Interlinear Hočąk-English Text — Kaǧiga

by Paul Radin



English Translation

The manuscript, which is in the hand of Paul Radin, is extremely difficult to read. Every attempt has been made to check the text against other texts and word lists, but in cases where the reading is doubtful, question marks appear after illegible letters. About 40% of the hand written interlinear text has no English translation, but almost all of the untranslated words could be found elsewhere. Radin also used Greek letter abbreviations for common whole words or syllables some of which he interpreted here and in other manuscripts. The Greek symbols used in the text appear on the table below:

α
β
γ
ε
ɜ
λ
·נ
ρ
ϕ
égi
éja
giži
ésge
šaną
žesge
nunįge
ánąga
hąké

υ
ω
ɕ
ɬ
X
2
-
|
regi
žigé
xjį
kjanih (?)
wąk
že
-ra
nąk

Words supplied by the editor (Richard Dieterle) are found in brackets '[ ]'. It was also necessary for the editor to supply all punctuation and to determine the beginning and ending of sentences.


 

p. 1 —
tci[⨪]ijaⁿ edjá[⨪][2] hûñktcabirera enîñkdjôñk wanina
Činągižą ejánąkše. Hųkčabirera e nįkjąkwanina
[A village] [it was there.] Their chief his children

 


 

hunihéra nûⁿp‘íwínaⁿ† hijaⁿ nîñkdjôñgᴇra
hunihéra nųp’iwína. Hižą nįkjągera
bands there were two of them. One children

†this is written above nûñkpíwinina. This is followed by, hitcáwihínaⁿ nûñkp‘iwi.

 


 

p. 2* —
nûⁿbanína hijaⁿ kerêpônaija haninaⁿ‡ hijaⁿ
nųbaníną,† hižą kereponaižą haniną. Hižą
two had, one ten had. One

*at the top of the page is written, "ε = äsgê".
†contracted from nųp-hanina, literally, "two he had".
‡this appears to be followed by nûⁿp‘.

 


 

nûⁿp‘i hanina [α] k‘inûⁿbirera hijañk‘iradjaṇê
nųpi haniną, égi k’inųbirera hižąkirajane,
two he had, and the brother the one that was single,*

*connected to this spot by a line, Radin comments at the top of the page, "i.e. that had no brother".

 


 

hoc’igirena hidjaⁿnenáñgᴇre hanáⁿtc hiperêziré[|] hagâréjaⁿ
hoš’igireną. Hijąneną́gere haną́č hipereziréną. Hagaréžą
they disliked. The others [all] [they knew it]. [At one past time]

 


 

wañk’iṇek‘iⁿdjera xawanína [ε] gix‘anaíṇe[|] [β] tci[⨪´]ᴇra
wąk’inekįjera xawaníną. É́sge gix’anaíneną. Éja činą́gera
the lone man disappeared. [So] they moved. There village

 


 

k‘ônốgire[|] [α] xap’énîñk dok‘ewehirena [ε ] kaγíga
kaną́gireną. Égi xap’énįk tok’ewehireną. É́sge Kaǧíga
they placed. And [soon] they were hungry. [So] [Crow, Raven]

 


 

nîñkdjôñk t’unairera k‘aⁿ* hirawadjôs’arê
niñkjąk, "T’unairera k’ą hirawajos’are
[child,] "That [which] was left sinew it had remaining on it

*this word is followed by a vertical bar to separate it from the next word. The word is normally found in the compound ča-k’ą, "deer sinew."

 


 

p. 3* —
haicdjad’ekdjena hiṇekdjena hi-ŭánihekdjé[|]
haišjat’ekjeną. Hinekjeną, hi-uánihekjéną."
I will go and see. Let us go, we will be on the way together."

*at the top of this page Radin writes,

  β = edja  ɜ = cana
    λ = jesge

 


 

hidjahohíne[|] wop‘îñk‘érera rok‘ônấna* huntcíbᴇra
Hijahohíneną. Wopįkérera rokonána hųčíbera
These they arrived. Meat racks there were plenty bear entrails

*above the /d/ of the original dok‘ônấna, an /r/ is written.

 


 

rudjík‘ihî́ⁿp[ɜ] hoho wañgᴇnuṇa hagá waja
rujíkihį́pšaną. "Hohó wągenúna, hagá wažą
were stretched here and there. "Say, old man, what thing

 


 

p‘îⁿjaⁿ wañgᴇnunanaⁿdjwia-úna huntcî́bᴇ[⨪]a [λ]
p’įžą. Wągenuna-nąjwia-úną hųčíbenąka," žesge.
a good one. Old man I admire (long for) them these bear entrails," [thus (he spoke)].

 


 

rutcấna wañk’î́ṇek‘iga hotci[β] hahiré[|] hiyû́ñgiwina
Ručána, Wąk’į́nekiga hočibeja. Hahiréną. Hiyų́giwina,
He ate, [Lone Man] entrails. They arrived. [The princess,]

 


 

wañk’îⁿṇek‘iga hinû́ñktcabᴇra hidja[⨪´][ɜ] waho
Wąk’į́nekiga hinų́kčabera, hijaną́kšaną. "Waho,
[Lone Man] his sister, she was there. [Exclamation]

 


 

hatcâñgére hadjiwí[|] tci[⨪]ᴇra dok‘ếwehina
hačągére hajiwíną. Činągera tok’éwehiną.
barely able* that we arrived. [The village] it is hungry.

*written as "bearly able".

 


 

p. 4 —
higŭosge nicdja-howí[|] hagáwajaⁿ p‘iⁿpânaína
higuosge nišja-howiną. Hagáwažą, p’įpanaina
Not without expectations do we come to see you. [Ah, such a] a very good thing

 


 

c’û́ⁿwigadjaⁿ [λ´]na tcok‘áwira wañgᴇtcábᴇra
š’ų́wigają." žesgéną. "Čok’áwira wągečábera
you are doing," [thus (he said)]. (Woman speaking) "My gr.fathers my brother

 


 

ni-û́ⁿp[ɜ] wajaⁿ p‘iⁿáⁿunáñk[ɜ] wawogíha[|]
ni-ų́pšaną. Wažą p’įą́uną́kšaną." Wawogíhaną.
has come to life. Thing a good we are doing." She boiled for them.

 


 

udjirocdjudjïrera kaγí[⨪]rê warasirí[|] huntcîp
Ujirošjujirera. Kaǧínągere warasiríną. Hųčip
It became warm in their stomachs. The crow vomited. Bear entrails

 


 

gik‘unuk‘únûñk‘ rasirí[|] tcok‘a donik‘êwêhíwijê hicegádjaⁿ
gik’unuk’únųk rasiríną. "Čok’a tonikewehíwiže, hišegáją
broken he vomited. "Gr.father you were hungry, you said, but

 


 

dehúntcipcarasíricônañk‘ dedjasgéragadjaⁿ wac’ûⁿcá[⨪][2]
tehų́čipšarasírišonąk, tejasgéragają, waš’ųšánąkše?"
you are vomiting up bear entrails, how did you do that, you are doing this?"

 


 

hoho hagágasgê ruáγi[·נ] higŭódjaⁿ
"Hohó hagágasge, ruáǧinunige higuóją
"Say, [exclamation,] I forbade it, but already

 


 

p. 5 —
higidjí[|] jegûⁿgûⁿhirê hiha[·נ´] [α] hadjiwírê
higijíną. Žegųgųhire, hihanúnige, égi hajiwíre
we have arrived. So never mind, I said to him [and] when I arrived here

 


 

wamánuw[ρ] wa-u[⨪´][ɜ] hoho tcok‘awira higûⁿ
wamánu-anąga wa-uną́kšaną." "Hohó čok’awira higų
he stole it, and he does this." "Say, [grandfather] [still]

 


 

p‘îⁿgádjaⁿ hadjiwarudjwirê warudjᴇwogána [α]
p’įgáją, hajiwarujwire." Warujewogáną, [égi]
it is good, come and eat." She gave them food, and

 


 

wañk‘iⁿṇek‘iga kirí[|] hoho tcok‘awira radjíwigidjíra ep‘í[|]
Wąk’į́nekiga kiríną. "Hohó, čok’awira rajíwigijíra. Ep’į́ną.
[Lone Man] he returned. "Say, grandfather you have come. [It is good].

 


 

tcok‘awira radjiwi[|] p‘iⁿ[|] p‘iⁿ[|] maⁿhominañgwira
Čok’awira rajiwiną. P’įną, p’įną. Mąhominągwira
[Grandfather] you have come. [Good,] [good.] This country we live in

 


 

wani-oítcgera* rokôná[|] hitcûⁿcge hakerê[ɬ]áwi[|]
wani-oíčgera rokonáną, hičųšge." "Hakerekjaniháwiną,†
animals there were many, grandson." "We're going home,

*the terminal /ra/ is inserted above the line with a caret.
†the underlined letters are doubtful.

 


 

nîñkdjôⁿgᴇnîñk tcuwinaⁿ mêế
nįkjągenįk čuwiną." "Meé
children we have." "This

 


 

wagániñk-k‘arawirê wagíha huntc hoci
wagánįkarawire." Wagíha, hųč hoši
take for them." Dried meat, bear fat

 


 

p. 6* —
wogánaⁿ hagíre[|] k‘unuⁿga wanaxgú[|]
wogáną. Hagíreną. K’unuga wanaxgúną
he gave them. They arrived here. Kunu heard them

*at the top of this page Radin has written,

  [γagᴇraγé|] [< make noise ] from shouting
  hikcáragéna from laughing
  warudjᴇra ûñxdjíné| < make noise from eating

The top line was cut off in the course of filming the page. The likely missing words have been supplied within brackets.

 


 

γagᴇraγé[|] hoho tcok‘ara
ǧageraǧé. "Hohó čok’ara,
as they made noise from crying.* "Say gr.father,

*"[Excellant example]", which was written at the top of the page, is linked to the English by a line.

 


 

wajañ[ɕ]rudjírega [λ] airecônú[|]
wažąxjį rujírega, žesge," airešonúną,
something of any consequence, when they eat, [thus it is]," what they [were] saying,

 


 

hidjahuhé[-]* nocirira†
hijahuhé[ra]. Noširira
when he came towards them. (Cork growing on tree bark)‡

*it is unclear what the concluding symbol is.
†in the original nociririra, the ultimate /ri/ has been scribbled out. This word is a hapaxlegomenon.
‡the cork, or phellem, is a layer of dead cells just below the epidermis of the bark. Here the word "cork" terminates in a letter that is difficult to read. The parentheses are in the text.

 


 

hijáⁿcana wogárahire[|] hitcûⁿcgê nocirirudjir[ρ]
hižą́šaną wogárahireną. "Hičųšge noširirujiranąga
one apiece they gave them. "Grandson for eating noširi, and

 


wá[⨪][ɜ] haⁿ [ω] hadjíre[|] hohó tcok‘ára
wánąkšaną." "Hą." Žigé hajíreną. "Hohó čokára
it is why they say it." ["Yes]." [Again] they came. ["Say,] [grandfather]

 


 

hadjíre[|] tcokaíra warudjwirê hik‘araíre[|] wagíha
hajíreną. Čokaíra warujwire." Hik’araíreną. Wagíha
they [came.] [Grfather] eat." They went home. [Dried meat]

 


 

hundjwocí[-] hirana haniañkaraíre[|] hagíre[|] niñkjôñgᴇnîñgᴇra
hųjwošira hirana haniąkaraíreną. Hagíreną. Nįkjągenįgera
bear fat [that they had] they took home. They arrived home. Children

 


 

p. 7* —
jigê wawokaragaíre[|] [ω] k‘unugᆠdjí[|] [λ] á[⨪][ɜ]
žigé wawokaragaíreną. Žigé Kunugá jíną. Žesge ánąkšaną,
[again] they fed them. [Again] [Kunu] he came. [Thus] they said,

*at the top of the page, Radin has made the following notes:

  ✓ ni-áⁿpcanaⁿ = he has come to life
  ✓ ni-aⁿpdjénaⁿ = he is alive

†this is followed by a vertical bar separating it from the next word.

 


 

tcok‘ara wajañ[ɕ] rudjirega [λ]
"Čok’ara wažąxjį rujirega," žesge
"Grandfather [a little something] [eat]," [thus]

 


 

airecônú[|] é[|] hok‘aw[ρ´] [α] warudjᴇ[⨪]ᴇra
airešonúną, éną. Hok‘awánąga égi warujenągera
[they would say,] [he said.] He went in, and [then] food that they were eating

 


 

wawaraⁿcé[|] [α] kaγí[⨪]ᴇra wogidek[ɜ] nîñkdjốñgᴇ[...]*
wawarąšéną, égi kaǧínągera wogitekšaną. "Nįkjąge[ra]
he took away, and [the] crow got angry. ["Children]

*an oddly shaped symbol appears affixed to the end of this word. It probably represents the terminal -ra.

 


 

warudjwak‘aragi naⁿiⁿṇa [λ] racônú[|] wañk‘íⁿṇek‘iga ni-ốⁿp[ɜ]
warujwakaragi, nąįna, žesge rašonúną. Wąk’į́nekiga ni-ǫ́pšaną.
when to feed, I try, [thus] you always do. [Lone Man] he has come to life.

 


 

tcinañk hohúwira maⁿwáce[⨪][ɜ] [ε]* nijí hak‘erekdjônihawi[|]
Činañk hohúwira mąwašenąkšaną. Ésge niží hakerekjanihawiną."
[Village] where we came from he has plenty. [So] therefore we are going back."

*this symbol has âsgê written above it.

 


 

[ε] k‘unuga we[|] nicgế tcok‘awira hadjik‘erekdjoniháwi[|]*
É́sge Kunuga weną, "Nišgé." "Čok’awira, hajikerekjanihawiną.
[So] Kunu [he said,] "I also." ["Grandfather,] we're going back.

*just before this word, there is written, ha[...]îñ/.

 


 

p. 8* —
widjádjara gigoiguwírê widjádjara horagᴇrarê
Wijájara gigoiguwíre. Wijájara horagerare,
Crier go there calling. [The crier] go and tell,

*at the top of the page, Radin has made the following notes:

  enaⁿ = to say [...]
transitive verb to say is used, they use higế.

Most of the top line has been cut off in the course of filming the page.

 


 

wañk‘iⁿṇek‘iga [X]’iⁿgêdjêni maⁿwace[⨪][2] aíre[|]
'Wañk’į́nekiga wąk’įgejenį, mąwašenąkše, aíreną.'
['Lone Man] he has come to life, therefore, he has pleny, [they say].'

 


 

hohúiwira wanioítcgera ṇokônô[ɕ]na aíre[|] [ε]
Hohúiwira wanioíčgera rokonoxjįną, aíreną. Ésge
[Where we came from] animals [there are many,] [they say.] [So]

 


 

e howiñk‘erekdjáwira hik‘ârehowirê xap‘égiwirê hodjiak‘araírejê
e howįkerekjáwira. Hik’arahowire xap’égiwire." Hajiak’araíreže,
there let us go back. Get ready hurry up." They went back,

 


 

aíre[|] hagíre[γ] wañk’îⁿṇek‘iga wejê
aíreną. Hagíregiži, Wąk’į́nekiga wéže,
[they say.] [They arrived here, and] [Lone Man] [he said]

 


 

p‘iⁿṇawí[|] ṇak‘iriwira wigếjê djagú
"P’įnawíną nak’iriwira," wigéže. Jagú
"You did good that you came home," he said. What

 


 

giúiṇera [ϕ] wajaⁿ hiránijê tcinañgᴇre
giúinera hąké wažą hirániže. Činągere
they did to him not [something] did he think of it. Village

 


 

p. 9* —
djasgếcônuna [ω] jesgéjê gadjûñga tci[⨪]ᴇra p‘iⁿ
jasgéšonuną. Žigé žesgéže. Gajųgá, činągera p’į
as it used to be. [Again] [thus] it became. Now, [village] [good]

*the following is written at the top of the page:

  these villages = tcinañgᴇnañg[ᴇra]
  this village = tcináñgᴇnôñgrê
 
short a

 


 

wañkcî́k’iⁿjê wañk’î́ⁿṇek‘iga naⁿdjodjaíⁿṇéjê [ε] tci[⨪]ᴇ[⨪]rê
wañkšík’įže. Wąk’į́nekiga nąjojaįneže. Ésge činągenągere
it lived. [Lone Man] they blessed him. [So] this village

 


 

p‘iⁿ [X]’íⁿjê [ε] wañk’iⁿṇek‘iga hûñgᴇra eherehírejê
p’į wąk’į́že. Ésge Wąk’į́nekiga hųgera e herehíreže.
good it lived. [So] [Lone Man] chief he was made.

 


 

[ε] huñk p‘íⁿjaⁿ hanínejê aire[|] tci[⨪]ᴇ[⨪]rê hîñkaga
Ésge hųk p’į́žą haníneže, aireną. Činągenągere hįkaga
[So] chief a good they had, [they say]. This [village] [never]

 


 

hinûⁿbốhanaⁿ hocícik howaníjê aire[|] wañk‘iⁿṇek‘iga
hinųbóhaną hošíšik howaníže, aireną. Wąk’į́nekiga
the second time bad did it pass through, [they say]. [Lone Man]

 


 

haⁿdegêdjîní [ε] tci[⨪]ᴇra p‘iⁿ [X]’iⁿjế aíre[|]
hątegejiní, ésge činągera p’į wąk’įžé, airéną.
because he fasted, [so] [village] [good] [it lived,] [they say.]

 


 

jenûñgá[|]
Ženųgáną.
[The End]

 


Source:

Paul Radin, "Kaγíga," Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society) Notebook 18: 1-9.