Hočąk Text — The Messengers of Hare, Version 1

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake



English Translation

Hapaxlegomena



jobihike, "the four"; hišge, "really"; hinįkewehi, "each in turn"; honąkišik, "stockings"; howaihįbi, "to go in, to seek ahead, to accomplish"; waragigųs, "to touch"; waračga, "to guess at with the mouth"; waxopįna, "spirits"; woručga, "to guess at with the hand"; wočexihi, "precious".

As is the case with a number of other Radin interlinear MSS, this text is full of abbreviations for common word terminations. The typescript revised text, Winnebago II, #5: 5-9, can be used as a kind of Rosetta Stone for interpreting their values:

α
β
γ
ɜ
λ
ρ
υ
ϕ
ω
égi
eja
-giži
šaną
žésge
ánąga
-regi
hąké
žigé


X
2
ɕ
9
>
-
/
÷
C•
•|
wąk
-že, -še
-xjį
-žą
-gáją
-(e)ra
-ną
-nąk
waxopíni
-kjane
nįk(a), nįg(a)

Key —
First Row
"raw" interlinear text from Paul Radin, Notebook, Winnebago III, #1: 3-7.
Second Row
revised interlinear typescript from Paul Radin, Notebook, Winnebago II, #5: 5-9.
Third Row
English translation.

 

Winnebago III, #1: 3 = Winnebago II, #5: 5 —
[α]
hitcų́cgé
gikarádjirera
[C•]
sdohí[•|´][γ]
Égi
hičųšgé
gikarájirera,
waxopíni
stohíkjanégiži
Now
"Nephew"
he whom we call,
spirits
when he went to gathering

 


 

wa’ų[2´]
tcaháruzaį́[9]
dánina
hąbidaí’una
[C•]
wa’ųžé,
čaháruhaižą
tanina
hąbitaí’una
waxopíni
he did,
a tanned buckskin,
tobacco,
as an offering
spirits

 


 

sdóhi
hi’ų́[2]
hitcųcgé
gikarádjirera
danína
stohi
hi’ųžé.
Hičųšgé
gikarájirera,
tanina
to gather
he used.
"Nephew"
he whom we call,
tobacco

 


 

djobíhi
wakcap[2´]
[α]
haruc’į́djinógwahi[2]
hąb[-´]
jobíhi
wakšapšé.
Égi
haruš’į́jinągwahíže.
Hąbera
in four parts
he split.
And
he tied each up.
Life

 


 

rusgitc[2´]
[ρ]
[α]
ną́djokídją
wací[•|´]gi
rusgičšé.
Ánąga
égi
nąjokíją
wašikjanégi.
he tied.
And
then
pity
he was going to ask from them.

 


 

Winnebago III, #1: 4 —
hiníñkéwehi
haránąjį́ne[2]
[C•]
sdohí[-]
tcekdjína
Hinįkéwehi
haranąžížeže
waxopíni
stohirá.
Čekjína
Each in turn
they would go
spirits
assembled.
The first

 


 

kinikéra
watcekdjį́[9]
hicdjásga[ɕ´][9]
widjirawaséwe
xedera
kinikéra
wačekjį́žą
hišjásgaxjįžą,
Wijirawaséwe
xetera
the wolf
a young one
a very white faced one,
Island Weights
large

 


 

Winnebago II, #5: 6* —
hąbókahi
niháwañgat’ǫbenóñgere
wámanine[•|´][γ]
ére[2]
(hąbokáhi)†
nihawągat’ǫbenągere,
wámanínekjonégiži,‡
éreže.‡‡
every day
whose breath is thrown upon us,
they were to pass them,
they were.
*at the top of the page, Radin has written, "hipirak = belt" and "wa — snow".
†this word is put in parentheses by Radin, which seems to suggest that it was inserted for clarification, but there is no indication of this in the original MS text.
‡the letter /o/ is inserted with a caret above the line.
‡‡typed in above the line and inserted in place by a line and a caret.

 

[α]
[ω]
hinų́bera
hą́bamanína
sgá[ɕ´]
Égi
žigé
hinų́bera
hąbamanína
sgáxjį́
And
again
the second one
light walker
very white

 


 

sądjañ[ɕ´][9]*
dj[ρ´]
wajągų́z[-]
[C•]
pįna,
sąjąxjį́žą†
jánąga
Wažągų́zera,
Waxopíni
P’į́na,
[a very awe inspiring one]
that much
[the Maker of Things,]‡
Spirit
the Good,
*in Winnebago III, #1: 4, the words hą́bamanína sgá[ɕ´] sądjañ[ɕ´][9] are underlined.
†the revised typewritten text of Winnebago II, #5: 6, has only sgáxdjį́ją in place of sgáxdjį́ sądjąxdjį́ją.
‡the text of Winnebago II, #5: 6, has "the earthmaker".

 


 

’uañge[υ´]
waju[γ´]
haną́tcį
wámani
re[•|´][γ]
wągerégi
wažugíži.
Haną́čį
wámani
rekjonégiži,
above
he placed it.
All
to walk on
they were to,

 


 

ére[2]
heghwáwoñkéra
wanísge[9]*
régigíre[2]
[α]
éreže.
Heǧwáwǫkéra
wanísgéžą
regigíreže.
Égi
they were.
Cackling swan
[one] like
they let him go.
[Then]
*the accent over the /e/ was crossed out.

 


 

hį́cebe[-]
watcegí[9]
waságere[ɕ´][9]
hįcgé
ságipirági[9]
hį́šebera
wačegížą,
wasagerexjį́žą,
hįšgé
sagipirágižą,*
black-furred
a young one,
a very fleet one,
basswood bark
he used for a belt,
*the corrected text has sagipirágeją, but the original text's form, sagipirágiją, is attested elsewhere (presumably from sagipirák-iją).

 


 

dj[ρ´]
Wajągų́z[-]
huñgé
wajį́rukǫno
jánąga
Wažągų́zera
hųgéra
wažą́
hirukǫną,
that many
[the Maker of Things]
the leader
something
he put in charge,

 


 

wawa’úñgi.
Hą́b[-]
xede
hírukóną
wagigígi
wawa’ų́gi.
Hą́bera
xete
hirukǫną
wagigígi;
thus he made him.
Life
much
he put in charge
he did;

 


 

mañkúhąnegi
dj[ρ´]
[C•]
p’įná
Wajągų́z[-]
mąkúhąnegi
jánąga
waxopį́na
[p’įná]*
Wažągų́zera
from below
that many
spirits
[the good ones]
[the Maker of Things]
*omitted in Winnebago III, #1: 4.

 


 

waju[γ´]
wámaninekdjéra
regigíre[2]
tconí[ɕ]
ránihera
wažugíži.
Wamaninekjéra
regigíreže.
Čoníxjį
ránihera
he placed.
Walking on
they went.
The very first
that went

 


 

kiri[2´]
[α]
mañkánina
djasgiowánañgre
kirižé.
Égi
mąkánina
jasgé
howánągere,
he came back.
And
the medicine man
as
they go

 


 

jegwógiwé[2]
djobóhą
nañgúra
howaíhįbí[2]
žegų́
hogiwéže.
Jobóhą,
nągúra
howaihįbíže.
so
he went.
Four times
the road
he went in.*
*this word has a line drawn under it. Just below this line and above the typed English translation, it reads "had gone". A line extends down from the /e/ in this phrase to the bottom of the page where it is written, "seeking ahead) accomplished" [sic].

 


 

Winnebago III, #1: 5 —
[α]
tciókiság[β]
kiridjéje*
wátcekdjį́[9]
Égi
či
hokísageja
kirijéže.
[Wačekjį́žą]
Then
lodge
in the middle
he came back.
[A young one]
*inserted after this word with a large caret and a line to the top of the page, is a bracketed text of two sets of interlinear lines. It is not found in the typescript.

 


 

ránihera
wapara
nąnuhosdį
honañkícigenísge
[ranihéra]
[wapara]
[nąnuhostį]
[honąkíšigenísge,]
[he had left]
[his head]
worn off by trees
like stockings,

 


 

nañkéohura[ɜ´]
hią́wazaza
kiri[2´]*
[α]
[nąkéohurašaną]
[hiąwázaza]
[kirižé.]
Égi
his back bone only
hair stuck here and there
[he returned].
And
*this concludes the inserted passage.

 


 

djobóhą
tcádjidjobíhike
mą́nagho
rehi[ρ´]
jobóhą,
čaji
jobíhiké
mą́naǧo
rehi-ánąga,
four times
directions
the four
he scratched the earth
he did with his foot, and said,

 


 

hoho-[ρ´]
kísįsíñtc[2´]
[γ´]
tceg[β´]
"Hoho,"
ánąga
kisį́sįčše,
giži.
Čegéja
"O my,"*
he said, and
he shook himself
[.]
In the beginning
*the translation given in the MS text. The typescript has "Hoho".

 


 

Winnebago II, #5: 7 —
djasgé
ránihera,
[λ]á*
kiridjé[2]
jeé
jasgé
ranihéra,
žesgá
kirijéže
Žée
as
he went,
[that way]
he returned.
This
*this is jesgá, and not jésge égi (from [λ] [α´]) as the typescript has it. In the English line, there is only one dash (indicating no translation given) rather than two; the letter is /a/ and not the very pronounced α that Radin uses; the letter is accented, whereas no instance of α is ever accented; and the translation, "so then he returned," does not match the set up of the initial clause.

 

we[2´]
wacdjiñgé[ɕ]niñgrá,
hidég[ὐ]wáraga,
hi’uní[ὐ]waragá
wéže,
"Wašjįgéxjįnįgera,*
hitégenįkwáraga,
hi-unínįkwaraga,
he said,
"Dear Hare,
your uncles,
your aunts,†
*the corrected typescript text has "Wacdjįgédjinįgera" in error.
†Radin has "your uncles, your aunts" switched from their proper order in the translation.

 


 

hicgé
méjegų
hinádjiránihe[•|´][/].
[X]xedé
hotcąt’į́haré
hišgé
méžegų
hinájiranihekjanéną.
Wąkšíkxete*
hočąt’į́hare
really
this way
they will always call me.
Ancestors
to whom I have shown
*one might expect to see wąkcik xede, or wąkcikede from sandhi, but this form is attested elsewhere. Its literal meaning is "great men", but in the original MS, it is translated as "old men".

 


 

wocgǫ́
hidége[ὐ]wáraga,
hi’uní[ὐ]waraga
waragígųs
wošgą́
hitegenįkwáraga,
hi-unínįkwaraga,
waragígųs
this affair*
your uncles,
your aunts,
that to touch
*the word means "rite, religion".

 


 

hirakárocaré
hi[9´]
hoki’úna
wéwįną́
p’į́higi
hirakárošare.
Hižą́
hokí’una
wéwįną
p’į́higi,
you are about to do.
Anyone
rehearsals
to think of
who do it well,

 


 

[ϕ]
deé
ruc’ágeniñ[•|´][/]
’uáñg[-]
hinuñg[-´]
hąké
teé
ruš’ágenįkjanéną,
wą́gera
hinųgerá
not
this
not will he fail to obtain,
men
women

 


 

hijé[υ]
e[2´]
[α]
hicgé
hą́bamaní[9]
hižéregi,"
éže.
Égi
hišgé
Hąbamanížą
if either do it,"
[he said.]*
[Then]
really
a Light Walker
*Radin has, "he is".

 


 

ránihera
kiri[2´]
djasgiógiwánihera
hicgé
ránihera
kirižé,
jasgé
hogiwánihera.
Hišgé
he had gone back
he came,
just as
he had gone.
Really

 


 

[λ]iógiwéje
djobóhą
nañgúra
howaíhįbí[2]
žesgé
hogiwéže.
Jobóhą,
nągúra
howaihįbíže,
that way
he went in.
Four times
the road
he went in,

 


 

howákíri[2]
[α]
tciókiság[β]
kiridjé[2]*
howakíriže.
Égi
či
hokiságeja
kirijéže.
he went around.
And
lodge
in the middle
he came back.
*after this word, there is a very large caret with a faint line leading back up to the top of the page to the same text inserted above. However, at various places there are lines striking this connection out. There is another line leading up the left side of the page to the same text. On the repetition of this part of the text, see below.

 

wátcekdjį[9]
ránihera
wapara
nąnuhosdį
honañkícigenísge
Wačekjį́žą
ranihéra
wapára
nąnuhóstį
honąkíšigenísge,
A very young one
he went
the head
worn off
[like] stockings*
*the revised typescript says, "without stockings". At the bottom of the page Radin writes, "honąkícik = mocassin without stocking". The word nisge means, "like, sort of, kind of, as".

 


 

nañkéohura[ɜ´]
hią́wazaza
kiri[2´]†
tcadjidjobíhike
[nąkéohurašáną]*
hi-ą́wazáza
kirižé.
Čajijobíhike
his backbone only
hair stuck here and there
he came.
In the four directions
*the corrected typescript text has only nąkéhura.
†this concludes the inserted passage. At the bottom of the page is written, "[9/7/'48. Repeat top 2 sentences. = 259".

 


 

Winnebago III, #1: 6 —
manágho
rehi[ρ´]
kísįsintc[2´]
[>´]
manáǧo
rehi-ánąga,
kisį́sįčše,
gają
earth
he scratched with his foot, and*
he shook himself,
just as
*instead of "and", Radin has, "he did".

 


 

watcékdjį
djasgáránihe[-]
[λ]
kiridjé[2]
[α]
wačékjį
jasgáranihera,
žésge
kírijéže.
Égi
very young
as he had gone,
thus
he returned.
And

 


 

Winnebago II, #5: 8 —
we[2´]
wacdjiñgé
hidege[ὐ]wáraga,
hiuní[ὐ]waraga
[X]o-’į
wéže,
"Wašjįgé,
hitégenįkwáraga,
hi-unínįkwáraga,
wąkšíg[o]’į́,
he said,
"Hare,
your uncles,
your aunts,
life

 


 

worágeniconoñgre
hicgé
mé[λ]
hinádjiránihe[•|´][/]
hi[9´]
worageníšanągere,
hišgé
méžesge
hinájiránihékjanéną.
Hižą́
that you seek for them,
really
this way
they will call me ever.
One

 


 

wewįną́
p’į́higi
hoki’úna
p’į́higi
[ϕ]
wewįną́
p’įhigí,
hoki’úna
p’įhigí,
hąke
to think of
[if] it is good,
to repeat
[if] it is good,
not

 


 

ruc’ágiraníñ[•|´][/]
[X]xedé
hotcąt’į́haré
e[2]
[α]
ruš’ágiranįkjanéną,
wąkšíkxete
hočąt’į́hare,"
éže.*
Égi
he will not fail to obtain it,
ancestors
that I have shown,"
he said.
And
*handwritten and inserted above the line with a caret in the typewritten text.

 


 

[ω]
hicgé
mąkúhąnegi
howaránihera
kirigí
žigé
hišgé
mąkúhąnegi
howaranihéra
kirigí,
again
really
from below
he who went
he came back,

 


 

hį́ceb[-]
watcekdjį[9]
ránihera
wapára
nąnuhósdį
hįšebera
wačekjį́žą
ranihéra,
wapára
nąnuhóstį
black furred
a very young one
he went,
his head
worn away

 


 

honañkícigenísge
nañkéhura[ɜ´]
hią́wazaza
kiri[2´]
honąkíšigenísge,
nąkehurášaną
hi-ą́wazaza
kirižé,
like stockings,
his back bone only
hair here and there
he came back,

 


 

djasgiógiwairánihera
hicgé
mañkáni
nañgú
jasgé
hogiwairánihera.
Hišgé
Mąką́ni
Nągú
so
he went in
Really
Medicine
Road

 


 

tcábirera
howáhi-iñbí[2]
djobohą
tciókiság[β]
čabirera
howahįbíže.
Jobóhą
či
hokiságeja
ours
he went in towards.
Four times
lodge
in the middle

 


 

kiridjé[2]
tcadjidjobíhike
mąnágho
rehi[ρ´]
[α]
kirijéže.
Čajijobíhike
mąnáǧo
rehi-ánąga,
égi
he returned.
In the four directions
he scratched the earth
he did, and
[then]

 


 

Winnebago III, #1: 7 —
kísį́sintc[2]
[>´]
watcekdjį́
djasgéránihera
[λ]a
kisį́sįčše,*
gają
wačékjį́
jasgé
ranihera,
žésga†
he shook himself,
when
very young
as
he had gone,
thus
*the corrected text of the typescript has incorrectly, hisį́sintcce.
†the corrected text has jesgé.

 


 

kiridjé[2]
[α]
we[2´]
wacdjiñgé
hidege[ὐ]waraga
kírijéže.*
Égi
wéže,
"Wašjįgé,
hitégenįkwáraga,
he returned.
And
he said,
"Hare,
your uncles,
*contrary to the original MS, the typescript has, hak’íradje.

 


 

hiuni[ὐ]waraga
[X]o-’į́
waworáginiconoñgré
hi[9´]
wewiną́
hi-unínįkwaraga,
wąkšígo’į́,
waworáginíšanągere,
hižą́
wewįną́
your aunts,
life
that you are looking for them,
anyone
to think of

 


 

p’į́higi
hi[9´]
hoki’ų́na
p’į́higi
deé
p’įhigí,
hižą́
hoki’úna
p’į́higi,
teé
it would be good,
anyone
to repeat
it would be good,
this

 


 

Winnebago II, #5: 9 —
[ϕ]
ruc’ágeníñ[•|´][/]
e[2´] ||#
hąké
ruš’ágenįkjanéną,"
éže.
not
he will not fail to obtain it,"
he said.

 


Source: The original interlinear is found in Jasper Blowsnake, Jasper Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago III, #1: 3-7. The corrected text is a typescript in Jasper Blowsnake, Jasper Blowsnake's Account of the Medicine Rite, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago II, #5: 5-9. For a loose English translation, see Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 82-84.