Hočąk Text — Historical Origins of the Medicine Rite

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake


English Translation


In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of Winnebago Culture (see Source below). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].

In The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves, Radin has used a dot (.) after the unvoiced terminal consonant of a stem to indicate its transformation into its voiced counterpart. Here that transformation has been directly expressed. I have not done this for such consonants preceeding a hyphen.


Key —
First Row "raw" text from Paul Radin, Notebook Winnebago II, #6: 28-32.
Second Row analytic text from The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves
Third Row revised text
Fourth Row English translation based on those of The Road of Life and Death and The Culture of the Winnebago: As Described by Themselves (CW)


p. 28 (CW 67, s. 1) —
waⁿgíjaⁿ wajaⁿiⁿpĕrezsĕ́ gíji gip‘íⁿjĕ
wąg-híją wają́ hipéresje giji gipį́je.
Wągížą wažą́ hipéresše, giži gipį́že.
A man something he received knowledge,* and he liked it.
*the interlinear has, "he knows".

 


 

dĕe p‘ĭⁿgā́djaⁿ hīrējĕ́ hijā́iⁿpĕrĕzhā́gī
dée pigáddją hireje. hiją́ hipereshági
Tée pįgáją, hireže. Hižą́ hipereshági
[This] it is good, he thought. [One] to make him know

 


 

p‘ĭⁿcgū́nījĕ hīrēgī́jī egi waⁿgī́joⁿ hṓgīrāk‘cgū́nīje
pįcgúnije hiregíji. égi wąg-híją hógiracgúnije
pįšgúniže, hiregíži. Égi wągížą hógirakšgúniže
it is good, he thought. [Then] a man he told him

 


p. 29 (= CW 67, s. 4) —
djaguípĕresdega karoắ djīrēgī́ji† hanaⁿtciⁿxdjiⁿ kārajĕ́nuⁿgā́djaⁿ
djagú hiperesdéga.* kará-adjìregi. haną́tcįxdjį kárajenugàdja.
jagú hiperestéga. Kará-ajìregi. Haną́čįxjį káraženugàją.
what he knew. He began his telling. [Everything] he got through telling him.
*this is followed in CW by "(-peres-kdjega)". In other words, -skdj- resolves to -sd-.
†there is a diagonal line (/) between /á/ and /dj/.

 


 

egi wāⁿgĕnáⁿkā djāsgĕ́ gīp‘íⁿnā hĭcgĕ́
égi wą́gnąka djasgé gipį́ną hicgé
Égi wą́genąka jasgé gipį́ną, hišgé
[Then] that man what he liked, also

 


 

jesgā* djīnáⁿkcĕ gī́jī waⁿkhogirā́genāⁿka dehāⁿp
jésgadjiną́kje giji wąk hogirágnąka de hąp
žésga jiną́kše giži. Wąk hogirágenąka te hąp
that kind he got [.] Man he told it to [this] day
*this is written below (jesagá), which has been crossed out.

 


 

hījaⁿ djáⁿnĕ jedjaíⁿxdjiⁿp‘ā́ wajíⁿpĕrezsĕ́ egi
hijądją́re jedją́ixdjį pá wają-híperes. égi
hižąją́ne žeją́ixjįpá wažį́peresše. Égi
one [that] about that far ahead he obtained knowledge of something. [And]

 


 

jīge tcōwḗdjā haⁿpnūbŏ́haⁿ jedjaíⁿxdjĭⁿ hīp‘ā́
jigé tcowédja hąp nųbóhą jedją́ixdjį hipá
žigé čowéja hąp nųbóhą žeją́ixjį hipá
[again] ahead days two that far [up to]

 


 

wajiⁿperezse egi jīge tcōwédjā haⁿpdjobŏ́haⁿ
wają́ hipéres. égi jige tcowédja hąp djobóhą
wažį́peresše. Égi žige čowéja hąp jobóhą
[he knew something.] [Then] [again] ahead days four

 


 

jedjaíⁿxdjiⁿ p‘ā́ wajíⁿperezse noⁿga ḗgī
jedją́ixdjį pa wają́ hipéresje. anąga égi
žeją́ixjį pa wažį́peresše, nąga égi
that far [up to] [he knew something,] and [then]

 


 

hahī́ tcowédjā haⁿp kĕrēponāíjăⁿ jedjaíⁿxdjĭⁿ
hahí tcowédja hąp kereponá-hiją jedją́ixdjį
hahí čowéja hąp kereponaížą žeją́ixjį
at a time ahead days [ten]* that far
*mistranslated in CW as "twelve".

 


 

wajíⁿperezsĕ́ gíjī wajī́ⁿsgĕ hīrānā́ⁿiⁿnēje hisgĕ́gā́djaⁿ
wają́ hipéresje giji. wają́ hisgé hiraną́’įreje hisgegádją.
wažį́peresše, giži. Wažį́sge hiraną́’įreže, hisgegáją.
[he knew something] [.] Something true they believed, really true.

 


 

egi jigījiⁿpĕ́rĕsge p‘īⁿnā* hīrāírēgī nuⁿp
égi jigé hiją hipéresge pį́ra hiráiregi nųp
Égi žigižįperésge pį́na hiraíregi nųp
And again because one knew something good they believed† two
*just before this word, egija has been crossed out.
†"believed" is written above a crossed out "called it".

 


 

hōkīkī́cguⁿ djīdjĕ́wīga hijā́ⁿ wīdā́nigī p‘ī́ⁿnā
hokikícgų djidjéwiga. hiją́ widánigi pįną
hokikíšgų jijéwiga. Hižą́ witánigi pįną
companionship it became. One the third it will be good

 


 

āírējĕ gīji wáⁿgera hījáⁿ gītcaíⁿnecgū́nĕ
aíreje giji, wągra hijá gitcáirecguni
aíreže, giži. Wągera hižą́ gičaírešguni,
they said, [.] The men one of them they chose

 


p. 30 (= CW 67, s. 13) —
gīji waⁿgwaⁿkcik p‘iⁿxdjĭ́ⁿjaⁿ waⁿkwanā́ⁿiⁿ piⁿxdjĭ́ⁿjaⁿ
giji. wąk wąkcik pįxdjį́-hiją, wąk waną’i pįxdjį́-hiją,
giži. Wągwąkšik pįxjį́-hižą, wąk waną’į pįxjį́-hižą,
[.] Man Indian a very good one, [man mind] a very good one,

 


 

waⁿk wā́naiⁿksāpdjiⁿ́jaⁿ waⁿk hōkī́sāk hāīxā́niⁿk
wąk wanąiksáp-djį-hiją, wąk hokíska haixánįk,
wąk wánąiksapjį́žą wąk hokísak haixánįk
man a very wise one, man middle aged a little beyond

 


 

jedjaiⁿxdjiⁿ́jaⁿ jĕe pĕ́rĕzhī́rējĕ hījaⁿ́ wanaiⁿksā́pdjĭⁿ(gīcanŭ́na)*
jedją́ixdjį-hiją jée péres-hirèje. hiją́ wanąiksàp djį́gicanùną,
žeją́ixjįžą, žée péres-hirèže. Hižą́ wanąiksàp jį́gišanùną,
[one thus far along,] [that one] they thought they knew. One wise just as they had become,
*the expression inside the parentheses has an asterisk after it, but there is no footnote to be found anywhere.

 


 

jĕjēsge wāgīūínējĕ* egi waⁿktcṓnī hīpĕrezhī́ga
jéjesge wagi’ų́ireje. égi wąk tcóni hípereshìga
žéžesge wagi’ų́ireže. Égi wąkčóni híperes-hìga
[that way] they made them. [And] the first man he taught this
*there are three parallel vertical lines after this word.

 


 

djasgā́nihḗga hīcge jesgĕ́ji haⁿp tcowḗdja
djásganihèga hicgé jesgéji hąp tcowédja
jásganihèga, hišgé žesgéži, hąp čowéja
as he was, indeed [that way he was,] day ahead

 


 

wajiⁿ perezsĕ́ egi haⁿp hinŭⁿ́bahāīⁿ́dja
wają́ hipéresje. égi hąp hinųbá-edja
wažą́ hipéresše. Égi hąp hinų́bahaį́ja
[things] [he knew.] Then day on the second

 


 

jedjaiⁿxdjiⁿ p‘ā wajiⁿperezsĕ́ haⁿpdjobŏ́haⁿ tcowḗdja
jedją́ixdjį pa wają́ hipéresje; hąp djobóhą tcowédja
žeją́ixjį pa wažįperesšé. Hąp jobóhą čowéja
[thus far] [up to] he knew things. Four days ahead

 


 

wajiⁿperezsĕ́ gī́p‘iⁿjĕ egī tcowḗdja haⁿp
wają́ hipéresje. gipį́je égi tcowédja hąp
wažįperesšé. Gipį́že. Égi čowéja hąp
he knew things. He liked it. Then ahead days

 


 

kĕrĕponāíjaⁿ jedjaiⁿ́xdjĭⁿ hīp‘ā́ wajiⁿperezsĕ́ ḗgī
kereponá-hiją jedją́ixdjį hipá wają́ hipéresje. égi
kereponaížą žeją́ixjį hipá wažįperesšé. Égi
[ten]* that far [up to] he knew things. Then
*mistranslated in CW as "twelve".

 


 

waⁿgera dā́nī hīpérezwī́gī p‘iⁿ́jĕ hīdā́niⁿkĕ
wą́gra dáni hiperezwígi pį́je. hidánįka*
wą́gera táni hiperezwígi pį́že. Hitánįke
the man third he received knowlege and he liked it. The three of them
*this word should terminate in an /e/.

 


 

gīp‘ĭⁿ́nējĕ wajiⁿskĕ́jaⁿ* hĕ́rĕgádjaⁿ āírējĕ egi
gipįréje, wają́ hisgéhiją heregádja áireje. égi
gipįnéže, wažįsgéžą heregáją aíreže. Égi
they liked it, something true it was, they said. Then
*the /ne/ that originally concluded this word has been crossed out.

 


 

jigijaⁿ pérĕzĕhĭⁿwī́gījī p‘iⁿnána āírējĕ gī́jī
jigé hiją hįpérezwigìji pinóną, áireje giji
"Žigižą pérezehįwigìži, pįnóną," aíreže giži.
"Another one if we taught this, it would be good," they said [.]

 


 

hīdā́niⁿkĕ jēsgīrāírēgī jīgījāⁿ́ hīpĕrezhī́rēcgū́nī waⁿk
hidánįke jésge hiráiregi. jigé hiją hipéres hirecgúni, wąk
Hitánįke žésgiraíregi. Žigižą́ hipéres hirešgúni, wąk
The three of them thus they pondered. Another one to know they made him, man

 


p. 31 (= CW 67, s. 20) —
p‘iⁿ́jaⁿ waⁿk wōgīzṓgī wanaiⁿk‘sabījaⁿ haⁿkecgotcintciⁿnigija
pį́-hiją, wąk wogizógi* wánąikabì-hija. hąkécge hotcįtcį́nįg-hìją
pį́-hižą, wąk wogizógi wánąikabìžą. Hąkéšge hočįčį́nįgìžą
a good one, man righteous a wise one. [Not even] a young person
*Radin adds after this word, "(wogizok.-hi!)".

 


 

wā́gīūnanī́je. Waⁿgōkī́sāk hāīxaī́jaⁿ jĕe hīpérezhī́rējĕ
wagi’ųranije. wąk hokísak haixá-hiją jee hiperezhíreje
wagi’ųnaniže. Wąk hokísak haixaížą, žee hipérezíreže,
they did not take. A middle aged man one a little beyond it, [that one] they knew

 


 

gadjaⁿ́ gīp‘ĭⁿ́jĕ wajaⁿp‘ĭⁿ́jaⁿṇēgā́djaⁿ hīrĕ́jĕ
gadją. gipį́je wają́ pį́-hiją-regàdją hirejé.
gają. Gipį́že. Wažą́ pį́žąnegàją hirežé.
[.] He like it. Thing a good one it was going to be [he thought.]

 


 

egī djaisgā́rāínīhḗrā jesgĕ́jī jesgĕ́gīji gip‘iⁿ́jĕ
égi djáisgaranihèra* jesgéji jesgégiji gipį́je.
Égi, jáisgaranihèra žesgéži, žesgégiži, gipį́že.
Then, just as they had been [that way he was,] [being that way,] he liked it.
*Radin adds after this word, "(djaisge-hire-)".

 


 

tcowédjā haⁿbījaⁿ wajiⁿ́perezsĕ́ tcowḗdja haⁿbenubŏ́haⁿ
tcowédja hąb-híją wają́ hipéresje; tcowédja hąp nųbóhą
Čowéja hąbížą wažį́perezšé; čowéja hąbenųbóhą
Ahead one day [he knew something;] ahead two days

 


 

wajiⁿ́perezsĕ́ tcowḗdjā haⁿpdjobŏ́haⁿ wajīⁿ́perezsĕ́ tcowḗdja haⁿp
wają́ hipéresje. - - -* tcowédja hąp
wažį́perezšé; čowéja hąp jobóhą wažį́perezšé; čowéja hąp
[he knew something;] ahead days four [he knew something;] ahead days
*omitted in CW only.

 


 

kerepŏ́naīja jedjaiⁿ́xdjiⁿ wajiⁿperezsĕ́ gīji gip‘iⁿ́jĕ
kereponá-hiją jedją́ixdjį wają́ hipéresje giji. gipį́je.
kereponaížą žeją́ixjį wažį́peresšé, giži. Gipį́že.
[ten]* that far [he knew something] [.] He liked it.
*again mistranslated as "twelve" in CW.

 


 

dĕ́ĕ p‘iⁿgā́djaⁿ hīrējĕ́ wajiⁿskḗjaṇegā́djaⁿ dĕ́jesge hīrējé
dee pįgádją hirejé wają́ hisgé-hijąregàdją, déjesge hirejé.
Tée pįgáją hirežé; wažįsgéžąnegáją, téžesge hirežé.
This good he thought; it was going to be a true thing this [he thought.]

 


 

jejeguⁿ́gījī waⁿ́gĕrā tcopī́wī hipĕ́rezwī́gī p‘iⁿ́jĕ
jejégųgìji wągera djopíwi hipérezwigi. pįje.
Žežégųgìži wągera jopíwi hipérezwigi. Pįže.
Now people four they knew it. He liked it.

 


 

ā́sgĕ hīsgĕ́ hīpĕ́rĕz rōgīgŭ́iⁿnējĕ waⁿgera
ésge hisgé gipéres* rogigų́-įreje wągra
Ésge hisgé hipéres rogigų́įreže, wągera
Because true [to know] they possessed, the men
*this is apparently a misprint.

 


 

djṓp hīpĕ́rezwī́gā waⁿk p‘iⁿnārēk‘ī́ waⁿgwógīzṓgerā́rek‘ī́
djop hiperezwíga, - -* wąk wogizógrarèki,
jop hiperezwíga, wąk pįnarekí, wąk wogizógerarèkí,
four [as they knew], man who was all good, man who was entirely righteous,
*omitted in CW.

 


p. 32 (= CW 68, s. 31) —
waⁿgwā́naiⁿk‘sā́p rā́rēk‘ī hīpĕ́rĕzk‘iⁿ́reje* gidcaⁿt’djaxdjiⁿ hīpĕ́rĕzk‘iⁿ́nējé
wąk wanąiksáp, raréki hipéres kįréje. gídcąt’djàxdjį† hipéres kįréje.
wąk wanąiksáp raréki hipéres kįréže. Gíčąt’jàxjį, hipéres kįréže.
man who was wise completely they made it known to each other. Choosing by seeing, they imparted knowledge.
*a terminal /e/ is put in parentheses and above it is written an /ī/, and the ī is circled.
†Radin adds, "(gitcaⁿt’iⁿ-djaxdjĭⁿ)".

 


 

jedjaiⁿ́xdjiⁿ p‘āⁿ́ maⁿkaⁿ́ni wocgaⁿ́gĕrē epā
jedją́ixdjį pa mąką́ni wocgą́gre epá
Žeją́ixjį pa Mąką́ni Wošgą́gere epá
[Up to thusfar] this Medicine Rite from that time on

 


 

dīrḗjĕ jedjaiⁿ́xdjiⁿ p‘ā́ tcegĕ́djā hijaⁿ́ kĕ́tcaⁿcgū́nī
diréje jedją́ixdjį pa. tceg-édja híjąkitcųcgùni,
tiréže; žeją́ixjįpa. Čegéja hížąkičųšgùni,
it began to grow; from that time forth. In the beginning there were only nine,

 


 

jedjaiⁿxdjiⁿ waⁿkcī́go’ĭⁿjaⁿ* hḗrēgĕ ésge
jedją́ixdjį wąkcíg-ho’į-hìją heregé. ésge
žeją́ixjį wąkšígo’įžą heregé. Ésge,
[to that extent] a life it was. [Therefore,]
*after waⁿkcígo’iⁿ, hijá has been crossed out and jaⁿ written after it.

 


 

ḗp‘ā p‘iⁿnā́ hokīrā́gahūírējĕ haⁿkā́ga jedjāiⁿ́niⁿkdjḗna
epá ra hókirak-hùireje. hąkagá jedją́ixdjįkdjèną
epá pįna hokirágahuíreže. Hąkagá žeją́inįkjèną.
from then on this good they tell each other, they come. Never it will not end.

 


 

woc’gaⁿ́ dĕĕ maⁿū́na ē woc’gaⁿ́ninḗrēge
wocgą́ dee mą’ų́ra e wocgánina heregé.
Wošgą́ tee Mą’ų́na e wošgą́ninérege.
[Rite] this Earthmaker [he] his religion it is.

 


 

ésgĕ huⁿkā́ga jedjaiⁿ́nĭⁿkdjĕ jĕsge āírējĕ
Ésge hųkaga jedją́ixdjįkge, jésge airéje.
Ésge hąkaga žeją́inįkje. Žésge aíreže.
[Therefore,] never it will not end. [Thus] [they say.]

 


 

dḗjēsgĕ* c’ā́gwanaⁿdjodjaiⁿ́sgĕrā hīrak‘íwārĕ hok‘irā́gadjírēgī
dejésge c’ák wánądjodjąìsge hirakíwari hokírag-had-jìregi.
Težésge š’ák wánąjojąìsge. Hirakíwari hokíragajìregi.
In this fashion elders sort of blessed them. From one to another they began to tell.
*in the MS this word is followed by an asterisk, although there is no footnote that answers to it.

 


 

jesgĕ́nīcgĕ huⁿk‘áragiragīr..érā nīcgĕ́ wajiⁿsgḗjaⁿ hīdānaⁿ’iⁿ hisgĕ́gādjaⁿ
(jésge nicgé hųkáragiràgirera; nicgé wają́ hisgé-hiją hiraną’į. hisgégadją
Žésge nišgé hųkáragiràgirera; nišgé wažįsgéžą hiraną’į. Hisgégają
That kind I also one they told; I too a truthful thing I believe. Indeed

 


 

p‘iⁿgā́djaⁿ yārḗna* c’ā́gĕnīwī́na nekū́rūhiⁿ́djwī́na jenuga.†
pįgádją yaréną.) - - -‡
pįgáją yaréną. Š’ágeniwína nekúruhį́jwíną. Ženuga.
it is good I believe. [The ancestors] [I myself worship.] [The end.]
*parentheses are superimposed around the final syllable /na/ of this word.
†after this word Radin writes, "[End of ceremonies of first night.]".
‡omitted from CW.

 


Source

Jasper Blowsnake, Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3876 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #6: 28-32. his was published as a Hočąk text with numbered sentences followed by an English translation in Paul Radin, The Culture of the Winnebago: As Defined by Themselves International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoirs, 3 (1950): pp 67-68, sentences 1-39. A free translation into English is given in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 85-86.