Hočąk Text — Keramąnįš’aka's Blessing

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake


Jasper Blowsnake

           
Winnebago II, #6: 17   Winnebago II, #1: 30   Winnebago III, #12: 18   Winnebago II, #5: 31

English Translation


Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].


Key —

First Row "raw" interlinear text from Paul Radin, Notebook, Winnebago II, #6: 17-21.
Second Row revised text from Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Winnebago II, #5: 31-34.
Third Row text in current orthography.
Fourth Row English translation based on The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves.



Winnebago II, #6: 17* = Winnebago II, #5: 31 = WC 69
ēgi wīrūhí̆ⁿdjĕrā djasgḗjaⁿ kḗrāmānīc’ākā higāírēgī ḗgi nīṓxĕdĕ rṓrūkū́rēgī
Ä́gi wiruhιndjεra djasgéjαⁿ K‘eramánic’ák‘a higaírεgi. Ä́gi nióxεdε roruk‘úrεgi
Égi wiruhį́jᵋra. Jasgéžą Keramąnįš’áka higaíregi. Égi nioxéte† rorukúregi
And greetings. Which one "Keramą́nįš’áka" they call him. And the big waters with the stream

* Page 17 verso has,

waksi = energetic
hā́kanak = I set
tcihĭⁿ = a belt

† the name of the Mississippi River.


 

            WC 70  
mṓūitcāī́rēgī ḗdjā waxṓdjera mīnáⁿgīregī ḗgī keramā́nīc’ā́kdjēgā wāxṓdjījaⁿ tcācé̆xīⁿga
mo-u-itcaírεgi ë́dja Waxódjεra minάⁿgεrεgi. Ä́gi K‘eramanic’ák‘djega, Waxódjijαⁿ Tcacέx’ιñga
Mó-uíčaìregi éja Waxójᵋra miną́gᵋregi. Égi Kéramąnįš’àkjega Waxojížą Čašex’įga
-,* there the Iowas they were settled. And this Keramąnįš’aka, an Iowa "Wrinkled-neck"

* translation omitted in Winnebago II, #5: 31. Mó-uíča is the name of Rock Island, situated between Iowa and Illinois in the Mississippi River.

 


 

          Winn. II, #5: 32* —
hīgāīrēgī jĕ́ĕ tcāxīṓk‘ahī́ tcāwahīⁿnaⁿjiⁿjĕ gījī hīdjōbṓhŏnā hīrōā́gĕnī
higaírεgi. Jεέ tcani hok‘áhi tcawahíⁿnaⁿjíⁿjε. Giji hidjobɔ́hɔ̆ⁿṇa hiro-ágεni
higaíregi. Žée čáni hokáhi čawa-hínąžiže giži. Hijobóhǫra hiroágeni
they called him. This fall each he kept going to him [.] The fourth the last time

* at the top of page 32, Radin has written in pencil,

yakikax = I wear
hi—— = he

 


 

tcāwāhīgī wadjīhīú̆ⁿhī wāú̆ⁿdjējĕ gī́jī djanaⁿga wajoⁿna waⁿkdjega
tcawahígi wadji hi’úⁿhi wa’υⁿdjéjε, giji djánαga wajốⁿṇa wañk‘djega
čawahígi waji hi’ų́hi wa’ųjéže, giži jánąga wažąra wą́kjega
he kept on going to him, boat he went in he did, so as many things that man

 


 

gīt’ūnḗkdjera jenuga hānīhiwāú̆ⁿdjējĕ gī||hī́ga edja ēgi wāxōdjĕnaⁿkā
git’uṇék‘djεra -* hiwa’ύñk‘djejε.† Gihíga, ë́dja ä́́gi Waxódjεnαⁿk‘a
git’ųrékjera žénųga haní hiwa’ų́kježe. Gihíga, éja égi Waxójᵋnąka
he presented to him [all of them] to take along [he would do]. When he arrived, there then the Iowa

* omitted in Winnebago 2, #5, p. 32.
† the same also omits haní.


 

      Winn. II, #6: 18* —        
wāī́nīnā djā́naⁿgā

hikikāx̣īkdjōnegī́ji

jenuga

hōgīwāx̣ŭkce

ḗgi waxṓdjĕnāⁿkā hījáⁿ tcāwi|-hī́gī
waíniṇa, djánαⁿga hik‘ik‘áγik‘djαnègiji, jë́nυⁿga hogiwáγukcε. Ä́gi Waxódjenαⁿk‘a hijάⁿ tcawíⁿhigi
waínira jánąga hikikáǧikjanègiži, žénųga hogiwáǧukše. Égi Waxójᵋnąka hižą́ čawį́higi
clothing, as much as he was to wear, that many he put on. And the Iowa one that was his wife

* page 18 verso has the following written on it:

hagi = takes in both his going + sleeping

hadji = approached, come on at

hadjinīje = come suddenly     ni = suddenly (?)

haⁿp‘ōk = owl

dja = exclamation

 


 

hīcgé̆ wāínīnā rṓr|īnaⁿxdjī|ōrūkīscĕ* ḗgi niⁿkdjā́ⁿkījaⁿ || wāxṓdjĕnāⁿkā hānĭⁿgī
hicgέ waíniṇa rora hináñxdjε horukíscε. Ä́gi nιñk‘djάⁿgija Waxódjεnαⁿk‘a hánιⁿgi
hišgé waínira róra hiną́kje horukísše. Égi nįkją́gižą Waxójᵋnąka hanįgi,
also clothing the body sufficient he covered with. And a child the Iowa that he had,

*this follows rōrīnāxdjiⁿ.

 


 

jḗjīgĕ waī́nīnā hīnāⁿgīú̆ⁿjĕ jḗjeguⁿ hīā́nūgī ḗgi wāxṓtcnăⁿkā
jigέ waíniṇa hinαⁿgi ’úⁿjε, jëgυⁿ hi-ā́nαⁿga Ä́gi Waxódjεnαⁿk‘a
že žigé waínira hinągí ’ųže že žégų hi-ánąga égi Waxójᵋnąka
that again clothing sufficient he gave, that indeed he did, and then the Iowa

 


 

djā́nuⁿga wājōnnā rūdjīkdjé̆gī́jī jenuga tcīōgījū́ji ḗgi hījū́k
djánαⁿga wajόⁿṇa rudjik‘djanégiji jë́nυⁿga tci hogijúji Ä́gi hijúk‘,
jánąga wažą́ra rujíkjanegiži žénųga či hogijúži. Égi hijúk
as much as anyone as he could eat, that much house he put for them. Then the gun,

 


 

naⁿké̆rūjĭp wīgāīrēs’āgī́ji jesgḗrā tcōwḗdja hōkīwā́xārātc gīt’ŭⁿpce ||‧ ḗgi
nαⁿk‘έ rujιp‘ wigaires’ágiji, jësgéra tcowë́dja hok‘iwaxáratc git’ύⁿpcε, ä́gi
"nąké rujip" wígaires’àgiži, žesgéra* čowéja hókiwaxàrač git’úpše, égi
"stalk trimmed," they used to call it, that kind in front †going in the opposite direction he put, and

* WC 70, ℓ 10 has jes‧géra [= žezgéra].
† originally, "he stalked," but later added in pencil: "going in opposite direction."

 


 

cŭⁿwā́ksīrā numpī́wī hīdjā́ rūsgí̆tc wā́gīkä́naⁿkce tcḗhīⁿ rusgītc wāgīkánākce
cυñk‘wákaira nυⁿp‘íwi k‘ídjαⁿ* rusgítc wagik‘ánαⁿkcë. Tcéhiⁿ rusgítc wagik‘ánαⁿkcε.
šųkwáksira nųpíwi kiją† rusgíč wagikónąkše. Čéhį rusgíč wagikánąkše.
hunting dogs two there he tied he placed them. Buffalo hair (belt) he tied he set there.

* this should have been hídjαⁿ.
WC 70, ℓ 11 adds, "(ki-hidją?)".

 


 

ḗgi jĕjeguⁿ hīgī ḗgi wāgé̆jĕ haⁿhaⁿ sŭⁿgĕdjí̆ⁿna maⁿkaíⁿnīrā́nīgādjaⁿ
Ä́gi jëgυⁿhígi ä́́gi wagέjε "haⁿháⁿ, sυñgεdjíṇa, mañk‘ainiránigàdja
Égi žežegųhígi égi wagéže, "Hąhą́, sų́géjįra,* mąkąiniránigàją,†
Then that indeed there he said to him, "Alright, younger brother, you are a medicine man,

* WC 70, ℓ 12 has, hisų́géjįra.
WC 70, ℓ 12 has, mąką-híniranigàja.

 


 

Winn. 5, #1: 33 —          
djāguirāīnaⁿc’ĭⁿgā́djaⁿ egi suⁿgĕdjí̆ⁿ ḗgī djāgūíjaⁿ wārāgīc’uⁿnādjḗrā
djagú hiraiṇac’ιñgádjaⁿ* ä́́gi, hisύñgεdjιⁿ, ä́́gi djagu-ijaⁿ waragic’υⁿṇadjéra†
jagú hiraíraš’įgàją. Égi hisų́gejį, égi jagúižą waragíš’ųrajèra
how you have shown your consideration for me. And, younger brother, then whatever one that you seek‡

* in Winn. 5, #1: 33, "[how you have shown your consideration for me]" is written above the line and connected by arrow to the translation, "could you think of me". Above the line, after the bracketed material, is written, "wagi’ųⁿdjere = I" [...].
hidja occurs prior to this word.
‡ "seek" is written in pencil above an original "one that you are working for".

 


 

        Winn. II, #6: 19* —  
mejeguⁿnēgī́ hānāⁿtcíⁿxdjiⁿ hĭnā́gīcūrūxū́rūkcāna nūnigĕ haⁿké̆ hīgŭána rākū́rŭzĕní̆kdjănḗnā
mejegúṇegi hanaⁿtcίñxdjιⁿ hiṇagicuruxúrukcαnαⁿ. Nunigέ hañk‘έ higŭä́ⁿna rak‘uruzεnιñk‘djanenαⁿ,
mežegų́regi hanąčįxjį hirágišuruxùrukšaną, núnige hąké higuóna rakúruzᵋnį̀kjaneną;
in that very thing all you have accomplished for me, [but] not now you will take it;

* page 19 verso contains the following:

-geje = hīgĕjĕ
waxōp‘ini = any spirit

Keramanic’aka - keramani the oldest came to have the Iowa's bird.
náⁿkdjoⁿgenīgēgre in order to obtain some medicine. He lived away
then and after awhile he was given the choice between a bag made of
a child's skin and of a woman['s] head. The woman was the
daughter-in-law of the Iowa chief. She was very beautiful + had red
hair. The Iowa asked for the woman + she was given to him. Where
upon he p____ killed her, buried her body but kept her head. [These
explanations have to be bought specially by giving a feast to the
one who knows them.]


 

ḗgi raké̆rekdjā́nehā̀́rē hōnaⁿ | djōbó̆hāⁿ jĕdjāīⁿxdjiⁿ ragī́gi ḗgi haniⁿgā́
ä́gi rak‘erek‘djanehárε, honá djobɔ́ha jεdjaíñxdjιⁿ ragígi ä́́gi hanιⁿgá.
égi rakérekjanehàre, hóną jobóhą žejąíxjį ragigi, égi hanįgá*
when you are going home, sleep the fourth that length of time when you get, then I will bring it to you.

* Radin adds parenthetically, ha-hanį-ga.


 

nīahīkdjānēnaⁿ ḗjī hīsuⁿgēdjiⁿ haⁿké̆ nāⁿnīā́ⁿdjĕ rānaⁿgī́ wanaiⁿdjodjaiⁿske
Ni-ahik‘djanénαⁿ | ë́ji, hisυñgεdjίⁿ, hañk‘έ naⁿni-áⁿdjε. Ranañgί wanaⁿdjojaíⁿsgε
Niahikjanéną,* éži, hisų́gejį, [hąké]† nąnią́je. Ránągi wanąjojąísge
I will come, but then, younger brother, not do not sleep. If you sleep, miserable

* Radin adds parenthetically, ni-hahi-.
† omitted in WC 70, ℓ 15a.


 

wārākīk’ŭⁿkdjŏnĕ | ḗgī kĕrēcgū́nī keremānic’āka kĕrēgījī hīdjōbó̆hĕnā
warak‘ík‘υñkdjαṇε, ä́́gi k‘erecgúni. K‘eramanic’ák‘a k‘erεgíji hidjobɔ́hɔⁿṇa*
warakik’ų́kjane." Égi kerešgúni. Kéramąnįš’àka keregíži, hijobóhǫra
you will be to yourself." And he went home. Keramąnįš’áka when he went home, the fourth time

* after hidjobɔ́, the succeeding line on this page has been lined out with the letter /x/.


 

hāgī́naⁿgī ḗgi hōxdjā́nāⁿp|gīji wanaⁿxguⁿxguⁿŭŏⁿkce gādjaⁿ dḗ hōwā́kīrīēdjā
hagínαⁿgi, ä́́gi hoxdjánaⁿp‘gíji wanañxgύñxgύⁿ wañkcε gádjαⁿ howak‘íri ëdja
hagínągi, égi hoxjąnąpgìži, wanąxgų́xgų’uą̀kše gają. Te howakírieja
when he slept, then early in the evening, he was listening [.] Then whence he came

 


 

waniⁿgījaⁿ hadjīxāx̣ākce k’ērēdjāⁿsĕbījaⁿ gadjaⁿ hīgú̆ⁿ ĭⁿgŭána
wanίñgijαⁿ hadjiγaγákcε k‘erεdjɔ́ⁿ sεp‘ hijάⁿ gádjαⁿ. Higύⁿ higŭä́ⁿṇa
wánįgižą hajiǧáǧakše, Kérejąsebížą gają. Higų́ higuóna
a bird it cried out, a Black Hawk [.] Then now

* the initial /h/ was lost through external sandhi.

 


 

hadjīgīnījĕ tcíraherēgī́ djīdjĕcgū́nī | tcīrāhé̆rēgī djīdjegādjaⁿ
hadjίgεnijε tcira herεgí djidjecgúni | tcíra herεgí djidjεgádja
hajiginíže.* Čira, héregi jiješgúni, číra héregi jijegáją,
he came instantaneously. The house, on the roof he came and alighted, and the house on the roof it came,

* at WC 70, ℓ 19, Radin adds parenthetically, "hadjigenije ? hadjigúnije ?".


 

              Winn. 5, #1: 34 —
haⁿp‘ṓgījaⁿ | tcīrāhé̆rēgī djīdjīā́nāgā tcīrōīzī́zītccé̆ | djā |
haⁿp‘ók‘ hijάⁿ tcíra herεgi djidji-άnαⁿga tcira hoizizítccε.* "Hacdja,
hąpógižą číra héregi jijiánąga číra hoizizíčše. "Ja,†
an owl the house on the roof it alighted, and the house he strained (his neck) for. "How,

* attached to this word with a line is,

haizitc = I [strain for]
horai_____ = you

† at WC 70, ℓ 20, Radin has Hodjá.


 

sŭⁿgĕdjīⁿ hiⁿnā́k‘iⁿcāwāⁿkce haⁿhaⁿaⁿ yākīmā́ⁿkcăni ḗp‘īnā ējē rākīk’ā́tcana
sυñgedjίⁿ, hiⁿṇák‘ιⁿcawañkcε," "Haⁿháaⁿ, yak‘imáñkcαnαⁿ" "Ë́p‘iⁿnαⁿ," éjε, "rak‘ik‘atccαnαⁿ,"
sųgejį,* hirakišáwąkše?" "Hąhą́’ą, yakimą́kšaną." "Epį́ną," éže, "rakikáčšaną,"
younger brother, you are awake?" "Yes, I am awake." "It is good," he said, "you did yourself well,"

* WC 70, ℓ 20 has hisųgedjį.


 

  Winn. II, #6: 20* —              
hīgé̆je ḗgi hoké̆wējĕ hōkāwā́nuⁿgā egi djaguīwaxṓpini k‘íⁿdjēgi ḗgi
higέjε. Ä́gi hok‘έwejε hok‘awάnαⁿga ä́́gi djagú hiwaxopίni k‘ίⁿdjegi, ä́́gi
higéže. Égi hokéweže Hokawánąga égi jagú hiwaxopíni kįjegi, égi
he said to him. Then he went in. After he had gone, and then what he had been making himself, then

* the following notes were enterred on page 20 verso:

djīre = swing, go by.

-jī = but then

kīra = only (?)

hokikuruhiⁿdjeanege = hokikū́rutcdjanege [Blowsnake either used gĕ very often or I am mishearing it for gi].


 

edja hōk’ŭⁿjē|gējĕ ḗgi hisuⁿgedjíⁿ nerak’ītcaⁿ c’ŭⁿkdjānēnā égi
ë́dja hok‘υⁿjέ, higεjε, ä́́gi, hisυñgedjίⁿ, ṇerak‘ítca c’υñk‘djαnénαⁿ* Ä́gi
éja hok’ų́že. Higéže, "Égi, hisų́gejį, ne rakíčą c’ųkjanéną." Égi
there he gave it to him. He said, "Now, younger brother, choose for yourself you will do." Then

* written in pencil after c’υñ is

haitcą
  gi  __________.


 

waú̆ⁿjĕ maⁿk‘ṓkonāⁿgrā numpīwī tcōwédjā wāgīkánākce -gījī kĕrāmānic’ā́ka wēwīⁿcaūnī*
wa’ύjέ, mañk‘ok‘ɔ́nαgεra nυⁿp‘íwi tcowë́dja wagik‘άnαⁿkcε, giji K‘eramanic’ák‘a wewίⁿcguni,
wa’ųžé, mąkokónągᵋra, nųpíwi čowéja wagikónąkše gíži. Keramąnįš’áka wewįšgúni,
he did it, the medicine bags, two in front he put them [.] Keramąnįš’aka he was thinking,

* the letter following /c/ is hard to make out, but it does not seem to be the expected /g/.


 

egīcgĕ rōkónācgūnīnā́je dḗniⁿkdjó̆ⁿgĕniⁿgŏⁿgrĕ ēdūs’gī́jī wāⁿgenaⁿs’ūnaⁿgrĕ jḗguⁿ
"Ëgícgε rok‘ɔ́nacgunináⁿjε nιñk‘djάⁿgenιⁿgɔñgrε edusgíji, wañgεnasunαⁿgεrε jë́gυⁿ
"Egíšge rokónošguninǫ̀že. Te nįkją́gᵋnįgągᵋre e tusgíži,* wą́gᵋnąsų̀nągᵋre, žégų
"Indeed it would be very much. This doll that if I took, male scalps, indeed

* WC 70, ℓ 26a adds parenthetically, "duse-".


 

ērēkdjé̆rā hīrēcgū́ni gīji ḗgi wā́gējĕ wāxṓtcĕnaⁿka wecgū́nī hijā́ⁿ
erëkdjéra." Hirecgúni giji. Ä́gi wagεjέ "Waxódjεnαⁿk‘a," wëcgúni, "Hijάⁿ
herekjéra," hirešgúni giži. Égi wagéže "Waxójᵋnąka," wešgúni, "Hižą́
it would be," thus he thought [.] And he said, Iowa he said, "One

 


 

cūrūzí̆nĭⁿgī hīsú̆ⁿgĕní̆ⁿgĕrā́ga ēā́niⁿkdjānḗnā maⁿk‘ṓkānaⁿgĕnā́ⁿkā
hañk‘έ curúzιnιⁿgi hisύñgεnιⁿgεraga e-ánιⁿk‘djαnénαⁿ mañk‘ók‘anάⁿgεnαⁿk‘a†
ke šuruzínįgi,* hisų́genįgᵋràga e hánįkjanèną." Mąkokoną̀gᵋnąka
not if you do not take, your little brother he will possess it." The medicine bag

* WC 70, ℓ 27 adds parenthetically, "curuse-".
† after this word, the remaining two and a fraction lines on this page have been lined out with the letter /x/. The text of Winnebago 5, #1 unexpectedly terminates here.

 


 

nĭⁿkdjó̆ⁿgĕnīgī́jaⁿ hānáⁿtc hōrūxṓrūtc égi djaⁿnḗnăⁿkā || hinuⁿgenaⁿsūījaⁿ herēgī jḗjegú̆ⁿ
- - - - - - - -
nįkją́gᵋnįgižą, haną́č horuxúruč. Égi hijąnénąka hinųgᵋnąsúižą heregí, žéžegu
a child all he has uncovered. And the other one a woman's scalp it was, [this]

 


 

wāwāgā́naⁿkī hīnúⁿgĕnaⁿsū́naⁿkā ḗrūscĕ niⁿkdjó̆ⁿgĕnīgó̆ⁿkā rūsgī dānīwōgījūgī
- - - - - - - -
wawagánąki, hinų́gᵋnąsùnąka e rusšé. Nįkją́gᵋnįgą̀ka rúsgi, tani wogížugi,
he was talking about, a woman's scalp [it] he took. The child if he took, tobacco when he pours for them,

 


 

    Winn. II, #6: 21 —        
ēgīcgé̆ rokónōxdjĭⁿkdjŏné̆ hīrēgé̆ ēī́sgĕ haⁿké̆ ḗrūzĭníⁿje ḗgi wḗjĕ
- - - - - - - - -
egíšge rokónoxjįkjane. Hiregé, ésge hąké e ruzᵋníže. Égi wéže,
[indeed] it would have been too much. Because he thought, thus not he he did not take. Then he said,

 


 

hīsúⁿgĕdjí̆ⁿ hṓnīhāwā́ninā wṓnĭⁿk’ū́nā ḗjī hāⁿké̆ hixdjā́hī hāgāī́jaⁿ
- - - - - - -
"Hisų́gejį, hónihawanìna wónįk’ų̀ną. Éži hąké hixjáhi hagaížą
"Younger brother, the breathings I give them to you. But then not the wrong end never one

 


 

djīrḗnāgīgīnēkjēna jḗjī nīⁿkdjó̆ⁿgenigrāī́jaⁿ waⁿkcik’iⁿnōrā́gīgú̆ⁿgījī rēdjāgī́
- - - - -
jireragiginikjeną, žéži. Nįkją́gᵋnįgᵋraížą, wąkšik’įroragigų̀giži, réjagi
do not turn for me, I wish. A child, when you wish to live, lap

 


 

hāgé̆djā hanāⁿjīragīgīā́nūga ḗgi wā́cīrā hījaⁿ djīrērā́nūgā ēgi wacīcīrāgīgīgī́ji
- - - - - - - -
hagéja hanąjįragigiànąga égi wašíra hižą́ jireránąga égi wašišíragigigìži,
on top of stand it, and [then] dances one you start up, and then if you make a dance,

 


 

jḗjī waⁿkcí̆go-iⁿ rōgīgūīnēgĕ waⁿkcik’iⁿkjānḗnā ḗgi haⁿkĕjī hīrōā́kārāīt’ĕxdjiⁿnīna hāgōrḗjaⁿ
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žéži wąkšígo’į rogigų́irege wąkšik’įkjanèną. Égi hąkéži hiroákarat’èxjįniną. Hagoréžą,
then life they wished for it they will live it. [And] not much I have not implored for it. [Sometime,]

 


 

wājáⁿnījaⁿ hirak‘uⁿhēgī ḗgī honīhā́nīnā xāp‘ḗ|nĭⁿg|rāigī́ⁿkdjēgī ec’ŭⁿkdjḗna jējegúⁿkīrā |
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wažą́nižą hírakųhègi, égi honihánina xap’énįgᵋraigikjègi, eš’ųkjéną. Žéžegųkìra
[something] if you get in a hurry, and my song if you wish to use them immediately, you will use it. This is all

 


 

hīhḗnā dejegúⁿxdjĭⁿ wōrā́gĕrā āírēnā horuxū́rŭgĕrā mejegŭⁿje āī́rēnā
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hihéną." Težegų́xjį worágᵋra, airéną. Horuxúrugᵋra mežegúže, aíreną.
I have to say." This is as far as it goes the story, they say. To obtain it this is the way, they say.

 


Source:

Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library) Winnebago II, #6: 17-21 (the original interlinear MS); Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library) Winnebago II, #1: 30-33 (handwritten phonetic text); Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library) Winnebago III, #12: 18-20 (typed text, phonetic only); Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library) Winnebago II, #5: 31-34 (typewritten phonetic text with a typewritten interlinear translation). Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves. The Origin Myth of the Medicine Rite: Three Versions. The Historical Origins of the Medicine Rite. International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoirs, 3 (1950): §1.3, 69.1(2)-70.36. Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 92-93.