Hočąk Text — Grandmother’s Gifts

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake


English Translation

The following are Greek letters used as morpheme abbreviations in Radin’s text. Their values correspond, with the exception of γ, to those given in Radin’s notebook Winnebago II, #6, on the interstitial page between 107/108:

α
β
γ
ε
η
θ
ρ
τ
égi
éja
hą́bera
gáją
žesge
janąga
ánąga
gíži

ϕ
ω
2
M
T
hąké
žegų
-že, -še
Mąúna
wąkšigo’ina

In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of The Road of Life and Death (see Source below). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].


 

p. 253 —

hitcúⁿcgĕ
gīkārā́djirĕ́ra
hīkōrokĕ́ra
wī́́gīwāⁿxcĕ́
wagejĕ́
Hičų́šge
Gikarájiréra
Hikorokéra
wígiwąxšé.
Wagežé,
Nephew
He whom We Call
Grandmother
he asked her.
He said to her,

 


 

kūnikā́
[ϕ]
[M]
wajā́ⁿnijaⁿ
hā́nīhū́nīgīgī́́nīje
"Kuniká
hąké
Mąúna
wažą́nižą
hánihúnigigíniže?"
"Grandmother,
not
Earthmaker
something
he didn’t let you bring?"

 


 

hīgĕ́jĕ
[τ´]
tcuⁿcgā́kdjĭnĭⁿgrā́
hīsgĕ́
wacḗna
higéže,
gíži.
"Čųšgákjinįgrá,
hisgé
wašéną,
[he asked her]
[.]
"My dear grandson,
the truth
you [have spoken],

 


 

hīgĕjĕ́
wáⁿgĕrānīnĕ́djaⁿ
wanaⁿnīⁿksap[ε´]
hīgĕjĕ́
[M]
higežé.
"Wą́geraninéją,
wanąnįksapgáją,"
higežé.
"Mąúna
[she told him.]
"Since you’re a man,
you’re good and wise,"
[she told him.]
"Earthmaker

 


 

hīáⁿdjīhīwī́́ra
djagū́jaⁿ
hānīhū́iⁿgīgī́́rā
hīgúⁿ
jegŭáⁿnīnṓkcenā
Hią́jihiwíra
jagúžą
hanihúįgigíra
higų́
žeguą́niną́kšeną."
Our Father
[what it is]
he let me bring
still
I have."

 


 

[α]
wāŭⁿjĕ́
maⁿksā́niⁿkōīcṓrōḗdja
wā́spā́hīdjī́́naⁿ
[τ´]
égi
waųžé.
Mąksánįkoišóroéja
wáspáhijíną
gíži.
[Then]
[she did it.]
From the right side of the breast
she made a nipple appear*
[.]
*"tit" is crossed out and "nipple" written above it. A note at the top of p. 254 says, "referring to the fact that in planting the earth is put in a hill".

 


 

p. 254 —
hakaránidjínoⁿkádjaⁿ
[γ]
sgāxdjĭ́́ⁿ
hīwāpūrūdjī́́rĕhī́́je
rūcdjoⁿdjīkĕ́re[ε´]
Hakaránijínąkáją,
hą́bera
sgaxjį́
hiwapurujírehíže.
Rušjąjikéregáją,
When she grabbed it,
[light]
extremely white
burst forth.*
When she quit,
*"he made" is crossed out and "burst" written above it. At least one other word is heavily crossed out, then "like white" was written above it and also crossed out. To its right is written "forth".

 


 

ráberatcā́wanī́́sge*
hōīs’iⁿ
djīdjĕ́jĕ
[τ´]
djáⁿbĕrīdjaⁿbī́́re[ε´]
ráberačáwanísge
hois’į
jijéže
gíži.
Ją́berijąhíregáją,
like beaver ears
it appeared
[it became]
[.]
When they took their eyes off,†
*"leaf" is written above this word in reference to the English translation.
†this translation is given on the interstitial page 253/254. The original translation, which was, "when they charged ... [l]ight", has been crossed out.

 


 

wāíxārā
hīdjāī́́jaiⁿdjídjējĕ́
[ε´]
hōtciⁿtcíⁿniⁿgrā
pāzīxdjíⁿjaⁿ
waíxara
hijaížaįjíježé
gáją.
Hočįčį́nįgra
pazixjį́žą
branches*
coming one after another
[.]
A little boy
with yellow hair†
*a number of illegible words are crossed out and "branch" written to the right and above them.
†"yellow" is written over "light", which has been crossed out. The word means literally, "one with a very yellow head".

 


 

jĕsgā́djējĕ
hīdanīhǫṇa
djáⁿbĕrīdjaⁿhī́́re[ε´]†
wāīxāīdanī́́na
hīdjā́djīdjĕ́jĕ
žesgáježe.
Hitanihǫna
ją́berijąhíregáją,
waixaitanína
hijájijéže.
it stood.*
For the third time
[when they took their eyes off her,]‡
[stalks]‡‡
they appeared.
*this is written over "was standing there", which was crossed out.
†the text has following this word, "(?)".
The Road of Life and Death has, "when they looked at her".
‡‡The Road of Life and Death has, "stocks", a synonym for "stalks". However, how can stalks be a stage after the rise of the yellow tassels?

 


 

hīdjobṓhoⁿna
djáⁿberidjaⁿhī́́rē[ε´]
wáⁿgĕnū́niⁿgrā
pā́sgāxdjĭ́́ⁿjaⁿ
jĕsgā́djējĕ
Hijobóhǫna
ją́berijąhíregáją,
wą́genúnįgra
pásgaxjį́žą
žesgáježe
For a fourth time
[when they took their eyes off her,]
an old man
white headed
he stood

 


 

[τ´]
[ε´]
haⁿbīdāī́́ūnā́
haxixdjĭⁿ
djĕ́je
[τ´]
gíži.
Gáją
hąbitaíuná
haxixjį
jéže
gíži.
[.]
[There]
[the means of life]*
very ripe
it was
[.]
*The Road of Life and Death has "life beseecher". The interlinear has, "perhaps cotton is meant".

 


 

[α]*
sānĭⁿhōī́́rātcgĕ́dja
hakā́ranī́́djinokcĕ́
[ε´]
[γ]†
Égi
sanįhoíračgéja,
hakáraníjinokšé
gáją.
Hą́bera
[And]
from the left side,
she grabbed
[.]
Light
*before this symbol, the following is crossed out: hitcuⁿcgĕ́ gīkarā́djirḗrā wāŭⁿjĕ́ tcābī́́rūgáⁿ aī́́rēgī jesgḗjaⁿ hanīt’aⁿp djirējĕ́ noⁿga.
†just before [γ] the letter /h/ is crossed out.

 


 

sgắxdjĭⁿ
hīwāpū́rūdjīrḗjĕ*
rūcdjáⁿdjīkĕ́rĕ[ε´]
wārūtc
xṓpĭnī
sgáxjį
hiwapúrujiréže.
Rušją́jikéregáją
waruč
xópini
extremely white
[burst forth.]
[When she quit,]
food
spirit
*the /w/ is written above a crossed out /y/.

 


 

ā́bĕrā
rūjā́tc
djīdjḗjĕ
djaⁿbĕrī́́djaⁿhire[ε´]
hīnúⁿgenĭ́́ⁿgera
ábera
ružáč
jijéže.
Jąberíjąhiregáją
hinų́genį́gera
the leaves
branched
appeared.
When they turned their eyes away,
a little girl

 


 

pāzīxdjĭ́́ⁿjaⁿ
djḗjĕ
[τ´]
hīnuⁿbóhoⁿna
djáⁿbĕnīdjaⁿhī́́re[ε´]
pazixjį́žą
jéže
gíži.
Hinųbóhǫna
ją́benijąhíregáją,
very yellow hair
[she stood]
[.]
The second time
[when they took their eyes off her,]

 


 

wāixārā*
hīnuⁿbrāī́́djā́djīdjējĕ́
[ε´]
hīdanī́́hoⁿna
waixara
hinųbraíjájiježé
gáją.
Hitaníhǫna
branches
the second came
[.]
The third time
*just before this word, abinųbra has been crossed out.

 


 

djáⁿbenīdjaⁿ[ε´]
hī́́re[ε]
wāíxara
ją́benijąhiregáją,
hiregáją,
waíxara
[when they took their eyes off,]
[when they did,]
[branches]
*just before this word, abinųbra has been crossed out.

 


 

p. 255 —
hīdanī́́na
hīdjā́djīdjĕ́jĕ
hidjobṓhoⁿna
hodjaⁿbērīdjaⁿhī́́re[ε´]
hitanína
hijájijéže.
Hijobóhǫna
hojąberijąhíregáją,
[the third one]
[it came forth.]
The fourth time
when they looked,

 


 

hīnuⁿgrā́
[T]*
hī́́xdjĭⁿ†
jesgắnŭkcĕ
pārā́sgā
hinųgrá
wąkšigo’ina
híxjį
žesgánąkše.
Parásga
woman
life
[somewhat advanced]
[that kind she was.]
White headed
*just before this word, /waⁿ/ has been crossed out.
†this word is followed by two vertical parallel lines designed to separate it from the word that follows it.

 


 

tcābĕrā́cārā́
rōrā
tcākī́́rīsgĕ
rinī́́sge*
ā́rā
čaberášará,
rora
čakírisgeronísge,
ára
baldheaded,
her body
like a flea,
her arms
*it appears that the word that looks like rinī́́sge is actually ronísge with a macron over the vowel. The macron makes the vowel look something like a dot over an /i/. Therefore, we probably have tcākī́́rīsgĕrōnī́́sge, which is čakirisgera-honisge, "like a flea". This very word is repeated by the same author later in this account of the Medicine Rite in the story Journey to Spiritland (v. 4).

 


 

dānī́́hūắragenī́́sge
haⁿbōgū́rāpā́hi
djḗjĕ
hanaⁿgā
warū́tc-xṓpīnī
taníhuáragenísge,
hąbogúrapáhi
jéže.
Hanąga
warúč-xópini
like the stem of a pipe,
in the east
she stood.
Here
spirit food

 


 

hāxī́́xdjĭⁿ
djḗjĕ
[τ´]
hitcúⁿcge gīkārā́djīrḗrā
wāŭⁿjĕ́
haxíxjį
jéže
gíži.
Hičų́šge gikarájiréra
waųžé.
over ripe and spent
it was
[.]
He Whom we Call Nephew
[he did it.]

 


 

tcā́hārūzaⁿ
āírēgī
jesgḗjaⁿ
hanī́́t’áⁿpdjīrḗjĕ
hānuⁿga
Čáharuzą
aíregi,
žesgéžą
hanít’ą́pjiréže,
hanąga
Untanned buckskin
[what they call]
[one of this kind]
he stood up with
[and]

 


 

dānī́́sadjegā́*
náⁿborehíje
náⁿhŭⁿgrā́
hākī́́ruēk‘-ī[ρ´]‡
[α]
tanísajegá
ną́borehíže.
Ną́hųgrá
hakíruek’-iánąga,
égi
the tobacco
he held in his hand.
The chief of trees†
it was mixed with it and‡‡
[then]
*the first /a/ is written over an original /e/.
†the interlinear has, "the chief-stick". This translation is from The Road of Life and Death.
‡just before the hyphen, the letter /h/ has been crossed out.
‡‡"he opened the package" has been crossed out, and "sprinkled upon himself" has been written above it, but it too has been crossed out. This translation is from The Road of Life and Death.

 


 

tcīṓkīsắgĕdja
hīrūĕ́
djīnaⁿ[τ´].
[τ´]
hatcuⁿgāíxdjĭⁿ
čiókiságeja
hirué
jinągíži.
Gíži,
"Hačųgaíxjį
in the middle of the lodge
he spread it out
[when he came.]*
[Then,]*
"I wonder which of us†
*there is a lattice work drawn in just before the ditto marks below the second [τ´], and extending above it vertically, is a faint line separating the two successive [τ] symbols.
†this is written above "which one", which has been crossed out.

 


 

hīnāítcāwigī́́
hīrā́mīnṓgīrējĕ
pṓnâṇa
hōī́́djā́
mĭ́́ⁿkcĕ
hinaíčawigí,"
hiráminógireže.
Pónana
hoíjá
mį́kše
he’ll call on us,"*
they thought.
Smell
it filled†
[it lay].
*"he’ll" is written above, "he’s going to", which is crossed out.
†before this phrase, "(tent)" is crossed out, as is "with smoke" which follows it.

 


 

[τ´]
hanaⁿtciⁿxdjĭⁿ
hāhuhu*
mīnṓgīrḗjĕ
[τ´]
gíži.
Hanąčįxjį
hahuhu
minógiréže
gíži.
[.]
all
anxious†
they sat
[.]
*originally, the word haxoⁿxoⁿ was written here, but the two /xoⁿ/ syllables were crossed out and above them was written, huhu.
†this word is written above a crossed out, "(smoke they were covered with)".

 


 

hatcíⁿdjahĭ́́ⁿ
warāī́́tcējĕ
háⁿbōgūḗdjānaⁿkā
ḗjĕĕ
hĕrĕkdjṓne[ε´]
Hačį́jahį́
waraíčeže.
Hą́boguéjanuⁿka
éžee
herekjónegáją,
where else*
would he call on.
The one in the east
[that one]
that will be,
*this is written above "what place", which has been crossed out.

 


 

hīraī́́re[ε´]
tcīnŭ́xge
sā́nĭⁿk
hōīcŏroī́́dja
t’áⁿpdjīrḗjĕ
hiraíregáją.
Činúxge
sánįk
hoišoroíja
t’ą́pjiréže.
they thought.
Back of lodge
side
right
he rose.

 


 

kĭxīkĕ́ra
hīcdjasgāxdjĭ́́ⁿjaⁿ
djagūíjaⁿ
wī́́hīⁿŭⁿkdjắnēgī
hākā́rānī[ρ´]
Kixikéra
hišjasgaxjį́žą
jaguížą
wíhįųkjánegi
hakáraniánąga
Wolf*
a very white faced (one)†
[what one]
[that which he was to use ?]
he took and‡
*"wolf" is written above letters that have been so thoroughly crossed out that they cannot be read.
†this has been written around a crossed out "head". The parenthetical material is my own.
‡"he had it" has been crossed out, and what appears to be "he took his cane" has been written above it. The Road of Life and Death translates this and the previous word together as, "He held in his hand that which he was to smoke."

 


 

kā́wājā́ja
haⁿbīdāī́́ūnā
hānĭ́́djīnṓkcĕ
[τ´]
dānī́́hūrā
káwažáža
hąbitaíuna
haníjinókše
gíži.
Taníhura
he wiped it out*
[the Means of Obtaining Life]†
he grabbed‡
[.]
The pipe
*this translation does not seem to make any sense and is simply omitted in The Road of Life and Death.
†in the interlinear it is interpreted (rather than translated) as "tobacco"; in The Road of Life and Death it is translated once again as "life-beseecher".
‡this translation is crossed out. However, this is the correct translation, as attested in several other sources, and does not differ significantly from "he seized hold of" found in The Road of Life and Death.

 


 

p. 256 —
hōjū[ρ´]
[α]
djobṓhaⁿ
rāxṓtchīgū[ε´]
[T]
hožuanąga
égi
jobóhą
raxóč-higugáją
wąkšigo’ina
he filled it and
[then]
[four times]
he took a puff [and]
his life

 


 

hīxdjĭ́́ⁿ
djḗjĕ
c’ākdjĭⁿ
tcaⁿt’ĭ́́ⁿhījĕ́
[α]
hixjį́
jéže.
Š’akjį
čąt’į́hižé.
égi
very full*
[it stood.]
[Very old]
[he was made to appear.]
[And]
*Radin writes at the top center of page 256, with respect to waⁿkcigo’ina hixdjíⁿ, "his life was very full = he attained full life".

 


 

hōhūhī́́ⁿdjobī́́kĕ
manā́x’ō
rĕhī[ρ´]
hōhū[ρ´]
hohuhį́jobíke
manáx’o
rehianąga
hohuanąga,
the four directions
he scratched the earth with his feet
[he sent it away and]
he howled it [and,]

 


 

hoho-ho-ho hwa-hwa
ḗjĕ
hanoⁿga
[α]
kīsīsĭ́́ⁿtc[ε]
hoho-ho-ho hwa-hwa,
éže,
hanąga
égi
kisisį́čgają,
hoho-ho-ho hwa-hwa,
[he said,]
[and]
[then]
[after he shook himself,]

 


 

djasgā́djīrā
jĕ́sgā́kī́́rīdjĕ́jĕ
[α]
wējĕ
wācdjĭⁿgĕ́
jasgájira
žésgákírijéže.
égi
weže,
"Wašjįgé,
just as he had been*
he became.†
Then
he said,
"Hare,
*"had" is written over "was".
†below this is written, "i.e., he became young".

 


 

nīcgĕ́
de[η]
hīnā́djīrā́nīhḗ[2]*
worā́gĭnĭcā́naⁿgrĕ́
hījáⁿ
nišgé
težesge
hinájiránihéže.
Woráginišánągré,
hižą́
[also]
this
they would repeat about me.
That you’re looking for for them,
one
*after this word, the text has, "(hedegen etc. hiūni etc.) (T-na)" — "the life of your uncles and aunts".

 


 

dĕĕ́
p‘ĭ́́ⁿhī[τ´]
[ϕ]
dĕĕ́
rūcā́geniⁿ[2]
teé
p’į́higíži,
hąké
teé
rušágenįže.
this
if he makes good,
not
this
he cannot fail.

 


 

Hījáⁿ
wéwĭna
p‘ĭⁿhīgī́́*
djasgĕ́
pāhā́re
Hižą´
wéwina
p’įhigí,
jasgé
paháre
One
who thought
if he made good,
how
[?]†
*just after this word is written, "(T-na)" that is waⁿkcigo-iⁿna, "life".
†under djasgĕ́ pāhā́re is written "that is how —" with "have" written above "how".

 


 

jesgāírē[2]
[α]
hōgīgĭ́́ⁿx
hanáⁿtcĭⁿ
īkĕrĕ́rēgī
žesgaíreže."
égi
hogigį́x
haną́čį
ikeréregi,
they will be."
[Then]
[around]
all
when they held in their mouths,

 


 

hārūxā́
[γ]
hīdjāī́́rā
hārĕjĕ́.
haruxá
hą́bera
hijaíra
harežé.
it commenced, continued*
the day
to become bigger
as it went.
*"continued" is written above "it commenced".

 


Source:

Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3876 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #7: 253-256; an English translation exists in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 323-324.