Hočąk Text — The Journey to Spiritland, Version 1b

narrated by J. F. [John Fireman ?]

The following are Greek letters and other signa used as morpheme abbreviations in Radin's original text. The corrected MS of Winnebago III, #3: 103-107 can be used as a kind of Rosetta Stone for interpreting their values:

α
β
γ
ɜ
θ
λ
ρ
égi
éja
giži
-šaną
jánąga
žesge
ánąga

ψ
ϕ
ω
X
-nįk
gają,
hąké
žigé
wąk, wąg

[ɕ]
[9]
·|
|
-
-xjį
-žą
-kje
-ną
-(e)ra
hire
-nąk

In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of the typed translation at Winnebago III, #3: 49-51. Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].


Key —
First Row
"raw" text from Paul Radin, Notebook 77, p. 11-14, 19-21.
Second Row
revised text based on the revised MS text of Winnebago III, #3: 103-107.
Third Row
English translation based on the interlinear text of Winnebago III, #3: 49-51, and the published translation of The Winnebago Tribe (WT).

Style. Despite the brevity of this story, there are a number of unusual stylistic points.

The typical sentence terminators -že and -ną are unusually uncommon, being replaced by a higher frequency of -ra in that role.
The common use here of Ánąga égi to begin a sentence is very rare elsewhere.

English Translation

 

Notebook 77, p. 12.1* = Winnebago III, #3: 103.1 = Winnebago III, #3: 49.1 —
hąhó-o-o-o
nanáñxgųdjécguni[2]†
nañghirág-waxopíni
kisge
Hąhó-o-o-o!
Naną́xgųješgúniže.
Nąǧirág-waxopíni
kisge‡
I greet you.
Surely you are listening.
Ghost-spirit
like
*the following account is given the title, "IV wanaghi tcínañk" ("ghost village").
†the /x/ is inserted above the line, but in the revised text of Winnebago III, #3: 103.1, it was not copied.
‡this word is followed in Winnebago III, #3: 103.1 by "[hikisge]".

 


 

rakiridjégadją
[θ]
hokíkikarádj[-]
maįhágeregí
wanądjodjaį́sge
rakirijégają.
Jánąga
hokíkikarájera
mąihágeregí
wanąjojaį́sge
you have become.
[All]
your clansmen
[here on earth]
to be pitiable

 


 

wawárakaragic'ų́ną,
wowázip
warakáragira.
Warúdj[-]
pįnígi
wawárakaragiš'ų́ną,
wowázip
warakáragira.
Warújera
pįnígi
you have made them,
lonely
they made them.
The food
well

 


 

'ų[ɕ]r[ρ´]
hakaranimaninigir[ρ´]
daníhura,
daníra,
'ųxjįranąga
hakaránimanínigiránąga
taníhura,
taníra,
they did it, and
they made you take it along with you, and
the pipe,
the tobacco,

 


 

wirórag[-]
wiróragic'uñkcé[-]
wodá[-]†
tconíxdjina
wiróragera,
wiróragiš'ųkšéra.
Wotára
čonixjįra
the messenger,
[use them to send a message.]*
Request
the very first
*the translation at Winnebago III, #3: 49.4 has, "and this you will use in order to-obtain-blessings", and the interlinear has, "ask for blessings you use them with".
†before the dash, /k/ has been crossed out. Above the last syllable /rák/ has been written to (incorrectly) indicate that the word is worak. In the English line, this has been corrected by the word "story" having been crossed out and the word "request" written after it.

 


 

Notebook 77, p. 13.5 —
worakíkaradj[-´]
wonághirera
maį́hágerégi
hi'ų́nekdjéra.
[α]
worakíkarajera
wonąǧírera
mąihágeregi
hi'ų́rekjéra.
Égi
your clan
warfare
on the earth
they will use.
And

 


 

[X]cígo-'įna
djasgé[ɕ]
horaícdjącererá
maįhagerégi
hi'ųinánihekdjéga.
wąkšígo'į́na
jasgéxjį
horaíšjąšerera
mąihágeregi
hi'ųiránihekjéga.
life
how much
you have left behind
on the earth
they will use.

 


 

[α]
[ω]
wają́ra
[θ]
horaícdjącererá
Égi
žigé
wažą́ra
jánąga
horaíšjąšererá
And
again
the things
[as many as there are]
that you left behind

 


 

wają́waraga
maįhagerégi
hi'úįnekdjé[-]
[ρ]
[α]
wažą́waraga
mąihágeregi
hi'úįrekjéra.
Ánąga
égi
your relatives
[on the earth]
[they would use.]
And
then

 


 

Winnebago III, #3: 50.8 —
warudj[-]
[θ]
caragą́cererá,
jée
hagerarégi
warujera
jánąga
šaragą́šererá,
žée
hageráregi
the food
all
you will miss from now on,
this
behind you

 


 

Winnebago III, #3: 104.8 —
maį́hagerégi
wają́waragá
hi'uinánihekdjéra.
[ρ]
[α]
mąihágeregi
wažą́waraga
hi'uįránihekjéra.
Ánąga
égi
on earth
your relatives
they they will forever use.
And
then

 


 

wodára
méjesgícekdjéną
hirukónonañka
hiraráhi[γ´]
wodára
wotára
méžesgíšekjéną,
hirukónonąka
hiraráhigiži,
wotára
request
that you will say,
he who has charge of
when you reach him,
request

 


 

mé[λ]
ádji
danihura
niñgihíñ[γ]
waragé[·|]
mežesge
áji
tanihúra
nįgihį́giži,
waragékje.
this
you must say
the pipe
if he smokes,
you'll speak to him.

 


 

Notebook 77, p. 19.10* —
[ρ]
[α]
mącínicerekdjanáre
[ϕ]agá
hakdją́benią́dje.
Ánąga
égi
mąšínišérekjanáre
hąkagá
hakjąbeniáje.
And
then
this walk you're going to take
never
do not look behind.
*in the middle of p. 13, at the end of sentence 9, the text is interrupted with a large caret beneath which is written "[cf pp 19,7]". At the lower half of p. 19, a new paragraph begins with, "Omitted pp 13,8." Then there is a large caret above which is written, "¶ 10". After this begins the sentence, "[ρ] [α] mącínicerekdjanáre ..." (etc.).

 


 

wają́niją
tcowerá
haniñgirutcé[γ]
carakúnuñk
raicére[·|]
Wažą́nižą
čowerá
hanį́giručégiži,
šarakúnųk
raišérekje.
Anything
in front
if it passes by you,
you cut it in two
you'll go on.

 


 

[ρ]
[α]
haciniraicgu[ρ´]
[ϕ]
hakdją́beni
Ánąga
égi
hašíniraišguánąga
hąké
hakją́beni,
And
then
you'll pick it up, and
not
to not look back,

 


 

hagerégi
hot'ųrádje
[ρ]
[α]
je
hagerégi
hot'ųráje.
Ánąga
égi
že
back
throw it.
And
then
this

 


 

raicéregiji.
[α]
[β]
c'uą́nahigádją
[β]
raišéregiži.
Egi
éja
š'uą́rahigáją
éja
[you are going to.]
And
there
as you go along
there

 


 

dje[·|][-]
[X]íją
[X]woíkikax'ų.
[ρ]
[α]
jekjéra
wągížą
wągewoíkikax'ų.
Ánąga
égi
he will be
a human
he'll have on a man's dress.
And
then

 


 

Notebook 77, p. 20.15 —
warage[·|]
tcoka
dánihu[-]
deére[-]
hirage[γ]
waragékje,
"Čóka,
tánihura
teérera".
Hiragégiži,
you'll say,
"Grandfather,
the pipe
it is this".
When you say to him,

 


 

wainą́beniñgikiñ[·|][-]
warage[·|][-]
tcokagá
we[|]
hatcañka
wa'iną́benįgikį́kjera.
Wáragekjéra,
"Čókaga
wéną,
hačą́ka
he will thank you.
You will say to him,
"Grandfather
he said,
which

 


 

wáradé[·|][γ]
hinigipañghíkdje
e[|´]
[γ]
waníñge[·|][-]
wáragekjégíži,*
hį́nigipąǧíkje
éną,"
giži.
Wánįgekjéra,
I will take,
that I should ask of you,
he said"
[.]
He will say to you,
*Winnebago III, #3: 104.17 has wáragekdjégíji ("you will take it").

 


 

deáñgirére[|]
hiniñge[·|][-]
[γ]
eoracere[·|][-]
"Teą́giréreną,"
hinįgekjéra
giži.
E
hórašerekjéra,
"Here it is,"
he'll say to you
[.]
Then
you will go,

 


 

Winnebago III, #3: 105.20 —
nañgotcagíghąkédjega
hoiratcg[β´]djega
hocícig[-]
hirákeré[|]
hoicaroídjadjega
ną́gočagíǧąkéjega.
Hoiračgéjajega
hošíšigera
hirákeréną;
hoišároijajega*
that cross road.
The one to the left
the bad one
it reaches;
to the right
*Winnebago III, #3: 105.20 has hoicóraidjadjega.

 


 

eoracere[·|][-]
cere[γ]
c'ųnahígadją
tcipóroke
e
hórašerekjéra,
šeregíži.
Š'ųrahigáją,
čipóroke
that
you will travel,
when you go.
As you go along,
oval lodge

 


 

xedéją
hiraráhikdjéra
[α]
daníhu[-]
hinagigí[γ]
xetéžą
hiraráhikjéra.
Égi
taníhura
hiragigígiži,
a large one
you will come.
And
the pipe
when you make her smoke,

 


 

hiniñgi'úñ[γ]*
warage[·|´]
kuniká
hirage[·|´]
hidókenįgíją
hinįgi'ų́giži,
waragékje,
"Kúnika,"
hiragékje
hitokénįgižą
if you make her,
you will say to her,
"Grandmother,"
you'll say to her
an old woman
*/hi/ is inserted above the line with a caret.

 


 

tcokagá
[τ]
djiré
nañgigikdje
e[|]
"čokagá
žegų*
jiré
nągigíkje
éną,"
"grandfather
[thus]
to pass by
you would let me
he said"
*Winnebago III, #3: 105.22 has giji.

 


 

[γ]
[τ]
[⨩][|]*
gi'ų[·|][-]
[γ]
giži.
Žégų
hiréną
gi'ųkjéra,
giži.
[.]
[Now]
[it is done],
she will do it
[.]
*the ⨩ has /hire/ written in small letters above it.

 


 

[τ]
cere[γ]
hatcį́dja
wanaghí
tcinañge[-]
Žégų
šeregíži,
hačįja
wanąǧí
činą́gera
Then
you are going on
where
ghosts
the village

 


 

[⨪]ijí
[β]
rahigí
wanąghi
wirukónánoñká
nąkgiži.
Eja
rahigí,
wanąǧi
wirukónanąka
it is.
There
when you came,
ghost
the one who is in control of them

 


 

danihura
hiracáwaha[·|´]
Nigíhiñ[γ´]
warage[·|´]
wodára
tanihúra
hirašáwahakje.
Nigihįgíži,
waragékje
wotára
the pipe
you should hand it to him.
If he smokes it for you,
you will say
request

 


 

Notebook 77, p. 21.26 —
djagu
enicí[-]
[λ]
hice[·|´]
jagú
e
nišéra
žésge
hišekjé.*
what
him
I told you to say,
thus
you must speak.
*Winnebago III, #3: 105.26 has hicekdjéra.

 


 

Winnebago III, #3: 51.27 —
wawákikaradj[-´]
[θ]
wająwahá[-]
maįhag[β´]
wanądjodjaį́sge
"Wawákikarajera,*
jánąga
wažą́wahara
mąihagéja,
wanąjojaį́sge
"The clan I belong to,
all
my relatives
on earth,
pitiable
*Winnebago III, #3: 105.27 has wawákiradjera.

 


 

wawak'aragi'ų́[|]
wowázip
wakaragí[-]
tcokagá
wodára
wáwakaragi'ų́ną.
Wowázip
wakaragíra.
Čokagá
wotára
I made them.
Lonely
I made them.
Grandfather
request

 


 

dé[λ]
hihekdjé
e[|]
tcokaga
wé[|]
težésge
hihekjé
éną.
Čokagá
wéną,
these
I should make
he said.
Grandfather
he said,

 


 

wonághire[-]
woirukípina*
wapaíniñkdjį‡‡
woną́ǧirera
woirukípųna†
wapaínįkjį
[the wars]
honors‡
they'll bring heads
*the last syllable /pina/ is hypercorrected, with a caret below the /i/ and /u/ written above it, and /ą/ written above the final /a/. The word woirukípina is a variant of woirokipina, "honors".
†Winnebago III, #3: 105.28 has woirukípųną. Following this word, Radin has inserted "[woirukípųra ?]".
‡the interlinear text has the translation, "that be asked for by me". Winnebago III, #3: 51.28 has the looser translation, "that I should beseech you".
‡‡/x/ is written above the /k/, but only to show that -kdjį is a variant of -xdjį.

 


 

wañgerodjį́birekdje
[ρ]
[α]
[ω]
[X]cígo'į́na
wągirojį́birekje.*
Ánąga
égi
žigé
wąkšígo'įra
they will come just in front of him.†
And
then
again
life
*< wąk-hirotįp´-ire-kje.
†the interlinear text adds, "with heads [for the old men]". At the top of the page Radin adds the following which he connects to the translation here with a line: "The ghost is requesting for the old man, scalps etc. As he is too old to go on the warpath the younger people should present them to him."

 


 

djasgé[ɕ]
waicdjąhúra
édja
maįhag[β´]
wają́waha[-]
jasgéxjį
waišjąhúra
éja
mąihagéja,
wažąwahára
whatever
I left behind
there
on earth,
my relatives

 


 

Winnebago III, #3: 106.29 —
hi'úinekdje
[α]
[X]cík
tciorogarégi
wająníne[-]
hi'úįrekje.
Egi
wąkšík
čiorogaregi
wažąnínera
they will use.
And
human
[within this village]
what things they have

 


 

[θ]
waícdjąhu[-´]
maįhag[β´]
hi'úinekdje
warudj[-´]
janąga
waíšjąhúra
mąihagéja,
hi'úįrékje.
Warújera
all
that I have left
on earth,
they will use.
Food

 


 

[θ]
dagąc´*
hugí
jee
wająwahá[-]
janąga
tagąš´
hugí,
žee
wažąwahára
all
I missed
[if it remains,]
this
my relatives
*the /o/ is written above the line over the second /a/.

 


 

maįhag[β´]
hi'úinekdje
wajókiwánina
hañkigaįrodjį́
[α]
mąihagéja
hi'úįrékje,
wažókiwánina.
hąkigaįrojį́*
égi
on earth
they will use,
my relations.
Not a long while†
here
*< hąké-hižą-hirojį́.
†at the bottom of the page, Radin adds the following note which is connected to the translation by a line: "i.e. none should die".

 


 

djiníñkdje
me[λ]
nįgidákdje
aíreną.
jinįkje,
mežésge
nįgitákje,"
aíreną.
they will not come,
this
I was to ask you,"
[it is said.]

 


 

Notebook 77, p. 13.32* —
Hąhó-o-o-o-o ha-e!
tcokága
huiakárohora
wają́
Hąhó-o-o-o-o ha-e!
"Čokaga,
huiakórohora,†
wažą́wahará
Hąhó-o-o-o-o ha-e!
"Grandfather,
when I was coming,
my relatives
*after page 21, the text resumes on page 13.
†< hu-yakórohora.

 


 

wanądjodjaį́sge
warakaragíc'ų
wanąghí wirukónonoñka
wanąjojaį́sge."
Warakaragíš'ų,
Wanąǧí-wirukónonąka
to be pitiable."
Humbly you made them say it,
Ghost Controller

 


 

Notebook 77, p. 14.33 —
warage[·|´]
danihurá
niñgihįíñ[γ]
tcóka,
tcokagá
waragékje,
tanihúra
nįgihį́gíži.
"Čóka,
čokagá
you will say to him,
the pipe
when he smokes.
"Grandfather,
my grandfather

 


 

me[λ]
hihékdje
éną
Hokikarádj[-]
[θ]
mežésge
hihékje
éną.
Hokikarájera
jánąga
this
you will say,
he said.
My clan
all

 


 

wanądjodjaį́sge
wawákaragi'ų́ra
maį́hag[β´]
djagúcaną
wanąjojaį́sge;
wawákaragi'ų́ra
mąihagéja,
jagúšaną
to be pitied;
I would that they could use it
on earth,
[just what]

 


 

waicdjąhurá
maį́hag[β´]
hi'ųránihek'dje*
wodá
tconiñxdjina,
waišjąhúra
mąihagéja.
Hi'ųránihekje.
Wotá
čonįxjį́ra
that I left behind
on earth.
They'll use it.
Request
the very first one
*this word is written in smaller letters above a lined out heorárihékdje.

 


 

woną́ghire[-]
hi'ųnánihekdjé[-]
hop'iówaírekdje
[α]
woną́ǧirera
hi'ųránihekjéra,
hopįowaírekje.
Égi
the wars
that they will use,
they'll have good luck through it.
And

 


 

[X]cikho-įna
djasgé[ɕ]
waícdjąhura
wają́wahara
maį́hag[β´]
wąkšigo'į́ra
jasgéxjį
waišjąhúra,
wažąwahára
mąihagéja
life
[as much as]
that I left behind,
my relatives
on earth

 


 

hi-unánihekdjé
[θ]
wają́
woikíkágh[-]*
dagąc´
hi'ųránihekjé.
Jánąga
wažą́
woikíkaǧera
tagąš´†
they will use.
All
things
clothing
I left behind
*an initial /h/ is scribbled out and a /w/ written above it; an /i/ is inserted above the line between the /o/ and the /k/.
†Winnebago III, #3: 107.37 has dugąc´.

 


 

Winnebago III, #3: 107.37 —
hu[γ´]
jejénuga
maį́hag[β´]
hi'ųirékdje
warúdjera
hugíži,
žežénųga
mąihagéja,
hi'ųirékje;
warújera
when I came,
[that much]
on earth,
they would use;
the food

 


 

[θ]
dagąc´
hu[γ´]
jesganą́tcį[ɕ]
jánąga
tagąš´
hugíži,
žesganą́čįxjį.
all
I left behind
when I came,
[all of that sort.]

 


 

egiąkagínųbóhǫna
xap'gé
[ϕ]
Égi
hąkága
hinųbóhąra
xápge
hąké
And
never
a second time
soon
not

 


 

hiją
uníñkdje
mé[λ]
niñgidákdje
aíreną.
hižą
'únįkje.
Méžesge
nįgitákje,
aíreną.
one
[it would not be done.]*
These
I would ask of you,
it is said.
*the following is written at the bottom of the page and attached to the translation by a long line: "i.e. I ask (?) the next one won't die so soon

 


 

[hąhó-o-o-o-há-a-a]*
Hąhó-o-o-o, há-a-a."
Hąhó-o-o-o, há-a-a."
*the brackets are in the text, and are followed by, "(all say it)".

 


Source:

The original interlinear text is found in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Notebook 77: 11-14, 19-21. A neatly written corrected MS is found in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago III, #3: 103-107. A typed English translation is found in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, n.d.) Winnebago III, #3: 49-51. A loose English translation is found in Paul Radin, The Winnebago Tribe (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990 [1923]) 99.