Hočąk Text — Grandmother’s Gifts

narrated by Jasper Blowsnake


English Translation

The following are Greek letters used as morpheme abbreviations in Radin’s text. Their values correspond, with the exception of γ, to those given in Radin’s notebook Winnebago II, #6, on the interstitial page between 107/108:

α β γ ε η θ ρ τ
égi éja hą́bera gáją žesge janąga ánąga gíži

ϕ ω 2 M T
hąké žegų -že, -še Mąúna wąkšigo’ina

In the interlinear text where the translation is missing, it has been supplied whenever possible from the English text of The Road of Life and Death (see Source below). Where a missing translation has been supplied from other sources, it is enclosed in brackets, [ ].


 

p. 253 —
hitcúⁿcgĕ gīkārā́djirĕ́ra hīkōrokĕ́ra wī́́gīwāⁿxcĕ́ wagejĕ́
Hičų́šge Gikarájiréra Hikorokéra wígiwąxšé. Wagežé,
Nephew He whom We Call Grandmother he asked her. He said to her,

 


 

kūnikā́ [ϕ] [M] wajā́ⁿnijaⁿ hā́nīhū́nīgīgī́́nīje
"Kuniká hąké Mąúna wažą́nižą hánihúnigigíniže?"
"Grandmother, not Earthmaker something he didn’t let you bring?"

 


 

hīgĕ́jĕ [τ´] tcuⁿcgā́kdjĭnĭⁿgrā́ hīsgĕ́ wacḗna
higéže, gíži. "Čųšgákjinįgrá, hisgé wašéną,
[he asked her] [.] "My dear grandson, the truth you [have spoken],

 


 

hīgĕjĕ́ wáⁿgĕrānīnĕ́djaⁿ wanaⁿnīⁿksap[ε´] hīgĕjĕ́ [M]
higežé. "Wą́geraninéją, wanąnįksapgáją," higežé. "Mąúna
[she told him.] "Since you’re a man, you’re good and wise," [she told him.] "Earthmaker

 


 

hīáⁿdjīhīwī́́ra djagū́jaⁿ hānīhū́iⁿgīgī́́rā hīgúⁿ jegŭáⁿnīnṓkcenā
Hią́jihiwíra jagúžą hanihúįgigíra higų́ žeguą́niną́kšeną."
Our Father [what it is] he let me bring still I have."

 


 

[α] wāŭⁿjĕ́ maⁿksā́niⁿkōīcṓrōḗdja wā́spā́hīdjī́́naⁿ [τ´]
égi waųžé. Mąksánįkoišóroéja wáspáhijíną gíži.
[Then] [she did it.] From the right side of the breast she made a nipple appear* [.]
*"tit" is crossed out and "nipple" written above it. A note at the top of p. 254 says, "referring to the fact that in planting the earth is put in a hill".

 


 

p. 254 —
hakaránidjínoⁿkádjaⁿ [γ] sgāxdjĭ́́ⁿ hīwāpūrūdjī́́rĕhī́́je rūcdjoⁿdjīkĕ́re[ε´]
Hakaránijínąkáją, hą́bera sgaxjį́ hiwapurujírehíže. Rušjąjikéregáją,
When she grabbed it, [light] extremely white burst forth.* When she quit,
*"he made" is crossed out and "burst" written above it. At least one other word is heavily crossed out, then "like white" was written above it and also crossed out. To its right is written "forth".

 


 

ráberatcā́wanī́́sge* hōīs’iⁿ djīdjĕ́jĕ [τ´] djáⁿbĕrīdjaⁿbī́́re[ε´]
ráberačáwanísge hois’į jijéže gíži. Ją́berijąhíregáją,
like beaver ears it appeared [it became] [.] When they took their eyes off,†
*"leaf" is written above this word in reference to the English translation.
†this translation is given on the interstitial page 253/254. The original translation, which was, "when they charged ... [l]ight", has been crossed out.

 


 

wāíxārā hīdjāī́́jaiⁿdjídjējĕ́ [ε´] hōtciⁿtcíⁿniⁿgrā pāzīxdjíⁿjaⁿ
waíxara hijaížaįjíježé gáją. Hočįčį́nįgra pazixjį́žą
branches* coming one after another [.] A little boy with yellow hair†
*a number of illegible words are crossed out and "branch" written to the right and above them.
†"yellow" is written over "light", which has been crossed out. The word means literally, "one with a very yellow head".

 


 

jĕsgā́djējĕ hīdanīhǫṇa djáⁿbĕrīdjaⁿhī́́re[ε´]† wāīxāīdanī́́na hīdjā́djīdjĕ́jĕ
žesgáježe. Hitanihǫna ją́berijąhíregáją, waixaitanína hijájijéže.
it stood.* For the third time [when they took their eyes off her,]‡ [stalks]‡‡ they appeared.
*this is written over "was standing there", which was crossed out.
†the text has following this word, "(?)".
The Road of Life and Death has, "when they looked at her".
‡‡The Road of Life and Death has, "stocks", a synonym for "stalks". However, how can stalks be a stage after the rise of the yellow tassels?

 


 

hīdjobṓhoⁿna djáⁿberidjaⁿhī́́rē[ε´] wáⁿgĕnū́niⁿgrā pā́sgāxdjĭ́́ⁿjaⁿ jĕsgā́djējĕ
Hijobóhǫna ją́berijąhíregáją, wą́genúnįgra pásgaxjį́žą žesgáježe
For a fourth time [when they took their eyes off her,] an old man white headed he stood

 


 

[τ´] [ε´] haⁿbīdāī́́ūnā́ haxixdjĭⁿ djĕ́je [τ´]
gíži. Gáją hąbitaíuná haxixjį jéže gíži.
[.] [There] [the means of life]* very ripe it was [.]
*The Road of Life and Death has "life beseecher". The interlinear has, "perhaps cotton is meant".

 


 

[α]* sānĭⁿhōī́́rātcgĕ́dja hakā́ranī́́djinokcĕ́ [ε´] [γ]†
Égi sanįhoíračgéja, hakáraníjinokšé gáją. Hą́bera
[And] from the left side, she grabbed [.] Light
*before this symbol, the following is crossed out: hitcuⁿcgĕ́ gīkarā́djirḗrā wāŭⁿjĕ́ tcābī́́rūgáⁿ aī́́rēgī jesgḗjaⁿ hanīt’aⁿp djirējĕ́ noⁿga.
†just before [γ] the letter /h/ is crossed out.

 


 

sgắxdjĭⁿ hīwāpū́rūdjīrḗjĕ* rūcdjáⁿdjīkĕ́rĕ[ε´] wārūtc xṓpĭnī
sgáxjį hiwapúrujiréže. Rušją́jikéregáją waruč xópini
extremely white [burst forth.] [When she quit,] food spirit
*the /w/ is written above a crossed out /y/.

 


 

ā́bĕrā rūjā́tc djīdjḗjĕ djaⁿbĕrī́́djaⁿhire[ε´] hīnúⁿgenĭ́́ⁿgera
ábera ružáč jijéže. Jąberíjąhiregáją hinų́genį́gera
the leaves branched appeared. When they turned their eyes away, a little girl

 


 

pāzīxdjĭ́́ⁿjaⁿ djḗjĕ [τ´] hīnuⁿbóhoⁿna djáⁿbĕnīdjaⁿhī́́re[ε´]
pazixjį́žą jéže gíži. Hinųbóhǫna ją́benijąhíregáją,
very yellow hair [she stood] [.] The second time [when they took their eyes off her,]

 


 

wāixārā* hīnuⁿbrāī́́djā́djīdjējĕ́ [ε´] hīdanī́́hoⁿna
waixara hinųbraíjájiježé gáją. Hitaníhǫna
branches the second came [.] The third time
*just before this word, abinųbra has been crossed out.

 


 

djáⁿbenīdjaⁿ[ε´] hī́́re[ε] wāíxara
ją́benijąhiregáją, hiregáją, waíxara
[when they took their eyes off,] [when they did,] [branches]
*just before this word, abinųbra has been crossed out.

 


 

p. 255 —
hīdanī́́na hīdjā́djīdjĕ́jĕ hidjobṓhoⁿna hodjaⁿbērīdjaⁿhī́́re[ε´]
hitanína hijájijéže. Hijobóhǫna hojąberijąhíregáją,
[the third one] [it came forth.] The fourth time when they looked,

 


 

hīnuⁿgrā́ [T]* hī́́xdjĭⁿ† jesgắnŭkcĕ pārā́sgā
hinųgrá wąkšigo’ina híxjį žesgánąkše. Parásga
woman life [somewhat advanced] [that kind she was.] White headed
*just before this word, /waⁿ/ has been crossed out.
†this word is followed by two vertical parallel lines designed to separate it from the word that follows it.

 


 

tcābĕrā́cārā́ rōrā tcākī́́rīsgĕ rinī́́sge* ā́rā
čaberášará, rora čakírisgeronísge, ára
baldheaded, her body like a flea, her arms
*it appears that the word that looks like rinī́́sge is actually ronísge with a macron over the vowel. The macron makes the vowel look something like a dot over an /i/. Therefore, we probably have tcākī́́rīsgĕrōnī́́sge, which is čakirisgera-honisge, "like a flea". This very word is repeated by the same author later in this account of the Medicine Rite in the story Journey to Spiritland (v. 4).

 


 

dānī́́hūắragenī́́sge haⁿbōgū́rāpā́hi djḗjĕ hanaⁿgā warū́tc-xṓpīnī
taníhuáragenísge, hąbogúrapáhi jéže. Hanąga warúč-xópini
like the stem of a pipe, in the east she stood. Here spirit food

 


 

hāxī́́xdjĭⁿ djḗjĕ [τ´] hitcúⁿcge gīkārā́djīrḗrā wāŭⁿjĕ́
haxíxjį jéže gíži. Hičų́šge gikarájiréra waųžé.
over ripe and spent it was [.] He Whom we Call Nephew [he did it.]

 


 

tcā́hārūzaⁿ āírēgī jesgḗjaⁿ hanī́́t’áⁿpdjīrḗjĕ hānuⁿga
Čáharuzą aíregi, žesgéžą hanít’ą́pjiréže, hanąga
Untanned buckskin [what they call] [one of this kind] he stood up with [and]

 


 

dānī́́sadjegā́* náⁿborehíje náⁿhŭⁿgrā́ hākī́́ruēk‘-ī[ρ´]‡ [α]
tanísajegá ną́borehíže. Ną́hųgrá hakíruek’-iánąga, égi
the tobacco he held in his hand. The chief of trees† it was mixed with it and‡‡ [then]
*the first /a/ is written over an original /e/.
†the interlinear has, "the chief-stick". This translation is from The Road of Life and Death.
‡just before the hyphen, the letter /h/ has been crossed out.
‡‡"he opened the package" has been crossed out, and "sprinkled upon himself" has been written above it, but it too has been crossed out. This translation is from The Road of Life and Death.

 


 

tcīṓkīsắgĕdja hīrūĕ́ djīnaⁿ[τ´]. [τ´] hatcuⁿgāíxdjĭⁿ
čiókiságeja hirué jinągíži. Gíži, "Hačųgaíxjį
in the middle of the lodge he spread it out [when he came.]* [Then,]* "I wonder which of us†
*there is a lattice work drawn in just before the ditto marks below the second [τ´], and extending above it vertically, is a faint line separating the two successive [τ] symbols.
†this is written above "which one", which has been crossed out.

 


 

hīnāítcāwigī́́ hīrā́mīnṓgīrējĕ pṓnâṇa hōī́́djā́ mĭ́́ⁿkcĕ
hinaíčawigí," hiráminógireže. Pónana hoíjá mį́kše
he’ll call on us,"* they thought. Smell it filled† [it lay].
*"he’ll" is written above, "he’s going to", which is crossed out.
†before this phrase, "(tent)" is crossed out, as is "with smoke" which follows it.

 


 

[τ´] hanaⁿtciⁿxdjĭⁿ hāhuhu* mīnṓgīrḗjĕ [τ´]
gíži. Hanąčįxjį hahuhu minógiréže gíži.
[.] all anxious† they sat [.]
*originally, the word haxoⁿxoⁿ was written here, but the two /xoⁿ/ syllables were crossed out and above them was written, huhu.
†this word is written above a crossed out, "(smoke they were covered with)".

 


 

hatcíⁿdjahĭ́́ⁿ warāī́́tcējĕ háⁿbōgūḗdjānaⁿkā ḗjĕĕ hĕrĕkdjṓne[ε´]
Hačį́jahį́ waraíčeže. Hą́boguéjanuⁿka éžee herekjónegáją,
where else* would he call on. The one in the east [that one] that will be,
*this is written above "what place", which has been crossed out.

 


 

hīraī́́re[ε´] tcīnŭ́xge sā́nĭⁿk hōīcŏroī́́dja t’áⁿpdjīrḗjĕ
hiraíregáją. Činúxge sánįk hoišoroíja t’ą́pjiréže.
they thought. Back of lodge side right he rose.

 


 

kĭxīkĕ́ra hīcdjasgāxdjĭ́́ⁿjaⁿ djagūíjaⁿ wī́́hīⁿŭⁿkdjắnēgī hākā́rānī[ρ´]
Kixikéra hišjasgaxjį́žą jaguížą wíhįųkjánegi hakáraniánąga
Wolf* a very white faced (one)† [what one] [that which he was to use ?] he took and‡
*"wolf" is written above letters that have been so thoroughly crossed out that they cannot be read.
†this has been written around a crossed out "head". The parenthetical material is my own.
‡"he had it" has been crossed out, and what appears to be "he took his cane" has been written above it. The Road of Life and Death translates this and the previous word together as, "He held in his hand that which he was to smoke."

 


 

kā́wājā́ja haⁿbīdāī́́ūnā hānĭ́́djīnṓkcĕ [τ´] dānī́́hūrā
káwažáža hąbitaíuna haníjinókše gíži. Taníhura
he wiped it out* [the Means of Obtaining Life]† he grabbed‡ [.] The pipe
*this translation does not seem to make any sense and is simply omitted in The Road of Life and Death.
†in the interlinear it is interpreted (rather than translated) as "tobacco"; in The Road of Life and Death it is translated once again as "life-beseecher".
‡this translation is crossed out. However, this is the correct translation, as attested in several other sources, and does not differ significantly from "he seized hold of" found in The Road of Life and Death.

 


 

p. 256 —
hōjū[ρ´] [α] djobṓhaⁿ rāxṓtchīgū[ε´] [T]
hožuanąga égi jobóhą raxóč-higugáją wąkšigo’ina
he filled it and [then] [four times] he took a puff [and] his life

 


 

hīxdjĭ́́ⁿ djḗjĕ c’ākdjĭⁿ tcaⁿt’ĭ́́ⁿhījĕ́ [α]
hixjį́ jéže. Š’akjį čąt’į́hižé. égi
very full* [it stood.] [Very old] [he was made to appear.] [And]
*Radin writes at the top center of page 256, with respect to waⁿkcigo’ina hixdjíⁿ, "his life was very full = he attained full life".

 


 

hōhūhī́́ⁿdjobī́́kĕ manā́x’ō rĕhī[ρ´] hōhū[ρ´]
hohuhį́jobíke manáx’o rehianąga hohuanąga,
the four directions he scratched the earth with his feet [he sent it away and] he howled it [and,]

 


 

hoho-ho-ho hwa-hwa ḗjĕ hanoⁿga [α] kīsīsĭ́́ⁿtc[ε]
hoho-ho-ho hwa-hwa, éže, hanąga égi kisisį́čgają,
hoho-ho-ho hwa-hwa, [he said,] [and] [then] [after he shook himself,]

 


 

djasgā́djīrā jĕ́sgā́kī́́rīdjĕ́jĕ [α] wējĕ wācdjĭⁿgĕ́
jasgájira žésgákírijéže. égi weže, "Wašjįgé,
just as he had been* he became.† Then he said, "Hare,
*"had" is written over "was".
†below this is written, "i.e., he became young".

 


 

nīcgĕ́ de[η] hīnā́djīrā́nīhḗ[2]* worā́gĭnĭcā́naⁿgrĕ́ hījáⁿ
nišgé težesge hinájiránihéže. Woráginišánągré, hižą́
[also] this they would repeat about me. That you’re looking for for them, one
*after this word, the text has, "(hedegen etc. hiūni etc.) (T-na)" — "the life of your uncles and aunts".

 


 

dĕĕ́ p‘ĭ́́ⁿhī[τ´] [ϕ] dĕĕ́ rūcā́geniⁿ[2]
teé p’į́higíži, hąké teé rušágenįže.
this if he makes good, not this he cannot fail.

 


 

Hījáⁿ wéwĭna p‘ĭⁿhīgī́́* djasgĕ́ pāhā́re
Hižą´ wéwina p’įhigí, jasgé paháre
One who thought if he made good, how [?]†
*just after this word is written, "(T-na)" that is waⁿkcigo-iⁿna, "life".
†under djasgĕ́ pāhā́re is written "that is how —" with "have" written above "how".

 


 

jesgāírē[2] [α] hōgīgĭ́́ⁿx hanáⁿtcĭⁿ īkĕrĕ́rēgī
žesgaíreže." égi hogigį́x haną́čį ikeréregi,
they will be." [Then] [around] all when they held in their mouths,

 


 

hārūxā́ [γ] hīdjāī́́rā hārĕjĕ́.
haruxá hą́bera hijaíra harežé.
it commenced, continued* the day to become bigger as it went.
*"continued" is written above "it commenced".

 


Source:

Untitled, in Paul Radin, Winnebago Notebooks, Freeman #3876 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Library, n.d.) Winnebago II, #7: 253-256; an English translation exists in Paul Radin, The Road of Life and Death: A Ritual Drama of the American Indians. Bollingen Series V (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973 [1945]) 323-324.