Hočąk Text — Historical Origins of the Medicine Rite

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake
English Translation

In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of Winnebago Culture (see Source below). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].

In The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves, Radin has used a dot (.) after the unvoiced terminal consonant of a stem to indicate its transformation into its voiced counterpart. Here that transformation has been directly expressed. I have not done this for such consonants preceeding a hyphen.


Key —
First Row "raw" text from Paul Radin, Notebook Winnebago II, #6: 28-32.
Second Row analytic text from The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves
Third Row revised text
Fourth Row English translation based on those of The Road of Life and Death and The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves (CW)


p. 28 (CW 67, s. 1) —
waⁿgíjaⁿ
wajaⁿiⁿpĕrezsĕ́
gíji
gip‘íⁿjĕ
wąg-híją
wają́
hipéresje
giji
gipį́je.
Wągížą
wažą́
hipéresše,
giži
gipį́že.
A man
something
he received knowledge,*
and
he liked it.
*the interlinear has, "he knows".

 


 

dĕe
p‘ĭⁿgā́djaⁿ
hīrējĕ́
hijā́iⁿpĕrĕzhā́gī
dée
pigáddją
hireje.
hiją́
hipereshági
Tée
pįgáją,
hireže.
Hižą́
hipereshági
[This]
it is good,
he thought.
[One]
to make him know

 


 

p‘ĭⁿcgū́nījĕ
hīrēgī́jī
egi
waⁿgī́joⁿ
hṓgīrāk‘cgū́nīje
pįcgúnije
hiregíji.
égi
wąg-híją
hógiracgúnije
pįšgúniže,
hiregíži.
Égi
wągížą
hógirakšgúniže
it is good,
he thought.
[Then]
a man
he told him

 


p. 29 (= CW 67, s. 4) —
djaguípĕresdega
karoắ djīrēgī́ji†
hanaⁿtciⁿxdjiⁿ
kārajĕ́nuⁿgā́djaⁿ
djagú
hiperesdéga.*
kará-adjìregi.
haną́tcįxdjį
kárajenugàdja.
jagú
hiperestéga.
Kará-ajìregi.
Haną́čįxjį
káraženugàją.
what
he knew.
He began his telling.
[Everything]
he got through telling him.
*this is followed in CW by "(-peres-kdjega)". In other words, -skdj- resolves to -sd-.
†there is a diagonal line (/) between /á/ and /dj/.

 


 

egi
wāⁿgĕnáⁿkā
djāsgĕ́
gīp‘íⁿnā
hĭcgĕ́
égi
wą́gnąka
djasgé
gipį́ną
hicgé
Égi
wą́genąka
jasgé
gipį́ną,
hišgé
[Then]
that man
what
he liked,
also

 


 

jesgā*
djīnáⁿkcĕ
gī́jī
waⁿkhogirā́genāⁿka
dehāⁿp
jésgadjiną́kje
giji
wąk hogirágnąka
de hąp
žésga
jiną́kše
giži.
Wąk hogirágenąka
te hąp
that kind
he got
[.]
Man he told it to
[this] day
*this is written below (jesagá), which has been crossed out.

 


 

hījaⁿ
djáⁿnĕ
jedjaíⁿxdjiⁿp‘ā́
wajíⁿpĕrezsĕ́
egi
hijądją́re
jedją́ixdjį pá
wają-híperes.
égi
hižąją́ne
žeją́ixjįpá
wažį́peresše.
Égi
one
[that]
about that far ahead
he obtained knowledge of something.
[And]

 


 

jīge
tcōwḗdjā
haⁿpnūbŏ́haⁿ
jedjaíⁿxdjĭⁿ
hīp‘ā́
jigé
tcowédja
hąp nųbóhą
jedją́ixdjį
hipá
žigé
čowéja
hąp nųbóhą
žeją́ixjį
hipá
[again]
ahead
days two
that far
[up to]

 


 

wajiⁿperezse
egi
jīge
tcōwédjā
haⁿpdjobŏ́haⁿ
wają́ hipéres.
égi
jige
tcowédja
hąp djobóhą
wažį́peresše.
Égi
žige
čowéja
hąp jobóhą
[he knew something.]
[Then]
[again]
ahead
days four

 


 

jedjaíⁿxdjiⁿ
p‘ā́
wajíⁿperezse
noⁿga
ḗgī
jedją́ixdjį
pa
wają́ hipéresje.
anąga
égi
žeją́ixjį
pa
wažį́peresše,
nąga
égi
that far
[up to]
[he knew something,]
and
[then]

 


 

hahī́
tcowédjā
haⁿp
kĕrēponāíjăⁿ
jedjaíⁿxdjĭⁿ
hahí
tcowédja
hąp
kereponá-hiją
jedją́ixdjį
hahí
čowéja
hąp
kereponaížą
žeją́ixjį
at a time
ahead
days
[ten]*
that far
*mistranslated in CW as "twelve".

 


 

wajíⁿperezsĕ́
gíjī
wajī́ⁿsgĕ
hīrānā́ⁿiⁿnēje
hisgĕ́gā́djaⁿ
wają́ hipéresje
giji.
wają́ hisgé
hiraną́’įreje
hisgegádją.
wažį́peresše,
giži.
Wažį́sge
hiraną́’įreže,
hisgegáją.
[he knew something]
[.]
Something true
they believed,
really true.

 


 

egi
jigījiⁿpĕ́rĕsge
p‘īⁿnā*
hīrāírēgī
nuⁿp
égi
jigé hiją hipéresge
pį́ra
hiráiregi
nųp
Égi
žigižįperésge
pį́na
hiraíregi
nųp
And
again because one knew
something good
they believed†
two
*just before this word, egija has been crossed out.
†"believed" is written above a crossed out "called it".

 


 

hōkīkī́cguⁿ
djīdjĕ́wīga
hijā́ⁿ
wīdā́nigī
p‘ī́ⁿnā
hokikícgų
djidjéwiga.
hiją́
widánigi
pįną
hokikíšgų
jijéwiga.
Hižą́
witánigi
pįną
companionship
it became.
One
the third
it will be good

 


 

āírējĕ
gīji
wáⁿgera
hījáⁿ
gītcaíⁿnecgū́nĕ
aíreje
giji,
wągra
hijá
gitcáirecguni
aíreže,
giži.
Wągera
hižą́
gičaírešguni,
they said,
[.]
The men
one of them
they chose

 


p. 30 (= CW 67, s. 13) —
gīji
waⁿgwaⁿkcik
p‘iⁿxdjĭ́ⁿjaⁿ
waⁿkwanā́ⁿiⁿ
piⁿxdjĭ́ⁿjaⁿ
giji.
wąk wąkcik
pįxdjį́-hiją,
wąk waną’i
pįxdjį́-hiją,
giži.
Wągwąkšik
pįxjį́-hižą,
wąk waną’į
pįxjį́-hižą,
[.]
Man Indian
a very good one,
[man mind]
a very good one,

 


 

waⁿk
wā́naiⁿksāpdjiⁿ́jaⁿ
waⁿk
hōkī́sāk
hāīxā́niⁿk
wąk
wanąiksáp-djį-hiją,
wąk
hokíska
haixánįk,
wąk
wánąiksapjį́žą
wąk
hokísak
haixánįk
man
a very wise one,
man
middle aged
a little beyond

 


 

jedjaiⁿxdjiⁿ́jaⁿ
jĕe
pĕ́rĕzhī́rējĕ
hījaⁿ́
wanaiⁿksā́pdjĭⁿ(gīcanŭ́na)*
jedją́ixdjį-hiją
jée
péres-hirèje.
hiją́
wanąiksàp
djį́gicanùną,
žeją́ixjįžą,
žée
péres-hirèže.
Hižą́
wanąiksàp
jį́gišanùną,
[one thus far along,]
[that one]
they thought they knew.
One
wise
just as they had become,
*the expression inside the parentheses has an asterisk after it, but there is no footnote to be found anywhere.

 


 

jĕjēsge
wāgīūínējĕ*
egi
waⁿktcṓnī
hīpĕrezhī́ga
jéjesge
wagi’ų́ireje.
égi
wąk tcóni
hípereshìga
žéžesge
wagi’ų́ireže.
Égi
wąkčóni
híperes-hìga
[that way]
they made them.
[And]
the first man
he taught this
*there are three parallel vertical lines after this word.

 


 

djasgā́nihḗga
hīcge
jesgĕ́ji
haⁿp
tcowḗdja
djásganihèga
hicgé
jesgéji
hąp
tcowédja
jásganihèga,
hišgé
žesgéži,
hąp
čowéja
as he was,
indeed
[that way he was,]
day
ahead

 


 

wajiⁿ
perezsĕ́
egi
haⁿp
hinŭⁿ́bahāīⁿ́dja
wają́
hipéresje.
égi
hąp
hinųbá-edja
wažą́
hipéresše.
Égi
hąp
hinų́bahaį́ja
[things]
[he knew.]
Then
day
on the second

 


 

jedjaiⁿxdjiⁿ
p‘ā
wajiⁿperezsĕ́
haⁿpdjobŏ́haⁿ
tcowḗdja
jedją́ixdjį
pa
wają́ hipéresje;
hąp djobóhą
tcowédja
žeją́ixjį
pa
wažįperesšé.
Hąp jobóhą
čowéja
[thus far]
[up to]
he knew things.
Four days
ahead

 


 

wajiⁿperezsĕ́
gī́p‘iⁿjĕ
egī
tcowḗdja
haⁿp
wają́ hipéresje.
gipį́je
égi
tcowédja
hąp
wažįperesšé.
Gipį́že.
Égi
čowéja
hąp
he knew things.
He liked it.
Then
ahead
days

 


 

kĕrĕponāíjaⁿ
jedjaiⁿ́xdjĭⁿ
hīp‘ā́
wajiⁿperezsĕ́
ḗgī
kereponá-hiją
jedją́ixdjį
hipá
wają́ hipéresje.
égi
kereponaížą
žeją́ixjį
hipá
wažįperesšé.
Égi
[ten]*
that far
[up to]
he knew things.
Then
*mistranslated in CW as "twelve".

 


 

waⁿgera
dā́nī
hīpérezwī́gī
p‘iⁿ́jĕ
hīdā́niⁿkĕ
wą́gra
dáni
hiperezwígi
pį́je.
hidánįka*
wą́gera
táni
hiperezwígi
pį́že.
Hitánįke
the man
third
he received knowlege and
he liked it.
The three of them
*this word should terminate in an /e/.

 


 

gīp‘ĭⁿ́nējĕ
wajiⁿskĕ́jaⁿ*
hĕ́rĕgádjaⁿ
āírējĕ
egi
gipįréje,
wają́ hisgéhiją
heregádja
áireje.
égi
gipįnéže,
wažįsgéžą
heregáją
aíreže.
Égi
they liked it,
something true
it was,
they said.
Then
*the /ne/ that originally concluded this word has been crossed out.

 


 

jigijaⁿ
pérĕzĕhĭⁿwī́gījī
p‘iⁿnána
āírējĕ
gī́jī
jigé hiją
hįpérezwigìji
pinóną,
áireje
giji
"Žigižą
pérezehįwigìži,
pįnóną,"
aíreže
giži.
"Another one
if we taught this,
it would be good,"
they said
[.]

 


 

hīdā́niⁿkĕ
jēsgīrāírēgī
jīgījāⁿ́
hīpĕrezhī́rēcgū́nī
waⁿk
hidánįke
jésge hiráiregi.
jigé hiją
hipéres
hirecgúni,
wąk
Hitánįke
žésgiraíregi.
Žigižą́
hipéres
hirešgúni,
wąk
The three of them
thus they pondered.
Another one
to know
they made him,
man

 


p. 31 (= CW 67, s. 20) —
p‘iⁿ́jaⁿ
waⁿk
wōgīzṓgī
wanaiⁿk‘sabījaⁿ
haⁿkecgotcintciⁿnigija
pį́-hiją,
wąk
wogizógi*
wánąikabì-hija.
hąkécge
hotcįtcį́nįg-hìją
pį́-hižą,
wąk
wogizógi
wánąikabìžą.
Hąkéšge
hočįčį́nįgìžą
a good one,
man
righteous
a wise one.
[Not even]
a young person
*Radin adds after this word, "(wogizok.-hi!)".

 


 

wā́gīūnanī́je.
Waⁿgōkī́sāk
hāīxaī́jaⁿ
jĕe
hīpérezhī́rējĕ
wagi’ųranije.
wąk hokísak
haixá-hiją
jee
hiperezhíreje
wagi’ųnaniže.
Wąk hokísak
haixaížą,
žee
hipérezíreže,
they did not take.
A middle aged man
one a little beyond it,
[that one]
they knew

 


 

gadjaⁿ́
gīp‘ĭⁿ́jĕ
wajaⁿp‘ĭⁿ́jaⁿṇēgā́djaⁿ
hīrĕ́jĕ
gadją.
gipį́je
wają́
pį́-hiją-regàdją
hirejé.
gają.
Gipį́že.
Wažą́
pį́žąnegàją
hirežé.
[.]
He like it.
Thing
a good one it was going to be
[he thought.]

 


 

egī
djaisgā́rāínīhḗrā
jesgĕ́jī
jesgĕ́gīji
gip‘iⁿ́jĕ
égi
djáisgaranihèra*
jesgéji
jesgégiji
gipį́je.
Égi,
jáisgaranihèra
žesgéži,
žesgégiži,
gipį́že.
Then,
just as they had been
[that way he was,]
[being that way,]
he liked it.
*Radin adds after this word, "(djaisge-hire-)".

 


 

tcowédjā
haⁿbījaⁿ
wajiⁿ́perezsĕ́
tcowḗdja
haⁿbenubŏ́haⁿ
tcowédja
hąb-híją
wają́ hipéresje;
tcowédja
hąp nųbóhą
Čowéja
hąbížą
wažį́perezšé;
čowéja
hąbenųbóhą
Ahead
one day
[he knew something;]
ahead
two days

 


 

wajiⁿ́perezsĕ́
tcowḗdjā
haⁿpdjobŏ́haⁿ
wajīⁿ́perezsĕ́
tcowḗdja
haⁿp
wają́ hipéresje.
-
-
-*
tcowédja
hąp
wažį́perezšé;
čowéja
hąp jobóhą
wažį́perezšé;
čowéja
hąp
[he knew something;]
ahead
days four
[he knew something;]
ahead
days
*omitted in CW only.

 


 

kerepŏ́naīja
jedjaiⁿ́xdjiⁿ
wajiⁿperezsĕ́
gīji
gip‘iⁿ́jĕ
kereponá-hiją
jedją́ixdjį
wają́ hipéresje
giji.
gipį́je.
kereponaížą
žeją́ixjį
wažį́peresšé,
giži.
Gipį́že.
[ten]*
that far
[he knew something]
[.]
He liked it.
*again mistranslated as "twelve" in CW.

 


 

dĕ́ĕ
p‘iⁿgā́djaⁿ
hīrējĕ́
wajiⁿskḗjaṇegā́djaⁿ
dĕ́jesge
hīrējé
dee
pįgádją
hirejé
wają́ hisgé-hijąregàdją,
déjesge
hirejé.
Tée
pįgáją
hirežé;
wažįsgéžąnegáją,
téžesge
hirežé.
This
good
he thought;
it was going to be a true thing
this
[he thought.]

 


 

jejeguⁿ́gījī
waⁿ́gĕrā
tcopī́wī
hipĕ́rezwī́gī
p‘iⁿ́jĕ
jejégųgìji
wągera
djopíwi
hipérezwigi.
pįje.
Žežégųgìži
wągera
jopíwi
hipérezwigi.
Pįže.
Now
people
four
they knew it.
He liked it.

 


 

ā́sgĕ
hīsgĕ́
hīpĕ́rĕz
rōgīgŭ́iⁿnējĕ
waⁿgera
ésge
hisgé
gipéres*
rogigų́-įreje
wągra
Ésge
hisgé
hipéres
rogigų́įreže,
wągera
Because
true
[to know]
they possessed,
the men
*this is apparently a misprint.

 


 

djṓp
hīpĕ́rezwī́gā
waⁿk
p‘iⁿnārēk‘ī́
waⁿgwógīzṓgerā́rek‘ī́
djop
hiperezwíga,
-
-*
wąk wogizógrarèki,
jop
hiperezwíga,
wąk
pįnarekí,
wąk wogizógerarèkí,
four
[as they knew],
man
who was all good,
man who was entirely righteous,
*omitted in CW.

 


p. 32 (= CW 68, s. 31) —
waⁿgwā́naiⁿk‘sā́p
rā́rēk‘ī
hīpĕ́rĕzk‘iⁿ́reje*
gidcaⁿt’djaxdjiⁿ
hīpĕ́rĕzk‘iⁿ́nējé
wąk wanąiksáp,
raréki
hipéres kįréje.
gídcąt’djàxdjį†
hipéres kįréje.
wąk wanąiksáp
raréki
hipéres kįréže.
Gíčąt’jàxjį,
hipéres kįréže.
man who was wise
completely
they made it known to each other.
Choosing by seeing,
they imparted knowledge.
*a terminal /e/ is put in parentheses and above it is written an /ī/, and the ī is circled.
†Radin adds, "(gitcaⁿt’iⁿ-djaxdjĭⁿ)".

 


 

jedjaiⁿ́xdjiⁿ
p‘āⁿ́
maⁿkaⁿ́ni
wocgaⁿ́gĕrē
epā
jedją́ixdjį
pa
mąką́ni
wocgą́gre
epá
Žeją́ixjį pa
Mąką́ni Wošgą́gere
epá
[Up to thusfar]
this Medicine Rite
from that time on

 


 

dīrḗjĕ
jedjaiⁿ́xdjiⁿ
p‘ā́
tcegĕ́djā
hijaⁿ́
kĕ́tcaⁿcgū́nī
diréje
jedją́ixdjį
pa.
tceg-édja
híjąkitcųcgùni,
tiréže;
žeją́ixjįpa.
Čegéja
hížąkičųšgùni,
it began to grow;
from that time forth.
In the beginning
there were only nine,

 


 

jedjaiⁿxdjiⁿ
waⁿkcī́go’ĭⁿjaⁿ*
hḗrēgĕ
ésge
jedją́ixdjį
wąkcíg-ho’į-hìją
heregé.
ésge
žeją́ixjį
wąkšígo’įžą
heregé.
Ésge,
[to that extent]
a life
it was.
[Therefore,]
*after waⁿkcígo’iⁿ, hijá has been crossed out and jaⁿ written after it.

 


 

ḗp‘ā
p‘iⁿnā́
hokīrā́gahūírējĕ
haⁿkā́ga
jedjāiⁿ́niⁿkdjḗna
epá
ra
hókirak-hùireje.
hąkagá
jedją́ixdjįkdjèną
epá
pįna
hokirágahuíreže.
Hąkagá
žeją́inįkjèną.
from then on
this good
they tell each other, they come.
Never
it will not end.

 


 

woc’gaⁿ́
dĕĕ
maⁿū́na
ē
woc’gaⁿ́ninḗrēge
wocgą́
dee
mą’ų́ra
e
wocgánina heregé.
Wošgą́
tee
Mą’ų́na
e
wošgą́ninérege.
[Rite]
this
Earthmaker
[he]
his religion it is.

 


 

ésgĕ
huⁿkā́ga
jedjaiⁿ́nĭⁿkdjĕ
jĕsge
āírējĕ
Ésge
hųkaga
jedją́ixdjįkge,
jésge
airéje.
Ésge
hąkaga
žeją́inįkje.
Žésge
aíreže.
[Therefore,]
never
it will not end.
[Thus]
[they say.]

 


 

dḗjēsgĕ*
c’ā́gwanaⁿdjodjaiⁿ́sgĕrā
hīrak‘íwārĕ
hok‘irā́gadjírēgī
dejésge
c’ák wánądjodjąìsge
hirakíwari
hokírag-had-jìregi.
Težésge
š’ák wánąjojąìsge.
Hirakíwari
hokíragajìregi.
In this fashion
elders sort of blessed them.
From one to another
they began to tell.
*in the MS this word is followed by an asterisk, although there is no footnote that answers to it.

 


 

jesgĕ́nīcgĕ
huⁿk‘áragiragīr..érā
nīcgĕ́
wajiⁿsgḗjaⁿ
hīdānaⁿ’iⁿ
hisgĕ́gādjaⁿ
(jésge nicgé
hųkáragiràgirera;
nicgé
wają́ hisgé-hiją
hiraną’į.
hisgégadją
Žésge nišgé
hųkáragiràgirera;
nišgé
wažįsgéžą
hiraną’į.
Hisgégają
That kind I also
one they told;
I too
a truthful thing
I believe.
Indeed

 


 

p‘iⁿgā́djaⁿ
yārḗna*
c’ā́gĕnīwī́na
nekū́rūhiⁿ́djwī́na
jenuga.†
pįgádją
yaréną.)
-
-
-‡
pįgáją
yaréną.
Š’ágeniwína
nekúruhį́jwíną.
Ženuga.
it is good
I believe.
[The ancestors]
[I myself worship.]
[The end.]
*parentheses are superimposed around the final syllable /na/ of this word.
†after this word Radin writes, "[End of ceremonies of first night.]".
‡omitted from CW.

 


Source

Jasper Blowsnake, Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3876 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #6: 28-32. his was published as a Hočąk text with numbered sentences followed by an English translation in Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoirs, 3 (1950): pp 67-68, sentences 1-39. A free translation into English is given in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 85-86.