young one a very white faced one, Island Weights large

 


 

Winnebago II, #5: 6* —
hąbókahi niháwañgat’ǫbenóñgere wámanine[•|´][γ] ére[2]
(hąbokáhi)† nihawągat’ǫbenągere, wámanínekjonégiži,‡ éreže.‡‡
every day whose breath is thrown upon us, they were to pass them, they were.
*at the top of the page, Radin has written, "hipirak = belt" and "wa — snow".
†this word is put in parentheses by Radin, which seems to suggest that it was inserted for clarification, but there is no indication of this in the original MS text.
‡the letter /o/ is inserted with a caret above the line.
‡‡typed in above the line and inserted in place by a line and a caret.

 

[α] [ω] hinų́bera hą́bamanína sgá[ɕ´]
Égi žigé hinų́bera hąbamanína sgáxjį́
And again the second one light walker very white

 


 

sądjañ[ɕ´][9]* dj[ρ´] wajągų́z[-] [C•] pįna,
sąjąxjį́žą† jánąga Wažągų́zera, Waxopíni P’į́na,
[a very awe inspiring one] that much [the Maker of Things,]‡ Spirit the Good,
*in Winnebago III, #1: 4, the words hą́bamanína sgá[ɕ´] sądjañ[ɕ´][9] are underlined.
†the revised typewritten text of Winnebago II, #5: 6, has only sgáxdjį́ją in place of sgáxdjį́ sądjąxdjį́ją.
‡the text of Winnebago II, #5: 6, has "the earthmaker".

 


 

’uañge[υ´] waju[γ´] haną́tcį wámani re[•|´][γ]
wągerégi wažugíži. Haną́čį wámani rekjonégiži,
above he placed it. All to walk on they were to,

 


 

ére[2] heghwáwoñkéra wanísge[9]* régigíre[2] [α]
éreže. Heǧwáwǫkéra wanísgéžą regigíreže. Égi
they were. Cackling swan [one] like they let him go. [Then]
*the accent over the /e/ was crossed out.

 


 

hį́cebe[-] watcegí[9] waságere[ɕ´][9] hįcgé ságipirági[9]
hį́šebera wačegížą, wasagerexjį́žą, hįšgé sagipirágižą,*
black-furred a young one, a very fleet one, basswood bark he used for a belt,
*the corrected text has sagipirágeją, but the original text's form, sagipirágiją, is attested elsewhere (presumably from sagipirák-iją).

 


 

dj[ρ´] Wajągų́z[-] huñgé wajį́rukǫno
jánąga Wažągų́zera hųgéra wažą́ hirukǫną,
that many [the Maker of Things] the leader something he put in charge,

 


 

wawa’úñgi. Hą́b[-] xede hírukóną wagigígi
wawa’ų́gi. Hą́bera xete hirukǫną wagigígi;
thus he made him. Life much he put in charge he did;

 


 

mañkúhąnegi dj[ρ´] [C•] p’įná Wajągų́z[-]
mąkúhąnegi jánąga waxopį́na [p’įná]* Wažągų́zera
from below that many spirits [the good ones] [the Maker of Things]
*omitted in Winnebago III, #1: 4.

 


 

waju[γ´] wámaninekdjéra regigíre[2] tconí[ɕ] ránihera
wažugíži. Wamaninekjéra regigíreže. Čoníxjį ránihera
he placed. Walking on they went. The very first that went

 


 

kiri[2´] [α] mañkánina djasgiowánañgre
kirižé. Égi mąkánina jasgé howánągere,
he came back. And the medicine man as they go

 


 

jegwógiwé[2] djobóhą nañgúra howaíhįbí[2]
žegų́ hogiwéže. Jobóhą, nągúra howaihįbíže.
so he went. Four times the road he went in.*
*this word has a line drawn under it. Just below this line and above the typed English translation, it reads "had gone". A line extends down from the /e/ in this phrase to the bottom of the page where it is written, "seeking ahead) accomplished" [sic].

 


 

Winnebago III, #1: 5 —
[α] tciókiság[β] kiridjéje* wátcekdjį́[9]
Égi či hokísageja kirijéže. [Wačekjį́žą]
Then lodge in the middle he came back. [A young one]
*inserted after this word with a large caret and a line to the top of the page, is a bracketed text of two sets of interlinear lines. It is not found in the typescript.

 


 

ránihera wapara nąnuhosdį honañkícigenísge
[ranihéra] [wapara] [nąnuhostį] [honąkíšigenísge,]
[he had left] [his head] worn off by trees like stockings,

 


 

nañkéohura[ɜ´] hią́wazaza kiri[2´]* [α]
[nąkéohurašaną] [hiąwázaza] [kirižé.] Égi
his back bone only hair stuck here and there [he returned]. And
*this concludes the inserted passage.

 


 

djobóhą tcádjidjobíhike mą́nagho rehi[ρ´]
jobóhą, čaji jobíhiké mą́naǧo rehi-ánąga,
four times directions the four he scratched the earth he did with his foot, and said,

 


 

hoho-[ρ´] kísįsíñtc[2´] [γ´] tceg[β´]
"Hoho," ánąga kisį́sįčše, giži. Čegéja
"O my,"* he said, and he shook himself [.] In the beginning
*the translation given in the MS text. The typescript has "Hoho".

 


 

Winnebago II, #5: 7 —
djasgé ránihera, [λ]á* kiridjé[2] jeé
jasgé ranihéra, žesgá kirijéže Žée
as he went, [that way] he returned. This
*this is jesgá, and not jésge égi (from [λ] [α´]) as the typescript has it. In the English line, there is only one dash (indicating no translation given) rather than two; the letter is /a/ and not the very pronounced α that Radin uses; the letter is accented, whereas no instance of α is ever accented; and the translation, "so then he returned," does not match the set up of the initial clause.

 

we[2´] wacdjiñgé[ɕ]niñgrá, hidég[ὐ]wáraga, hi’uní[ὐ]waragá
wéže, "Wašjįgéxjįnįgera,* hitégenįkwáraga, hi-unínįkwaraga,
he said, "Dear Hare, your uncles, your aunts,†
*the corrected typescript text has "Wacdjįgédjinįgera" in error.
†Radin has "your uncles, your aunts" switched from their proper order in the translation.

 


 

hicgé méjegų hinádjiránihe[•|´][/]. [X]xedé hotcąt’į́haré
hišgé méžegų hinájiranihekjanéną. Wąkšíkxete* hočąt’į́hare
really this way they will always call me. Ancestors to whom I have shown
*one might expect to see wąkcik xede, or wąkcikede from sandhi, but this form is attested elsewhere. Its literal meaning is "great men", but in the original MS, it is translated as "old men".

 


 

wocgǫ́ hidége[ὐ]wáraga, hi’uní[ὐ]waraga waragígųs
wošgą́ hitegenįkwáraga, hi-unínįkwaraga, waragígųs
this affair* your uncles, your aunts, that to touch
*the word means "rite, religion".

 


 

hirakárocaré hi[9´] hoki’úna wéwįną́ p’į́higi
hirakárošare. Hižą́ hokí’una wéwįną p’į́higi,
you are about to do. Anyone rehearsals to think of who do it well,

 


 

[ϕ] deé ruc’ágeniñ[•|´][/] ’uáñg[-] hinuñg[-´]
hąké teé ruš’ágenįkjanéną, wą́gera hinųgerá
not this not will he fail to obtain, men women

 


 

hijé[υ] e[2´] [α] hicgé hą́bamaní[9]
hižéregi," éže. Égi hišgé Hąbamanížą
if either do it," [he said.]* [Then] really a Light Walker
*Radin has, "he is".

 


 

ránihera kiri[2´] djasgiógiwánihera hicgé
ránihera kirižé, jasgé hogiwánihera. Hišgé
he had gone back he came, just as he had gone. Really

 


 

[λ]iógiwéje djobóhą nañgúra howaíhįbí[2]
žesgé hogiwéže. Jobóhą, nągúra howaihįbíže,
that way he went in. Four times the road he went in,

 


 

howákíri[2] [α] tciókiság[β] kiridjé[2]*
howakíriže. Égi či hokiságeja kirijéže.
he went around. And lodge in the middle he came back.
*after this word, there is a very large caret with a faint line leading back up to the top of the page to the same text inserted above. However, at various places there are lines striking this connection out. There is another line leading up the left side of the page to the same text. On the repetition of this part of the text, see below.

 

wátcekdjį[9] ránihera wapara nąnuhosdį honañkícigenísge
Wačekjį́žą ranihéra wapára nąnuhóstį honąkíšigenísge,
A very young one he went the head worn off [like] stockings*
*the revised typescript says, "without stockings". At the bottom of the page Radin writes, "honąkícik = mocassin without stocking". The word nisge means, "like, sort of, kind of, as".

 


 

nañkéohura[ɜ´] hią́wazaza kiri[2´]† tcadjidjobíhike
[nąkéohurašáną]* hi-ą́wazáza kirižé. Čajijobíhike
his backbone only hair stuck here and there he came. In the four directions
*the corrected typescript text has only nąkéhura.
†this concludes the inserted passage. At the bottom of the page is written, "[9/7/'48. Repeat top 2 sentences. = 259".

 


 

Winnebago III, #1: 6 —
manágho rehi[ρ´] kísįsintc[2´] [>´]
manáǧo rehi-ánąga, kisį́sįčše, gają
earth he scratched with his foot, and* he shook himself, just as
*instead of "and", Radin has, "he did".

 


 

watcékdjį djasgáránihe[-] [λ] kiridjé[2] [α]
wačékjį jasgáranihera, žésge kírijéže. Égi
very young as he had gone, thus he returned. And

 


 

Winnebago II, #5: 8 —
we[2´] wacdjiñgé hidege[ὐ]wáraga, hiuní[ὐ]waraga [X]o-’į
wéže, "Wašjįgé, hitégenįkwáraga, hi-unínįkwáraga, wąkšíg[o]’į́,
he said, "Hare, your uncles, your aunts, life

 


 

worágeniconoñgre hicgé mé[λ] hinádjiránihe[•|´][/] hi[9´]
worageníšanągere, hišgé méžesge hinájiránihékjanéną. Hižą́
that you seek for them, really this way they will call me ever. One

 


 

wewįną́ p’į́higi hoki’úna p’į́higi [ϕ]
wewįną́ p’įhigí, hoki’úna p’įhigí, hąke
to think of [if] it is good, to repeat [if] it is good, not

 


 

ruc’ágiraníñ[•|´][/] [X]xedé hotcąt’į́haré e[2] [α]
ruš’ágiranįkjanéną, wąkšíkxete hočąt’į́hare," éže.* Égi
he will not fail to obtain it, ancestors that I have shown," he said. And
*handwritten and inserted above the line with a caret in the typewritten text.

 


 

[ω] hicgé mąkúhąnegi howaránihera kirigí
žigé hišgé mąkúhąnegi howaranihéra kirigí,
again really from below he who went he came back,

 


 

hį́ceb[-] watcekdjį[9] ránihera wapára nąnuhósdį
hįšebera wačekjį́žą ranihéra, wapára nąnuhóstį
black furred a very young one he went, his head worn away

 


 

honañkícigenísge nañkéhura[ɜ´] hią́wazaza kiri[2´]
honąkíšigenísge, nąkehurášaną hi-ą́wazaza kirižé,
like stockings, his back bone only hair here and there he came back,

 


 

djasgiógiwairánihera hicgé mañkáni nañgú
jasgé hogiwairánihera. Hišgé Mąką́ni Nągú
so he went in Really Medicine Road

 


 

tcábirera howáhi-iñbí[2] djobohą tciókiság[β]
čabirera howahįbíže. Jobóhą či hokiságeja
ours he went in towards. Four times lodge in the middle

 


 

kiridjé[2] tcadjidjobíhike mąnágho rehi[ρ´] [α]
kirijéže. Čajijobíhike mąnáǧo rehi-ánąga, égi
he returned. In the four directions he scratched the earth he did, and [then]

 


 

Winnebago III, #1: 7 —
kísį́sintc[2] [>´] watcekdjį́ djasgéránihera [λ]a
kisį́sįčše,* gają wačékjį́ jasgé ranihera, žésga†
he shook himself, when very young as he had gone, thus
*the corrected text of the typescript has incorrectly, hisį́sintcce.
†the corrected text has jesgé.

 


 

kiridjé[2] [α] we[2´] wacdjiñgé hidege[ὐ]waraga
kírijéže.* Égi wéže, "Wašjįgé, hitégenįkwáraga,
he returned. And he said, "Hare, your uncles,
*contrary to the original MS, the typescript has, hak’íradje.

 


 

hiuni[ὐ]waraga [X]o-’į́ waworáginiconoñgré hi[9´] wewiną́
hi-unínįkwaraga, wąkšígo’į́, waworáginíšanągere, hižą́ wewįną́
your aunts, life that you are looking for them, anyone to think of

 


 

p’į́higi hi[9´] hoki’ų́na p’į́higi deé
p’įhigí, hižą́ hoki’úna p’į́higi, teé
it would be good, anyone to repeat it would be good, this

 


 

Winnebago II, #5: 9 —
[ϕ] ruc’ágeníñ[•|´][/] e[2´] ||#
hąké ruš’ágenįkjanéną," éže.
not he will not fail to obtain it," he said.

 


Source: The original interlinear is found in Jasper Blowsnake, Jasper Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago III, #1: 3-7. The corrected text is a typescript in Jasper Blowsnake, Jasper Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago II, #5: 5-9. For a loose English translation, see Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 82-84.